Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6089

Search results for: negative feedback optical amplifier

6089 Multicasting Characteristics of All-Optical Triode Based on Negative Feedback Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers

Authors: S. Aisyah Azizan, M. Syafiq Azmi, Yuki Harada, Yoshinobu Maeda, Takaomi Matsutani


We introduced an all-optical multi-casting characteristics with wavelength conversion based on a novel all-optical triode using negative feedback semiconductor optical amplifier. This study was demonstrated with a transfer speed of 10 Gb/s to a non-return zero 231-1 pseudorandom bit sequence system. This multi-wavelength converter device can simultaneously provide three channels of output signal with the support of non-inverted and inverted conversion. We studied that an all-optical multi-casting and wavelength conversion accomplishing cross gain modulation is effective in a semiconductor optical amplifier which is effective to provide an inverted conversion thus negative feedback. The relationship of received power of back to back signal and output signals with wavelength 1535 nm, 1540 nm, 1545 nm, 1550 nm, and 1555 nm with bit error rate was investigated. It was reported that the output signal wavelengths were successfully converted and modulated with a power penalty of less than 8.7 dB, which the highest is 8.6 dB while the lowest is 4.4 dB. It was proved that all-optical multi-casting and wavelength conversion using an optical triode with a negative feedback by three channels at the same time at a speed of 10 Gb/s is a promising device for the new wavelength conversion technology.

Keywords: cross gain modulation, multicasting, negative feedback optical amplifier, semiconductor optical amplifier

Procedia PDF Downloads 591
6088 Wavelength Conversion of Dispersion Managed Solitons at 100 Gbps through Semiconductor Optical Amplifier

Authors: Kadam Bhambri, Neena Gupta


All optical wavelength conversion is essential in present day optical networks for transparent interoperability, contention resolution, and wavelength routing. The incorporation of all optical wavelength convertors leads to better utilization of the network resources and hence improves the efficiency of optical networks. Wavelength convertors that can work with Dispersion Managed (DM) solitons are attractive due to their superior transmission capabilities. In this paper, wavelength conversion for dispersion managed soliton signals was demonstrated at 100 Gbps through semiconductor optical amplifier and an optical filter. The wavelength conversion was achieved for a 1550 nm input signal to1555nm output signal. The output signal was measured in terms of BER, Q factor and system margin.    

Keywords: all optical wavelength conversion, dispersion managed solitons, semiconductor optical amplifier, cross gain modultation

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
6087 55 dB High Gain L-Band EDFA Utilizing Single Pump Source

Authors: M. H. Al-Mansoori, W. S. Al-Ghaithi, F. N. Hasoon


In this paper, we experimentally investigate the performance of an efficient high gain triple-pass L-band Erbium-Doped Fiber (EDF) amplifier structure with a single pump source. The amplifier gain and noise figure variation with EDF pump power, input signal power and wavelengths have been investigated. The generated backward Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) noise of the first amplifier stage is suppressed by using a tunable band-pass filter. The amplifier achieves a signal gain of 55 dB with low noise figure of 3.8 dB at -50 dBm input signal power. The amplifier gain shows significant improvement of 12.8 dB compared to amplifier structure without ASE suppression.

Keywords: optical amplifiers, EDFA, L-band, optical networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
6086 Relative Intensity Noise of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers Subject to Variable Polarization-Optical Feedback

Authors: Salam Nazhan Ahmed


Influence of variable polarization angle (θp) of optical feedback on the Relative Intensity Noise (RIN) of a Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) has been experimentally investigated. The RIN is a minimum at θp = 0° for the dominant polarization mode (XP), and at θp = 90° for the suppressed polarization mode (YP) of VCSEL. Furthermore, the RIN of the XP mode increases rapidly with increasing θp, while for the YP mode, it increases slightly to θp = 45° and decreases for angles greater than 45°.

