Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: nano-membrane toilet

31 Technical Option Brought Solution for Safe Waste Water Management in Urban Public Toilet and Improved Ground Water Table

Authors: Chandan Kumar

Abstract:

Background and Context: Population growth and rapid urbanization resulted nearly 2 Lacs migrants along with families moving to Delhi each year in search of jobs. Most of these poor migrant families end up living in slums and constitute an estimated population of 1.87 lacs every year. Further, more than half (52 per cent) of Delhi’s population resides in places such as unauthorized and resettled colonies. Slum population is fully dependent on public toilet to defecate. In Public toilets, manholes either connected with Sewer line or septic tank. Septic tank connected public toilet faces major challenges to dispose of waste water. They have to dispose of waste water in outside open drain and waste water struck out side of public toilet complex and near to the slum area. As a result, outbreak diseases such as Malaria, Dengue and Chikungunya in slum area due to stagnated waste water. Intervention and Innovation took place by Save the Children in 21 Public Toilet Complexes of South Delhi and North Delhi. These public toilet complexes were facing same waste water disposal problem. They were disposing of minimum 1800 liters waste water every day in open drain. Which caused stagnated water-borne diseases among the nearest community. Construction of Soak Well: Construction of soak well in urban context was an innovative approach to minimizing the problem of waste water management and increased water table of existing borewell in toilet complex. This technique made solution in Ground water recharging system, and additional water was utilized in vegetable gardening within the complex premises. Soak well had constructed with multiple filter media with inlet and safeguarding bed on surrounding surface. After construction, soak well started exhausting 2000 liters of waste water to raise ground water level through different filter media. Finally, we brought a change in the communities by constructing soak well and with zero maintenance system. These Public Toilet Complexes were empowered by safe disposing waste water mechanism and reduced stagnated water-borne diseases.

Keywords: diseases, ground water recharging system, soak well, toilet complex, waste water

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30 Treatment of Greywater at Household by Using Ceramic Tablet Membranes

Authors: Abdelkader T. Ahmed

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Greywater is any wastewater draining from a household including kitchen sinks and bathroom tubs, except toilet wastes. Although this used water may contain grease, food particles, hair, and any number of other impurities, it may still be suitable for reuse after treatment. Greywater reusing serves two purposes including reduction the amount of freshwater needed to supply a household, and reduction the amount of wastewater entering sewer systems. This study aims to investigate and design a simple and cheap unit to treat the greywater in household via using ceramic membranes and reuse it in supplying water for toilet flushing. The study include an experimental program for manufacturing several tablet ceramic membranes from clay and sawdust with three different mixtures. The productivity and efficiency of these ceramic membranes were investigated by chemical and physical tests for greywater before and after filtration through these membranes. Then a treatment unit from this ceramic membrane was designed based on the experimental results of lab tests. Results showed that increase sawdust percent with the mixture increase the flow rate and productivity of treated water but decrease in the same time the water quality. The efficiency of the new ceramic membrane reached 95%. The treatment unit save 0.3 m3/day water for toilet flushing without need to consume them from the fresh water supply network.

Keywords: ceramic membranes, filtration, greywater, wastewater treatment

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29 Quality Evaluation of Treated Ballast Seawater for Potential Reuse

Authors: Siti Nur Muhamad, Mohamad Abu Ubaidah Amir, Adenen Shuhada Abdul Aziz, Siti Sarah Mohd Isnan, Ainul Husna Abdul Rahman, Nur Afiqah Rosly, Roshamida Abd Jamil

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The International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention) will commencing on 8 September 2017 after ratified by 51 States in September 2016. However, there is no value recovered for the treated ballast water as it simply discharged during de-ballasting. In order to evaluate value creation of treated ballast water, three seawater applications which are seawater toilet flushing, cooling tower and desalination was studied and compared with treated ballast seawater. An exploratory study was conducted in Singapore as a case study as this country is facing water scarcity issues and a busy port in the world which received more than 28 billion m3 of ballast water in 2015. Surprisingly the treatment technology between seawater toilet flushing and ballast water management has similarity as both applications use screening and disinfection process and quality standard and analysis between treated ballast water with seawater applications found that seawater toilet flushing have the same quality parameter with treated ballast water. Thus, the treated ballast water can replace the raw seawater for seawater desalination. As such, with reduction of cost for screen unit, desalination water can exceed water production by NEWater in Singapore as the cost can recover the energy needed for desalination. It can conclude that treated ballast water has high recovery value and can be reused in seawater application.

Keywords: ballast water treatment, desalination, BWM convention, ballast water management

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28 Probabilistic Life Cycle Assessment of the Nano Membrane Toilet

Authors: A. Anastasopoulou, A. Kolios, T. Somorin, A. Sowale, Y. Jiang, B. Fidalgo, A. Parker, L. Williams, M. Collins, E. J. McAdam, S. Tyrrel

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Developing countries are nowadays confronted with great challenges related to domestic sanitation services in view of the imminent water scarcity. Contemporary sanitation technologies established in these countries are likely to pose health risks unless waste management standards are followed properly. This paper provides a solution to sustainable sanitation with the development of an innovative toilet system, called Nano Membrane Toilet (NMT), which has been developed by Cranfield University and sponsored by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The particular technology converts human faeces into energy through gasification and provides treated wastewater from urine through membrane filtration. In order to evaluate the environmental profile of the NMT system, a deterministic life cycle assessment (LCA) has been conducted in SimaPro software employing the Ecoinvent v3.3 database. The particular study has determined the most contributory factors to the environmental footprint of the NMT system. However, as sensitivity analysis has identified certain critical operating parameters for the robustness of the LCA results, adopting a stochastic approach to the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) will comprehensively capture the input data uncertainty and enhance the credibility of the LCA outcome. For that purpose, Monte Carlo simulations, in combination with an artificial neural network (ANN) model, have been conducted for the input parameters of raw material, produced electricity, NOX emissions, amount of ash and transportation of fertilizer. The given analysis has provided the distribution and the confidence intervals of the selected impact categories and, in turn, more credible conclusions are drawn on the respective LCIA (Life Cycle Impact Assessment) profile of NMT system. Last but not least, the specific study will also yield essential insights into the methodological framework that can be adopted in the environmental impact assessment of other complex engineering systems subject to a high level of input data uncertainty.

Keywords: sanitation systems, nano-membrane toilet, lca, stochastic uncertainty analysis, Monte Carlo simulations, artificial neural network

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27 Two and Three Layer Lamination of Nanofiber

Authors: Roman Knizek, Denisa Karhankova, Ludmila Fridrichova

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For their exceptional properties nanofibers, respectively, nanofiber layers are achieving an increasingly wider range of uses. Nowadays nanofibers are used mainly in the field of air filtration where they are removing submicron particles, bacteria, and viruses. Their efficiency is not changed in time, and the power consumption is much lower than that of electrically charged filters. Nanofibers are primarily used for converting and storage of energy in both air and liquid filtration, in food and packaging, protecting the environment, but also in health care which is made possible by their newly discovered properties. However, a major problem of the nanofiber layer is practically zero abrasion resistance; it is, therefore, necessary to laminate the nanofiber layer with another suitable material. Unfortunately, lamination of nanofiber layers is a major problem since the nanofiber layer contains small pores through which it is very difficult for adhesion to pass through. Therefore, there is still only a small percentage of products with these unique fibers 5.

