Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1551

Search results for: multi-layer thin film

1341 Combination of Artificial Neural Network Model and Geographic Information System for Prediction Water Quality

Authors: Sirilak Areerachakul


Water quality has initiated serious management efforts in many countries. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models are developed as forecasting tools in predicting water quality trend based on historical data. This study endeavors to automatically classify water quality. The water quality classes are evaluated using 6 factor indices. These factors are pH value (pH), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Nitrate Nitrogen (NO3N), Ammonia Nitrogen (NH3N) and Total Coliform (T-Coliform). The methodology involves applying data mining techniques using multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network models. The data consisted of 11 sites of Saen Saep canal in Bangkok, Thailand. The data is obtained from the Department of Drainage and Sewerage Bangkok Metropolitan Administration during 2007-2011. The results of multilayer perceptron neural network exhibit a high accuracy multilayer perception rate at 94.23% in classifying the water quality of Saen Saep canal in Bangkok. Subsequently, this encouraging result could be combined with GIS data improves the classification accuracy significantly.

Keywords: Computer Science, Water Quality, Geographic Information System, Artificial Neural Network

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1340 Locating the Davao Film Culture: An Exploration of the Relationship of Geography and the Cinema of a Regional City Center

Authors: Sarah Isabelle Torres


Using Lefebvre’s (1991) Spatial Triad, this study explores the relationship of geography and cinema and asks the question: how does geography shape the film culture of a regional city center located at the periphery of a country’s capital? This research aims to locate the contemporary film scene of the city in question, Davao City, Mindanao through contextualizing the politics and culture of its tri-people. This study shows that primarily because of local filmmakers' affection and sense of place, progressive films focusing on the tri-people and their struggles mainly due to issues on land have been born. To further understand the city’s film culture, this study maps the following areas: 1) filmmakers and cineastes, 2) films, 3) film festivals, 4) financial stakeholders, 5) institutions, and 6) screening places. From these, the researcher learned that although the local film community has established itself for decades, problems on audience, funding, and institutional support continue to persist. Aside from mapping, this study also explores Davao’s political, economic, and cultural position within the regional and the national arenas.

Keywords: Geography, Space, place, cinema studies, Philippines, Davao City, film culture, regional cinema

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1339 Marketing of Turkish Films by Crowdfunding

Authors: Nurdan Tumbek Tekeoglu


With rising importance in all over the world, crowdfunding has become a new financing and marketing method for film industry. Crowdfunding is a new practice in film industry for funding a film project by raising monetary contributions from a large group of people. By crowdfunding an estimate fund of 20 billion USD has been raised in 2015. Through the crowdfunding platforms not only the film makers, but also the entrepreneurs and nongovernmental organizations finance and market their projects. Among the prominent crowdfunding platforms in Turkey, we can list Crowdfon, Fonlabeni, Kickstarter, Indiego, Bi Ayda, and Fongogo platforms. In 2014 the Turkish film industry celebrated its 100th anniversary and reached its peak producing around 150-200 films a year reminding the brilliant years of Yesilcam period. In general feature films apply for crowdfunding. Until April 2015 more than 190 films applied for crowdfunding platforms. Crowdfunding has a promising future in Turkey, since donation traditions has an important place in Turkish culture traditionally. This paper is exploring the marketing of the crowdfunding platforms established in Turkey in order for the films meet their target groups during the pre-production period.

Keywords: Turkey, crowdfunding, marketing of films, Turkish film industry

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1338 Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors: Based Force Sensor Array for Occlusal Force Measurement

Authors: Chih-Han Chang, Sheng-Che Chen, Hao-Yuan Tseng, Keng-Ren Lin, Che-Hsin Lin


Teeth play an important role in providing the essential nutrients. The force loading of chewing on the crow is important condition to evaluate long-term success of many dental treatments. However, the quantification of the force regarding forces are distributed over the dental crow is still not well recognized. This study presents an industrial-grade piezoelectric-based multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) force sensor for measuring the distribution of the force distribute over the first molar. The developed sensor array is based on a flexible polyimide electrode and barium titanate-based MLCCs. MLCCs are commonly used in the electronic industry and it is a typical electric component composed of BaTiO₃, which is used as a capacitive material. The most important is that it also can be used as a force-sensing component by its piezoelectric property. In this study, to increase the sensitivity as well as to reduce the variation of different MLCCs, a treatment process is utilized. The MLCC force sensors are able to measure large forces (above 500 N), making them suitable for measuring the bite forces on the tooth crown. Moreover, the sensors also show good force response and good repeatability.

