Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 25727

Search results for: multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW)

25727 Determination of Dynamic Soil Properties Using Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) Techniques in Earth-Filled Dam

Authors: Noppadon Sintuboon, Benjamas Sawatdipong, Anchalee Kongsuk


This study was conducted to investigate the engineering parameters: compressional wave: Vp, shear wave: Vs, and density: ρ related to the dynamically geotechnical properties of soils compaction in the core of earth-filled dam located in northern part of Thailand by using multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) techniques. The Vp, Vs, and ρ from MASW were 1,624 - 1,649 m/s, 301-323 m/s, and 1,829 kg/m3, respectively. Those parameters were calculated to Poison’s ratio: ν (0.48), shear modulus: G (1.66 x 108 - 1.92 x 108 kg/m2), Vp/Vs ratio (5.10 – 5.39) and Standard Penetration Test (SPT) showing the dynamic characteristics of soil deformation and stress resulting from dynamic loads. The results of this study will be useful in primary evaluating the current condition and foundation of the dam and can be compared to the data from the laboratory in the future.

Keywords: earth-filled dam, MASW, dynamic elastic constant, shear wave

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25726 Multichannel Analysis of the Surface Waves of Earth Materials in Some Parts of Lagos State, Nigeria

Authors: R. B. Adegbola, K. F. Oyedele, L. Adeoti


We present a method that utilizes Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves, which was used to measure shear wave velocities with a view to establishing the probable causes of road failure, subsidence and weakening of structures in some Local Government Area, Lagos, Nigeria. Multi channel Analysis of Surface waves (MASW) data were acquired using 24-channel seismograph. The acquired data were processed and transformed into two-dimensional (2-D) structure reflective of depth and surface wave velocity distribution within a depth of 0–15m beneath the surface using SURFSEIS software. The shear wave velocity data were compared with other geophysical/borehole data that were acquired along the same profile. The comparison and correlation illustrates the accuracy and consistency of MASW derived-shear wave velocity profiles. Rigidity modulus and N-value were also generated. The study showed that the low velocity/very low velocity are reflective of organic clay/peat materials and thus likely responsible for the failed, subsidence/weakening of structures within the study areas.

Keywords: seismograph, road failure, rigidity modulus, N-value, subsidence

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25725 Rodriguez Diego, Del Valle Martin, Hargreaves Matias, Riveros Jose Luis

Authors: Nathainail Bashir, Neil Anderson


The objective of this study site was to investigate the current state of the practice with regards to karst detection methods and recommend the best method and pattern of arrays to acquire the desire results. Proper site investigation in karst prone regions is extremely valuable in determining the location of possible voids. Two geophysical techniques were employed: multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and electric resistivity tomography (ERT).The MASW data was acquired at each test location using different array lengths and different array orientations (to increase the probability of getting interpretable data in karst terrain). The ERT data were acquired using a dipole-dipole array consisting of 168 electrodes. The MASW data was interpreted (re: estimated depth to physical top of rock) and used to constrain and verify the interpretation of the ERT data. The ERT data indicates poorer quality MASW data were acquired in areas where there was significant local variation in the depth to top of rock.

Keywords: dipole-dipole, ERT, Karst terrains, MASW

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25724 Combined Seismic Methods for Near-Surface Characterization

Authors: Irena Gjorgjeska, Vlatko Sheshov, Kemal Edip, Julijana Bojadjieva


Surface seismic methods are among the most popular, widely accepted geophysical methods for near-surface characterization. The most practical and effective ways to perform in-situ measurements and processing using different seismic methods such as seismic refraction, seismic reflection and Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method are presented in this paper. Each of the methods has some advantages and limitations, but their application in an integrated approach provides higher accuracy in subsurface modeling. The results of the surveys performed at two characteristic locations in R. North Macedonia are presented to show the efficiency of the combined methods approach.

Keywords: geophysical survey, integrated approach, seismic methods, site characterization

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25723 The Relations between Seismic Results and Groundwater near the Gokpinar Damp Area, Denizli, Turkey

Authors: Mahmud Gungor, Ali Aydin, Erdal Akyol, Suat Tasdelen


The understanding of geotechnical characteristics of near-surface material and the effects of the groundwater is very important problem in such as site studies. For showing the relations between seismic data and groundwater we selected about 25 km2 as the study area. It has been presented which is a detailed work of seismic data and groundwater depths of Gokpinar Damp area. Seismic waves velocity (Vp and Vs) are very important parameters showing the soil properties. The seismic records were used the method of the multichannel analysis of surface waves near area of Gokpinar Damp area. Sixty sites in this area have been investigated with survey lines about 60 m in length. MASW (Multichannel analysis of surface wave) method has been used to generate one-dimensional shear wave velocity profile at locations. These shear wave velocities are used to estimate equivalent shear wave velocity in the study area at every 2 and 5 m intervals up to a depth of 45 m. Levels of equivalent shear wave velocity of soil are used the classified of the study area. After the results of the study, it must be considered as components of urban planning and building design of Gokpinar Damp area, Denizli and the application and use of these results should be required and enforced by municipal authorities.