Keywords: nanofiber layer, nanomembrane, lamination, electrospinning

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26 Prevalence and Associated Factors of Stunting among 6-59 Months Children in Pastoral Community of Korahay Zone, Somali Regional State, Ethiopia 2016

Authors: Sisay Shine, Frew Tadesse, Zemenu Shiferaw, Lema Mideksa

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Background: Stunting is one of the most important public health problems in Ethiopia with an estimated 44.4% of children less than five years of age are stunted. Thus, this study aimed to assess prevalence and associated factors of stunting among 6-59 months children in pastoral community of Korahay Zone, Somali Regional State, Ethiopia. Objective of the study: To assess prevalence and associated factors of stunting among 6-59 months children in pastoral community of Korahay Zone, Somali Regional State, Ethiopia, 2016. Methods: Community based cross sectional study design was done among 770 children in pastoral community of Korahay Zone. Systematic sampling techniques were used to select households and took child mother pair from each selected households. Data was collected using pre-tested and structured questionnaire. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was used to assess level of significance. Result: Prevalence of stunting among 6-59 months age children was 31.9%. Sex (AOR: 1.47, 95%CI 1.02, 2.11), age (AOR: 2.10, 95%CI 1.16, 3.80), maternal education (AOR: 3.42, 95%CI 1.58, 7.41), maternal occupation (AOR: 3.10, 95%CI 1.85, 5.19), monthly income (AOR: 1.47, 95%CI 1.03, 2.09), PNC visits (AOR: 1.59, 95%CI 1.07, 2.37), source of water (AOR: 3.41, 95%CI 1.96, 5.93), toilet availability (AOR: 1.71, 95%CI 1.13, 2.58), first milk feeding (AOR: 3.37, 95%CI 2.27, 5.02) and bottle feeding (AOR: 2.07, 95%CI 1.34, 3.18) were significant predictors of stunting. Conclusion and recommendations: Prevalence of stunting among 6-59 months children was high 31.9%. Lack maternal education, not feeding first milk, unsafe water supply, absence toilet availability and bottle feeding can increase the risk of stunting. So, educating mothers on child feeding practice, sanitation and important of first milk can reduce stunting.

Keywords: dietary, environmental, healthcare, socio-demographic, stunting

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25 Numerical Investigation of the Integration of a Micro-Combustor with a Free Piston Stirling Engine in an Energy Recovery System

Authors: Ayodeji Sowale, Athanasios Kolios, Beatriz Fidalgo, Tosin Somorin, Aikaterini Anastasopoulou, Alison Parker, Leon Williams, Ewan McAdam, Sean Tyrrel

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Recently, energy recovery systems are thriving and raising attention in the power generation sector, due to the request for cleaner forms of energy that are friendly and safe for the environment. This has created an avenue for cogeneration, where Combined Heat and Power (CHP) technologies have been recognised for their feasibility, and use in homes and small-scale businesses. The efficiency of combustors and the advantages of the free piston Stirling engines over other conventional engines in terms of output power and efficiency, have been observed and considered. This study presents the numerical analysis of a micro-combustor with a free piston Stirling engine in an integrated model of a Nano Membrane Toilet (NMT) unit. The NMT unit will use the micro-combustor to produce waste heat of high energy content from the combustion of human waste and the heat generated will power the free piston Stirling engine which will be connected to a linear alternator for electricity production. The thermodynamic influence of the combustor on the free piston Stirling engine was observed, based on the heat transfer from the flue gas to working gas of the free piston Stirling engine. The results showed that with an input of 25 MJ/kg of faecal matter, and flue gas temperature of 773 K from the micro-combustor, the free piston Stirling engine generates a daily output power of 428 W, at thermal efficiency of 10.7% with engine speed of 1800 rpm. An experimental investigation into the integration of the micro-combustor and free piston Stirling engine with the NMT unit is currently underway.

Keywords: free piston stirling engine, micro-combustor, nano membrane toilet, thermodynamics

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24 Operation '1 Household Dry Toilet for Planting 20 Fruit Trees and/or Acacias on Cropland': Strategy for Promoting Adoption of Well-Managed Agroforestry Systems and Prevent Streaming and Soil Erosion

Authors: Stanis Koko Nyalongomo, Benjamin Mputela Bankanza, Moise Kisempa Mahungudi

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Several areas in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) experience serious problems of streaming and soil erosion. Erosion leads to degradation of soil health, and the three main causative factors of similar importance are deforestation, overgrazing, and land agricultural mismanagement. Degradation of soil health leads to a decrease in agricultural productivity and carbon dioxide (CO₂), and other greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural productivity low, and sanitation-related diseases are a concern of a majority of DRC rural people -whose main livelihoods are conventional smallholder agriculture- due to degradation of agricultural soil health and prevalence of inappropriate sanitation in rural areas. Land management practices that increase soil carbon stocks on agricultural lands with practices including conservation agriculture and agroforestry do not only limit CO₂ emissions but also help prevent erosion while enhancing soil health and productivity. Promotion to adopt sustainable land management practices, especially conversion to well-managed agroforestry practices, is a necessity. This needs to be accompanied by incentives. Methods that incite smallholders to adopt practices that increase carbon stocks in agricultural lands and enhance soil health and productivity for social, economic, and environmental benefits, and give them the ability to get and use household dry toilets -included activities to inform and raise smallholder households awareness on the conversion of croplands to well-managed agroforestry systems through planting at least 20 fruit trees and/or acacias, soil carbon and practices that sequester it in soil and ecological sanitation; and offer smallholders technique and material supports and incentives under the form of dry toilets constructed for free for well-managed agroforestry implementation- were carried out to address problems of soil erosion as well as agricultural productivity and sanitation-related diseases. In 2018 and 2019, 19 of 23 targeted smallholder households expressed their satisfaction and converted their croplands to agroforestry through planting 374 trees, and each gotten 1 dry toilet constructed for free. Their neighbors expressed a willingness to participate in the project. Conversion to well-managed agroforestry practices offers many advantages to both farmers and the environment. The strategy of offering smallholders incentives for soil-friendly agricultural practices, especially well-managed agroforestry, is one of the solutions to prevent soil erosion. DRC rural people whose majority are smallholder households, need to be able to get and use dry toilets. So, dry toilets could be offered like incentives for well-managed agroforestry practices. Given the many advantages agroforestry and dry toilet can offer, recommendations are made for funding organizations to support such projects that promote the adoption of soil health practices.

Keywords: agroforestry, croplands, soil carbon, soil health

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23 Achieving the Status of Total Sanitation in the Rural Nepalese Context: A Case Study from Amarapuri, Nepal