Keywords: piezoelectric, occlusal force, force sensor array, multilayer ceramic capacitors

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1337 Presence and Absence: The Use of Photographs in Paris, Texas

Authors: Wen-Shu Lai, Yi-Ting Wang


The subject of this paper is the photography in the 1983 film Paris, Texas, directed by Wim Wenders. Wenders is well known as a film director as well as a photographer. We have found that photography is shown as a photographic element in many of his films. Some of these photographs serve as details within the films, while others play important roles that are relevant to the story. This paper aims to consider photographs in film as a specific type of text, which is the output of both still photography and the film itself. In the film Paris, Texas, three sets of important photographs appear whose symbolic meanings are as dialectical as their text types. The relationship between the existence of these photos and the storyline is both dependent and isolated. The film’s images fly by and progress into other images, while the photos in the film serve a unique narrative function by stopping the continuously flowing images thus provide the viewer a space for imagination and contemplation. They are more than just artistic forms; they also contained multiple meanings. The photographs in Paris, Texas play the role of both presence and absence according to their shifting meanings. There are references to their presence: photographs exist between film time and narrative time, so in terms of the interaction between the characters in the film, photographs are a common symbol of the beginning and end of the characters’ journeys. In terms of the audience, the film’s photographs are a link in the viewing frame structure, through which the creative motivation of the film director can be explored. Photographs also point to the absence of certain objects: the scenes in the photos represent an imaginary map of emotion. The town of Paris, Texas is therefore isolated from the physical presence of the photograph, and is far more abstract than the reality in the film. This paper embraces the ambiguous nature of photography and demonstrates its presence and absence in film with regard to the meaning of text. However, it is worth reflecting that the temporary nature of the interpretation of the film’s photographs is far greater than any other type of photographic text: the characteristics of the text cause the interpretation results to change along with the variations in the interpretation process, which makes their meaning a dynamic process. The photographs’ presence or absence in the context of Paris, Texas also demonstrates the presence and absence of the creator, time, the truth, and the imagination. The film becomes more complete as a result of the revelation of the photographs, while the intertextual connection between these two forms simultaneously provides multiple possibilities for the interpretation of the photographs in the film.

Keywords: Film, Photography, Paris, Texas, Wim Wenders

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1336 New Neuroplasmonic Sensor Based on Soft Nanolithography

Authors: Foozieh Sohrabi, Seyedeh Mehri Hamidi, Nasrin Asgari, Mohammad Ali Ansari


New neuro plasmonic sensor based on one dimensional plasmonic nano-grating has been prepared. To record neural activity, the sample has been exposed under different infrared laser and then has been calculated by ellipsometry parameters. Our results show that we have efficient sensitivity to different laser excitation.

Keywords: neural activity, Plasmonic sensor, Nanograting, Gold thin film

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1335 Infra Red Laser Induced Ablation of Graphene Based Polymer Nanocomposites

Authors: Jadranka Blazhevska Gilev


IR laser-induced ablation of poly(butylacrylate-methylmethacrylate/hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate)/reduced graphene oxide (p(BA/MMA/HEMA)/rGO) was examined with 0.5, 0.75 and 1 wt% reduced graphene oxide content in relation to polymer. The irradiation was performed with TEA (transversely excited atmosphere) CO₂ laser using incident fluence of 15-20 J/cm², repetition frequency of 1 Hz, in an evacuated (10-3 Pa) Pyrex spherical vessel. Thin deposited nanocomposites films with large specific area were obtained using different substrates. The properties of the films deposited on these substrates were evaluated by TGA, FTIR, (Thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier Transformation Infrared) Raman spectroscopy and SEM microscopy. Homogeneous distribution of graphene sheets was observed from the SEM images, making polymer/rGO deposit an ideal candidate for SERS application. SERS measurements were performed using Rhodamine 6G as probe molecule on the substrate Ag/p(BA/MMA/HEMA)/rGO.

