Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7803

Search results for: natural Resources

7803 Redefining Problems and Challenges of Natural Resource Management in Indonesia

Authors: Amalia Zuhra

Abstract:

Indonesia is very rich with its natural resources. Natural resource management becomes a challenge for Indonesia. Improper management will make the natural resources run out and future generations will not be able to enjoy the natural wealth. A good rule of law and proper implementation determines the success of the management of a country's natural resources. This paper examines the need to redefine problems and challenges in the management of natural resources in Indonesia in the context of law. The purpose of this article is to overview the latest issues and challenges in natural resource management and to redefine legal provisions related to environmental management and human rights protection so that the management of natural resources in the present and future will be more sustainable. This paper finds that sustainable management of natural resources is absolutely essential. The aspect of environmental protection and human rights must be elaborated more deeply so that the management of natural resources can be done maximally without harming not only people but also the environment.

Keywords: international environmental law, human rights law, natural resource management, sustainable development

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7802 Conservation of Energy in Households in Urban Areas in India

Authors: Aashee Garg, Anusha Agarwal

Abstract:

India, as a country is very rich in terms of natural resources however as citizens, we have not respected this fact and have been continuously exploiting nature’s gift to mankind. Further as the population is ever increasing, the load on the consumption of resources is unprecedented. This has led to the depletion of natural resources such as coal, oil, gas etc., apart from the pollution it causes. It is time that we shift from use of these conventional resources to more effective new ways of energy generation. We should develop and encourage usage of renewable resources such as wind and solar in households to conserve energy in place of the above mentioned nonrenewable energy sources. This paper deals with the most effective ways in which the households in India can conserve energy thus reducing effect on environment and depletion of limited resources.

Keywords: energy consumption, resources, India, renewable resources and environment

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7801 The Implementation of Sovereignty over Natural Resources Principle: Case Study Indonesian Forest

Authors: Sri Wartini

Abstract:

Based on the sovereignty over natural resources principle, the Indonesian government has an authority to exploit the natural resources within a national jurisdiction of Indonesia. The forest is one of the natural resources which is very valuable for Indonesia. It becomes the source of raw material for many industrial activities, such as pharmaceutical industry, pulp industry, and household furniture industry. Hence, it contributes to the economic development of Indonesia. However, the exploitation of the forest may cause negative impacts, such as environmental pollution and environmental degradation. The implementation of the sovereignty over natural resources principle in Indonesia may jeopardize the forest and affect the sustainability of the forest if there is no appropriate policy of the government to exploit the forest in a sustainable manner. The exploitation of the forest in Indonesia, in some extent, has caused serious impact to environment and biodiversity. Hence, in order to sustain and to maintain the forest as the valuable resources to the future generation, the government of Indonesia has already adopted many programmes and action plans. The aim of the research is to undertake a critical examination of the issues relating to the the implementation of sovereignty over natural resources to the exploitation of the forest in Indonesia. It is a normative research and the methodology employed in this research is library research. While the approaches employed in the research are conceptual approach., statutory approach, and comparative approach. The research finds that the implementation of sovereignty over natural resources principle in the exploitation of the forest in Indonesia is limited by other principles of international environmental law, such as sustainable development principle, intergenerational principle and common concern principle which have been adopted in the government policy and various regulations regarding the exploitation of the forest in Indonesia.

Keywords: Environmental damage, negative impacts, pollution, the sovereignty over natural resources

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7800 Community Participation in Decentralized Management of Natural Resources in the Sudano-Sahelian Zone of West Africa

Authors: Clarisse Umutoni, Augustine Ayantunde, Matthew Turner, Germain J. Sawadogo

Abstract:

Decentralized governance of natural resources is considered one of the key strategies for promoting sustainable management of natural resources at local level. The rationale behind decentralization of natural resources is that local populations are both better situated and more highly motivated than outside agencies to manage the resources in an ecologically and economically sustainable manner. Effective decentralized natural resource management requires strong local natural resource institutions. Therefore, strengthening local institutions governing natural resource management is essential to promoting strong participation of local communities in managing their resources. This paper investigated the existing local institutions (rules, norms and or local conventions) governing the management of natural resources and forms of community participation in the development of these natural resource institutions. Group discussions and individual interviews were conducted to collect data. Our findings showed significant variation within the study sites regarding the level of knowledge of existing local rules and norms governing the management of natural resources by the respondents. The results also show that participation was dominated by a small group of individuals, often community leaders and elites. The results suggest that women are marginalized. In general, factors which influence the level of participation include; age, year of residence in the community, gender and education level. This study also highlights the strengths of local natural resource institutions especially if enforced. Presently, the big challenge that faces the institutions governing natural resource use in the study area is the system of representativeness in the community in the development of local rules and norms as community leaders and household heads often dominate, which does not encourage active participation of community members. Therefore, for effective implementation of local natural resource institutions, the interest of key natural resource users should be taken into account. It is also important to promote rules and norms that attempt to protect or strengthen women’s access to natural resources in the community.