Keywords: seismic data, Gokpinar Damp, urban planning, Denizli

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25722 Evaluation of Duncan-Chang Deformation Parameters of Granular Fill Materials Using Non-Invasive Seismic Wave Methods

Authors: Ehsan Pegah, Huabei Liu


Characterizing the deformation properties of fill materials in a wide stress range always has been an important issue in geotechnical engineering. The hyperbolic Duncan-Chang model is a very popular model of stress-strain relationship that captures the nonlinear deformation of granular geomaterials in a very tractable manner. It consists of a particular set of the model parameters, which are generally measured from an extensive series of laboratory triaxial tests. This practice is both time-consuming and costly, especially in large projects. In addition, undesired effects caused by soil disturbance during the sampling procedure also may yield a large degree of uncertainty in the results. Accordingly, non-invasive geophysical seismic approaches may be utilized as the appropriate alternative surveys for measuring the model parameters based on the seismic wave velocities. To this end, the conventional seismic refraction profiles were carried out in the test sites with the granular fill materials to collect the seismic waves information. The acquired shot gathers are processed, from which the P- and S-wave velocities can be derived. The P-wave velocities are extracted from the Seismic Refraction Tomography (SRT) technique while S-wave velocities are obtained by the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method. The velocity values were then utilized with the equations resulting from the rigorous theories of elasticity and soil mechanics to evaluate the Duncan-Chang model parameters. The derived parameters were finally compared with those from laboratory tests to validate the reliability of the results. The findings of this study may confidently serve as the useful references for determination of nonlinear deformation parameters of granular fill geomaterials. Those are environmentally friendly and quite economic, which can yield accurate results under the actual in-situ conditions using the surface seismic methods.

Keywords: Duncan-Chang deformation parameters, granular fill materials, seismic waves velocity, multichannel analysis of surface waves, seismic refraction tomography

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25721 Application of Electrical Resistivity Tomography to Image the Subsurface Structure of a Sinkhole, a Case Study in Southwestern Missouri

Authors: Shishay T. Kidanu


The study area is located in Southwestern Missouri and is mainly underlain by Mississippian Age limestone which is highly susceptible to karst processes. The area is known for the presence of various karst features like caves, springs and more importantly Sinkholes. Sinkholes are one of the most common karst features and the primary hazard in karst areas. Investigating the subsurface structure and development mechanism of existing sinkholes enables to understand their long-term impact and chance of reactivation and also helps to provide effective mitigation measures. In this study ERT (Electrical Resistivity Tomography), MASW (Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves) and borehole control data have been used to image the subsurface structure and investigate the development mechanism of a sinkhole in Southwestern Missouri. The study shows that the main process responsible for the development of the sinkhole is the downward piping of fine grained soils. Furthermore, the study reveals that the sinkhole developed along a north-south oriented vertical joint set characterized by a vertical zone of water seepage and associated fine grained soil piping into preexisting fractures.

Keywords: ERT, Karst, MASW, sinkhole

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25720 Ground Response Analyses in Budapest Based on Site Investigations and Laboratory Measurements

Authors: Zsolt Szilvágyi, Jakub Panuska, Orsolya Kegyes-Brassai, Ákos Wolf, Péter Tildy, Richard P. Ray


Near-surface loose sediments and local ground conditions in general have a major influence on seismic response of structures. It is a difficult task to model ground behavior in seismic soil-structure-foundation interaction problems, fully account for them in seismic design of structures, or even properly consider them in seismic hazard assessment. In this study, we focused on applying seismic soil investigation methods, used for determining soil stiffness and damping properties, to response analysis used in seismic design. A site in Budapest, Hungary was investigated using Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves, Seismic Cone Penetration Tests, Bender Elements, Resonant Column and Torsional Shear tests. Our aim was to compare the results of the different test methods and use the resulting soil properties for 1D ground response analysis. Often in practice, there are little-to no data available on dynamic soil properties and estimated parameters are used for design. Therefore, a comparison is made between results based on estimated parameters and those based on detailed investigations. Ground response results are also compared to Eurocode 8 design spectra.

Keywords: MASW, resonant column test, SCPT, site response analysis, torsional shear test

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25719 Engineering Seismological Studies in and around Zagazig City, Sharkia, Egypt

Authors: M. El-Eraki, A. A. Mohamed, A. A. El-Kenawy, M. S. Toni, S. I. Mustafa


The aim of this paper is to study the ground vibrations using Nakamura technique to evaluate the relation between the ground conditions and the earthquake characteristics. Microtremor measurements were carried out at 55 sites in and around Zagazig city. The signals were processed using horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) technique to estimate the fundamental frequencies of the soil deposits and its corresponding H/V amplitude. Seismic measurements were acquired at nine sites for recording the surface waves. The recorded waveforms were processed using the multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method to infer the shear wave velocity profile. The obtained fundamental frequencies were found to be ranging from 0.7 to 1.7 Hz and the maximum H/V amplitude reached 6.4. These results together with the average shear wave velocity in the surface layers were used for the estimation of the thickness of the upper most soft cover layers (depth to bedrock). The sediment thickness generally increases at the northeastern and southwestern parts of the area, which is in good agreement with the local geological structure. The results of this work showed the zones of higher potential damage in the event of an earthquake in the study area.