Authors: Ram Chandra Sah

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Few years back, naturally a very beautiful country Nepal was facing a lot of problems related to the practice of open defecation (having no toilet) by almost 98% people of the country. Now, the scenario is changed. Government of Nepal set the target of achieving the situation of basic level sanitation (toilets) facilities by 2017 AD for which the Sanitation and Hygiene Master Plan (SHMP) was brought in 2011 AD with the major beauty as institutional set up formation, local formal authority leadership, locally formulated strategic plan; partnership, harmonized and coordinated approach to working; no subsidy or support at a blanket level, community and local institutions or organizations mobilization approaches. Now, the Open Defecation Free (ODF) movement in the country is at a full swing. The Sanitation and Hygiene Master Plan (SHMP) has clearly defined Total Sanitation which is accepted to be achieved if all the households of the related boundary have achieved the 6 indicators such as the access and regular use of toilet(s), regular use of soap and water at the critical moments, regular practice of use of food hygiene behavior, regular practice of use of water hygiene behavior including household level purification of locally available drinking water, maintenance of regular personal hygiene with household level waste management and the availability of the state of overall clean environment at the concerned level of boundary. Nepal has 3158 Village Development Committees (VDC's) in the rural areas. Amarapuri VDC was selected for the purpose of achieving Total Sanitation. Based on the SHMP; different methodologies such as updating of Village Water Sanitation and Hygiene Coordination Committee (V-WASH-CC), Total Sanitation team formation including one volunteer for each indicator, campaigning through settlement meetings, midterm evaluation which revealed the need of ward level 45 (5 for all 9 wards) additional volunteers, ward wise awareness creation with the help of the volunteers, informative notice boards and hoarding boards with related messages at important locations, management of separate waste disposal rings for decomposable and non-decomposable wastes, related messages dissemination through different types of local cultural programs, public toilets construction and management by community level; mobilization of local schools, offices and health posts; reward and recognition to contributors etc. were adopted for achieving 100 % coverage of each indicator. The VDC was in a very worse situation in 2010 with just 50, 30, 60, 60, 40, 30 percent coverage of the respective indicators and became the first VDC of the country declared with Total Sanitation. The expected result of 100 percent coverage of all the indicators was achieved in 2 years 10 months and 19 days. Experiences of Amarapuri were replicated successfully in different parts of the country and many VDC's have been declared with the achievement of Total Sanitation. Thus, Community Mobilized Total Sanitation Movement in Nepal has supported a lot for achieving a Total Sanitation situation of the country with a minimal cost and it is believed that the approach can be very useful for other developing or under developed countries of the world.

Keywords: community mobilized, open defecation free, sanitation and hygiene master plan, total sanitation

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22 Single Ion Transport with a Single-Layer Graphene Nanopore

Authors: Vishal V. R. Nandigana, Mohammad Heiranian, Narayana R. Aluru

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Graphene material has found tremendous applications in water desalination, DNA sequencing and energy storage. Multiple nanopores are etched to create opening for water desalination and energy storage applications. The nanopores created are of the order of 3-5 nm allowing multiple ions to transport through the pore. In this paper, we present for the first time, molecular dynamics study of single ion transport, where only one ion passes through the graphene nanopore. The diameter of the graphene nanopore is of the same order as the hydration layers formed around each ion. Analogous to single electron transport resulting from ionic transport is observed for the first time. The current-voltage characteristics of such a device are similar to single electron transport in quantum dots. The current is blocked until a critical voltage, as the ions are trapped inside a hydration shell. The trapped ions have a high energy barrier compared to the applied input electrical voltage, preventing the ion to break free from the hydration shell. This region is called “Coulomb blockade region”. In this region, we observe zero transport of ions inside the nanopore. However, when the electrical voltage is beyond the critical voltage, the ion has sufficient energy to break free from the energy barrier created by the hydration shell to enter into the pore. Thus, the input voltage can control the transport of the ion inside the nanopore. The device therefore acts as a binary storage unit, storing 0 when no ion passes through the pore and storing 1 when a single ion passes through the pore. We therefore postulate that the device can be used for fluidic computing applications in chemistry and biology, mimicking a computer. Furthermore, the trapped ion stores a finite charge in the Coulomb blockade region; hence the device also acts a super capacitor.

Keywords: graphene nanomembrane, single ion transport, Coulomb blockade, nanofluidics

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21 The Discussion of Peritoneal Dialysis Patients Taking Proper Portion of Valacyclovir

Authors: Wan Shan Chiang, Charn Ting Wang, Wei-Chih Kan, Hui-Chen Huang

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Dialysis patients have risk in Zoster virus because of low immune. Valacyclovir (product name: Valtex) 500mg/tab, an anti-zoster virus medicine, is digested in kidney and it has side-effect of nervous system in patients with malfunction kidneys. Although the clinical basis of the proposed administration, we found that patients still have side effects. So we want to explore the appropriate dose of peritoneal dialysis patients. We read small samples of case reports and analyze 8 cases in our hospital, some patients’ Kt/v, match the standard of dialysis, and still go to the toilet, they still have side effect seriously with 500mg portion. The solution to this includes stopping medicine, reduction of medicine, increase of liquid change and timely hemodialysis and all of them speed up the recovery. The safety of medication needs extra attention of medical care employee. If they can tell the doctor if the patient has urine or not in his or her Kt/v, the doctor can prescribe the medicine accordingly. About the limitation, due to the lack of cases and related pharmacokinetics numbers. Therefore, for peritoneal patients, we think 500mg/48hoursis the saves. We also want to remind pharmaceuticals to revise the portion taken by patients, so that the doctor may judge the use.

Keywords: herpes zoster, Valacyclovir, peritoneal dialysis, health education

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20 Cultural Adjustment Problems in Academic and Social Life Experienced by Indonesian Postgraduate Students Studying in London

Authors: Erizal Lugman

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An increasing number of students from Indonesia study in universities in the UK. Because of the substantial cultural differences between the Western and Indonesian cultures, this study investigates the issues in academic and social life experienced by Indonesian postgraduate students, with a sample of 11 Indonesian postgraduate students (8 male, 3 female) studying in London during the cultural adjustment stage. This research made use of a semi-structured interview and was analyzed qualitatively using thematic content analysis to reveal key areas of concern in the academic setting, social life, and language-related issues. The findings confirm that the most challenging aspects experienced by the participants are the use of academic English in academic situations and the students’ lack of critical thinking. Nine out of 11 students agreed that they had problems with writing essays during the cultural adjustment stage. Because of the collectivist culture in Indonesia, making friends with locals was the most concerning issue in the participants’ sociocultural adjustment, followed by difficulty in finding places to pray, looking for Halal food and using the Western toilet system The findings suggest recommendations that the students must be more aware of the cultural differences between Indonesian and Western cultures, including in the academic setting and social life. Also, the lecturers should pay more attention to their speech in the British accent which is sometimes difficult to understand.

Keywords: academic adjustment, cultural adjustment, indonesian culture, intercultural communication

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19 Absence of Secured Bathing Spaces and Its Effect on Women: An Exploratory Qualitative Study of Rural Odisha, India

Authors: Minaj Ranjita Singh, Meghna Mukherjee, Abhijeet Jadhav

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This is an exploratory qualitative study with an objective to understand the bathing practices followed by rural women and its consequences. Access to safe bathing spaces in rural India is a neglected issue due to which women are affected in various ways. Today, government policies are largely focused towards the building of toilets, but no importance has been given to the construction of bathrooms. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected using in-depth interviews and focused group discussions with rural women in six villages of Odisha, India. The study was approved by an Institutional Research and Ethics Committee, and informed consent was taken from participants. For most of the participants, the access to water, bathing space and toilet was compromised posing various challenges in their daily lives. Women's daily schedule, hygiene practices, dignity, and health are greatly affected due to this lack. Since bathing in the open has been an ancient practice, the community's perception is benign towards the hardship of women. Lack of exposure to concealed bathing, necessary funds, and competing priorities are some of the household level factors which never let them think about having bathrooms and the lack of water supply, proper drainage system, subsidy or financial support are the governance and policy related factors which prevent their access to secured bathing spaces.