Keywords: Laser Ablation, reduced graphene oxide, polymer/rGO nanocomposites, thin deposited film

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1334 Characteristics of a Dye-Entrapped Polypyrrole Film Prepared in the Presence of a Different Dye

Authors: M. Mominul Haque, Danny KY. Wong


In this paper, we will demonstrate the feasibility of selectively removing the azo dye, Acid Red 1, in the presence of a second dye, Indigo Carmine, at conducting polypyrrole films. A long-term goal of this work is to develop an efficient and effective electrochemical treatment of textile effluents that does not yield any toxic by-products. Specifically, pyrrole was initially electrochemically oxidised in the presence of Acid Red 1 to prepare an Acid Red 1-entrapped polypyrrole film. Next, the Acid Red 1 entrapped film was electrochemically reduced to expel the dye from the film. The film was then ready for use in removing the dye in an Acid Red 1 solution. The entrapment efficiency of the film was then studied by spectroscopically determining the change in the absorbance of the dye solution. These experiments were repeated using Indigo Carmine or a mixture of Acid Red 1 and Indigo Carmine, in place of Acid Red 1. Therefore, this has given rise to an environmentally friendly treatment method for textile effluents. In our work, we have also studied the characteristics of Acid Red 1- and Indigo Carmine-entrapped polypyrrole films by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy.

Keywords: electrochemical treatment, polypyrrole, azo dye, Acid Red 1

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1333 Polarization Insensitive Absorber with Increased Bandwidth Using Multilayer Metamaterial

Authors: Srilaxmi Gangula, Mahalakshmi Vinukonda, Neeraj Rao


A wide band polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber with bandwidth enhancement in X and C band is proposed. The structure proposed here consists of a periodic unit cell of resonator arrangements in double layer. The proposed structure shows near unity absorption at frequencies of 6.21 GHz and 10.372 GHz spreading over a bandwidth of 1 GHz and 6.21 GHz respectively in X and C bands. The proposed metamaterial absorber is designed so as to increase the bandwidth. The proposed structure is also independent for TE and TM polarization. Because of its simple implementation, near unity absorption and wide bandwidth this dual band polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber can be used for EMI/EMC applications.

Keywords: Multilayer, Metamaterial, X-Band, C-band, absorber

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1332 Characteristics of Edible Film Made from Skin and Bone Fish Gelatin, Spotted Oceanic Triggerfish (Canthidermis maculata) and Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus)

Authors: Normalina Arpi, Fahrizal Fahrizal, Dewi Yunita


Edible films can increase the shelf life of various food products by acting as water, oxygen, and lipid barrier. Fish gelatin as a film-forming agent has unique characteristics but varies depending on fish species. The purpose of this research is to characterize edible film made using skin and bone fish gelatin with the addition of plasticizer. Gelatin of spotted oceanic triggerfish (Canthidermis maculata) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were used. Glycerol and sorbitol with concentration of 0.25 and 0.5 % were added as a plasticizer. Spotted oceanic triggerfish gelatin with sorbitol resulted film with higher tensile strength and oxygen permeability, whereas tilapia gelatin with glycerol produced an edible film with higher elongation and water vapor permeability. The edible film made of spotted oceanic triggerfish gelatin and 0.25% sorbitol had the best characteristics.