Keywords: decentralization, land use plan, local institutions, Mali

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7799 Power of Doubling: Population Growth and Resource Consumption

Authors: Sarika Bahadure

Abstract:

Sustainability starts with conserving resources for future generations. Since human’s existence on this earth, he has been consuming natural resources. The resource consumption pace in the past was very slow, but industrialization in 18th century brought a change in the human lifestyle. New inventions and discoveries upgraded the human workforce to machines. The mass manufacture of goods provided easy access to products. In the last few decades, the globalization and change in technologies brought consumer oriented market. The consumption of resources has increased at a very high scale. This overconsumption pattern brought economic boom and provided multiple opportunities, but it also put stress on the natural resources. This paper tries to put forth the facts and figures of the population growth and consumption of resources with examples. This is explained with the help of the mathematical expression of doubling known as exponential growth. It compares the carrying capacity of the earth and resource consumption of humans’ i.e. ecological footprint and bio-capacity. Further, it presents the need to conserve natural resources and re-examine sustainable resource use approach for sustainability.

Keywords: consumption, exponential growth, population, resources, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
7798 The Capacity Building in the Natural Disaster Management of Thailand

Authors: Eakarat Boonreang

Abstract:

The past two decades, Thailand faced the natural disasters, for instance, Gay typhoon in 1989, tsunami in 2004, and huge flood in 2011. The disaster management in Thailand was improved both structure and mechanism for cope with the natural disaster since 2007. However, the natural disaster management in Thailand has various problems, for examples, cooperation between related an organizations have not unity, inadequate resources, the natural disaster management of public sectors not proactive, people has not awareness the risk of the natural disaster, and communities did not participate in the natural disaster management. Objective of this study is to find the methods for capacity building in the natural disaster management of Thailand. The concept and information about the capacity building and the natural disaster management of Thailand were reviewed and analyzed by classifying and organizing data. The result found that the methods for capacity building in the natural disaster management of Thailand should be consist of 1)link operation and information in the natural disaster management between nation, province, local and community levels, 2)enhance competency and resources of public sectors which relate to the natural disaster management, 3)establish proactive natural disaster management both planning and implementation, 4)decentralize the natural disaster management to local government organizations, 5)construct public awareness in the natural disaster management to community, 6)support Community Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) seriously, and 7)emphasis on participation in the natural disaster management of all stakeholders.

Keywords: capacity building, Community Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM), Natural Disaster Management, Thailand

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7797 The Importance of Optimization of Halal Tourism: A Study of the Development of Halal Tourism in Indonesia

Authors: Rizqi W. Romadhon, Nur Arifan

Abstract:

Halal Tourism is a part of tourism industry which is based on Islamic Principle and addressed to the Muslim tourist. The potency of halal tourism is very broad to be developed, because the growth of Muslim populations is rapidly increasing. Indonesia is one of the biggest countries with Majority of its population is Muslim, therefore human resources and natural resources have very good potential to be part of the Halal tourism industry. But the fact is Indonesia can not optimize the potential of human resources and natural resources as well as neighboring countries carried out. This paper will discuss the reasons of the importance of developing Halal tourism, and the factors influencing the success of developing halal tourism in Indonesia, and also the optimization strategies which can be adopted by the government so that the Halal tourism industry in Indonesia has a sustainable competitive advantage. The existence of this research is expected to government, tourism agents and others can optimize the potency of Indonesia’s Human resources and natural resources for developing Halal tourism industry in Indonesia.

Keywords: halal tourism, Islamic principle, optimization, sustainable competitive advantage

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7796 The Relationship between Resource Sharing and Economic Resilience: An Empirical Analysis of Firms’ Resilience from the Perspective of Resource Dependence Theory

Authors: Alfredo R. Roa-Henriquez

Abstract:

This paper is about organizational-level resilience and decision-making in the face of natural hazards. Research on resilience emerged to explain systems’ ability to absorb and recover in the midst of adversity and uncertainty from natural disasters, crises, and other disruptive events. While interest in resilience has accelerated, research multiplied, and the number of policies and implementations of resilience to natural hazards has increased over the last several years, mainly at the level of communities and regions, there has been a dearth of empirical work on resilience at the level of the firm. This paper uses empirical data and a sample selection model to test some hypotheses related to the firm’s dependence on critical resources, the sharing of resources and its economic resilience. The objective is to understand how the sharing of resources among organizations is related to economic resilience. Empirical results that are obtained from a sample of firms affected by Superstorm Sandy and Hurricane Harvey indicate that there is unobserved heterogeneity that explains the strategic behavior of firms in the post-disaster and that those firms that are more likely to resource share are also the ones that exhibit higher economic resilience. The impact of property damage on the sharing of resources and economic resilience is explored.

Keywords: economic resilience, resource sharing, critical resources, strategic management

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7795 Urban Growth and Its Impact on Natural Environment: A Geospatial Analysis of North Part of the UAE

Authors: Mohamed Bualhamam

Abstract:

Due to the complex nature of tourism resources of the Northern part of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), the potential of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) in resolving these issues was used. The study was an attempt to use existing GIS data layers to identify sensitive natural environment and archaeological heritage resources that may be threatened by increased urban growth and give some specific recommendations to protect the area. By identifying sensitive natural environment and archaeological heritage resources, public agencies and citizens are in a better position to successfully protect important natural lands and direct growth away from environmentally sensitive areas. The paper concludes that applications of GIS and RS in study of urban growth impact in tourism resources are a strong and effective tool that can aid in tourism planning and decision-making. The study area is one of the fastest growing regions in the country. The increase in population along the region, as well as rapid growth of towns, has increased the threat to natural resources and archeological sites. Satellite remote sensing data have been proven useful in assessing the natural resources and in monitoring the changes. The study used GIS and RS to identify sensitive natural environment and archaeological heritage resources that may be threatened by increased urban growth. The result of GIS analyses shows that the Northern part of the UAE has variety for tourism resources, which can use for future tourism development. Rapid urban development in the form of small towns and different economic activities are showing in different places in the study area. The urban development extended out of old towns and have negative affected of sensitive tourism resources in some areas. Tourism resources for the Northern part of the UAE is a highly complex resources, and thus requires tools that aid in effective decision making to come to terms with the competing economic, social, and environmental demands of sustainable development. The UAE government should prepare a tourism databases and a GIS system, so that planners can be accessed for archaeological heritage information as part of development planning processes. Applications of GIS in urban planning, tourism and recreation planning illustrate that GIS is a strong and effective tool that can aid in tourism planning and decision- making. The power of GIS lies not only in the ability to visualize spatial relationships, but also beyond the space to a holistic view of the world with its many interconnected components and complex relationships. The worst of the damage could have been avoided by recognizing suitable limits and adhering to some simple environmental guidelines and standards will successfully develop tourism in sustainable manner. By identifying sensitive natural environment and archaeological heritage resources of the Northern part of the UAE, public agencies and private citizens are in a better position to successfully protect important natural lands and direct growth away from environmentally sensitive areas.

Keywords: GIS, natural environment, UAE, urban growth

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7794 Sustainability and Awareness with Natural Dyes in Textile

Authors: Recep Karadag

Abstract:

Natural dyeing had started since pre-historical times for dyeing of textile materials. The natural dyeing had continued to beginning of 20th century. At the end of 19th century some synthetic dyes were synthesized. Although development of dyeing technologies and methods, natural dyeing was not developed in recent years. Despite rapid advances of synthetic dyestuff industries, natural dye processes have not developed. Therefore natural dyeing was not competed against synthetic dyes. At the same time, it was very difficult that large quantities of coloured textile was dyed with natural dyes And it was very difficult to get reproducible results in the natural dyeing using classical and traditional processes. However, natural dyeing has used slightly in the textile handicraft up to now. It is very important view that re-using of natural dyes to create awareness in textiles in recent years. Natural dyes have got many awareness and sustainability properties. Natural dyes are more eco-friendly than synthetic dyes. A lot of natural dyes have got antioxidant, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antifungal and anti –UV properties. It had been known that were obtained limited numbers colours with natural dyes in the past. On the contrary, colour scale is too wide with natural dyes. Except fluorescent colours, numerous colours can be obtained with natural dyes. Fastnesses of dyed textiles with natural dyes are good that there are light, washing, rubbing, etc. The fastness values can be improved depend on dyeing processes. Thanks to these properties mass production can be made with natural dyes in textiles. Therefore fabric dyeing machine was designed. This machine is too suitable for natural dyeing and mass production. Also any dyeing machine can be modified for natural dyeing. Although dye extraction and dyeing are made separately in the traditional natural dyeing processes and these procedures are become by designed this machine. Firstly, colouring compounds are extracted from natural dye resources, then dyeing is made with extracted colouring compounds. The colouring compounds are moderately dissolved in water. Less water is used in the extraction of colouring compounds from dye resources and dyeing with this new technique on the contrary much quantity water needs to use for dissolve of the colouring compounds in the traditional dyeing. This dyeing technique is very useful method for mass productions with natural dyes in traditional natural dyeing that use less energy, less dye materials, less water, etc. than traditional natural dyeing techniques. In this work, cotton, silk, linen and wool fabrics were dyed with some natural dye plants by the technique. According to the analysis very good results were obtained by this new technique. These results are shown sustainability and awareness of natural dyes for textiles.

Keywords: antibacterial, antimicrobial, natural dyes, sustainability

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7793 Impact of Profitability, Slack Resources and Natural Disasters on China's Corporate Philanthropic Practices

Authors: Nabeel Safdar, Qian Aimin

Abstract:

Corporate philanthropy is important, as the donations have been considered as a source to improve the image of business entity in modern era of high competition. We used data on annual basis from 2000 to 2014 for 1,248 firms listed at Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges. Results for giving firms reveal that there is curve linear relation of profitability and CP, as profitable firms utilize cash in an efficient way and have fewer amounts of slack resource and tradeoff among stakeholder and agency cost made it more justifiable. We found that more profitability does not mean that the cash flows are available, actually good performing firms or profitable firm also good at cash management. Cash is utilized in an effective way by profitable firms, and have fewer extents of slack resources which generate curvilinear relationship of profitability with Corporate Philanthropy. We found that the trend of Corporate Philanthropy also got affected due to natural disasters. Analysis made by innovation, slack resources and directors salary revealed the positive significant relationship. It is not compulsory that firm should be only profitable for engaging in philanthropy rather they should have abundant slack resources to donate.

Keywords: corporate philanthropy, free cash flows, natural disasters, profitability

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7792 Lightning Protection Design Applied to Sustainable Development

Authors: Sylvain Fauveaux, T. Nowicki

Abstract:

Lightning protection is nowadays applied worldwide since the advent of international standards. Lightning protection is widely justified by the casualties and damages involved. As a matter of fact, the lightning business is constantly growing as more and more sensible areas need to be protected. However, the worldwide demand of copper materiel is increasing as well, its price too. Furthermore, the most frequently used method of protection is consuming a lot of copper. The copper production is also consuming a large amount of natural and power resources, not to mention the ecologic balance.