Keywords: bathrooms, dignity, exploratory, rural, qualitative, women's health, women

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18 Challenges for the Implementation of Community Led Total Sanitation in Rural Malawi

Authors: Save Kumwenda, Khumbo Kalulu, Kondwani Chidziwisano, Limbani Kalumbi, Vincent Doyle, Bagrey Ngwira

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Introduction: The Malawi Government in partnership with Non-Governmental Organizations adopted Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) in 2008 as an approach in sanitation and hygiene promotion with an aim of declaring Malawi Open Defeacation Free (ODF) by 2015. While there is a significant body of research into CLTS available in public domain, there is little research done on challenges faced in implementing CLTS in Malawi. Methods: A cross-sectional qualitative study was carried out in three districts of Ntcheu, Balaka, and Phalombe. Data was collected using Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and Key informant interviews (KII) and analysed manually. Results: In total, 96 people took part in FGDs and 9 people in KII. It was shown that choice of leaders after triggering was commonly done by chiefs, facilitators, and VHC without following CLTS principles as opposed to identifying individuals who showed leadership skills. Despite capacity building initiatives involving District Coordinating Teams, lack of resources to undertake follow-ups contributed to failure to sustain ODF in the community. It was also found that while most respondents appreciating the need for no subsidies, the elderly and those with disabilities felt the need for external support because do not have money for buying strong logs, slabs for durable toilet floor and also to hire people to build latrines for them. Conclusion: Effective implementation of CLTS requires comprehensive consideration of various issues that may affect its success.

Keywords: open defecation, community-led, sanitation, faecal matter, hygiene, Malawi

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17 Remittances and Water Access: A Cross-Sectional Study of Sub Saharan Africa Countries

Authors: Narges Ebadi, Davod Ahmadi, Hiliary Monteith, Hugo Melgar-Quinonez

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Migration cannot necessarily relieve pressure on water resources in origin communities, and male out-migration can increase the water management burden of women. However, inflows of financial remittances seem to offer possibilities of investing in improving drinking-water access. Therefore, remittances may be an important pathway for migrants to support water security. This paper explores the association between water access and the receipt of remittances in households in sub-Saharan Africa. Data from round 6 of the 'Afrobarometer' surveys in 2016 were used (n= 49,137). Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses were carried out in this study. Regardless of country, findings from descriptive analyses showed that approximately 80% of the respondents never received remittance, and 52% had enough clean water. Only one-fifth of the respondents had piped water supply inside the house (19.9%), and approximately 25% had access to a toilet inside the house. Bivariate analyses revealed that even though receiving remittances was significantly associated with water supply, the strength of association was very weak. However, other factors such as the area of residence (rural vs. urban), cash income frequencies, electricity access, and asset ownership were strongly associated with water access. Results from unadjusted multinomial logistic regression revealed that the probability of having no access to piped water increased among remittance recipients who received financial support at least once a month (OR=1.324) (p < 0.001). In contrast, those not receiving remittances were more likely to regularly have a water access concern (OR=1.294) (p < 0.001), and not have access to a latrine (OR=1.665) (p < 0.001). In conclusion, receiving remittances is significantly related to water access as the strength of odds ratios for socio-demographic factors was stronger.

Keywords: remittances, water access, SSA, migration

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16 Survival Pattern of Under-five Mortality in High Focus States in India

Authors: Rahul Kumar

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Background: Under-FiveMortality Rate(U5MR)ofanationiswidelyacceptedandlong-standing indicators of well-beingofherchildren.They measuredtheprobability of dying before theageoffive(expressedper1000livebirths).TheU5MRisanappropriate indicator of the cumulative exposure totheriskofdeathduringthefirstfiveyearsoflife, and accepted globalindicator ofthehealthandsocioeconomicstatusofagiven population.Itisalsousefulforassessing theimpactofvariousintervention programmes aimed at improving child survival.Under-fivemortalitytrendsconstitutealeadingindicatorofthelevel ofchildhealthandoveralldevelopmentincountries. Objectives: The first aim of our research is to study the level, trends, and Pattern of Under-five mortality using different sources of data. The second objective is to examine the survival pattern of Under-five mortality by different background characteristics. Data Source and Methodology: SRS and NFHS data have been used forobservingthelevelandtrendofUnder-Five mortality rate. Kaplan Meier Estimate has been used to understand the survival Pattern of Under-five mortality. Result: WefindthatallmostallthestatesmadesomeprogressbyreducingU5MRin recent decades.During1992-93highestU5MR(per thousand live birth) was observed in Assam(142)followed by up(141),Odisha(131),MP(130),andBihar(127.5).While the least U5MR(perthousandlive birth)wasobservedinRajasthan(102). The highestU5MR(per thousandlive birth)isobservedinUP(78.1), followed by MP(64.9)and Chhattisgarh(63.7)which are far away from the national level(50). Among them, Uttarakhand(46.7)hadleastU5MR(perthousandlivebirth), followed by Odisha(48.6). TheU5MR(perthousandlivebirth)ofcombinedhighfocusstateis63.7whichisfar away fromthenationallevel(50). Weidentified thatthesurvivalprobability ofunder-fivechildrenfromadolescentmotherislessin comparisontootherchildrenbornby differentagegroupofmothers. thatduringneonatalperiodusually male mortality exceedsthefemale mortality butthisdifferentialreversedinthepostneonatalperiod. Astheirageincreasesand approachingtofiveyears,weidentifiedthatthesurvivalprobability ofbothsexdecreasesbut female’s survival probabilitydecrement is more than male as their ageincreases. The poorer children’s survival probability is minimum. Children using improved toilet facility has more survival probability throughout thefiveyearsthan who uses unimproved. The survival probability of children under five who got Full ANCis more than the survival probability of children under five who doesn’t get any ANC. Conclusions: Improvement of maternal education is an urgent need to improve their health seeking behavior and thus the health of their children. Awareness on reproductive health and environmental sanitation should be strengthened.

Keywords: under-five mortality, survival pattern, ANC, trend

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15 Weighing the Economic Cost of Illness Due to Dysentery and Cholera Triggered by Poor Sanitation in Rural Faisalabad, Pakistan

Authors: Syed Asif Ali Naqvi, Muhammad Azeem Tufail

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Inadequate sanitation causes direct costs of treating illnesses and loss of income through reduced productivity. This study estimated the economic cost of health (ECH) due to poor sanitation and factors determining the lack of access to latrine for the rural, backward hamlets and slums of district Faisalabad, Pakistan. Cross sectional data were collected and analyzed for the study. As the population under study was homogenous in nature, it is why a simple random sampling technique was used for the collection of data. Data of 440 households from 4 tehsils were gathered. The ordinary least square (OLS) model was used for health cost analysis, and the Probit regression model was employed for determining the factors responsible for inaccess to toilets. The results of the study showed that condition of toilets, situation of sewerage system, access to adequate sanitation, Cholera, diarrhea and dysentery, Water and Sanitation Agency (WASA) maintenance, source of medical treatment can plausibly have a significant connection with the dependent variable. Outcomes of the second model showed that the variables of education, family system, age, and type of dwelling have positive and significant sway with the dependent variable. Variable of age depicted an insignificant association with access to toilets. Variable of monetary expenses would negatively influence the dependent variable. Findings revealed the fact, health risks are often exacerbated by inadequate sanitation, and ultimately, the cost on health also surges. Public and community toilets for youths and social campaigning are suggested for public policy.