Keywords: glycerol, edible film, fish gelatin, sorbitol

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1331 Measurement of Liquid Film Thickness in a Vertical Annular Two Phase Flow Changing the Gas-Liquid Density Ratio

Authors: Shoji Mori, Kunito Okuyama


Annular two phase flow is encountered in many industrial equipments, including flow near nuclear fuel rods in boiling water reactor (BWR). Especially, disturbance waves play important roles in the pressure drop, the generation of entrainments, and the dryout of the liquid film. Therefore, it is important to clarify the behavior of disturbance waves and base film. However, most of the previous studies have been performed under atmospheric pressure conditions that provides the properties of liquid and gas which are significantly different from those of a BWR. Therefore, the effect of properties in gas and liquid on liquid film characteristics should be clarified. In this paper we focus on the effect of gas-liquid density ratio on liquid film thickness characteristics. The experiments have been conducted at four density ratio conditions (ρL/ρG =763, 451, 231, and 31). As a result, it is found that and interfacial shear stress collapse not only tF ave but also tF max and tF min successfully under the same liquid mass flow rate conditions irrespective of ρL/ρG, and moreover a non-dimensional parameter tends to collapse tF max,tF ave,and tF min in the wide range of experimental conditions (ρL/ρG:31~763,We:10~1800,ReL:500 ~ 2200).

Keywords: two phase flow, liquid film, annular flow, disturbance wave

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1330 Ferulic Acid-Grafted Chitosan: Thermal Stability and Feasibility as an Antioxidant for Active Biodegradable Packaging Film

Authors: Rangrong Yoksan, Sarekha Woranuch


Active packaging has been developed based on the incorporation of certain additives, in particular antimicrobial and antioxidant agents, into packaging systems to maintain or extend product quality and shelf-life. Ferulic acid is one of the most effective natural phenolic antioxidants, which has been used in food, pharmaceutical and active packaging film applications. However, most phenolic compounds are sensitive to oxygen, light and heat; its activities are thus lost during product formulation and processing. Grafting ferulic acid onto polymer is an alternative to reduce its loss under thermal processes. Therefore, the objectives of the present research were to study the thermal stability of ferulic acid after grafting onto chitosan, and to investigate the possibility of using ferulic acid-grafted chitosan (FA-g-CTS) as an antioxidant for active biodegradable packaging film. FA-g-CTS was incorporated into biodegradable film via a two-step process, i.e. compounding extrusion at temperature up to 150 °C followed by blown film extrusion at temperature up to 175 °C. Although incorporating FA-g-CTS with a content of 0.02–0.16% (w/w) caused decreased water vapor barrier property and reduced extensibility, the films showed improved oxygen barrier property and antioxidant activity. Radical scavenging activity and reducing power of the film containing FA-g-CTS with a content of 0.04% (w/w) were higher than that of the naked film about 254% and 94%, respectively. Tensile strength and rigidity of the films were not significantly affected by adding FA-g-CTS with a content of 0.02–0.08% (w/w). The results indicated that FA-g-CTS could be potentially used as an antioxidant for active packaging film.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, chitosan, ferulic acid, active packaging film

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1329 Fabrication of Profile-Coated Rhodium X-Ray Focusing Mirror

Authors: Bing Shi, Raymond A. Conley, Jun Qian, Xianbo Shi, Steve Heald, Lahsen Assoufid


A pair of Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors were designed and fabricated for experiments within a hard x-ray energy range lower than 20 kev at beamline 20-ID in a synchrotron radiation facility, Advanced Photon Source (APS). The KB mirrors were deposited with Rhodium thin films using a customized designed and self-built magnetron sputtering system. The purpose of these mirrors is to focus the x-ray beam down to 1 micron. This is the first pair of Rhodium-coated KB mirrors with elliptical shape that was fabricated using the profile coating technique. The profile coating technique is to coat the substrate with designed shape using masks during the deposition. The mirrors were equipped at the beamline and achieved the designed focusing requirement. The details of the mirror design, the fabrication process, and the customized magnetron sputtering deposition system will be discussed.

Keywords: X-Ray, magnetron-sputtering deposition, focusing optics, rhodium thin film

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1328 Classification of Myoelectric Signals Using Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network with Back-Propagation Algorithm in a Wireless Surface Myoelectric Prosthesis of the Upper-Limb

