Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1774

Search results for: multilayer perception

1774 Research on the Two-Way Sound Absorption Performance of Multilayer Material

Authors: Yang Song, Xiaojun Qiu

Abstract:

Multilayer materials are applied to much acoustics area. Multilayer porous materials are dominant in room absorber. Multilayer viscoelastic materials are the basic parts in underwater absorption coating. In most cases, the one-way sound absorption performance of multilayer material is concentrated according to the sound source site. But the two-way sound absorption performance is also necessary to be known in some special cases which sound is produced in both sides of the material and the both sides especially might contact with different media. In this article, this kind of case was research. The multilayer material was composed of viscoelastic layer and steel plate and the porous layer. The two sides of multilayer material contact with water and air, respectively. A theory model was given to describe the sound propagation and impedance in multilayer absorption material. The two-way sound absorption properties of several multilayer materials were calculated whose two sides all contacted with different media. The calculated results showed that the difference of two-way sound absorption coefficients is obvious. The frequency, the relation of layers thickness and parameters of multilayer materials all have an influence on the two-way sound absorption coefficients. But the degrees of influence are varied. All these simulation results were analyzed in the article. It was obtained that two-way sound absorption at different frequencies can be promoted by optimizing the configuration parameters. This work will improve the performance of underwater sound absorption coating which can absorb incident sound from the water and reduce the noise radiation from inside space.

Keywords: different media, multilayer material, sound absorption coating, two-way sound absorption

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1773 Comparison of Various Classification Techniques Using WEKA for Colon Cancer Detection

Authors: Beema Akbar, Varun P. Gopi, V. Suresh Babu

Abstract:

Colon cancer causes the deaths of about half a million people every year. The common method of its detection is histopathological tissue analysis, it leads to tiredness and workload to the pathologist. A novel method is proposed that combines both structural and statistical pattern recognition used for the detection of colon cancer. This paper presents a comparison among the different classifiers such as Multilayer Perception (MLP), Sequential Minimal Optimization (SMO), Bayesian Logistic Regression (BLR) and k-star by using classification accuracy and error rate based on the percentage split method. The result shows that the best algorithm in WEKA is MLP classifier with an accuracy of 83.333% and kappa statistics is 0.625. The MLP classifier which has a lower error rate, will be preferred as more powerful classification capability.

Keywords: colon cancer, histopathological image, structural and statistical pattern recognition, multilayer perception

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1772 Interbank Networks and the Benefits of Using Multilayer Structures

Authors: Danielle Sandler dos Passos, Helder Coelho, Flávia Mori Sarti

Abstract:

Complexity science seeks the understanding of systems adopting diverse theories from various areas. Network analysis has been gaining space and credibility, namely with the biological, social and economic systems. Significant part of the literature focuses only monolayer representations of connections among agents considering one level of their relationships, and excludes other levels of interactions, leading to simplistic results in network analysis. Therefore, this work aims to demonstrate the advantages of the use of multilayer networks for the representation and analysis of networks. For this, we analyzed an interbank network, composed of 42 banks, comparing the centrality measures of the agents (degree and PageRank) resulting from each method (monolayer x multilayer). This proved to be the most reliable and efficient the multilayer analysis for the study of the current networks and highlighted JP Morgan and Deutsche Bank as the most important banks of the analyzed network.

Keywords: complexity, interbank networks, multilayer networks, network analysis

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1771 Anti-Reflective Nanostructured TiO2/SiO2 Multilayer Coatings

Authors: Najme lari, Shahrokh Ahangarani, Ali Shanaghi

Abstract:

Multilayer structure of thin films by the sol–gel process attracts great attention for antireflection applications. In this paper, antireflective nanometric multilayer SiO2-TiO2 films are formed on both sides of the glass substrates by combining the sol–gel method and the dip-coating technique. SiO2 and TiO2 sols were prepared using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and tetrabutylorthotitanate (TBOT) as precursors and also nitric acid as catalyst. Prepared coatings were investigated by Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier-transformed infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) and UV–visible spectrophotometer. After evaluation, all of SiO2 top layer coatings showed excellent antireflection in the wavelength range of 400-800 nm where the transmittance of glass substrate is significantly lower. By increasing the number of double TiO2-SiO2 layers, the transmission of the coated glass increases due to applied multilayer coating properties. 6-layer sol–gel TiO2-SiO2 shows the highest visible transmittance about 99.25% at the band of 550-650 nm.