Keywords: ESEAT, Lightning protection , natural resources management, NF C 17-102, sustainable development

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7791 The Implications of Population Dynamics on the Environmental Issues: A Case behind Global Change in Climate

Authors: Simiso Fisokuhle Nyandeni

Abstract:

The environment is one of the major components of intergenerational equity under sustainability; however, this component has been facing a lot of issues/crises, which include those that are caused by natural systems due to the actions of humans. Although some of those environmental issues may occur from natural causes, however, climate change effects have shown to increase rapidly due to human behavior, which led to the increase in greenhouse emissions and the over-exploitation of natural resources that maintain an ecological balance in our environment. Based on the recent projections, the growing population tends to outstrip the environmental resources, and as a result, the rapid depletion of natural resources that maintain ecological balance within the environment has resulted in such environmental issues. This paper has adopted desktop analysis to address the main objective, which seeks to address the effects of population dynamics on environmental issues and what needs to be done to maintain the ecological balance between the growing population and the limited resources that are available; thus, the collective data sources were used to justify the literature in order to get adequate results to influence the potential findings. The major findings postulate that there is an ecological imbalance between limited resources available and the growing population; as a result, the environment is taking action against humanity through climate change impacts. Hence findings further outline that in order to prevent such impacts, there should be drastic interventions by the governments (all stakeholders should be involved in decision-making; Governmental or non-governmental institutions, scientists, researchers, etc.) around the world to maintain this ecological balance and also to prioritize the adaptation measures. Therefore, this paper seeks to examine the implications of population dynamics on the environmental issues and what needs to be done in order to maintain this ecological balance between the growing population and environmental resources; hence, this review will be based on the climate change context.

Keywords: population dynamics, climate change, environment, sustainability

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7790 Cultural Heritage Resources for Tourism, Two Countries – Two Approaches: A Comparative Analysis of Cultural Tourism Products in Turkey and Austria

Authors: Irfan Arikan, George Christian Steckenbauer

Abstract:

Turkey and Austria are examples for highly developed tourism destinations, where tourism providers use cultural heritage and regional natural resources to develop modern tourism products in order to be successful on increasingly competitive international tourism markets. The use and exploitation of these resources follow on the one hand international standards of tourism marketing (as ‘sustainability’). Therefore, we find highly comparable internationalized products in these destinations (like hotel products, museums, spas etc.). On the other hand, development standards and processes strongly depend on local, regional and national cultures, which influence the way how people work, cooperate, think and create. Thus, cultural factors also influence the attitude towards cultural heritage and natural resources and the way, how these resources are used for the creation of tourism products. This leads to differences in the development of tourism products on several levels: 1. In the selection of cultural heritage and natural resources for the product development process 2. In the processes, how tourism products are created 3. In the way, how providers and marketing organisations work with tourism products based on cultural heritage or natural resources. Aim of this paper is to discover differences in these dimensions by analysing and comparing examples of tourism products in Turkey and Austria, both countries with a highly developed, high professional tourism industry and rich experience of stakeholders in tourism industry in the field of product development and marketing. The cases are selected from the following fields: + Cultural tourism / heritage tourism + City tourism + Industrial heritage tourism + Nature and outdoor tourism + Health tourism The cases are analysed based on available secondary data (as several cases are scientifically described) and expert interviews with local and regional stakeholders of tourism industry and tourism experts. The available primary and secondary data will be analysed and displayed in a comparative structure that allows to derive answers to the above stated research question. The result of the project therefore will be a more precise picture about the influence of cultural differences on the use and exploitation of resources in the field of tourism that allows developing recommendations for tourism industry, which must be taken into consideration to assure cultural and natural resources are treated in a sustainable and responsible way. The authors will edit these culture-cross recommendations in form of a ‘check-list’ that can be used as a ‘guideline’ for tourism professionals in the field of product development and marketing and therefore connects theoretical research to the field of practical application and closes the gap between academic research and the field of tourism practice.

Keywords: cultural heritage, natural resources, Austria, Turkey

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7789 The Curse of Natural Resources: An Empirical Analysis Applied to the Case of Copper Mining in Zambia

Authors: Chomba Kalunga

Abstract:

Many developing countries have a rich endowment of natural resources. Yet, amidst that wealth, living standards remain poor. At the same time, international markets have been surged with an increase in copper prices in the last twenty years. This is a presentation of the findings on the causal economic impact of Zambia’s copper mines, a country located in sub-Saharan Africa endowed with vast copper deposits on living standards using household data from 1996 to 2010, exploiting an episode where the copper prices on the international market were rising. Using an Instrumental Variable approach and controlling for constituency-level and microeconomic factors, the results show a significant impact of copper production on living standards. After splitting the constituencies close to and far away from the nearest mine, the results document that constituencies close to the mines benefited significantly from the increase in copper production, compared to their counterparts through increased levels of employment. Finally, the results are not consistent with the natural resource curse hypothesis; findings show a positive causal relationship between the presence of natural resources and socioeconomic outcomes in less developed countries, particularly for constituencies close to the mines in Zambia. Some key policy implications follow from the findings. The finding that increased copper production led to an increase in employment suggests that, in Zambias’ context, policies that promote local employment may be more beneficial to residents. Meaning that it is government policies that can help improve the living standards were government needs to work towards making this impact more substantial.