Keywords: ambient vibrations, fundamental frequency, surface waves, zagazig

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25718 Effects of Local Ground Conditions on Site Response Analysis Results in Hungary

Authors: Orsolya Kegyes-Brassai, Zsolt Szilvágyi, Ákos Wolf, Richard P. Ray


Local ground conditions have a substantial influence on the seismic response of structures. Their inclusion in seismic hazard assessment and structural design can be realized at different levels of sophistication. However, response results based on more advanced calculation methods e.g. nonlinear or equivalent linear site analysis tend to show significant discrepancies when compared to simpler approaches. This project's main objective was to compare results from several 1-D response programs to Eurocode 8 design spectra. Data from in-situ site investigations were used for assessing local ground conditions at several locations in Hungary. After discussion of the in-situ measurements and calculation methods used, a comprehensive evaluation of all major contributing factors for site response is given. While the Eurocode spectra should account for local ground conditions based on soil classification, there is a wide variation in peak ground acceleration determined from 1-D analyses versus Eurocode. Results show that current Eurocode 8 design spectra may not be conservative enough to account for local ground conditions typical for Hungary.

Keywords: 1-D site response analysis, multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW), seismic CPT, seismic hazard assessment

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25717 Implementation of Integrated Multi-Channel Analysis of Surface Waves and Waveform Inversion Techniques for Seismic Hazard Estimation with Emphasis on Associated Uncertainty: A Case Study at Zafarana Wind Turbine Towers Farm, Egypt

Authors: Abd El-Aziz Khairy Abd El-Aal, Yuji Yagi, Heba Kamal


In this study, an integrated multi-channel analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) technique is applied to explore the geotechnical parameters of subsurface layers at the Zafarana wind farm. Moreover, a seismic hazard procedure based on the extended deterministic technique is used to estimate the seismic hazard load for the investigated area. The study area includes many active fault systems along the Gulf of Suez that cause many moderate and large earthquakes. Overall, the seismic activity of the area has recently become better understood following the use of new waveform inversion methods and software to develop accurate focal mechanism solutions for recent recorded earthquakes around the studied area. These earthquakes resulted in major stress-drops in the Eastern desert and the Gulf of Suez area. These findings have helped to reshape the understanding of the seismotectonic environment of the Gulf of Suez area, which is a perplexing tectonic domain. Based on the collected new information and data, this study uses an extended deterministic approach to re-examine the seismic hazard for the Gulf of Suez region, particularly the wind turbine towers at Zafarana Wind Farm and its vicinity. Alternate seismic source and magnitude-frequency relationships were combined with various indigenous attenuation relationships, adapted within a logic tree formulation, to quantify and project the regional exposure on a set of hazard maps. We select two desired exceedance probabilities (10 and 20%) that any of the applied scenarios may exceed the largest median ground acceleration. The ground motion was calculated at 50th, 84th percentile levels.

Keywords: MASW, seismic hazard, wind turbine towers, Zafarana wind farm

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25716 Investigating Viscous Surface Wave Propagation Modes in a Finite Depth Fluid

Authors: Arash Ghahraman, Gyula Bene


The object of this study is to investigate the effect of viscosity on the propagation of free-surface waves in an incompressible viscous fluid layer of arbitrary depth. While we provide a more detailed study of properties of linear surface waves, the description of fully nonlinear waves in terms of KdV-like (Korteweg-de Vries) equations is discussed. In the linear case, we find that in shallow enough fluids, no surface waves can propagate. Even in any thicker fluid layers, propagation of very short and very long waves is forbidden. When wave propagation is possible, only a single propagating mode exists for any given horizontal wave number. The numerical results show that there can be two types of non-propagating modes. One type is always present, and there exist still infinitely many of such modes at the same parameters. In contrast, there can be zero, one or two modes belonging to the other type. Another significant feature is that KdV-like equations. They describe propagating nonlinear viscous surface waves. Since viscosity gives rise to a new wavenumber that cannot be small at the same time as the original one, these equations may not exist. Nonetheless, we propose a reasonable nonlinear description in terms of 1+1 variate functions that make possible successive approximations.