Keywords: lasers, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, optical switching, optical polarization feedback, relative intensity noise

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
6085 Indigenous Patch Clamp Technique: Design of Highly Sensitive Amplifier Circuit for Measuring and Monitoring of Real Time Ultra Low Ionic Current through Cellular Gates

Authors: Moez ul Hassan, Bushra Noman, Sarmad Hameed, Shahab Mehmood, Asma Bashir


The importance of Noble prize winning “Patch Clamp Technique” is well documented. However, Patch Clamp Technique is very expensive and hence hinders research in developing countries. In this paper, detection, processing and recording of ultra low current from induced cells by using transimpedence amplifier is described. The sensitivity of the proposed amplifier is in the range of femto amperes (fA). Capacitive-feedback is used with active load to obtain a 20MΩ transimpedance gain. The challenging task in designing includes achieving adequate performance in gain, noise immunity and stability. The circuit designed by the authors was able to measure current in the rangeof 300fA to 100pA. Adequate performance shown by the amplifier with different input current and outcome result was found to be within the acceptable error range. Results were recorded using LabVIEW 8.5®for further research.

Keywords: drug discovery, ionic current, operational amplifier, patch clamp

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
6084 A CMOS D-Band Power Amplifier in 22FDSOI Technology for 6G Applications

Authors: Karandeep Kaur


This paper presents the design of power amplifier (PA) for mmWave communication systems. The designed amplifier uses GlobalFoundries 22 FDX technology and works at an operational frequency of 140 GHz in the D-Band. With a supply voltage of 0.8V for the super low threshold voltage transistors, the amplifier is biased in class AB and has a total current consumption of 50 mA. The measured saturated output power from the power amplifier is 5.6 dBm with an output-referred 1dB-compression point of 1.6dBm. The measured gain of PA is 19 dB with 3 dB-bandwidth ranging from 120 GHz to 140 GHz. The chip occupies an area of 795µm × 410µm.

Keywords: mmWave communication system, power amplifiers, 22FDX, D-Band, cross-coupled capacitive neutralization

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
6083 Influence of Strong Optical Feedback on Frequency Chirp and Lineshape Broadening in High-Speed Semiconductor Laser

Authors: Moustafa Ahmed, Fumio Koyama


Directly-modulated semiconductor lasers, including edge-emitting and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, have received considerable interest recently for use in data transmitters in cost-effective high-speed data centers, metro, and access networks. Optical feedback has been proved as an efficient technique to boost the modulation bandwidth and enhance the speed of the semiconductor laser. However, both the laser linewidth and frequency chirping in directly-modulated lasers are sensitive to both intensity modulation and optical feedback. These effects along width fiber dispersion affect the transmission bit rate and distance in single-mode fiber links. In this work, we continue our recent research on directly-modulated semiconductor lasers with modulation bandwidth in the millimeter-wave band by introducing simultaneous modeling and simulations on both the frequency chirping and lineshape broadening. The lasers are operating under strong optical feedback. The model takes into account the multiple reflections of laser reflections of laser radiation in the external cavity. The analyses are given in terms of the chirp-to-modulated power ratio, and the results are shown for the possible dynamic states of continuous wave, period-1 oscillation, and chaos.

Keywords: chirp, linewidth, optical feedback, semiconductor laser

Procedia PDF Downloads 401
6082 Application of Strong Optical Feedback to Enhance the Modulation Bandwidth of Semiconductor Lasers to the Millimeter-Wave Band

Authors: Moustafa Ahmed, Ahmed Bakry, Fumio Koyama


We report on the use of strong external optical feedback to enhance the modulation response of semiconductor lasers over a frequency passband around modulation frequencies higher than 60 GHz. We show that this modulation enhancement is a type of photon-photon resonance (PPR) of oscillating modes in the external cavity formed between the laser and the external reflector. The study is based on a time-delay rate equation model that takes into account both the strong feedback and multiple reflections in the external cavity. We examine the harmonic and intermodulation distortions associated with single and two-tone modulations in the mm-wave band of the resonant modulation. We show that compared with solitary lasers modulated around the carrier-photon resonance frequency, the present mm-wave modulated signal has lower distortions.