Keywords: thin films, optical properties, sol-gel, multilayer

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1770 Sol-Gel SiO2-TiO2 Multilayer Coatings for Anti-Reflective Applications

Authors: Najme Lari, Shahrokh Ahangarani, Ali Shanaghi

Abstract:

Multilayer structure of thin films by the sol–gel process attracts great attention for antireflection applications. In this paper, antireflective nanometric multilayer SiO2-TiO2 films are formed on both sides of the glass substrates by combining the sol–gel method and the dip-coating technique. SiO2 and TiO2 sols were prepared using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and tetrabutylorthotitanate (TBOT) as precursors and nitric acid as catalyst. Prepared coatings were investigated by Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier-transformed infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) and UV–visible spectrophotometer. After evaluation, all of SiO2 top layer coatings showed excellent antireflection in the wavelength range of 400-800 nm where the transmittance of glass substrate is significantly lower. By increasing the number of double TiO2-SiO2 layers, the transmission of the coated glass increases due to applied multilayer coating properties. 6-layer sol–gel TiO2-SiO2 shows the highest visible transmittance about 99.25% at the band of 550-650 nm.

Keywords: thin films, optical properties, sol-gel, multilayer

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1769 Development and Characterization of Bio-Tribological, Nano- Multilayer Coatings for Medical Tools Application

Authors: L. Major, J. M. Lackner, M. Dyner, B. Major

Abstract:

Development of new generation bio- tribological, multilayer coatings, opens an avenue for fabrication of future high- tech functional surfaces. In the presented work, nano- composite, Cr/CrN+[Cr/ a-C:H implanted by metallic nanocrystals] multilayer coatings have been developed for surface protection of medical tools. Thin films were fabricated by a hybrid Pulsed Laser Deposition technique. Complex microstructure analysis of nano- multilayer coatings, subjected to mechanical and biological tests, were performed by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Microstructure characterization revealed the layered arrangement of Cr23C6 nanoparticles in multilayer structure. Influence of deposition conditions on bio- tribological properties of the coatings were studied. The bio-tests were used as a screening tool for the analyzed nano- multilayer coatings before they could be deposited on medical tools. Bio- medical tests were done using fibroblasts. The mechanical properties of the coatings were investigated by means of a ball-on-disc mechanical test. The microhardness was done using Berkovich indenter. The scratch adhesion test was done using Rockwell indenter. From the bio- tribological point of view, the optimal properties had the C106_1 material.

Keywords: bio- tribological coatings, cell- material interaction, hybrid PLD, tribology

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1768 Supercomputer Simulation of Magnetic Multilayers Films

Authors: Vitalii Yu. Kapitan, Aleksandr V. Perzhu, Konstantin V. Nefedev

Abstract:

The necessity of studying magnetic multilayer structures is explained by the prospects of their practical application as a technological base for creating new storages medium. Magnetic multilayer films have many unique features that contribute to increasing the density of information recording and the speed of storage devices. Multilayer structures are structures of alternating magnetic and nonmagnetic layers. In frame of the classical Heisenberg model, lattice spin systems with direct short- and long-range exchange interactions were investigated by Monte Carlo methods. The thermodynamic characteristics of multilayer structures, such as the temperature behavior of magnetization, energy, and heat capacity, were investigated. The processes of magnetization reversal of multilayer structures in external magnetic fields were investigated. The developed software is based on the new, promising programming language Rust. Rust is a new experimental programming language developed by Mozilla. The language is positioned as an alternative to C and C++. For the Monte Carlo simulation, the Metropolis algorithm and its parallel implementation using MPI and the Wang-Landau algorithm were used. We are planning to study of magnetic multilayer films with asymmetric Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya (DM) interaction, interfacing effects and skyrmions textures. This work was supported by the state task of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russia # 3.7383.2017/8.9

Keywords: The Monte Carlo methods, Heisenberg model, multilayer structures, magnetic skyrmion

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1767 Effect of Fabrication Errors on High Frequency Filter Circuits

Authors: Wesam Ali

Abstract:

This paper provides useful guidelines to the circuit designers on the magnitude of fabrication errors in multilayer millimeter-wave components that are acceptable and presents data not previously reported in the literature. A particularly significant error that was quantified was that of skew between conductors on different layers, where it was found that a skew angle of only 0.1° resulted in very significant changes in bandwidth and insertion loss. The work was supported by a detailed investigation on a 35GHz, multilayer edge-coupled band-pass filter, which was fabricated on alumina substrates using photoimageable thick film process.