Keywords: free surface wave, water waves, KdV equation, viscosity

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25715 Numerical Modelling of Surface Waves Generated by Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field for Silicon Refinement Process

Authors: V. Geza, J. Vencels, G. Zageris, S. Pavlovs


One of the most perspective methods to produce SoG-Si is refinement via metallurgical route. The most critical part of this route is refinement from boron and phosphorus. Therefore, a new approach could address this problem. We propose an approach of creating surface waves on silicon melt’s surface in order to enlarge its area and accelerate removal of boron via chemical reactions and evaporation of phosphorus. A two dimensional numerical model is created which includes coupling of electromagnetic and fluid dynamic simulations with free surface dynamics. First results show behaviour similar to experimental results from literature.

Keywords: numerical modelling, silicon refinement, surface waves, VOF method

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25714 Detailed Microzonation Studies around Denizli, Turkey

Authors: A. Aydin, E. Akyol, N. Soyatik


This study has been presented which is a detailed work of seismic microzonation of the city center. For seismic microzonation area of 225 km2 has been selected as the study area. MASW (Multichannel analysis of surface wave) and seismic refraction methods have been used to generate one-dimensional shear wave velocity profile at 250 locations and two-dimensional profile at 60 locations. These shear wave velocities are used to estimate equivalent shear wave velocity in the study area at every 2 and 5 m intervals up to a depth of 60 m. Levels of equivalent shear wave velocity of soil are used the classified of the study area. After the results of the study, it must be considered as components of urban planning and building design of Denizli and the application and use of these results should be required and enforced by municipal authorities.

Keywords: seismic microzonation, liquefaction, land use management, seismic refraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
25713 Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Floating Body Motion Interacting with Focused Waves

Authors: Seul-Ki Park, Jong-Chun Park, Gyu-Mok Jeon, Dae-Kyung Ock, Seung-Gyu Jeong


Rogue waves cause frequent accidents of ships and offshore structures, which can result in severe damage to the structures. The Rogue waves, which are also known as big waves, freak waves, extreme waves, monster waves, focused waves, giant waves and abnormal waves, are unexpected and suddenly appearing, and can have a breaking force to destroy the structure even though modern structures are designed to tolerate a breaking wave. In the present study, a series of focused waves are numerically reproduced by concentrating nonlinear multi-directional waves into a target point using a commercial CFD software, Star-CCM+. A flow analysis for investigating the physical characteristics of the focused waves is performed using the Star-CCM+, while it has several difficulties to examine the inner properties of the waves in existing potential theory and experiments. Additionally, the 6-DOF (Degree of Freedom) motion of a floating body interacting with the focused waves are simulated, and the dynamic response of the body are discussed.

Keywords: multidirectional waves, focused waves, rogue waves, wave-structure interaction, numerical wave tank, computational fluid dynamics

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25712 An Integrated Geophysical Investigation for Earthen Dam Inspection: A Case Study of Huai Phueng Dam, Udon Thani, Northeastern Thailand

Authors: Noppadol Poomvises, Prateep Pakdeerod, Anchalee Kongsuk


In the middle of September 2017, a tropical storm named ‘DOKSURI’ swept through Udon Thani, Northeastern Thailand. The storm dumped heavy rain for many hours and caused large amount of water flowing into Huai Phueng reservoir. Level of impounding water increased rapidly, and the extra water flowed over a service spillway, morning-glory type constructed by concrete material for about 50 years ago. Subsequently, a sinkhole was formed on the dam crest and five points of water piping were found on downstream slope closely to spillway. Three techniques of geophysical investigation were carried out to inspect cause of failures; Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI), Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW), and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), respectively. Result of ERI clearly shows evidence of overtop event and heterogeneity around spillway that implied possibility of previous shape of sinkhole around the pipe. The shear wave velocity of subsurface soil measured by MASW can numerically convert to undrained shear strength of impervious clay core. Result of GPR clearly reveals partial settlements of freeboard zone at top part of the dam and also shaping new refilled material to plug the sinkhole back to the condition it should be. In addition, the GPR image is a main answer to confirm that there are not any sinkholes in the survey lines, only that found on top of the spillway. Integrity interpretation of the three results together with several evidences observed during a field walk-through and data from drilled holes can be interpreted that there are four main causes in this account. The first cause is too much water flowing over the spillway. Second, the water attacking morning glory spillway creates cracks upon concrete contact where the spillway is cross-cut to the center of the dam. Third, high velocity of water inside the concrete pipe sucking fine particle of embankment material down via those cracks and flushing out to the river channel. Lastly, loss of clay material of the dam into the concrete pipe creates the sinkhole at the crest. However, in case of failure by piping, it is possible that they can be formed both by backward erosion (internal erosion along or into embedded structure of spillway walls) and also by excess saturated water of downstream material.