Keywords: sanitation, toilet, economic cost of health, water, Punjab

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14 Assessment of Maternal Satisfaction Regarding Quality of Care during Labor

Authors: Farida Habib, Haya Alfozan, Eman Miligi, Najla Alotaibi

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Background: Women’s satisfaction with maternity services, especially care during labor and birth, has become highly significant to healthcare providers, administrators, and policymakers. Purpose: The aims of this study were to assess maternal satisfaction regarding the quality of care during labor and to compare the level of maternal satisfaction between women who delivered by physicians and those delivered by midwives. Methodology: A descriptive, cross-sectional, correlational design was used. A convenient sample of 180 low-risk cases of immediate postpartum women who delivered at King Abdul-Aziz medical city was recruited. Women whose babies were diagnosed with serious health problems were excluded from the study. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were ensured. The questionnaire included three parts, namely: demographics data, medical history, and obstetrical history, and the last part is the satisfaction assessment tool. Ethical confederations were ensured. Maternal satisfaction during labor was classified in terms of health care, health workers' communication, and the environment. Results: Regarding health care, women were highly satisfied with care received from nurse (M = 4.21 + 0.88), medical care received (M = 4.17 + 0.79), and comfort techniques (M = 4.04 + 0.91). Regarding health workers' communication, women were highly satisfied with the provider to treat with dignity and respect (M = 4.03 + 0.91) and orientation to the toilet, bathroom, washing area (M = 4.00 + 0.93). Regarding the environment, women were highly satisfied with the experience of their baby's birth (M = 4.18 + 0.98) and supplies with drugs and supplies (M = 4.09 + 0.97). There was no statistically significant difference in maternal satisfaction between women who delivered by physicians and those delivered by midwives. Conclusion: Women were generally satisfied with their labor and delivery experience. There was no difference in maternal satisfaction on the labor process between women who delivered by physicians and those delivered by midwives.

Keywords: maternity, satisfaction, labor, delivery

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13 Rural Sanitation in India: Special Context in the State of Odisa

Authors: Monalisha Ghosh, Asit Mohanty

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The lack of sanitation increases living costs, decreases spend on education and nutrition, lowers income earning potential, and threatens safety and welfare. This is especially true for rural India. Only 32% of rural households have their own toilets and that less than half of Indian households have a toilet at home. Of the estimated billion people in the world who defecate in the open, more than half reside in rural India. It is empirically established that poor sanitation leads to high infant mortality rate and low income generation in rural India. In India, 1,600 children die every day before reaching their fifth birthday and 24% of girls drop out of school as the lack of basic sanitation. Above all, lack of sanitation is not a symptom of poverty but a major contributing factor. According to census 2011, 67.3% of the rural households in the country still did not have access to sanitation facilities. India’s sanitation deficit leads to losses worth roughly 6% of its gross domestic product (GDP) according to World Bank estimates by raising the disease burden in the country. The dropout rate for girl child is thirty percent in schools in rural areas because of lack of sanitation facilities for girl students. The productivity loss per skilled labors during a year is calculated at Rs.44, 160 in Odisha. The performance of the state of Odisha has not been satisfactory in improving sanitation facilities. The biggest challenge is triggering behavior change in vast section of rural population regarding need to use toilets. Another major challenge is funding and implementation for improvement of sanitation facility. In an environment of constrained economic resources, Public Private Partnership in form of performance based management or maintenance contract will be all the more relevant to improve the sanitation status in rural sector.

Keywords: rural sanitation, infant mortality rate, income, granger causality, pooled OLS method test public private partnership

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12 The Study of Tourists’ Behavior in Water Usage in Hotel Business: Case Study of Phuket Province, Thailand

Authors: A. Pensiri, K. Nantaporn, P. Parichut

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Tourism is very important to the economy of many countries due to the large contribution in the areas of employment and income generation. However, the rapid growth of tourism can also be considered as one of the major uses of water user, and therefore also have a significant and detrimental impact on the environment. Guest behavior in water usage can be used to manage water in hotels for sustainable water resources management. This research presents a study of hotel guest water usage behavior at two hotels, namely Hotel A (located in Kathu district) and Hotel B (located in Muang district) in Phuket Province, Thailand, as case studies. Primary and secondary data were collected from the hotel manager through interview and questionnaires. The water flow rate was measured in-situ from each water supply device in the standard room type at each hotel, including hand washing faucets, bathroom faucets, shower and toilet flush. For the interview, the majority of respondents (n = 204 for Hotel A and n = 244 for Hotel B) were aged between 21 years and 30 years (53% for Hotel A and 65% for Hotel B) and the majority were foreign (78% in Hotel A, and 92% in Hotel B) from American, France and Austria for purposes of tourism (63% in Hotel A, and 55% in Hotel B). The data showed that water consumption ranged from 188 litres to 507 liters, and 383 litres to 415 litres per overnight guest in Hotel A and Hotel B (n = 244), respectively. These figures exceed the water efficiency benchmark set for Tropical regions by the International Tourism Partnership (ITP). It is recommended that guest water saving initiatives should be implemented at hotels. Moreover, the results showed that guests have high satisfaction for the hotels, the front office service reveal the top rates of average score of 4.35 in Hotel A and 4.20 in Hotel B, respectively, while the luxury decoration and room cleanliness exhibited the second satisfaction scored by the guests in Hotel A and B, respectively. On the basis of this information, the findings can be very useful to improve customer service satisfaction and pay attention to this particular aspect for better hotel management.

Keywords: hotel, tourism, Phuket, water usage

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11 Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infections and Risk Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Ante Natal Clinics in Government Primary Health Care Centres in Akure

Authors: Adepeju Simon-Oke, Olatunji Odeyemi, Mobolanle Oniya

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Urinary tract infection has become the most common bacterial infections in humans, both at the community and hospital settings; it has been reported in all age groups and in both sexes. This study was carried out in order to determine and evaluate the prevalence, current drug susceptibility pattern of the isolated organisms and identify the associated risk factors of UTIs among the pregnant women in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted on the urine of pregnant women, and socio-demographic information of the women was collected. A total of 300 clean midstream urine samples were collected, and a general urine microscopic examination and culture were carried out, the Microbact identification system was used to identify gram-negative bacteria. Out of the 300 urine samples cultured, 183(61.0%) yielded significant growth of urinary pathogens while 117(39.0%) yielded either insignificant growth or no growth of any urinary pathogen. Prevalence of UTI was significantly associated with the type of toilet used, symptoms of UTI, and previous history of urinary tract infection (p<0.05). Escherichia coli 58(31.7%) was the dominant pathogen isolated, and the least isolated uropathogens were Citrobacter freudii and Providencia retgerri 2(1.1%) respectively. Gram-negative bacteria showed 77.6%, 67.9%, and 61.2% susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, augmentin, and chloramphenicol, respectively. Resistance against septrin, chloramphenicol, sparfloxacin, amoxicillin, augmentin, gentamycin, pefloxacin, trivid, and streptomycin was observed in the range of 23.1 to 70.1%. Gram-positive uropathogens isolated showed high resistance to amoxicillin (68.4%) and high susceptibility to the remaining nine antibiotics in the range 65.8% to 89.5%. This study justifies that pregnant women are at high risk of UTI. Therefore screening of pregnant women during antenatal clinics should be considered very important to avoid complications. Health education with regular antenatal and personal hygiene is recommended as precautionary measures to UTI.

Keywords: pregnant women, prevalence, risk factor, UTIs

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10 The Causes and Effects of Poor Household Sanitation: Case Study of Kansanga Parish

Authors: Rosine Angelique Uwacu

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Poor household sanitation is rife in Uganda, especially in Kampala. This study was carried out with he goal of establishing the main causes and effects of poor household sanitation in Kansanga parish. The study objectively sought to: To identify various ways through which wastes are generated and disposed of in Kansanga parish, identify different hygiene procedures/behaviors of waste handling in Kansanga parish and assess health effects of poor household sanitation and suggest the recommended appropriate measures of addressing cases of lack of hygiene in Kansanga parish. The study used a survey method where cluster sampling was employed. This is because there is no register of population or sufficient information, or geographic distribution of individuals is widely scattered. Data was collected through the use of interviews accompanied by observation and questionnaires. The study involved a sample of 100 households. The study revealed that; some households use wheeled bin collection, skip hire and roll on/off contained others take their wastes to refuse collection vehicles. Surprisingly, majority of the households submitted that they use polythene bags 'Kavera' and at times plastic sacs to dispose of their wastes which are dumped in drainage patterns or dustbins and other illegal dumping site. The study showed that washing hands with small jerrycans after using the toilet was being adopted by most households as there were no or few other alternatives. The study revealed that the common health effects that come as a result of poor household sanitation in Kansanga Parish are diseases outbreaks such as malaria, typhoid and diarrhea. Finally, the study gave a number of recommendations or suggestions on maintaining and achieving an adequate household sanitation in Kansanga Parish such as sensitization of community members by their leaders like Local Counselors could help to improve the situation, establishment of community sanitation days for people to collectively and voluntarily carry out good sanitation practices like digging trenches, burning garbage and proper waste management and disposal. Authorities like Kampala Capital City Authority should distribute dumping containers or allocate dumping sites where people can dispose of their wastes preferably at a minimum cost for proper management.