Keywords: fabrication errors, multilayer, high frequency band, photoimagable technology

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1766 Combination of Artificial Neural Network Model and Geographic Information System for Prediction Water Quality

Authors: Sirilak Areerachakul

Abstract:

Water quality has initiated serious management efforts in many countries. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models are developed as forecasting tools in predicting water quality trend based on historical data. This study endeavors to automatically classify water quality. The water quality classes are evaluated using 6 factor indices. These factors are pH value (pH), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Nitrate Nitrogen (NO3N), Ammonia Nitrogen (NH3N) and Total Coliform (T-Coliform). The methodology involves applying data mining techniques using multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network models. The data consisted of 11 sites of Saen Saep canal in Bangkok, Thailand. The data is obtained from the Department of Drainage and Sewerage Bangkok Metropolitan Administration during 2007-2011. The results of multilayer perceptron neural network exhibit a high accuracy multilayer perception rate at 94.23% in classifying the water quality of Saen Saep canal in Bangkok. Subsequently, this encouraging result could be combined with GIS data improves the classification accuracy significantly.

Keywords: artificial neural network, geographic information system, water quality, computer science

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1765 For Single to Multilayer Polyvinylidene Fluoride Based Polymer for Electro-Caloric Cooling

Authors: Nouh Zeggai, Lucas Debrux, Fabien Parrain, Brahim Dkhil, Martino Lobue, Morgan Almanza

Abstract:

Refrigeration and air conditioning are some of the most used energies in our daily life, especially vapor compression refrigeration. Electrocaloric material might appears as an alternative towards solid-state cooling. polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) based polymer has shown promising adiabatic temperature change (∆T) and entropy change (∆S). There is practically no limit to the electric field that can be applied, except the one that the material can withstand. However, when working with a large surface as required in a device, the chance to have a defect is larger and can drastically reduce the voltage breakdown, thus reducing the electrocaloric properties. In this work, we propose to study how the characteristic of a single film are transposed when going to multilayer. The laminator and the hot press appear as two interesting processes that have been investigating to achieve a multilayer film. The study is mainly focused on the breakdown field and the adiabatic temperature change, but the phase and crystallinity have also been measured. We process one layer-based PVDF and assemble them to obtain a multilayer. Pressing at hot temperature method and lamination were used for the production of the thin films. The multilayer film shows higher breakdown strength, temperature change, and crystallinity (beta phases) using the hot press technique.

Keywords: PVDF-TrFE-CFE, multilayer, electrocaloric effect, hot press, cooling device

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1764 Investigation of VN/TiN Multilayer Coatings on AZ91D Mg Alloys

Authors: M. Ertas, A. C. Onel, G. Ekinci, B. Toydemir, S. Durdu, M. Usta, L. Colakerol Arslan

Abstract:

To develop AZ91D magnesium alloys with improved properties, we have applied TiN and VN/TiN multilayer coatings using DC magnetron sputter technique. Coating structure, surface morphology, chemical bonding and corrosion resistance of coatings were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and tafel extrapolation method, respectively. XPS analysis reveal that VN overlayer reacts with oxygen at the VN/TiN interface and forms more stable TiN layer. Morphological investigations and the corrosion results show that VN/TiN multilayer thin film coatings are quite effective to optimize the corrosion resistance of Mg alloys.

Keywords: AZ91D Mg alloys, high corrosion resistance, transition metal nitride coatings, magnetron sputter

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1763 Sol–Gel Derived Durable Antireflective Multilayered TiO2/SiO2 Coating for Solar Glass

Authors: Najme lari, Shahrokh Ahangarani, Ali Shanaghi

Abstract:

In this paper, multilayer TiO2-SiO2 containing PDMS coatings were produced. Also, the effect of triton as a porosity maker on single and multilayer silica and titania coatings was investigated. The results showed stability of optical triton containing coatings disappears with time. Because of the presence of triton in solution improve the wetting properties of PDMS sols and helps lead to instability by water absorption. However; without triton, antireflective multilayer coatings with high transmittance 98% and excellent durability were prepared by sol–gel process using poly dimethyl siloxane as additive. This coating can be used as well as in solar applications.

Keywords: sol-gel, thin film, anti-reflective, titania-silica, PDMS, triton

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1762 Study of Laser Induced Damage Threshold in HfO₂/SiO₂ Multilayer Films after β-Ray Irradiation

Authors: Meihua Fang, Tao Fei

Abstract:

Post-processing can effectively improve the resistance to laser damage in multilayer films used in a high power laser system. In this work, HfO₂/SiO₂ multilayer films are prepared by e-beam evaporation and then β-ray irradiation is employed as the post-processing method. The particle irradiation affects the laser induced damage threshold (LIDT), which includes defects, surface roughness, packing density, and residual stress. The residual stress that is relaxed during irradiation changes from compressive stress into tensile stress. Our results indicate that appropriate tensile stress can improve LIDT remarkably. In view of the fact that LIDT rises from 8 J/cm² to 12 J/cm², i.e., 50% increase, after the film has been irradiated by 2.2×10¹³/cm² β-ray, the particle irradiation can be used as a controllable and desirable post-processing method to improve the resistance to laser induced damage.