Keywords: dam inspection, GPR, MASW, resistivity

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25711 Application of the Shallow Seismic Refraction Technique to Characterize the Foundation Rocks at the Proposed Tushka New City Site, South Egypt

Authors: Abdelnasser Mohamed, R. Fat-Helbary, H. El Khashab, K. EL Faragawy


Tushka New City is one of the proposed new cities in South Egypt. It is located in the eastern part of the western Desert of Egypt between latitude 22.878º and 22.909º N and longitude 31.525º and 31.635º E, about 60 kilometers far from Abu Simble City. The main target of the present study is the investigation of the shallow subsurface structure conditions and the dynamic characteristics of subsurface rocks using the shallow seismic refraction technique. Forty seismic profiles were conducted to calculate the P- and S-waves velocity at the study area. P- and SH-waves velocities can be used to obtain the geotechnical parameters and also SH-wave can be used to study the vibration characteristics of the near surface layers, which are important for earthquakes resistant structure design. The output results of the current study indicated that the P-waves velocity ranged from 450 to 1800 m/sec and from 1550 to 3000 m/sec for the surface and bedrock layer respectively. The SH-waves velocity ranged from 300 to 1100 m/sec and from 1000 to 1800 m/sec for the surface and bedrock layer respectively. The thickness of the surface layer and the depth to the bedrock layer were determined along each profile. The bulk density ρ of soil layers that used in this study was calculated for all layers at each profile in the study area. In conclusion, the area is mainly composed of compacted sandstone with high wave velocities, which is considered as a good foundation rock. The south western part of the study area has minimum values of the computed P- and SH-waves velocities, minimum values of the bulk density and the maximum value of the mean thickness of the surface layer.

Keywords: seismic refraction, Tushak new city, P-waves, SH-waves

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25710 Quantification of Effects of Shape of Basement Topography below the Circular Basin on the Ground Motion Characteristics and Engineering Implications

Authors: Kamal, Dinesh Kumar, J. P. Narayan, Komal Rani


This paper presents the effects of shape of basement topography on the characteristics of the basin-generated surface (BGS) waves and associated average spectral amplification (ASA) in the 3D basins having circular surface area. Seismic responses were computed using a recently developed 3D fourth-order spatial accurate time-domain finite-difference (FD) algorithm based on parsimonious staggered-grid approximation of 3D viscoelastic wave equations. An increase of amplitude amplification and ASA towards the centre of different considered basins was obtained. Further, it may be concluded that ASA in basin very much depends on the impedance contrast, exposure area of basement to the incident wave front, edge-slope, focusing of the BGS-waves and sediment-damping. There is an urgent need of incorporation of a map of differential ground motion (DGM) caused by the BGS-waves as one of the output maps of the seismic microzonation.

Keywords: 3D viscoelastic simulation, basin-generated surface waves, maximum displacement, average spectral amplification

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25709 Nonlinear Modelling of Sloshing Waves and Solitary Waves in Shallow Basins

Authors: Mohammad R. Jalali, Mohammad M. Jalali


The earliest theories of sloshing waves and solitary waves based on potential theory idealisations and irrotational flow have been extended to be applicable to more realistic domains. To this end, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods are widely used. Three-dimensional CFD methods such as Navier-Stokes solvers with volume of fluid treatment of the free surface and Navier-Stokes solvers with mappings of the free surface inherently impose high computational expense; therefore, considerable effort has gone into developing depth-averaged approaches. Examples of such approaches include Green–Naghdi (GN) equations. In Cartesian system, GN velocity profile depends on horizontal directions, x-direction and y-direction. The effect of vertical direction (z-direction) is also taken into consideration by applying weighting function in approximation. GN theory considers the effect of vertical acceleration and the consequent non-hydrostatic pressure. Moreover, in GN theory, the flow is rotational. The present study illustrates the application of GN equations to propagation of sloshing waves and solitary waves. For this purpose, GN equations solver is verified for the benchmark tests of Gaussian hump sloshing and solitary wave propagation in shallow basins. Analysis of the free surface sloshing of even harmonic components of an initial Gaussian hump demonstrates that the GN model gives predictions in satisfactory agreement with the linear analytical solutions. Discrepancies between the GN predictions and the linear analytical solutions arise from the effect of wave nonlinearities arising from the wave amplitude itself and wave-wave interactions. Numerically predicted solitary wave propagation indicates that the GN model produces simulations in good agreement with the analytical solution of the linearised wave theory. Comparison between the GN model numerical prediction and the result from perturbation analysis confirms that nonlinear interaction between solitary wave and a solid wall is satisfactorilly modelled. Moreover, solitary wave propagation at an angle to the x-axis and the interaction of solitary waves with each other are conducted to validate the developed model.

Keywords: Green–Naghdi equations, nonlinearity, numerical prediction, sloshing waves, solitary waves

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25708 Study of Effects of 3D Semi-Spheriacl Basin-Shape-Ratio on the Frequency Content and Spectral Amplitudes of the Basin-Generated Surface Waves

Authors: Kamal, J. P. Narayan


In the present wok the effects of basin-shape-ratio on the frequency content and spectral amplitudes of the basin-generated surface waves and the associated spatial variation of ground motion amplification and differential ground motion in a 3D semi-spherical basin has been studied. A recently developed 3D fourth-order spatial accurate time-domain finite-difference (FD) algorithm based on the parsimonious staggered-grid approximation of the 3D viscoelastic wave equations was used to estimate seismic responses. The simulated results demonstrated the increase of both the frequency content and the spectral amplitudes of the basin-generated surface waves and the duration of ground motion in the basin with the increase of shape-ratio of semi-spherical basin. An increase of the average spectral amplification (ASA), differential ground motion (DGM) and the average aggravation factor (AAF) towards the centre of the semi-spherical basin was obtained.