Keywords: semiconductor laser, optical feedback, modulation, harmonic distortion

Procedia PDF Downloads 535
6081 Compact Low-Voltage Biomedical Instrumentation Amplifiers

Authors: Phanumas Khumsat, Chalermchai Janmane


Low-voltage instrumentation amplifier has been proposed for 3-lead electrocardiogram measurement system. The circuit’s interference rejection technique is based upon common-mode feed-forwarding where common-mode currents have cancelled each other at the output nodes. The common-mode current for cancellation is generated by means of common-mode sensing and emitter or source followers with resistors employing only one transistor. Simultaneously this particular transistor also provides common-mode feedback to the patient’s right/left leg to further reduce interference entering the amplifier. The proposed designs have been verified with simulations in 0.18-µm CMOS process operating under 1.0-V supply with CMRR greater than 80dB. Moreover ECG signals have experimentally recorded with the proposed instrumentation amplifiers implemented from discrete BJT (BC547, BC558) and MOSFET (ALD1106, ALD1107) transistors working with 1.5-V supply.

Keywords: electrocardiogram, common-mode feedback, common-mode feedforward, communication engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
6080 Analysis of Nonlinear Pulse Propagation Characteristics in Semiconductor Optical Amplifier for Different Input Pulse Shapes

Authors: Suchi Barua, Narottam Das, Sven Nordholm, Mohammad Razaghi


This paper presents nonlinear pulse propagation characteristics for different input optical pulse shapes with various input pulse energy levels in semiconductor optical amplifiers. For simulation of nonlinear pulse propagation, finite-difference beam propagation method is used to solve the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. In this equation, gain spectrum dynamics, gain saturation are taken into account which depends on carrier depletion, carrier heating, spectral-hole burning, group velocity dispersion, self-phase modulation and two photon absorption. From this analysis, we obtained the output waveforms and spectra for different input pulse shapes as well as for different input energies. It shows clearly that the peak position of the output waveforms are shifted toward the leading edge which due to the gain saturation of the SOA for higher input pulse energies. We also analyzed and compared the normalized difference of full-width at half maximum for different input pulse shapes in the SOA.

Keywords: finite-difference beam propagation method, pulse shape, pulse propagation, semiconductor optical amplifier

Procedia PDF Downloads 514
6079 Multi-Level Pulse Width Modulation to Boost the Power Efficiency of Switching Amplifiers for Analog Signals with Very High Crest Factor

Authors: Jan Doutreloigne


The main goal of this paper is to develop a switching amplifier with optimized power efficiency for analog signals with a very high crest factor such as audio or DSL signals. Theoretical calculations show that a switching amplifier architecture based on multi-level pulse width modulation outperforms all other types of linear or switching amplifiers in that respect. Simulations on a 2 W multi-level switching audio amplifier, designed in a 50 V 0.35 mm IC technology, confirm its superior performance in terms of power efficiency. A real silicon implementation of this audio amplifier design is currently underway to provide experimental validation.

Keywords: audio amplifier, multi-level switching amplifier, power efficiency, pulse width modulation, PWM, self-oscillating amplifier

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
6078 Computerized Scoring System: A Stethoscope to Understand Consumer's Emotion through His or Her Feedback

Authors: Chen Yang, Jun Hu, Ping Li, Lili Xue


Most companies pay careful attention to consumer feedback collection, so it is popular to find the ‘feedback’ button of all kinds of mobile apps. Yet it is much more changeling to analyze these feedback texts and to catch the true feelings of a consumer regarding either a problem or a complimentary of consumers who hands out the feedback. Especially to the Chinese content, it is possible that; in one context the Chinese feedback expresses positive feedback, but in the other context, the same Chinese feedback may be a negative one. For example, in Chinese, the feedback 'operating with loudness' works well with both refrigerator and stereo system. Apparently, this feedback towards a refrigerator shows negative feedback; however, the same feedback is positive towards a stereo system. By introducing Bradley, M. and Lang, P.'s Affective Norms for English Text (ANET) theory and Bucci W.’s Referential Activity (RA) theory, we, usability researchers at Pingan, are able to decipher the feedback and to find the hidden feelings behind the content. We subtract 2 disciplines ‘valence’ and ‘dominance’ out of 3 of ANET and 2 disciplines ‘concreteness’ and ‘specificity’ out of 4 of RA to organize our own rating system with a scale of 1 to 5 points. This rating system enables us to judge the feelings/emotion behind each feedback, and it works well with both single word/phrase and a whole paragraph. The result of the rating reflects the strength of the feeling/emotion of the consumer when he/she is typing the feedback. In our daily work, we first require a consumer to answer the net promoter score (NPS) before writing the feedback, so we can determine the feedback is positive or negative. Secondly, we code the feedback content according to company problematic list, which contains 200 problematic items. In this way, we are able to collect the data that how many feedbacks left by the consumer belong to one typical problem. Thirdly, we rate each feedback based on the rating system mentioned above to illustrate the strength of the feeling/emotion when our consumer writes the feedback. In this way, we actually obtain two kinds of data 1) the portion, which means how many feedbacks are ascribed into one problematic item and 2) the severity, how strong the negative feeling/emotion is when the consumer is writing this feedback. By crossing these two, and introducing the portion into X-axis and severity into Y-axis, we are able to find which typical problem gets the high score in both portion and severity. The higher the score of a problem has, the more urgent a problem is supposed to be solved as it means more people write stronger negative feelings in feedbacks regarding this problem. Moreover, by introducing hidden Markov model to program our rating system, we are able to computerize the scoring system and are able to process thousands of feedback in a short period of time, which is efficient and accurate enough for the industrial purpose.