Keywords: household sanitation, kansanga parish, Uganda, waste

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9 The Problems of Women over 65 with Incontinence Diagnosis: A Case Study in Turkey

Authors: Birsel Canan Demirbag, Kıymet Yesilcicek Calik, Hacer Kobya Bulut

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Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the problems of women over 65 with incontinence diagnosis. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted with women over 65 with incontinence diagnosis in four Family Health Centers in a city in Eastern Black Sea region between November 1, and December 20, 2015. 203, 107, 178, 180 women over 65 were registered in these centers and 262 had incontinence diagnosis at least once and had an ongoing complaint. 177 women were volunteers for the study. During home visits and using face-to-face survey methodology, participants were given socio-demographic characteristics survey, Sandvik severity scale, Incontinence Quality of Life Scale, Urogenital Distress Inventory and a questionnaire including challenges experienced due to incontinence developed by the researcher. Data were analyzed with SPSS program using percentages, numbers, Chi-square, Man-Whitney U and t test with 95% confidence interval and a significance level p <0.05. Findings: 67 ± 1.4 was the mean age, 2.05 ± 0.04 was parity, 44.5 ± 2.12 was menopause age, 66.3% were primary school graduates, 45.7% had deceased spouse, 44.4% lived in a large family, 67.2% had their own room, 77.8% had income, 89.2% could meet self- care, 73.2% had a diagnosis of mixed incontinence, 87.5% suffered for 6-20 years % 78.2 had diuretics, antidepressants and heart medicines, 20.5% had urinary fecal cases, 80.5% had bladder training at least once, 90.1% didn’t have bladder diary calendar/control training programs, 31.1% had hysterectomy for prolapse, 97.1'i% was treated with lower urinary tract infection at least once, 66.3% saw a doctor to get drug in the last three months, 76.2 could not go out alone, 99.2 % had at least one chronic disease, 87.6 % had constipation complain, 2.9% had chronic cough., 45.1% fell due to a sudden rise for toilet. Incontinence Impact Questionnaire Average score was (QOL) 54.3 ± 21.1, Sandvik score was 12.1 ± 2.5, Urogenital Distress Inventory was 47.7 ± 9.2. Difficulties experienced due to incontinence were 99.5% feeling of unhappiness, 67.1% constant feeling of urine smell due to failing to change briefs frequently, % 87.2 move away from social life, 89.7 unable to use pad, 99.2% feeling of disturbing households / other individuals, 87.5% feel dizziness/fall due to sudden rise, 87.4% feeling of others’ imperceptions about the situation, % 94.3 insomnia, 78.2 lack of assistance, 84.7% couldn’t afford urine protection briefs. Results: With this study, it was found out that there were a lot of unsolved issues at individual and community level affecting the life quality of women with incontinence. In accordance with this common problem in women, to facilitate daily life it is obvious that regular home care training programs at institutional level in our country will be effective.

Keywords: health problems, incontinence, incontinence quality of life questionnaire, old age, urinary urogenital distress inventory, Sandviken severity, women

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8 Wood as a Climate Buffer in a Supermarket

Authors: Kristine Nore, Alexander Severnisen, Petter Arnestad, Dimitris Kraniotis, Roy Rossebø

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Natural materials like wood, absorb and release moisture. Thus wood can buffer indoor climate. When used wisely, this buffer potential can be used to counteract the outer climate influence on the building. The mass of moisture used in the buffer is defined as the potential hygrothermal mass, which can be an energy storage in a building. This works like a natural heat pump, where the moisture is active in damping the diurnal changes. In Norway, the ability of wood as a material used for climate buffering is tested in several buildings with the extensive use of wood, including supermarkets. This paper defines the potential of hygrothermal mass in a supermarket building. This includes the chosen ventilation strategy, and how the climate impact of the building is reduced. The building is located above the arctic circle, 50m from the coastline, in Valnesfjord. It was built in 2015, has a shopping area, including toilet and entrance, of 975 m². The climate of the area is polar according to the Köppen classification, but the supermarket still needs cooling on hot summer days. In order to contribute to the total energy balance, wood needs dynamic influence to activate its hygrothermal mass. Drying and moistening of the wood are energy intensive, and this energy potential can be exploited. Examples are to use solar heat for drying instead of heating the indoor air, and raw air with high enthalpy that allow dry wooden surfaces to absorb moisture and release latent heat. Weather forecasts are used to define the need for future cooling or heating. Thus, the potential energy buffering of the wood can be optimized with intelligent ventilation control. The ventilation control in Valnesfjord includes the weather forecast and historical data. That is a five-day forecast and a two-day history. This is to prevent adjustments to smaller weather changes. The ventilation control has three zones. During summer, the moisture is retained to dampen for solar radiation through drying. In the winter time, moist air let into the shopping area to contribute to the heating. When letting the temperature down during the night, the moisture absorbed in the wood slow down the cooling. The ventilation system is shut down during closing hours of the supermarket in this period. During the autumn and spring, a regime of either storing the moisture or drying out to according to the weather prognoses is defined. To ensure indoor climate quality, measurements of CO₂ and VOC overrule the low energy control if needed. Verified simulations of the Valnesfjord building will build a basic model for investigating wood as a climate regulating material also in other climates. Future knowledge on hygrothermal mass potential in materials is promising. When including the time-dependent buffer capacity of materials, building operators can achieve optimal efficiency of their ventilation systems. The use of wood as a climate regulating material, through its potential hygrothermal mass and connected to weather prognoses, may provide up to 25% energy savings related to heating, cooling, and ventilation of a building.

Keywords: climate buffer, energy, hygrothermal mass, ventilation, wood, weather forecast

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7 Spatial Design Transformation of Mount Merapi's Dwellings Using Diachronic Approach