Keywords: 3D viscoelastic simulation, basin-generated surface waves, basin-shape-ratio effects, average spectral amplification, aggravation factors and differential ground motion

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25707 Scaling Analysis for the Liquefaction Phenomena Generated by Water Waves

Authors: E. Arcos, E. Bautista, F. Méndez


In this work, a scaling analysis of the liquefaction phenomena is presented. The characteristic scales are obtained by balancing term by term of the well-known partial dynamics governing equations, (U − P). From the above, the order of magnitude of the horizontal displacement is very smaller compared with the vertical displacement and therefore the governing equation is only a function of the dependent vertical variables. The U − P approximation is reduced and presented in its dimensionless version. This scaling analysis can be used to obtain analytical solutions of the liquefaction phenomena under the action of the water waves.

Keywords: approximation U-P, porous seabed, scaling analysis, water waves

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25706 A Laboratory Study into the Effects of Surface Waves on Freestyle Swimming

Authors: Scott Draper, Nat Benjanuvatra, Grant Landers, Terry Griffiths, Justin Geldard


Open water swimming has been an Olympic sport since 2008 and is growing in popularity world-wide as a low impact form of exercise. Unlike pool swimming, open water swimmers experience a range of different environmental conditions, including surface waves, variable water temperature, aquatic life, and ocean currents. This presentation will describe experimental research to investigate how freestyle swimming behaviour and performance is influenced by surface waves. A group of 12 swimmers were instructed to swim freestyle in the 54 m long wave flume located at The University of Western Australia’s Coastal and Offshore Engineering Laboratory. A variety of different regular waves were simulated, varying in height (up to 0.3 m), period (1.25 – 4s), and direction (with or against the swimmer). Swimmer’s velocity and acceleration, respectively, were determined from video recording and inertial sensors attached to five different parts of the swimmer’s body. The results illustrate how the swimmers stroke rate and the wave encounter frequency influence their forward speed and how particular wave conditions can benefit or hinder performance. Comparisons to simplified mathematical models provide insight into several aspects of performance, including: (i) how much faster swimmers can travel when swimming with as opposed to against the waves, and (ii) why swimmers of lesser ability are expected to be affected proportionally more by waves than elite swimmers. These findings have implications across the spectrum from elite to ‘weekend’ swimmers, including how they are coached and their ability to win (or just successfully complete) iconic open water events such as the Rottnest Channel Swim held annually in Western Australia.

Keywords: open water, surface waves, wave height/length, wave flume, stroke rate

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25705 Determining G-γ Degradation Curve in Cohesive Soils by Dilatometer and in situ Seismic Tests

Authors: Ivandic Kreso, Spiranec Miljenko, Kavur Boris, Strelec Stjepan


This article discusses the possibility of using dilatometer tests (DMT) together with in situ seismic tests (MASW) in order to get the shape of G-g degradation curve in cohesive soils (clay, silty clay, silt, clayey silt and sandy silt). MASW test provides the small soil stiffness (Go from vs) at very small strains and DMT provides the stiffness of the soil at ‘work strains’ (MDMT). At different test locations, dilatometer shear stiffness of the soil has been determined by the theory of elasticity. Dilatometer shear stiffness has been compared with the theoretical G-g degradation curve in order to determine the typical range of shear deformation for different types of cohesive soil. The analysis also includes factors that influence the shape of the degradation curve (G-g) and dilatometer modulus (MDMT), such as the overconsolidation ratio (OCR), plasticity index (IP) and the vertical effective stress in the soil (svo'). Parametric study in this article defines the range of shear strain gDMT and GDMT/Go relation depending on the classification of a cohesive soil (clay, silty clay, clayey silt, silt and sandy silt), function of density (loose, medium dense and dense) and the stiffness of the soil (soft, medium hard and hard). The article illustrates the potential of using MASW and DMT to obtain G-g degradation curve in cohesive soils.