Keywords: computerized scoring system, feeling/emotion of consumer feedback, referential activity, text mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
6077 Visualization of Wave Propagation in Monocoupled System with Effective Negative Stiffness, Effective Negative Mass, and Inertial Amplifier

Authors: Abhigna Bhatt, Arnab Banerjee


A periodic system with only a single coupling degree of freedom is called a monocoupled system. Monocoupled systems with mechanisms like mass in the mass system generates effective negative mass, mass connected with rigid links generates inertial amplification, and spring-mass connected with a rigid link generateseffective negative stiffness. In this paper, the representative unit cell is introduced, considering all three mechanisms combined. Further, the dynamic stiffness matrix of the unit cell is constructed, and the dispersion relation is obtained by applying the Bloch theorem. The frequency response function is also calculated for the finite length of periodic unit cells. Moreover, the input displacement signal is given to the finite length of periodic structure and using inverse Fourier transform to visualize the wave propagation in the time domain. This visualization explains the sudden attenuation in metamaterial due to energy dissipation by an embedded resonator at the resonance frequency. The visualization created for wave propagation is found necessary to understand the insights of physics behind the attenuation characteristics of the system.

Keywords: mono coupled system, negative effective mass, negative effective stiffness, inertial amplifier, fourier transform

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6076 Experimental Demonstration of Broadband Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier

Authors: Belloui Bouzid


In this paper, broadband design of erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) is demonstrated and proved experimentally. High and broad gain is covered in C and L bands. The used technique combines, in one configuration, two double passes with split band structure for the amplification of two traveled signals one for the C band and the other for L band. This new topology is to investigate the trends of high gain and wide amplification at different status of pumping power, input wavelength, and input signal power. The presented paper is to explore the performance of EDFA gain using what it can be called double pass double branch wide band amplification configuration. The obtained results show high gain and wide broadening range of 44.24 dB and 80 nm amplification respectively.

Keywords: erbium doped fiber amplifier, erbium doped fiber laser, optical amplification, fiber laser

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
6075 A 1.8 GHz to 43 GHz Low Noise Amplifier with 4 dB Noise Figure in 0.1 µm Galium Arsenide Technology

Authors: Mantas Sakalas, Paulius Sakalas


This paper presents an analysis and design of a ultrawideband 1.8GHz to 43GHz Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) in 0.1 μm Galium Arsenide (GaAs) pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistor (pHEMT) technology. The feedback based bandwidth extension techniques is analyzed and based on the outcome, a two stage LNA is designed. The impedance fine tuning is implemented by using Transmission Line (TL) structures. The measured performance shows a good agreement with simulation results and an outstanding wideband noise matching. The measured small signal gain was 12 dB, whereas a 3 dB gain flatness in range from 1.8 - 43 GHz was reached. The noise figure was below 4 dB almost all over the entire frequency band of 1.8GHz to 43GHz, the output power at 1 dB compression point was 6 dBm and the DC power consumption was 95 mW. To the best knowledge of the authors the designed LNA outperforms the State of the Art (SotA) reported LNA designs in terms of combined parameters of noise figure within the addressed ultra-wide 3 dB bandwidth, linearity and DC power consumption.