Authors: Catharina Dwi Astuti Depari, Gregorius Agung Setyonugroho

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In concern for human safety, living in disaster-prone areas is twofold: it is profoundly cataclysmic yet perceptibly contributive. This paradox could be identified in Kalitengah Lor Sub-village community who inhabit Mount Merapi’s most hazardous area, putting them to the highest exposure to eruptions’ cataclysmic impacts. After the devastating incident in 2010, through the Action Plan for Rehabilitation and Reconstruction, the National Government with immediate aid from humanitarian agencies initiated a relocation program by establishing nearly 2,613 temporary shelters throughout the mountain’s region. The problem arose as some of the most affected communities including those in Kalitengah Lor Sub-village, persistently refused to relocate. The obnoxious experience of those living in temporary shelters resulted from the program’s failure to support a long-term living was assumed to instigate the rejection. From the psychological standpoint, this phenomenon reflects the emotional bond between the affected communities with their former dwellings. Regarding this, the paper aims to reveal the factors influencing the emotional attachment of Kalitengah Lor community to their former dwellings including the dwellings’ spatial design transformation prior and post the eruption in 2010. The research adopted Likert five scale-questionnaire comprising a wide range of responses from strongly agree to strongly disagree. The responses were then statistically measured, leading to consensus that provides bases for further interpretations toward the local’s characteristics. Using purposive unit sampling technique, 50 respondents from 217 local households were randomly selected. Questions in the questionnaire were developed with concerns on the aspects of place attachment concept: affection, cognitive, behavior, and perception. Combined with quantitative method, the research adopted diachronic method which was aimed to analyze the spatial design transformation of each dwelling in relation to the inhabitant’s daily activities and personal preferences. The research found that access to natural resources like sand mining, agricultural farms and wood forests, social relationship and physical proximity from house to personal asset like cattle shed, are the dominant factors encouraging the locals to emotionally attached to their former dwellings. Consequently, each dwelling’s spatial design is suffered from changes in which the current house is typically larger in dimension and the bathroom is replaced by public toilet located outside the house’s backyard. Relatively unchanged, the cattle shed is still located in front of the house, the continuous visual relationship, particularly between the living and family room, is maintained, as well as the main orientation of the house towards the local street.

Keywords: diachronic method, former dwellings, local’s characteristics, place attachment, spatial design transformation

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6 Evaluation of Feasibility of Ecological Sanitation in Central Nepal

Authors: K. C. Sharda

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Introduction: In the world, almost half of the population are lacking proper access to improved sanitation services. In Nepal, large number of people are living without access to any sanitation facility. Ecological sanitation toilet which is defined as water conserving and nutrient recycling system for use of human urine and excreta in agriculture would count a lot to utilize locally available resources, to regenerate soil fertility, to save national currency and to achieve the goal of elimination open defecation in country like Nepal. The objectives of the research were to test the efficacy of human urine for improving crop performance and to evaluate the feasibility of ecological sanitation in rural area of Central Nepal. Materials and Methods: The field investigation was carried out at Palung Village Development Committee (VDC) of Makawanpur District, Nepal from March – August, 2016. Five eco-san toilets in two villages (Angare and Bhot Khoriya) were constructed and questionnaire survey was carried out. During the questionnaire survey, respondents were asked about socio-economic parameters, farming practices, awareness of ecological sanitation and fertilizer value of human urine and excreta in agriculture. In prior to a field experiment, soil was sampled for analysis of basic characteristics. In the field experiment, cauliflower was cultivated for a month in the two sites to compare the fertilizer value of urine with chemical fertilizer and no fertilizer with three replications. The harvested plant samples were analyzed to understand the nutrient content in plant with different treatments. Results and Discussion: Eighty three percent respondents were engaged in agriculture growing mainly vegetables, which may raise the feasibility of ecological sanitation. In the study area, water deficiencies in dry season, high demand of chemical fertilizer, lack of sanitation awareness were found to be solved. The soil at Angare has sandier texture and lower nitrogen content compared to that in Bhot Khoriya. While the field experiment in Angare showed that the aboveground biomass of cauliflower in the urine fertilized plot were similar with that in the chemically fertilized plot and higher than those in the non-fertilized plots, no significant difference among the treatments were found in Bhot Khoriya. The more distinctive response of crop growth to the three treatments in the former might be attributed to the poorer soil productivity, which in turn could be caused by the poorer inherent soil fertility and the poorer past management by the farmer in Angare. Thus, use of urine as fertilizer could help poor farmers with low quality soil. The significantly different content of nitrogen and potassium in the plant samples among three treatments in Bhot Khoriya would require further investigation. When urine is utilized as a fertilizer, the productivity could be increased and the money to buy chemical fertilizer would be utilized in other livelihood activities. Ecological sanitation is feasible in the area with similar socio-economic parameter.

Keywords: cauliflower, chemical fertilizer, ecological sanitation, Nepal, urine

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5 Rainwater Harvesting is an Effective Tool for City’s Storm Water Management and People’s Willingness to Install Rainwater Harvesting System in Buildings: A Case Study in Kazipara, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Authors: M. Abu Hanif, Anika Tabassum, Fuad Hasan Ovi, Ishrat Islam

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Water is essential for life. Enormous quantities of water are cycled each year through hydrologic cycle but only a fraction of circulated water is available each year for human use. Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh is the 19th mega city in the world with a population of over 14 million (World City Information, 2011). As a result the growth of urban population is increasing rapidly; the city is not able to manage with altering situations due to resource limitations and management capacity. Water crisis has become an acute problem faced by the inhabitants of Dhaka city. It is found that total water demand in Dhaka city is 2,240 million liter per day (MLD) whereas supply is 2,150 (MLD). According to Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority about 87 percent of this supply comes from groundwater resources and rest 13 percent from surface water. According to Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority it has been found that the current groundwater depletion rate is 3.52 meter per year. Such a fast depletion of the water table will result in intrusion of southern saline water into the groundwater reservoir, depriving this mega city of pure drinking water. This study mainly focus on the potential of Rainwater Harvesting System(RWHS) in Kazipara area of Dhaka city, determine the perception level of local people in installation of rainwater harvesting system in their building and identify the factors regarding willingness of owner in installing rainwater harvesting system. As most of the residential area of Dhaka city is unplanned with small plots, Kazipara area has been chosen as study area which depicts similar characteristics. In this study only roof top area is considered as catchment area and potential of rainwater harvesting has been calculated. From the calculation it is found that harvested rainwater can serve the 66% of demand of water for toilet flushing and cleaning purposes for the people of Kazipara. It is also observed that if only rooftop rainwater harvesting applied to all the structures of the study area then two third of surface runoff would be reduced than present surface runoff. In determining the perception of local people only owners of the buildings were. surveyed. From the questionnaire survey it is found that around 75% people have no idea about the rainwater harvesting system. About 83% people are not willing to install rainwater harvesting system in their dwelling. The reasons behind the unwillingness are high cost of installation, inadequate space, ignorance about the system, etc. Among 16% of the willing respondents who are interested in installing RWHS system, it was found that higher income, bigger size of buildings are important factors in willingness of installing rainwater harvesting system. Majority of the respondents demanded for both technical and economical support to install the system in their buildings. Government of Bangladesh has taken some initiatives to promote rainwater harvesting in urban areas. It is very much necessary to incorporate rainwater harvesting device and artificial recharge system in every building of Dhaka city to make Dhaka city self sufficient in water supply management and to solve water crisis problem of megacity like as Dhaka city.