Keywords: dilatometer testing, MASW testing, shear wave, soil stiffness, stiffness reduction, shear strain

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25704 Effects of Peakedness of Bimodal Waves on Overtopping of Sloping Seawalls

Authors: Stephen Orimoloye, Jose Horrillo-Caraballo, Harshinie Karunarathna, Dominic E. Reeve


Prediction of wave overtopping is an essential component of coastal seawall designing and management. Not only that excessive overtopping is reported for impermeable seawalls under bimodal waves, but overtopping is also showing a high sensitivity to the peakedness of the random wave propagation patterns. In the present study, we present a comprehensive analysis of the effects of peakedness of bimodal wave patterns of the overtopping of sloping seawalls. An energy-conserved bimodal spectrum with four different spectra peak periods and swell percentages was applied to estimate wave overtopping in both numerical and experimental flumes. Results of incident surface elevations and bimodal spectra were accurately captured across the flume domain using sets of well-positioned resistant-type wave gauges. Peakedness characteristics of the wave patterns were extracted to derive a relationship between the non-dimensional overtopping and the peakedness across the wave groups in the wave series. The full paper will briefly describe the development of the spectrum and present a comprehensive results analysis leading to the derivation of the relationship between dimensionless overtopping and peakedness of bimodal waves.

Keywords: wave overtopping, peakedness, bimodal waves, swell percentages

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25703 Study of Formation and Evolution of Disturbance Waves in Annular Flow Using Brightness-Based Laser-Induced Fluorescence (BBLIF) Technique

Authors: Andrey Cherdantsev, Mikhail Cherdantsev, Sergey Isaenkov, Dmitriy Markovich


In annular gas-liquid flow, liquid flows as a film along pipe walls sheared by high-velocity gas stream. Film surface is covered by large-scale disturbance waves which affect pressure drop and heat transfer in the system and are necessary for entrainment of liquid droplets from film surface into the core of gas stream. Disturbance waves are a highly complex and their properties are affected by numerous parameters. One of such aspects is flow development, i.e., change of flow properties with the distance from the inlet. In the present work, this question is studied using brightness-based laser-induced fluorescence (BBLIF) technique. This method enables one to perform simultaneous measurements of local film thickness in large number of points with high sampling frequency. In the present experiments first 50 cm of upward and downward annular flow in a vertical pipe of 11.7 mm i.d. is studied with temporal resolution of 10 kHz and spatial resolution of 0.5 mm. Thus, spatiotemporal evolution of film surface can be investigated, including scenarios of formation, acceleration and coalescence of disturbance waves. The behaviour of disturbance waves' velocity depending on phases flow rates and downstream distance was investigated. Besides measuring the waves properties, the goal of the work was to investigate the interrelation between disturbance waves properties and integral characteristics of the flow such as interfacial shear stress and flow rate of dispersed phase. In particular, it was shown that the initial acceleration of disturbance waves, defined by the value of shear stress, linearly decays with downstream distance. This lack of acceleration which may even lead to deceleration is related to liquid entrainment. Flow rate of disperse phase linearly grows with downstream distance. During entrainment events, liquid is extracted directly from disturbance waves, reducing their mass, area of interaction to the gas shear and, hence, velocity. Passing frequency of disturbance waves at each downstream position was measured automatically with a new algorithm of identification of characteristic lines of individual disturbance waves. Scenarios of coalescence of individual disturbance waves were identified. Transition from initial high-frequency Kelvin-Helmholtz waves appearing at the inlet to highly nonlinear disturbance waves with lower frequency was studied near the inlet using 3D realisation of BBLIF method in the same cylindrical channel and in a rectangular duct with cross-section of 5 mm by 50 mm. It was shown that the initial waves are generally two-dimensional but are promptly broken into localised three-dimensional wavelets. Coalescence of these wavelets leads to formation of quasi two-dimensional disturbance waves. Using cross-correlation analysis, loss and restoration of two-dimensionality of film surface with downstream distance were studied quantitatively. It was shown that all the processes occur closer to the inlet at higher gas velocities.

Keywords: annular flow, disturbance waves, entrainment, flow development

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25702 Entropy-Based Multichannel Stationary Measure for Characterization of Non-Stationary Patterns

Authors: J. D. Martínez-Vargas, C. Castro-Hoyos, G. Castellanos-Dominguez


In this work, we propose a novel approach for measuring the stationarity level of a multichannel time-series. This measure is based on a stationarity definition over time-varying spectrum, and it is aimed to quantify the relation between local stationarity (single-channel) and global dynamic behavior (multichannel dynamics). To assess the proposed approach validity, we use a well known EEG-BCI database, that was constructed for separate between motor/imagery tasks. Thus, based on the statement that imagination of movements implies an increase on the EEG dynamics, we use as discriminant features the proposed measure computed over an estimation of the non-stationary components of input time-series. As measure of separability we use a t-student test, and the obtained results evidence that such measure is able to accurately detect the brain areas projected on the scalp where motor tasks are realized.