Keywords: feedback amplifiers, GaAs pHEMT, monolithic microwave integrated circuit, LNA, noise matching

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
6074 Feedback in the Language Class: An Action Research Process

Authors: Arash Golzari Koloor


Feedback seems to be an inseparable part of teaching a second/foreign language. One type of feedback is corrective feedback which is one type of error treatment in second language classrooms. This study is a report on the types of corrective feedback employed in an IELTS preparation course. The types of feedback, their frequencies, and their effectiveness are enlisted, enumerated, and interpreted. The results showed that explicit correction and recast were the most frequent types of feedback while repetition and elicitation were the least. The results also revealed that metalinguistic feedback, elicitation, and explicit correction were the most effective types of feedback and affected learners performance greatly.

Keywords: classroom interaction, corrective feedback, error treatment, oral performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
6073 Inverter Based Gain-Boosting Fully Differential CMOS Amplifier

Authors: Alpana Agarwal, Akhil Sharma


This work presents a fully differential CMOS amplifier consisting of two self-biased gain boosted inverter stages, that provides an alternative to the power hungry operational amplifier. The self-biasing avoids the use of external biasing circuitry, thus reduces the die area, design efforts, and power consumption. In the present work, regulated cascode technique has been employed for gain boosting. The Miller compensation is also applied to enhance the phase margin. The circuit has been designed and simulated in 1.8 V 0.18 µm CMOS technology. The simulation results show a high DC gain of 100.7 dB, Unity-Gain Bandwidth of 107.8 MHz, and Phase Margin of 66.7o with a power dissipation of 286 μW and makes it suitable candidate for the high resolution pipelined ADCs.

Keywords: CMOS amplifier, gain boosting, inverter-based amplifier, self-biased inverter

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
6072 Low Power CMOS Amplifier Design for Wearable Electrocardiogram Sensor

Authors: Ow Tze Weng, Suhaila Isaak, Yusmeeraz Yusof


The trend of health care screening devices in the world is increasingly towards the favor of portability and wearability, especially in the most common electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring system. This is because these wearable screening devices are not restricting the patient’s freedom and daily activities. While the demand of low power and low cost biomedical system on chip (SoC) is increasing in exponential way, the front end ECG sensors are still suffering from flicker noise for low frequency cardiac signal acquisition, 50 Hz power line electromagnetic interference, and the large unstable input offsets due to the electrode-skin interface is not attached properly. In this paper, a high performance CMOS amplifier for ECG sensors that suitable for low power wearable cardiac screening is proposed. The amplifier adopts the highly stable folded cascode topology and later being implemented into RC feedback circuit for low frequency DC offset cancellation. By using 0.13 µm CMOS technology from Silterra, the simulation results show that this front end circuit can achieve a very low input referred noise of 1 pV/√Hz and high common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of 174.05 dB. It also gives voltage gain of 75.45 dB with good power supply rejection ratio (PSSR) of 92.12 dB. The total power consumption is only 3 µW and thus suitable to be implemented with further signal processing and classification back end for low power biomedical SoC.

Keywords: CMOS, ECG, amplifier, low power

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
6071 Utilizing Reflection as a Tool for Experiential Learning through a Simulated Activity

Authors: Nadira Zaidi


The aim of this study is to gain direct feedback of interviewees in a simulated interview process. Reflection based on qualitative data analysis has been utilized through the Gibbs Reflective Cycle, with 30 students as respondents at the Undergraduate level. The respondents reflected on the positive and negative aspects of this active learning process in order to increase their performance in actual job interviews. Results indicate that students engaged in the process successfully imbibed the feedback that they received from the interviewers and also identified the areas that needed improvement.

Keywords: experiential learning, positive and negative impact, reflection, simulated

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
6070 Design of a Phemt Buffer Amplifier in Mm-Wave Band around 60 GHz

Authors: Maryam Abata, Moulhime El Bekkali, Said Mazer, Catherine Algani, Mahmoud Mehdi


One major problem of most electronic systems operating in the millimeter wave band is the signal generation with a high purity and a stable carrier frequency. This problem is overcome by using the combination of a signal with a low frequency local oscillator (LO) and several stages of frequency multipliers. The use of these frequency multipliers to create millimeter-wave signals is an attractive alternative to direct generation signal. Therefore, the isolation problem of the local oscillator from the other stages is always present, which leads to have various mechanisms that can disturb the oscillator performance, thus a buffer amplifier is often included in oscillator outputs. In this paper, we present the study and design of a buffer amplifier in the mm-wave band using a 0.15μm pHEMT from UMS foundry. This amplifier will be used as a part of a frequency quadrupler at 60 GHz.