Authors: Kevin D. Manalo, Jumelyn L. Torres, Noel B. Linsangan


This paper focuses on a wireless myoelectric prosthesis of the upper-limb that uses a Multilayer Perceptron Neural network with back propagation. The algorithm is widely used in pattern recognition. The network can be used to train signals and be able to use it in performing a function on their own based on sample inputs. The paper makes use of the Neural Network in classifying the electromyography signal that is produced by the muscle in the amputee’s skin surface. The gathered data will be passed on through the Classification Stage wirelessly through Zigbee Technology. The signal will be classified and trained to be used in performing the arm positions in the prosthesis. Through programming using Verilog and using a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with Zigbee, the EMG signals will be acquired and will be used for classification. The classified signal is used to produce the corresponding Hand Movements (Open, Pick, Hold, and Grip) through the Zigbee controller. The data will then be processed through the MLP Neural Network using MATLAB which then be used for the surface myoelectric prosthesis. Z-test will be used to display the output acquired from using the neural network.

Keywords: ZigBee, field programmable gate array, multilayer perceptron neural network, verilog

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1327 Ammonia Sensing Properties of Nanostructured Hybrid Halide Perovskite Thin Film

Authors: Nidhi Gupta, Omita Nanda, Rakhi Grover, Kanchan Saxena


Hybrid perovskite is new class of material which has gained much attention due to their different crystal structure and interesting optical and electrical properties. Easy fabrication, high absorption coefficient, and photoluminescence properties make them a strong candidate for various applications such as sensors, photovoltaics, photodetectors, etc. In perovskites, ions arrange themselves in a special type of crystal structure with chemical formula ABX3, where A is organic species like CH3NH3+, B is metal ion (e.g., Pb, Sn, etc.) and X is halide (Cl-, Br-, I-). In crystal structure, A is present at corner position, B at center of the crystal lattice and halide ions at the face centers. High stability and sensitivity of nanostructured perovskite make them suitable for chemical sensors. Researchers have studied sensing properties of perovskites for number of analytes such as 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, ethanol and other hazardous chemical compounds. Ammonia being highly toxic agent makes it a reason of concern for the environment. Thus the detection of ammonia is extremely important. Our present investigation deals with organic inorganic hybrid perovskite based ammonia sensor. Various methods like sol-gel, solid state synthesis, thermal vapor deposition etc can be used to synthesize Different hybrid perovskites. In the present work, a novel hybrid perovskite has been synthesized by a single step method. Ethylenediammnedihalide and lead halide were used as precursor. Formation of hybrid perovskite was confirmed by FT-IR and XRD. Morphological characterization of the synthesized material was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM analysis revealed the formation of one dimensional nanowire perovskite with mean diameter of 200 nm. Measurements for sensing properties of halide perovskite for ammonia vapor were carried out. Perovskite thin films showed a color change from yellow to orange on exposure of ammonia vapor. Electro-optical measurements show that sensor based on lead halide perovskite has high sensitivity towards ammonia with effective selectivity and reversibility. Sensor exhibited rapid response time of less than 20 seconds.

Keywords: Sensor, nanostructure, Ammonia, thin film, hybrid perovskite

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1326 Investigation of Optical, Film Formation and Magnetic Properties of PS Lates/MNPs Composites

Authors: Saziye Ugur


In this study, optical, film formation, morphological and the magnetic properties of a nanocomposite system, composed of polystyrene (PS) latex polymer and core-shell magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is presented. Nine different mixtures were prepared by mixing of PS latex dispersion with different amount of MNPs in the range of (0- 100 wt%). PS/MNPs films were prepared from these mixtures on glass substrates by drop casting method. After drying at room temperature, each film sample was separately annealed at temperatures from 100 to 250 °C for 10 min. In order to monitor film formation process, the transmittance of these composites was measured after each annealing step as a function of MNPs content. Below a critical MNPs content (30 wt%), it was found that PS percolates into the MNPs hard phase and forms an interconnected network upon annealing. The transmission results showed above this critical value, PS latexes were no longer film forming at all temperatures. Besides, the PS/MNPs composite films also showed excellent magnetic properties. All composite films showed superparamagnetic behaviors. The saturation magnetisation (Ms) first increased up to 0.014 emu in the range of (0-50) wt% MNPs content and then decreased to 0.010 emu with increasing MNPs content. The highest value of Ms was approximately 0.020 emu and was obtained for the film filled with 85 wt% MNPs content. These results indicated that the optical, film formation and magnetic properties of PS/MNPs composite films can be readily tuned by varying loading content of MNPs nanoparticles.