Keywords: stationary measure, entropy, sub-space projection, multichannel dynamics

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25701 Analysis of Seismic Waves Generated by Blasting Operations and their Response on Buildings

Authors: S. Ziaran, M. Musil, M. Cekan, O. Chlebo


The paper analyzes the response of buildings and industrially structures on seismic waves (low frequency mechanical vibration) generated by blasting operations. The principles of seismic analysis can be applied for different kinds of excitation such as: earthquakes, wind, explosions, random excitation from local transportation, periodic excitation from large rotating and/or machines with reciprocating motion, metal forming processes such as forging, shearing and stamping, chemical reactions, construction and earth moving work, and other strong deterministic and random energy sources caused by human activities. The article deals with the response of seismic, low frequency, mechanical vibrations generated by nearby blasting operations on a residential home. The goal was to determine the fundamental natural frequencies of the measured structure; therefore it is important to determine the resonant frequencies to design a suitable modal damping. The article also analyzes the package of seismic waves generated by blasting (Primary waves – P-waves and Secondary waves S-waves) and investigated the transfer regions. For the detection of seismic waves resulting from an explosion, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and modal analysis, in the frequency domain, is used and the signal was acquired and analyzed also in the time domain. In the conclusions the measured results of seismic waves caused by blasting in a nearby quarry and its effect on a nearby structure (house) is analyzed. The response on the house, including the fundamental natural frequency and possible fatigue damage is also assessed.

Keywords: building structure, seismic waves, spectral analysis, structural response

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25700 Shear Surface and Localized Waves in Functionally Graded Piezoactive Electro-Magneto-Elastic Media

Authors: Karen B. Ghazaryan


Recently, the propagation of coupled electromagnetic and elastic waves in magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) structures attracted much attention due to the wide range of application of these materials in smart structures. MEE materials are a class of new artificial composites that consist of simultaneous piezoelectric and piezomagnetic phases. Magneto-electro-elastic composites are built up by combining piezoelectric and piezomagnetic phases to obtain a smart composite that presents not only the electromechanical and magneto-mechanical coupling but also a strong magnetoelectric coupling, which makes such materials highly valuable in technological usage. In the framework of quasi-static approach shear surface and localized waves are considered in magneto-electro-elastic piezo-active structure consisting of functionally graded 6mm hexagonal symmetry group crystals. Assuming that in a functionally graded material the elastic and electromagnetic properties vary in the same proportion in direction perpendicular to the MEE polling direction, special classes of inhomogeneity functions were found, admitting exact solutions for coupled electromagnetic and elastic wave fields. Based on these exact solutions, defining the coupled shear wave field in magneto-electro-elastic composites several modal problems are considered: shear surface waves propagation along surface of a MEE half-space, interfacial wave propagation in a MEE oppositely polarized bi-layer, Love type waves in a functionally graded MEE layer overlying a homogeneous elastic half-space. For the problems under consideration corresponding dispersion equations are deduced analytically in an explicit form and for the BaTiO₃–CoFe₂O₄ crystal numerical results estimating effects of inhomogeneity and piezo effect are carried out.

Keywords: surface shear waves, magneto-electro-elastic composites, piezoactive crystals, functionally graded elastic materials

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25699 Capillary Wave Motion and Atomization Induced by Surface Acoustic Waves under the Navier-Slip Condition at the Wall

Authors: Jaime E. Munoz, Jose C. Arcos, Oscar E. Bautista, Ivan E. Campos


The influence of slippage phenomenon over the destabilization and atomization mechanisms induced via surface acoustic waves on a Newtonian, millimeter-sized, drop deposited on a hydrophilic substrate is studied theoretically. By implementing the Navier-slip model and a lubrication-type approach into the equations which govern the dynamic response of a drop exposed to acoustic stress, a highly nonlinear evolution equation for the air-liquid interface is derived in terms of the acoustic capillary number and the slip coefficient. By numerically solving such an evolution equation, the Spatio-temporal deformation of the drop's free surface is obtained; in this context, atomization of the initial drop into micron-sized droplets is predicted at our numerical model once the acoustically-driven capillary waves reach a critical value: the instability length. Our results show slippage phenomenon at systems with partial and complete wetting favors the formation of capillary waves at the free surface, which traduces in a major volume of liquid being atomized in comparison to the no-slip case for a given time interval. In consequence, slippage at the wall possesses the capability to affect and improve the atomization rate for a drop exposed to a high-frequency acoustic field.

Keywords: capillary instability, lubrication theory, navier-slip condition, SAW atomization

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25698 A Review on the Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Caisson Breakwater

Authors: T. J. Jemi Jeya, V. Sriram, V. Sundar


Caisson breakwaters are gravity structures resting on the seabed and piercing the free surface sunk in coastal waters to break the energy in the waves and protect the water area behind them by creating tranquil conditions on its lee side for the purpose of berthing of vessels. A number of formula and methodologies have been proposed for calculating the forces on caissons due to waves, most of which being evolved through intensive laboratory and field measurements. The reflection of waves from such breakwaters often generates clapotis, leading to an amplification of waves in its vicinity. This result in increased pressures and forces, forcing researchers to modify its seaside shape as well as placing dissipaters in the form of screens. Apart from the above aspects, this paper also discusses the other important phenomena, like overtopping that dictates the stability of caisson breakwaters.

Keywords: caisson breakwater, Jarlan type breakwater, screens, circular breakwater

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