Keywords: copper prices, local development, mining, natural resources

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7788 Role of Environmental Focus in Legal Protection and Efficient Management of Wetlands in the Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: K. R. Balabiyev, A. O. Kaipbayeva

Abstract:

The article discusses the legal framework of the government’s environmental function and analyzes the role of the national policy in protection of wetlands. The problem is of interest for it deals with the most important branch of economy–utilization of Kazakhstan’s natural resources, protection of health and environmental well being of the population. Development of a long-term environmental program addressing the protection of wetlands represents the final stage of the government’s environmental policy, and is a relatively new function for the public administration system. It appeared due to the environmental measures that require immediate decisions to be taken. It is an integral part of the effort in the field of management of state-owned natural resource, as well as of the measures aimed at efficient management of natural resources to avoid their early depletion or contamination.

Keywords: environmental focus, government’s environmental function, protection of wetlands, Kazakhstan

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7787 An Ecosystem Approach to Natural Resource Management: Case Study of the Topčiderska River, Serbia

Authors: Katarina Lazarević, Mirjana Todosijević, Tijana Vulević, Natalija Momirović, Ranka Erić

Abstract:

Due to increasing demand, climate change, and world population growth, natural resources are getting exploit fast. One of the most important natural resources is soil, which is susceptible to degradation. Erosion as one of the forms of land degradation is also one of the most global environmental problems. Ecosystem services are often defined as benefits that nature provides to humankind. Soil, as the foundation of basic ecosystem functions, provides benefits to people, erosion control, water infiltration, food, fuel, fibers… This research is using the ecosystem approach as a strategy for natural resources management for promoting sustainability and conservation. The research was done on the Topčiderska River basin (Belgrade, Serbia). The InVEST Sediment Delivery Ratio model was used, to quantify erosion intensity with a spatial distribution output map of overland sediment generation and delivery to the stream. InVEST SDR, a spatially explicit model, is using a method based on the concept of hydrological connectivity and (R) USLE model. This, combined with socio-economic and law and policy analysis, gives a full set of information to decision-makers helping them to successfully manage and deliver sustainable ecosystems.

Keywords: ecosystem services, InVEST model, soil erosion, sustainability

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7786 Concrete Performance Evaluation of Coarse Aggregate Replacement by Civil Construction Waste

Authors: Juliane P. De Oliveira, Carlos H. Dos Santos, Marcia Shoji, Maria E. C. Ferreira, Natalia U. Yamaguchi

Abstract:

The construction sector is considered a major generator of environmental impacts due to the high consumption of natural resources and waste generation. Thus, this article aims to evaluate the performance of a concrete produced by the partial and total replacement of natural coarse aggregate by recycled coarse aggregate, derived from the concrete residue of buildings and demolitions. The study was made by comparing the compressive strength and absorption of three different concrete traces, keeping the water/cement factor of 0.60 and changing only the proportions of recycled coarse aggregate between 0%, 50% and 100%. Traces 50% and 100% obtained good results by comparing the actual specific mass, because the material used is lighter to the natural coarse aggregate. It was concluded that the concrete produced with recycled aggregates, even with inferior results, can be used where it is not needed a structural function, giving an adequate destination to the construction and demolition waste and consequently reducing the extraction and consumption of natural resources.

Keywords: green concrete, recycled aggregate, recycling, sustainable development

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7785 The Importance of Sustainable Urban Development and Its Impacts on Turkey’s Urban Environmental Laws

Authors: Azadeh Rezafar, Sevkiye Sence Turk

Abstract:

Rapid population growth in urban areas and extinction danger of natural resources in order to meet the food needs of these population, has revealed the need for sustainability. It did not last long that city planners realized the importance of an equal access to natural resources with protecting and managing them in cities, in accordance with the concept of sustainable development. Like in other countries The Turkish Government is aware of the importance of the sustainable development in their cities. The government issued new laws for protection of environmental assets and so that the preservation of natural ecology. The main objective of this article is to emphasis the importance of the sustainable development in the context of the developing world by giving special information about the method of the Turkish Government for protecting nature with approval of difference laws in this area.

Keywords: population growth, sustainable development, Turkey, Turkish Urban Environmental Laws

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7784 Competition in Petroleum Extraction and the Challenges of Climate Change

Authors: Saeid Rabiei Majd, Motahareh Alvandi, Bahareh Asefi

Abstract:

Extraction of maximum natural resources is one of the common policies of governments, especially petroleum resources that have high economic and strategic value. The incentive to access and maintain profitable oil markets for governments or international oil companies, causing neglects them to pay attention to environmental principles and sustainable development, which in turn drives up environmental and climate change. Significant damage to the environment can cause severe damage to citizens and indigenous people, such as the compulsory evacuation of their zone due to contamination of water and air resources, destruction of animals and plants. Hawizeh Marshes is a common aquatic and environmental ecosystem along the Iran-Iraq border that also has oil resources. This marsh has been very rich in animal, vegetative, and oil resources. Since 1990, the political motives, the strategic importance of oil extraction, and the disregard for the environmental rights of the Iraqi and Iranian governments in the region have caused 90% of the marshes and forced migration of indigenous people. In this paper, we examine the environmental degradation factors resulting from the adoption of policies and practices of governments in this region based on the principles of environmental rights and sustainable development. Revision of the implementation of the government’s policies and natural resource utilization systems can prevent the spread of climate change, which is a serious international challenge today.