Keywords: Mm-wave band, local oscillator, frequency quadrupler, buffer amplifier

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
6069 Development of Electromyography (EMG) Signal Acquisition System by Simple Electronic Circuits

Authors: Divya Pradip Roy, Md. Zahirul Alam Chowdhury


Electromyography (EMG) sensors are generally used to record the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. The conventional EMG sensors available in the market are expensive. This research suggests a low cost EMG sensor design which can be built with simple devices within our reach. In this research, one instrumentation amplifier, two high pass filters, two low pass filters and an inverting amplifier is connected sequentially. The output from the circuit exhibits electrical potential generated by the muscle cells when they are neurologically activated. This electromyography signal is used to control prosthetic devices, identifying neuromuscular diseases and for various other purposes.

Keywords: EMG, high pass filter, instrumentation amplifier, inverting amplifier, low pass filter, neuromuscular

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
6068 Rail-To-Rail Output Op-Amp Design with Negative Miller Capacitance Compensation

Authors: Muhaned Zaidi, Ian Grout, Abu Khari bin A’ain


In this paper, a two-stage op-amp design is considered using both Miller and negative Miller compensation techniques. The first op-amp design uses Miller compensation around the second amplification stage, whilst the second op-amp design uses negative Miller compensation around the first stage and Miller compensation around the second amplification stage. The aims of this work were to compare the gain and phase margins obtained using the different compensation techniques and identify the ability to choose either compensation technique based on a particular set of design requirements. The two op-amp designs created are based on the same two-stage rail-to-rail output CMOS op-amp architecture where the first stage of the op-amp consists of differential input and cascode circuits, and the second stage is a class AB amplifier. The op-amps have been designed using a 0.35mm CMOS fabrication process.

Keywords: op-amp, rail-to-rail output, Miller compensation, Negative Miller capacitance

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
6067 Long Wavelength GaInNAs Based Hot Electron Light Emission VCSOAs

Authors: Faten Adel Ismael Chaqmaqchee


Optical, electrical and optical-electrical characterisations of surface light emitting VCSOAs devices are reported. The hot electron light emitting and lasing in semiconductor hetero-structure vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifier (HELLISH VCSOA) device is a surface emitter based on longitudinal injection of electron and hole pairs in their respective channels. Ga0.35In0.65N0.02As0.08/GaAs was used as an active material for operation in the 1.3 μm window of the optical communications. The device has undoped Distributed Bragg Reflectors (DBRs) and the current is injected longitudinally, directly into the active layers and does not involve DBRs. Therefore, problems associated with refractive index contrast and current injection through the DBR layers, which are common with the doped DBRs in conventional VCSOAs, are avoided. The highest gain of around 4 dB is obtained for the 1300 nm wavelength operation.

Keywords: HELLISH, VCSOA, GaInNAs, luminescence, gain

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
6066 2 Stage CMOS Regulated Cascode Distributed Amplifier Design Based On Inductive Coupling Technique in Submicron CMOS Process

Authors: Kittipong Tripetch, Nobuhiko Nakano


This paper proposes one stage and two stage CMOS Complementary Regulated Cascode Distributed Amplifier (CRCDA) design based on Inductive and Transformer coupling techniques. Usually, Distributed amplifier is based on inductor coupling between gate and gate of MOSFET and between drain and drain of MOSFET. But this paper propose some new idea, by coupling with differential primary windings of transformer between gate and gate of MOSFET first stage and second stage of regulated cascade amplifier and by coupling with differential secondary windings transformer of MOSFET between drain and drain of MOSFET first stage and second stage of regulated cascade amplifier. This paper also proposes polynomial modeling of Silicon Transformer passive equivalent circuit from Nanyang Technological University which is used to extract frequency response of transformer. Cadence simulation results are used to verify validity of transformer polynomial modeling which can be used to design distributed amplifier without Cadence. 4 parameters of scattering matrix of 2 port of the propose circuit is derived as a function of 4 parameters of impedance matrix.