Keywords: rainwater harvesting, water table, willingness, storm water

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4 Rainwater Management: A Case Study of Residential Reconstruction of Cultural Heritage Buildings in Russia

Authors: V. Vsevolozhskaia

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Since 1990, energy-efficient development concepts have constituted both a turning point in civil engineering and a challenge for an environmentally friendly future. Energy and water currently play an essential role in the sustainable economic growth of the world in general and Russia in particular: the efficiency of the water supply system is the second most important parameter for energy consumption according to the British assessment method, while the water-energy nexus has been identified as a focus for accelerating sustainable growth and developing effective, innovative solutions. The activities considered in this study were aimed at organizing and executing the renovation of the property in residential buildings located in St. Petersburg, specifically buildings with local or federal historical heritage status under the control of the St. Petersburg Committee for the State Inspection and Protection of Historic and Cultural Monuments (KGIOP) and UNESCO. Even after reconstruction, these buildings still fall into energy efficiency class D. Russian Government Resolution No. 87 on the structure and required content of project documentation contains a section entitled ‘Measures to ensure compliance with energy efficiency and equipment requirements for buildings, structures, and constructions with energy metering devices’. Mention is made of the need to install collectors and meters, which only calculate energy, neglecting the main purpose: to make buildings more energy-efficient, potentially even energy efficiency class A. The least-explored aspects of energy-efficient technology in the Russian Federation remain the water balance and the possibility of implementing rain and meltwater collection systems. These modern technologies are used exclusively for new buildings due to a lack of government directive to create project documentation during the planning of major renovations and reconstruction that would include the collection and reuse of rainwater. Energy-efficient technology for rain and meltwater collection is currently applied only to new buildings, even though research has proved that using rainwater is safe and offers a huge step forward in terms of eco-efficiency analysis and water innovation. Where conservation is mandatory, making changes to protected sites is prohibited. In most cases, the protected site is the cultural heritage building itself, including the main walls and roof. However, the installation of a second water supply system and collection of rainwater would not affect the protected building itself. Water efficiency in St. Petersburg is currently considered only from the point of view of the installation that regulates the flow of the pipeline shutoff valves. The development of technical guidelines for the use of grey- and/or rainwater to meet the needs of residential buildings during reconstruction or renovation is not yet complete. The ideas for water treatment, collection and distribution systems presented in this study should be taken into consideration during the reconstruction or renovation of residential cultural heritage buildings under the protection of KGIOP and UNESCO. The methodology applied also has the potential to be extended to other cultural heritage sites in northern countries and lands with an average annual rainfall of over 600 mm to cover average toilet-flush needs.

Keywords: cultural heritage, energy efficiency, renovation, rainwater collection, reconstruction, water management, water supply

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3 Menstrual Hygiene Practices Among the Women Age 15-24 in India

Authors: Priyanka Kumari

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Menstrual hygiene is an important aspect in the life of young girls. Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM) is defined as ‘Women and adolescent girls using a clean material to absorb or collect menstrual blood that can be changed in privacy as often as necessary for the duration of the menstruation period, using soap and water for washing the body as required and having access to facilities to dispose of used menstrual management materials. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence of hygienic menstrual practices and socio-demographic correlates of hygienic menstrual practices among women aged 15-24 in India. Data from the 2015–2016 National Family Health Survey–4 for 244,500 menstruating women aged 15–24 were used. The methods have been categorized into two, women who use sanitary napkins, locally prepared napkins and tampons considered as a hygienic method and those who use cloth, any other method and nothing used at all during menstruation considered as an unhygienic method. Women’s age, year of schooling, religion, place of residence, caste/tribe, marital status, wealth index, type of toilet facility used, region, the structure of the house and exposure to mass media are taken as an independent variables. Bivariate analysis was carried out with selected background characteristics to analyze the socio-economic and demographic factors associated with the use of hygienic methods during menstruation. The odds for the use of the hygienic method were computed by employing binary logistic regression. Almost 60% of the women use cloth as an absorbent during menstruation to prevent blood stains from becoming evident. The hygienic method, which includes the use of locally prepared napkins, sanitary napkins and tampons, is 16.27%, 41.8% and 2.4%. The proportion of women who used hygienic methods to prevent blood stains from becoming evident was 57.58%. Multivariate analyses reveal that education of women, wealth and marital status are found to be the most important positive factors of hygienic menstrual practices. The structure of the house and exposure to mass media also have a positive impact on the use of menstrual hygiene practices. In contrast, women residing in rural areas belonging to scheduled tribes are less likely to use hygienic methods during their menstruation. Geographical regions are also statistically significant with the use of hygienic methods during menstruation. This study reveals that menstrual hygiene is not satisfactory among a large proportion of adolescent girls. They need more education about menstrual hygiene. A variety of factors affect menstrual behaviors; amongst these, the most influential is economic status, educational status and residential status, whether urban or rural. It is essential to design a mechanism to address and access healthy menstrual knowledge. It is important to encourage policies and quality standards that promote safe and affordable options and dynamic markets for menstrual products. Materials that are culturally acceptable, contextually available and affordable. Promotion of sustainable, environmentally friendly menstrual products and their disposal as it is a very important aspect of sustainable development goals. We also need to educate the girls about the services which are provided by the government, like a free supply of sanitary napkins to overcome reproductive tract infections. Awareness regarding the need for information on healthy menstrual practices is very important. It is essential to design a mechanism to address and access healthy menstrual practices. Emphasis should be given to the education of young girls about the importance of maintaining hygiene during menstruation to prevent the risk of reproductive tract infections.

Keywords: adolescent, menstruation, menstrual hygiene management, menstrual hygiene

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2 Effects of Transcutaneous Electrical Pelvic Floor Muscle Stimulation on Peri-Vulva Area on Stress Urinary Incontinence: A Preliminary Study

Authors: Kim Ji-Hyun, Jeon Hye-Seon, Kwon Oh-Yun, Park Eun-Young, Hwang Ui-Jae, Gwak Gyeong-Tae, Yoon Hyeo-Bin

Abstract:

Stress urinary incontinence (SUI), a common women health problem, is an involuntary leakage of urine while sneezing, coughing, or physical exertion caused by insufficient strength of the pelvic floor and sphincter muscles. SUI also leads to decrease in quality of life and limits sexual activities. SUI is related to the increased bladder neck angle, bladder neck movement, funneling index, urethral width, and decreased urethral length. Various pelvic floor muscle electrical stimulation (ES) interventions have been applied to improve the symptoms of the people with SUI. ES activates afferent fibers of pudendal nerve and smoothly induces contractions of the pelvic floor muscles such as striated periurethral muscles and striated pelvic floor muscles. ES via intravaginal electrodes are the most frequently used types of the pelvic floor muscle ES for the female SUI. However, inserted electrode is uncomfortable and it increases the risks of infection. The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine if the 8-week transcutaneous pelvic floor ES would be effective to improve the symptoms and satisfaction of the females with SUI. Easy-K, specially designed ES equipment for the people with SUI, was used in this study. The oval shape stimulator can be placed on a toilet seat, and the surface has invaded electrode fit to contact with the entire vulva area while users are sitting on the stimulator. Five women with SUI were included in this experiment. Prior to the participation, subjects were instructed about procedures and precautions in using the ES. They have used the stimulator once a day for 20 minutes for each session at home. Outcome data was collected 3 times at the baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after the intervention. Intravaginal sonography was used to measure the bladder neck angle, bladder neck movement, funneling index, thickness of an anterior rhabdosphincter and a posterior rhabdosphincter, urethral length, and urethral width. Leavator ani muscle (LAM) contraction strength was assessed by manual palpation according to the oxford scoring system. In addition, incontinence quality of life (IQOL) and female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaires were used to obtain addition subjective information. Friedman test, a nonparametric statistical test, was used to determine the effectiveness of the ES. The Wilcoxon test was used for the post-hoc analysis and the significance level was set at .05. The bladder neck angle, funneling index and urethral width were significantly decreased after 8-weeks of intervention (p<.05). LAM contraction score, urethral length and anterior and posterior rhabdosphicter thickness were statistically increased by the intervention (p<.05). However, no significant change was found in the bladder neck movement. Although total score of the IQOL did not improve, the score of the ‘avoidance’ subscale of IQOL had significant improved (p<.05). FSFI had statistical difference in FSFI total score and ‘desire’ subscale (p<.05). In conclusion, 8-week use of a transcutaneous ES on peri-vulva area improved dynamic mechanical structures of the pelvic floor musculature as well as IQOL and conjugal relationship.

Keywords: electrical stimulation, Pelvic floor muscle, sonography, stress urinary incontinence, women health

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