Keywords: climate change, indigenous rights, petroleum operation, sustainable development principles, sovereignty on resources

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7783 The Impact of Information and Communication Technologies on Teaching Performance at an Iranian University

Authors: Yusef Hedjazi, Saeedeh Nazari Nooghabi

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New information and communication technologies (ICT) as one of the main needs of Faculty members in the process of teaching and learning has used in Irans higher education system since 2000.The main purpose of this study is to investigate the role of information and communication technologies (ICT) in teaching performance of Agricultural and Natural Resources Faculties at University of Tehran. The statistical population of the study consisted of all 250 faculties in Agriculture and Natural Resources Colleges and a questionnaire was used to collect data. The reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed by computing of Cronbachs Alpha coefficient at greater than .72. The study showed a significant relationship between agricultural Faculty members teaching performance and competency in using ICT. The results of the regression analysis also explained 51.7% of the variance, teaching performance. The six independent variables that accounted for the explained variance were experience in using educational websites or software, use of educational multimedia (e.g. film and CD, etc), making a presentation using PowerPoint, familiarity with online education websites, using News group to discuss on educational subjects with colleagues and students, and using Electronic communication (messengers) to solve studentsproblems.

Keywords: information and communication technologies, agricultural and natural resources, faculties, teaching performance

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7782 Natural Bio-Active Product from Marine Resources

Authors: S. Ahmed John

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Marine forms-bacteria, actinobacteria, cynobacteria, fungi, microalgae, seaweeds mangroves and other halophytes an extremely important oceanic resources and constituting over 90% of the oceanic biomass. The marine natural products have lead to the discovery of many compounds considered worthy for clinical applications. The marine sources have the highest probability of yielding natural products. Natural derivatives play an important role to prevent the cancer incidences as synthetic drug transformation in mangrove. 28.12% of anticancer compound extracted from the mangroves. Exchocaria agollocha has the anti cancer compounds. The present investigation reveals the potential of the Exchocaria agollocha with biotechnological applications for anti cancer, antimicrobial drug discovery, environmental remediation, and developing new resources for the industrial process. The anti-cancer activity of Exchocaria agollocha was screened from 3.906 to 1000 µg/ml of concentration with the dilution leads to 1:1 to 1:128 following methanol and chloroform extracts. The cell viability in the Exchocaria agollocha was maximum at the lower concentration where as low at the higher concentration of methanol and chloroform extracts when compare to control. At 3.906 concentration, 85.32 and 81.96 of cell viability was found at 1:128 dilution of methanol and chloroform extracts respectively. At the concentration of 31.25 following 1:16 dilution, the cell viability was 65.55 in methanol and 45.55 in chloroform extracts. However, at the higher concentration, the cell viability 22.35 and 8.12 was recorded in the extracts of methanol and chloroform. The cell viability was more in methanol when compare to chloroform extracts at lower concentration. The present findings gives current trends in screening and the activity analysis of metabolites from mangrove resources and to expose the models to bring a new sustain for tackling cancer. Bioactive compounds of Exchocaria agollocha have extensive use in treatment of many diseases and serve as a compound and templates for synthetic modification.

Keywords: bio-active product, compounds, natural products and microalgae

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7781 Disclosing a Patriarchal Society: A Socio-Legal Study on the Indigenous Women's Involvement in Natural Resources Management in Kasepuhan Cirompang

Authors: Irena Lucy Ishimora, Eva Maria Putri Salsabila

Abstract:

The constellation on Indonesian Legal System that varies shows a structural injustice – as a result of patriarchy – exists from the biggest range as a country to the smallest such as a family. Women in their lives, carry out excessive responsibilities in the community. However, the unequal positions between men and women in the society restrain women to fulfill their constructed role. Therefore, increasing the chance for women to become the victim of structural injustice. The lack of authority given to women and its effects can be seen through a case study of the Cirompang Indigenous Women’s involvement in natural resources management. The decision to make the Mount Halimun-Salak as a National Park and the expansion itself did not involve nor consider the existence of indigenous people (Kasepuhan Ciromopang) – especially the women’s experience regarding natural resources management – has been significantly impacting the fulfillment of the indigenous women’s rights. Moreover, the adat law that still reflects patriarchy, made matters worse because women are restricted from expressing their opinion. The writers explored the experience of Cirompang indigenous women through in-depth interviews with them and analyzed it with several theories such as ecofeminism, woman’s access to land and legal pluralism. This paper is important to show how the decision and expansion of the National Park reduced the rights of access to land, natural resources, expressing an opinion, and participating in development. Reflecting on the Cirompang Indigenous Women’s conditions on natural resources management, this paper aims to present the implications of the regulations that do not acknowledge Indigenous women’s experience and the proposed solutions. First, there should be an integration between the law regarding indigenous people and traditional rights in a regulation to align the understanding of indigenous people and their rights. Secondly, Indonesia as a country that’s rich with diversity should ratify the ILO Convention no 169 to reaffirm the protection of Indigenous people’s rights. Last, considering the position of indigenous women that still experienced unjustness in the community, the government and NGOs must collaborate to provide adequate assistance for them.