Keywords: β-ray irradiation, multilayer film, residual stress, laser-induced damage threshold

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1761 Structuring of Multilayer Aluminum Nickel by Lift-off Process Using Cheap Negative Resist

Authors: Muhammad Talal Asghar

Abstract:

The lift-off technique of the photoresist for metal patterning in integrated circuit (IC) packaging has been widely utilized in the field of microelectromechanical systems and semiconductor component manufacturing. The main advantage lies in cost-saving, reduction in complexity, and maturity of the process. The selection of photoresist depends upon many factors such as cost, the thickness of the resist, comfortable and valuable parameters extraction. In the present study, an extremely cheap dry film photoresist E8015 of thickness 38-micrometer is processed for the first time for edge profiling, according to the author's best knowledge. Successful extraction of the helpful parameter range for resist processing is performed. An undercut angle of 66 to 73 degrees is realized by parameter variation like exposure energy and development time. Finally, 10-micrometer thick metallic multilayer aluminum nickel is lifted off on the plain silicon wafer. Possible applications lie in controlled self-propagating reactions within structured metallic multilayer that may be utilized for IC packaging in the future.

Keywords: lift-off, IC packaging, photoresist, multilayer

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1760 Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network for Rainfall-Water Level Modeling

Authors: Thohidul Islam, Md. Hamidul Haque, Robin Kumar Biswas

Abstract:

Floods are one of the deadliest natural disasters which are very complex to model; however, machine learning is opening the door for more reliable and accurate flood prediction. In this research, a multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP) is developed to model the rainfall-water level relation, in a subtropical monsoon climatic region of the Bangladesh-India border. Our experiments show promising empirical results to forecast the water level for 1 day lead time. Our best performing MLP model achieves 98.7% coefficient of determination with lower model complexity which surpasses previously reported results on similar forecasting problems.

Keywords: flood forecasting, machine learning, multilayer perceptron network, regression

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1759 Magnetoelastically Induced Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy and Perpendicular Exchange Bias of CoO/CoPt Multilayer Films

Authors: Guo Lei, Wang Yue, Nakamura Yoshio, Shi Ji

Abstract:

Recently, perpendicular exchange bias (PEB) is introduced as an active topic attracting continuous efforts. Since its discovery, extrinsic control of PEB has been proposed, due to its scientific significance in spintronic devices and potential application in high density magnetic random access memory with perpendicular magnetic tunneling junction (p-MTJ). To our knowledge, the researches aiming to controlling PEB so far are focused mainly on enhancing the interfacial exchange coupling by adjusting the FM/AFM interface roughness, or optimizing the crystalline structures of FM or AFM layer by employing different seed layers. In present work, the effects of magnetoelastically induced PMA on PEB have been explored in [CoO5nm/CoPt5nm]5 multilayer films. We find the PMA strength of FM layer also plays an important role on PEB at the FM/AFM interface and it is effective to control PEB of [CoO5nm/CoPt5nm]5 multilayer films by changing the magnetoelastically induced PMA of CoPt layer. [CoO5nm/CoPt5nm]5 multilayer films were deposited by magnetron sputtering on fused quartz substrate at room temperature, then annealed at 100°C, 250°C, 300°C and 375°C for 3h, respectively. XRD results reveal that all the samples are well crystallized with preferred fcc CoPt (111) orientation. The continuous multilayer structure with sharp component transition at the CoO5nm/CoPt5nm interface are identified clearly by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray reflectivity (XRR) and atomic force microscope (AFM). CoPt layer in-plane tensile stress is calculated by sin2φ method, and we find it increases gradually upon annealing from 0.99 GPa (as-deposited) up to 3.02 GPa (300oC-annealed). As to the magnetic property, significant enhancement of PMA is achieved in [CoO5nm/CoPt5nm]5 multilayer films after annealing due to the increase of CoPt layer in-plane tensile stress. With the enhancement of magnetoelastically induced PMA, great improvement of PEB is also achieved in [CoO5nm/CoPt5nm]5 multilayer films, which increases from 130 Oe (as-deposited) up to 1060 Oe (300oC-annealed), showing the same change tendency as PMA and the strong correlation with CoPt layer in-plane tensile stress. We consider it is the increase of CoPt layer in-plane tensile stress that leads to the enhancement of PMA, and thus the enhancement of magnetoelastically induced PMA results in the improvement of PEB in [CoO5nm/CoPt5nm]5 multilayer films.