Keywords: CMOS regulated cascode distributed amplifier, silicon transformer modeling with polynomial, low power consumption, distribute amplification technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
6065 High Efficiency Class-F Power Amplifier Design

Authors: Abdalla Mohamed Eblabla


Due to the high increase and demand for a wide assortment of applications that require low-cost, high-efficiency, and compact systems, RF power amplifiers are considered the most critical design blocks and power consuming components in wireless communication, TV transmission, radar, and RF heating. Therefore, much research has been carried out in order to improve the performance of power amplifiers. Classes-A, B, C, D, E, and F are the main techniques for realizing power amplifiers. An implementation of high efficiency class-F power amplifier with Gallium Nitride (GaN) High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) was realized in this paper. The simulation and optimization of the class-F power amplifier circuit model was undertaken using Agilent’s Advanced Design system (ADS). The circuit was designed using lumped elements.

Keywords: Power Amplifier (PA), gallium nitride (GaN), Agilent’s Advanced Design System (ADS), lumped elements

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
6064 The Effects of Applied Negative Bias Voltage on Structure and Optical Properties of a-C:H Films

Authors: X. L. Zhou, S. Tunmee, I. Toda, K. Komatsu, S. Ohshio, H. Saitoh


Hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films have been synthesized by a radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (rf-PECVD) technique with different bias voltage from 0.0 to -0.5 kV. The Raman spectra displayed the polymer-like hydrogenated amorphous carbon (PLCH) film with 0.0 to -0.1 and a-C:H films with -0.2 to -0.5 kV of bias voltages. The surface chemical information of all films were studied by X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) technique, presented to C-C (sp2 and sp3) and C-O bonds, and relative carbon (C) and oxygen (O) atomics contents. The O contamination had affected on structure and optical properties. The true density of PLCH and a-C:H films were characterized by X-ray refractivity (XRR) method, showed the result as in the range of 1.16-1.73 g/cm3 that depending on an increasing of bias voltage. The hardness was proportional to the true density of films. In addition, the optical properties i.e. refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) of these films were determined by a spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) method that give formation to in 1.62-2.10 (n) and 0.04-0.15 (k) respectively. These results indicated that the optical properties confirmed the Raman results as presenting the structure changed with applied bias voltage increased.

Keywords: negative bias voltage, a-C:H film, oxygen contamination, optical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
6063 Realization of Hybrid Beams Inertial Amplifier

Authors: Somya Ranjan Patro, Abhigna Bhatt, Arnab Banerjee


Inertial amplifier has recently gained increasing attention as a new mechanism for vibration control of structures. Currently, theoretical investigations are undertaken by researchers to reveal its fundamentals and to understand its underline principles in altering the structural response of structures against dynamic loadings. This paper investigates experimental and analytical studies on the dynamic characteristics of hybrid beam inertial amplifier (HBIA). The analytical formulation of the HBIA has been derived by implementing the spectral element method and rigid body dynamics. This formulation gives the relation between dynamic force and the response of the structure in the frequency domain. Further, for validation of the proposed HBIA, the experiments have been performed. The experimental setup consists of a 3D printed HBIA of polylactic acid (PLA) material screwed at the base plate of the shaker system. Two numbers of accelerometers are used to study the response, one at the base plate of the shaker second one placed at the top of the inertial amplifier. A force transducer is also placed in between the base plate and the inertial amplifier to calculate the total amount of load transferred from the base plate to the inertial amplifier. The obtained time domain response from the accelerometers have been converted into the frequency domain using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm. The experimental transmittance values are successfully validated with the analytical results, providing us essential confidence in our proposed methodology.