Keywords: Cirompang indigenous women, indigenous women’s rights, structural injustice, women access to land

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7780 Build Back Better Propositions for Disaster Risk Reduction in Natural Environment Recovery

Authors: Tinu Rose Francis, S. Wilkinson, Y. Chang-Richards, S. Mannakkara

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to assess the implementation of Build Back Better (BBB) propositions for disaster risk reduction in the natural environment with regard to greater Christchurch, New Zealand, after the 2010–2011 earthquakes in the region. A set of indicators was established to analyse the extent of recovery attained in Christchurch. Disaster recovery in the region is an ongoing process, which gives us the opportunity to rate the progress made so far. Disasters cause significant damage to the built, social and economic environments and also have severe consequences for the natural environment. Findings show that greater Christchurch has made important progress and implemented a comprehensive natural environment recovery plan. The plan addresses the restoration of biodiversity, natural resources, disaster waste management and amenity values in greater Christchurch. This paper also surveys the risk reduction actions being implemented with regard to the natural environment. The findings of this study will help governing bodies to identify and fill the gaps in their natural environment recovery plans.

Keywords: build back better (BBB), natural environment, planning, recovery, reconstruction, resilience, risk reduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
7779 Supply Chain of Energy Resources and Its Alternatives Due to the Arab Spring: The Case of Egyptian Natural Gas Flow to Jordan

Authors: Moh’d Anwer Al-Shboul

Abstract:

The year 2011 was a challenging year for Jordanian economy, which felt a variety of effects from the Arab Spring which took place in neighboring countries. Since February, 5th 2012, the Arab Gas Supply Pipeline, which carries natural gas from Egypt through the Sinai Peninsula and to Jordan and Israel, has been attacked more than 39 times. Jordan imported about 80 percent of its necessity of natural gas (about 250 million cubic feet of natural gas per day) from Egypt to generate particularly electricity, with the reminder of being produced locally. Jordan has utilized multiple alternatives to address the interruption of available natural gas supply from Egypt. The Jordanian distributed power plants now rely on the use of heavy fuel oil and diesel for electricity generation, in this case, it costs Jordan about four times than natural gas. The substitution of Egyptian natural gas supplies by fuel oil and diesel, coupled with the 32 percent rise in global fuel prices, has increased Jordan’s energy import bill by over 50 percent in 2011, reaching more than 16 percent of the 2011 GDP. The increase in the cost of electricity generation pushed the Jordanian economy to borrow from multiple internal and external resource channels, thus increasing the public debt. The Jordanian government’s short-term solution to the reduced natural gas supply from Egypt was alternatively purchasing the necessary quantities from some Gulf countries such as Qatar and/or Saudi Arabia, which can be imported with two possible methods. The first method is to rent a ship equipped with a liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal, which is currently operating. The second method requires equipping the Aqaba port with an LNG terminal, which also currently is operating. In the long-term, a viable solution to depending on importing expensive and often unreliable natural gas supplies from surrounding countries is to depend more heavily on renewable supply energy, including solar, wind, and water energy.

Keywords: energy supply resources, Arab spring, liquefied natural gas, pipeline, Jordan

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
7778 Resources and Strategies towards the Development of a Sustainable Construction Materials Industry in Botswana

Authors: G. Malumbela, E. U. Masuku

Abstract:

The economy of Botswana has increased extensively since its independence. In contrast to this increase, the construction industry which is one of the key indicators of a developing nation continues to be highly dependent on imported building material products from the neighbouring countries of South Africa, Namibia, Zimbabwe, and Zambia. Only two companies in the country currently blend cement. Even then, the overwhelming majority of raw materials used in the blends are imported. Furthermore, there are no glass manufacturers in Botswana. The ceramic industry is limited to the manufacture of clay bricks notwithstanding a few studios on crockery and sanitary ware which nonetheless use imported clay. This paper presents natural resources and industrial waste products in Botswana that can be used for the development of sustainable building materials. It also investigates at the distribution and cost of other widely used building materials in the country. Finally, the present paper looks at projects and national strategies aimed at a country-wide development of a sustainable building materials industry together with their successes and hitches.

Keywords: Botswana construction industry, construction materials, natural resources, sustainable materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
7777 Balance of Natural Resources to Manage Land Use Changes in Subosukawonosraten Area

Authors: Sri E. Wati, D. Roswidyatmoko, N. Maslahatun, Gunawan, Andhika B. Taji

Abstract:

Natural resource is the main sources to fulfill human needs. Its utilization must consider not only human prosperity but also sustainability. Balance of natural resources is a tool to manage natural wealth and to control land use change. This tool is needed to organize land use planning as stated on spatial plan in a certain region. Balance of natural resources can be calculated by comparing two-series of natural resource data obtained at different year. In this case, four years data period of land and forest were used (2010 and 2014). Land use data were acquired through satellite image interpretation and field checking. By means of GIS analysis, its result was then assessed with land use plan. It is intended to evaluate whether existing land use is suitable with land use plan. If it is improper, what kind of efforts and policies must be done to overcome the situation. Subosukawonosraten is rapid developed areas in Central Java Province. This region consists of seven regencies/cities which are Sukoharjo Regency, Boyolali Regency, Surakarta City, Karanganyar Regency, Wonogiri Regency, Sragen Regency, and Klaten Regency. This region is regarding to several former areas under Karasidenan Surakarta and their location is adjacent to Surakarta. Balance of forest resources show that width of forest area is not significantly changed. Some land uses within the area are slightly changed. Some rice field areas are converted into settlement (0.03%) whereas water bodies become vacant areas (0.09%). On the other hand, balance of land resources state that there are many land use changes in this region. Width area of rice field decreases 428 hectares and more than 50% of them have been transformed into settlement area and 11.21% is converted into buildings such as factories, hotels, and other infrastructures. It occurs mostly in Sragen, Sukoharjo, and Karanganyar Regency. The results illustrate that land use change in this region is mostly influenced by increasing of population number. Some agricultural lands have been converted into built-up area since demand of settlement, industrial area, and other infrastructures also increases. Unfortunately, recent utilization of more than a half of total area is not appropriate with land use plan declared in spatial planning document. It means, local government shall develop a strict regulation and law enforcement related to any violation in land use management.