Keywords: perpendicular exchange bias, magnetoelastically induced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, CoO5nm/CoPt5nm]5 multilayer film with in-plane stress, perpendicular magnetic tunneling junction

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1758 Study of Buried Interfaces in Fe/Si Multilayer by Hard X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy

Authors: Hina Verma, Karine Le Guen, Renaud Dalaunay, Iyas Ismail, Vita Ilakovac, Jean Pascal Rueff, Yunlin Jacques Zheng, Philippe Jonnard

Abstract:

To the extent of our knowledge, X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) has been applied in the soft x-ray region (photon energy ≤ 2 keV) to study the buried layers and interfaces of stacks of nanometer-thin films. Now we extend the methodology to study the buried interfaces in the hard X-ray region (i.e., ≥ five keV). The emission spectra allow us to study the interactions between elements in the buried layers from the analysis of their valence states, thereby providing sensitive information about the physical-chemical environment of the emitting element in multilayers. We exploit the chemical sensitivity of XES to study the interfaces between Fe and Si layers in the Fe/Si multilayer from the Fe Kβ₂,₅ emission spectra (7108 eV). The Fe Kβ₅ emission line results from the electronic transition from occupied 3d to 1s levels (i.e., valence to core transition) and is hence sensitive to the chemical state of emitting Fe atoms. The comparison of emission spectra recorded for Fe/Si multilayer with Fe and FeSi₂ references reveal the formation of FeSi₂ at the Fe-Si interfaces inside the multilayer stack. The interfacial thickness was calculated to be 1.4 ± 0.2 nm by taking into consideration the intensity of Fe atoms emitted from the interface and the Fe layer. The formation of FeSi₂ at the interface was further confirmed by the X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy done on the Fe/Si multilayer. Hence, we can conclude that the XES in the hard X-ray range could be used to study multilayers and their interfaces and obtain information both qualitatively and quantitatively.

Keywords: buried interfaces, hard X-ray emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

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1757 Mechanical Behavior of PVD Single Layer and Multilayer under Indentation Tests

Authors: K. Kaouther, D. Hafedh, A. Ben Cheikh Larbi

Abstract:

Various structures and compositions thin films were deposited on 100C6 (AISI 52100) steel substrate by PVD magnetron sputtering system. The morphological proprieties were evaluated using an atomic force microscopy (AFM). Vickers microindentation tests were performed with a Shimadzu HMV-2000 hardness testing machine. Hardness measurement was carried out using Jonsson and Hogmark model. The results show that the coatings topography was dominated by domes and craters. Mechanical behavior and failure modes under microindentation were depending of coatings structure and composition. TiAlN multilayer showed exception in the microindentation resistance compared to TiN single layer and TiAlN/TiAlN nanolayer. Piled structure provides an increase of failure resistance and a decrease in cracks propagation.

Keywords: PVD thin films, multilayer, microindentation, cracking, damage mechanisms

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1756 Investigating the Role of Combined Length Scale Effect on the Mechanical Properties of Ni/Cu Multilayer Structures

Authors: Naresh Radaliyagoda, Nigel M. Jennett, Rong Lan, David Parfitt

Abstract:

A series of length scale engineered multilayer material with temperature robust mechanical properties has been suggested. A range of polycrystalline copper sub-layers with the thickness varying from 1 to 25μm and buried in between two nickel layers was produced using electrodeposition dual bath technique. The structure of the multilayers was characterized using Electron Backscatter Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscope. The interface effect on the hardness and elastic modulus was tested using Nano-indentation. Results of the grain size and layer thickness measurements, and indentation hardness have been compared. It is found that there is a combined length scale effect that improves mechanical properties in Ni/Cu multilayer structures.