Keywords: inertial amplifier, fast fourier transform, natural frequencies, polylactic acid, transmittance, vibration absorbers

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6062 A Test Methodology to Measure the Open-Loop Voltage Gain of an Operational Amplifier

Authors: Maninder Kaur Gill, Alpana Agarwal


It is practically not feasible to measure the open-loop voltage gain of the operational amplifier in the open loop configuration. It is because the open-loop voltage gain of the operational amplifier is very large. In order to avoid the saturation of the output voltage, a very small input should be given to operational amplifier which is not possible to be measured practically by a digital multimeter. A test circuit for measurement of open loop voltage gain of an operational amplifier has been proposed and verified using simulation tools as well as by experimental methods on breadboard. The main advantage of this test circuit is that it is simple, fast, accurate, cost effective, and easy to handle even on a breadboard. The test circuit requires only the device under test (DUT) along with resistors. This circuit has been tested for measurement of open loop voltage gain for different operational amplifiers. The underlying goal is to design testable circuits for various analog devices that are simple to realize in VLSI systems, giving accurate results and without changing the characteristics of the original system. The DUTs used are LM741CN and UA741CP. For LM741CN, the simulated gain and experimentally measured gain (average) are calculated as 89.71 dB and 87.71 dB, respectively. For UA741CP, the simulated gain and experimentally measured gain (average) are calculated as 101.15 dB and 105.15 dB, respectively. These values are found to be close to the datasheet values.

Keywords: Device Under Test (DUT), open loop voltage gain, operational amplifier, test circuit

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
6061 2.4 GHz 0.13µM Multi Biased Cascode Power Amplifier for ISM Band Wireless Applications

Authors: Udayan Patankar, Shashwati Bhagat, Vilas Nitneware, Ants Koel


An ISM band power amplifier is a type of electronic amplifier used to convert a low-power radio-frequency signal into a larger signal of significant power, typically used for driving the antenna of a transmitter. Due to drastic changes in telecommunication generations may lead to the requirements of improvements. Rapid changes in communication lead to the wide implementation of WLAN technology for its excellent characteristics, such as high transmission speed, long communication distance, and high reliability. Many applications such as WLAN, Bluetooth, and ZigBee, etc. were evolved with 2.4GHz to 5 GHz ISM Band, in which the power amplifier (PA) is a key building block of RF transmitters. There are many manufacturing processes available to manufacture a power amplifier for desired power output, but the major problem they have faced is about the power it consumed for its proper working, as many of them are fabricated on the GaN HEMT, Bi COMS process. In this paper we present a CMOS Base two stage cascode design of power amplifier working on 2.4GHz ISM frequency band. To lower the costs and allow full integration of a complete System-on-Chip (SoC) we have chosen 0.13µm low power CMOS technology for design. While designing a power amplifier, it is a real task to achieve higher power efficiency with minimum resources. This design showcase the Multi biased Cascode methodology to implement a two-stage CMOS power amplifier using ADS and LTSpice simulating tool. Main source is maximum of 2.4V which is internally distributed into different biasing point VB driving and VB driven as required for distinct stages of two stage RF power amplifier. It shows maximum power added efficiency near about 70.195% whereas its Power added efficiency calculated at 1 dB compression point is 44.669 %. Biased MOSFET is used to reduce total dc current as this circuit is designed for different wireless applications comes under 2.4GHz ISM Band.

Keywords: RFIC, PAE, RF CMOS, impedance matching

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6060 Design of CMOS CFOA Based on Pseudo Operational Transconductance Amplifier

Authors: Hassan Jassim Motlak


A novel design technique employing CMOS Current Feedback Operational Amplifier (CFOA) is presented. The feature of consumption whivh has a very low power in designing pseudo-OTA is used to decreasing the total power consumption of the proposed CFOA. This design approach applies pseudo-OTA as input stage cascaded with buffer stage. Moreover, the DC input offset voltage and harmonic distortion (HD) of the proposed CFOA are very low values compared with the conventional CMOS CFOA due to symmetrical input stage. P-Spice simulation results using 0.18µm MIETEC CMOS process parameters using supply voltage of ±1.2V and 50μA biasing current. The P-Spice simulation shows excellent improvement of the proposed CFOA over existing CMOS CFOA. Some of these performance parameters, for example, are DC gain of 62. dB, open-loop gain-bandwidth product of 108 MHz, slew rate (SR+) of +71.2V/µS, THD of -63dB and DC consumption power (PC) of 2mW.

Keywords: pseudo-OTA used CMOS CFOA, low power CFOA, high-performance CFOA, novel CFOA

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