Keywords: balance, forest, land, spatial plan

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7776 Comparative Analysis between Corn and Ramon (Brosimum alicastrum) Starches to Be Used as Sustainable Bio-Based Plastics

Authors: C. R. Ríos-Soberanis, V. M. Moo-Huchin, R. J. Estrada-Leon, E. Perez-Pacheco

Abstract:

Polymers from renewable resources have attracted an increasing amount of attention over the last two decades, predominantly due to two major reasons: firstly environmental concerns, and secondly the realization that our petroleum resources are finite. Finding new uses for agricultural commodities is also an important area of research. Therefore, it is crucial to get new sources of natural materials that can be used in different applications. Ramon tree (Brosimum alicastrum) is a tropical plant that grows freely in Yucatan countryside. This paper focuses on the seeds recollection, processing and starch extraction and characterization in order to find out about its suitability as biomaterial. Results demonstrated that it has a high content of qualities to be used not only as comestible but also as an important component in polymeric blends.

Keywords: biomaterials, characterization techniques, natural resource, starch

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
7775 Influence of Recycled Polymer-Based Aggregates on Mechanical Properties of Polymer Concrete

Authors: Ahmet Kurklu, Abdussamed Sarp, Gokmen Arikan, Akin Eren, Arif Ulu, Ferit Cakir

Abstract:

Our natural resources are diminishing day by day with the needs of the growing world population. There is a danger that these resources will be depleted if they are not used in a controlled manner. As a result of the rapid increase in the consumption of limited natural resources, one of the issues where studies have gained importance is recycling. Many countries have carried out various research and development activities on recycling and reuse to prevent wastage of resources. For sustainable and healthy living, the limited amount of raw material resources in nature should be consumed consciously, and the necessary awareness should be given for recycling activities. One of the sectors where the consumption of raw materials is high is the construction sector. With the changing consumption habits of the evolving technology in the construction sector, the need to use special concrete along with the normal concrete has arisen. With the increasing need for specialty concretes, polymer concrete, which was discovered in the early 1900s, has evolved to the present day. Polymer concretes are special concretes with high strength, water impermeability, resistance to chemical action, and low surface roughness. Thanks to these properties, they find wide applications in many fields such as swimming pools, drainage systems, repair works. In the study, the effect of using recycled aggregates instead of natural aggregates in the production of polymer concrete on the performance of polymer concrete is investigated. In the experiments conducted for this purpose, the use of natural aggregate is reduced at certain rates, and instead, recycled aggregate is added at the same rate. The recycled aggregate to be used in the study is obtained from the polymer concrete drainage channel production facility of Mert Casting Co., Istanbul, Turkey. In order to clearly observe the effect of recycled materials on the product in the study, the other components (resin, hardener, accelerator, and additive) are kept constant in the concrete mix. In the study, fresh and hardened concrete tests are to be carried out on the mixes to be prepared.

Keywords: concrete, mechanical properties, polymer concrete, recycle aggregate

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7774 Socio-Economic Setting and Implications to Climate Change Impacts in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Authors: Kenneth Nhundu, Leocadia Zhou, Farhad Aghdasi, Voster Muchenje

Abstract:

Climate change poses increased risks to rural communities that rely on natural resources, such as forests, cropland and rangeland, waterways, and open spaces Because of their connection to the land and the potential for climate change to impact natural resources and disrupt ecosystems and seasons, rural livelihoods and well-being are disproportionately vulnerable to climate change. Climate change has the potential to affect the environment in a number of ways that place increased stress on everyone, but disproportionately on the most vulnerable populations, including the young, the old, those with chronic illness, and the poor. The communities in the study area are predominantly rural, resource-based and are generally surrounded by public or private lands that are dominated by natural resources, including forests, rangelands, and agriculture. The livelihoods of these communities are tied to natural resources. Therefore, targeted strategies to cope will be required. This paper assessed the household socio-economic characteristics and their implications to household vulnerability to climate change impacts in the rural Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The results indicate that the rural communities are climate-vulnerable populations as they have a large proportion of people who are less economically or physically capable of adapting to climate change. The study therefore recommends that at each level, the needs, knowledge, and voices of vulnerable populations, including indigenous peoples and resource-based communities, deserve consideration and incorporation so that climate change policy (1) ensures that all people are supported and able to act, (2) provides as robust a strategy as possible to address a rapidly changing environment, and (3) enhances equity and justice.

Keywords: climate change, vulnerable, socio-economic, livelihoods

Procedia PDF Downloads 276