Keywords: nano-indentation, size effect, multilayers, electrodeposition

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1755 Essential Factors of Risk Perception Crucial in Efficient Construction Management

Authors: Francis Edum-Fotwe, Tony Thorpe, Charles Afetornu

Abstract:

Risk perception informs the outcome of how issues are responded to in either solving or overcoming a problem or improving a situation. Risk perception is established to be affected by some key factors reflecting in the varying ways in which work is done as well as the level of efficiency achieved. These factors potentially would influence risk perception to different extents. Such that if these factors are said to determine risk perception, how does a change in any affect risk perception. Since the ability to address risk is influenced by risk perception, establishing and developing awareness of that perception should enable construction professionals to make viable decisions. Any act to improve the construction industry cannot be overemphasised, considering its contribution to national development. A survey questionnaire was conducted in Ghana to elicit data that measures the risk perception and the essential factors as well as the necessary demographics of the respondents, who are construction professionals. This study finds out the sensitivity of the critical factors of risk perception. It uses the Relative Importance Index analysis tool to investigate the differential effect of these essential factors on risk perception, such that a slight change in a factor makes a significant change in risk perception, having established that it is influenced by essential factors. The findings can lead to policy formation for employers on the prioritisation factors to undertake to improve the risk perception of employees. Other areas in which this study can be useful in team formation for sensitive and complex projects where efficient risk management is critical.

Keywords: construction industry, risk, risk management, risk perception

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1754 Modeling of Daily Global Solar Radiation Using Ann Techniques: A Case of Study

Authors: Said Benkaciali, Mourad Haddadi, Abdallah Khellaf, Kacem Gairaa, Mawloud Guermoui

Abstract:

In this study, many experiments were carried out to assess the influence of the input parameters on the performance of multilayer perceptron which is one the configuration of the artificial neural networks. To estimate the daily global solar radiation on the horizontal surface, we have developed some models by using seven combinations of twelve meteorological and geographical input parameters collected from a radiometric station installed at Ghardaïa city (southern of Algeria). For selecting of best combination which provides a good accuracy, six statistical formulas (or statistical indicators) have been evaluated, such as the root mean square errors, mean absolute errors, correlation coefficient, and determination coefficient. We noted that multilayer perceptron techniques have the best performance, except when the sunshine duration parameter is not included in the input variables. The maximum of determination coefficient and correlation coefficient are equal to 98.20 and 99.11%. On the other hand, some empirical models were developed to compare their performances with those of multilayer perceptron neural networks. Results obtained show that the neural networks techniques give the best performance compared to the empirical models.

Keywords: empirical models, multilayer perceptron neural network, solar radiation, statistical formulas

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1753 Influence of Counterface and Environmental Conditions on the Lubricity of Multilayer Graphene Coatings Produced on Nickel by Chemical Vapour Deposition

Authors: Iram Zahra

Abstract:

Friction and wear properties of multilayer graphene coatings (MLG) on nickel substrate were investigated at the macroscale, and different failure mechanisms working at the interface of nickel-graphene coatings were evaluated. Multilayer graphene coatings were produced on a nickel substrate using the atmospheric chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. Wear tests were performed on the pin-on-disk tribometer apparatus under dry air conditions, and using the saltwater solution, distilled water, and mineral oil lubricants and counterparts used in these wear tests were fabricated of stainless steel, chromium, and silicon nitride. The wear test parameters such as rotational speed, wear track diameter, temperature, relative humidity, and load were 60 rpm, 6 mm, 22˚C, 45%, and 2N, respectively. To analyse the friction and wear behaviour, coefficient of friction (COF) vs time curves were plotted, and the sliding surfaces of the samples and counterparts were examined using the optical microscope. Results indicated that graphene-coated nickel in mineral oil lubrication and dry conditions gave the minimum average value of COP (0.05) and wear track width ( ̴151 µm) against the three different types of counterparts. In contrast, uncoated nickel samples indicated a maximum wear track width ( ̴411 µm) and COF (0.5). Thorough investigation and analysis concluded that graphene-coated samples have two times lower COF and three times lower wear than the bare nickel samples. Furthermore, mechanical failures were significantly lower in the case of graphene-coated nickel. The overall findings suggested that multilayer graphene coatings have drastically decreased wear and friction on nickel substrate at the macroscale under various lubricating conditions and against different counterparts.

Keywords: friction, lubricity, multilayer graphene, sliding, wear

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1752 pH and Temperature Triggered Release of Doxorubicin from Hydogen Bonded Multilayer Films of Polyoxazolines

Authors: Meltem Haktaniyan, Eda Cagli, Irem Erel Goktepe

Abstract:

Polymers that change their properties in response to different stimuli (e.g. light, temperature, pH, ionic strength or magnetic field) are called ‘smart’ or ‘stimuli-responsive polymers’. These polymers have been widely used in biomedical applications such as sensors, gene delivery, drug delivery or tissue engineering. Temperature-responsive polymers have been studied extensively for controlled drug delivery applications. As regard of pseudo-peptides, poly (2-alky-2-oxazoline)s are considered as good candidates for delivery systems due to their stealth behavior and nontoxicity. In order to build responsive multilayer films for controlled drug release applications from surface, Layer by layer technique (LBL) is a powerful technique with an advantage of nanometer scale control over spatial architecture and morphology. Multilayers can be constructed on surface where non-covalent interactions including electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonding, and charge-transfer or hydrophobic-hydrophobic interactions. In the present study, hydrogen bounded multilayer films of poly (2-alky-2-oxazoline) s with tannic acid were prepared in order to use as a platform to release Doxorubicin (DOX) from surface with pH and thermal triggers. For this purpose, poly (2-isopropyl-2-oxazoline) (PIPOX) and poly (2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PETOX) were synthesized via cationic ring opening polymerization (CROP) with hydroxyl end groups. Two polymeric multilayer systems ((PETOX)/(DOX)-(TA) complexes and (PIPOX)/(DOX)-(TA) complexes) were designed to investigate of controlled release of Doxorubicin (DOX) from surface with pH and thermal triggers. The drug release profiles from the multilayer thin films with alterations of pH and temperature will been examined with UV-Vis Spectroscopy and Fluorescence Spectroscopy.

Keywords: temperature responsive polymers, h-bonded multilayer films, drug release, polyoxazoline

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1751 Investigation of the Perceptional Quality of Nightscape in the Urban Space: A Case Study of Mashhad Koohsangi Axis in Iran

Authors: Fahimeh Khatami, Maryam Ziyaee, Elham Sanagar Darbani

Abstract:

Variety of different factors could influence on the measure urban perception. Both physical and non-physical factors, at least, make the quality of perception through the urban spaces. The value of lighting is one of the important factors which could make the better quality of environmental perception for the user. The perception of urban space in most of the Iranian cities is offer by different factors during the night time which caused to the death of nightlife and social activities. Therefore, this research is an attempt to study on the different of user perception during day and night in the Koohsangi Street. As the case study area in Iran in order to bring out the main influential factors during perception process. To deal with this good we used chi-square test on a sample size made up of on hundred participants. The result shows that for improving the night quality of urban spaces the legibility, navigation, and role stimulation were in important perception factors. Therefore, by focusing on these factors it would be possible to find out more functional solution for improving the activity of night perception.

Keywords: perception, urban space, legibility, imageability, nightscape

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1750 Ingratiation as a Moderator of the Impact of the Perception of Organizational Politics on Job Satisfaction

Authors: Triana Fitriastuti, Pipiet Larasatie, Alex Vanderstraten

Abstract:

Many scholars have demonstrated the negative impacts of the perception of organizational politics on organizational outcomes. The model proposed in this study analyzes the impact of the perception of organizational politics on job satisfaction. In the same way, ingratiation as a moderator variable is tested. We applied regression analysis to test the hypothesis. The findings of the current research, which was conducted with 240 employees in the public sector in Indonesia, show that the perception of organizational politics has a negative effect on job satisfaction. In contrast, ingratiation plays a role that fully moderates the relationship between organizational politics and organizational outcomes and changes the correlation between the perception of organizational politics on job satisfaction. Employees who use ingratiation as a coping mechanism tend to do so when they perceive a high degree of organizational politics.

Keywords: ingratiation, impression management, job satisfaction, perception of organizational politics

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1749 An Approach for Multilayered Ecological Networks

Authors: N. F. F. Ebecken, G. C. Pereira

Abstract:

Although networks provide a powerful approach to the study of a wide variety of ecological systems, their formulation usually does not include various types of interactions, interactions that vary in space and time, and interconnected systems such as networks. The emerging field of 'multilayer networks' provides a natural framework for extending ecological systems analysis to include these multiple layers of complexity as it specifically allows for differentiation and modeling of intralayer and interlayer connectivity. The structure provides a set of concepts and tools that can be adapted and applied to the ecology, facilitating research in high dimensionality, heterogeneous systems in nature. Here, ecological multilayer networks are formally defined based on a review of prior and related approaches, illustrates their application and potential with existing data analyzes, and discusses limitations, challenges, and future applications. The integration of multilayer network theory into ecology offers a largely untapped potential to further address ecological complexity, to finally provide new theoretical and empirical insights into the architecture and dynamics of ecological systems.

Keywords: ecological networks, multilayered networks, sea ecology, Brazilian Coastal Area

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1748 Design and Realization of Computer Network Security Perception Control System

Authors: El Miloudi Djelloul

Abstract:

Based on analysis on applications by perception control technology in computer network security status and security protection measures, from the angles of network physical environment and network software system environmental security, this paper provides network security system perception control solution using Internet of Things (IOT), telecom and other perception technologies. Security Perception Control System is in the computer network environment, utilizing Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) of IOT and telecom integration technology to carry out integration design for systems. In the network physical security environment, RFID temperature, humidity, gas and perception technologies are used to do surveillance on environmental data, dynamic perception technology is used for network system security environment, user-defined security parameters, security log are used for quick data analysis, extends control on I/O interface, by development of API and AT command, Computer Network Security Perception Control based on Internet and GSM/GPRS is achieved, which enables users to carry out interactive perception and control for network security environment by WEB, E-MAIL as well as PDA, mobile phone short message and Internet. In the system testing, through middle ware server, security information data perception in real time with deviation of 3-5% was achieved; it proves the feasibility of Computer Network Security Perception Control System.

Keywords: computer network, perception control system security strategy, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
1747 Effects of Multilayer Coating of Chitosan and Polystyrene Sulfonate on Quality of ‘Nam Dok Mai No.4’ Mango

Authors: N. Hadthamard, P. Chaumpluk, M. Buanong, P. Boonyaritthongchai, C. Wongs-Aree

Abstract:

Ripe ‘Nam Dok Mai’ mango (Mangifera indica L.) is an important exported fruit of Thailand, but rapidly declined in the quality attributes mainly by infection of anthracnose and stem end rot diseases. Multilayer coating is considered as a developed technique to maintain the postharvest quality of mangoes. The utilization of alternated coating by matching oppositely electrostatic charges between 0.1% chitosan and 0.1% polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) was studied. A number of the coating layers (layer by layer) were applied on mature green ‘Nam Dok Mai No.4’ mangoes prior to storage at 25 oC, 65-70% relative humidity (RH). There were significant differences in some quality attributes of mangoes coated by 3½ layers, 4½ layers and 5½ layers. In comparison to coated mangoes, uncoated fruits were higher in weight loss, total soluble solids, respiration rate, ethylene production and disease incidence except the titratable acidity. Coating fruit at 3½ layers exhibited the ripening delay and reducing disease infection without off flavour. On the other hand, fruit coated with 5½ layers comprised the lowest acceptable score, caused by exhibiting disorders from fermentation at the end of storage. As a result, multilayer coating between chitosan and PSS could effectively maintain the postharvest quality of mango, but number of coating layers should be thoroughly considered.

Keywords: multilayer, chitosan, polystyrene sulfonate, Nam Dok Mai No.4

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
1746 Evaluation of Colour Perception in Different Correlated Colour Temperature of LED Lighting

Authors: Saadet Akbay, Ayşe Nihan Avcı

Abstract:

The perception of colour is a subjective experience which depends on age, gender, race, cultural and educational backgrounds, etc. of an individual. However, colour perception is also affected by the correlated colour temperature (CCT) of a light source which is considered as one of the most fundamental quantitative lighting characteristics. This study focuses on evaluating colour perception in different CCT of light emitting diodes (LED) lighting. The aim is to compare the inherent colours with the perceived colours under two CCT of ‘warm’ (2700K), and ‘cool’ (4000K) LED lights and to understand how different CTT affect the perception of a colour. Analysis and specifications of colour attributes are made with Natural Colour System (NCS) which is an international colour communication system. The outcome of the study reveals the possible tendencies for perceived colours under different illuminance levels of LED lighting.

Keywords: colour perception, correlated colour temperature, inherent and perceived colour, LED lighting, natural colour system (NCS)

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
1745 Maximum Power Point Tracking for Small Scale Wind Turbine Using Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network Implementation without Mechanical Sensor

Authors: Piyangkun Kukutapan, Siridech Boonsang

Abstract:

The article proposes maximum power point tracking without mechanical sensor using Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network (MLPNN). The aim of article is to reduce the cost and complexity but still retain efficiency. The experimental is that duty cycle is generated maximum power, if it has suitable qualification. The measured data from DC generator, voltage (V), current (I), power (P), turnover rate of power (dP), and turnover rate of voltage (dV) are used as input for MLPNN model. The output of this model is duty cycle for driving the converter. The experiment implemented using Arduino Uno board. This diagram is compared to MPPT using MLPNN and P&O control (Perturbation and Observation control). The experimental results show that the proposed MLPNN based approach is more efficiency than P&O algorithm for this application.

Keywords: maximum power point tracking, multilayer perceptron netural network, optimal duty cycle, DC generator

Procedia PDF Downloads 264