Keywords: Transmission, magnetic nanoparticles, composite film, film formation, ps latex

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1325 Weight Loss Degradation of Hybrid Blends LLDPE/Starch/PVA Upon Exposure to UV Light and Soil Burial

Authors: Noor Zuhaira Abd Aziz, Mohd Muizz Fahimi M., Rahmah M., Farhan M.


Polybag and mulch film for agricultural field pose environmental wastage upon disposal. Thus a degradable polybag was designed with hybrid sago starch (SS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Two Different blended composition of SS and PVA Hybrid have been compounded. Then, the hybrids blended are mixed with linear line density polyethylene (LLDPE) resin to fabricate polybag film through conventional film blowing process. Hybrid blends was compounded at different ratios. Samples of LLDPE, SS and PVA hybrid film were exposed to UV light and soil burial. The weight loss were determined during degradation process. Hybrid film by degradation of starch was found to decrease on esterification. However the hybrid film showed greater degradation in soil and uv radiation up to 60% of SS. Weight loss were also determined in control humidity oven with 70% humidity and temperature set up at 30 °C and left in humidity chamber for a month.

Keywords: degradation, UV radiation, PVA, LLDPE, sago starch, soil burial

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1324 The Effect of the Calcination Temperature and SiO2 Addition on the Physical Properties’ of Sol Gel TiO2 Thin Films

Authors: Aicha Iratni, Talaighil Razika, Bruno Capoen, Mohamed Bouazaoui, Nour El Houda Arabi


In this paper, we report the effect of the calcination temperature and SiO2 addition on structural, optical and hydrophilicity of TiO2 films deposited by deep-coating sol-gel process. XRD investigation of the structural TiO2 films with increasing the temperature calcination, reveals that rutile phase will appear for the high temperature (>1000°C). However, the addition of SiO2 relate the densification of TiO2 films. Ellipsometric and UV-visible measure show that the refractive index grow with increasing temperature, against the film thickness decreases. On the other hand, the addition of SiO2 decreases the refractive index and increases the TiO2 film thickness. Finally, the hydrophilicity is assisted by contact angle measurement. It is found that addition of 50% of SiO2 to TiO2 is most effective for reducing the contact angle of water.

Keywords: Physical Properties, sol, gel, TiO2/SiO2 composite films

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1323 Novel Routes to the Synthesis and Functionalization of Metallic and Semiconductor Thin Film and Nanoparticles

Authors: P. John Thomas, Paul O’Brien, Hanan. Al Chaghouri, Mohammad Azad Malik


The process of assembling metal nanoparticles at the interface of two liquids has received a great deal of attention over the past few years due to a wide range of important applications and their unusual properties as compared to bulk materials. We present a low cost, simple and cheap synthesis of metal nanoparticles, core/shell structures and semiconductors followed by assembly of these particles between immiscible liquids. The aim of this talk is divided to three parts: Firstly, to describe the achievement of a closed loop recycling for producing cadmium sulfide as powders and/or nanostructured thin films for solar cells or other optoelectronic devices applications by using a different chain length of commercially available secondary amines of dithiocarbamato complexes. The approach can be extended to other metal sulfides such as those of Zn, Pb, Cu, or Fe and many transition metals and oxides. Secondly, to synthesis significantly cheaper magnetic particles suited for the mass market. Ni/NiO nanoparticles with ferromagnetic properties at room temperature were among the smallest and strongest magnets (5 nm) were made in solution. The applications of this work can be to produce viable storage devices and the other possibility is to disperse these nanocrystals in solution and use it to make ferrofluids which have a number of mature applications. The third part is about preparing and assembling of submicron silver, cobalt and nickel particles by using polyol methods and liquid/liquid interface, respectively. Coinage metals like gold, copper and silver are suitable for plasmonic thin film solar cells because of their low resistivity and strong interactions with visible light waves. Silver is the best choice for solar cell application since it has low absorption losses and high radiative efficiency compared to gold and copper. Assembled cobalt and nickel as films are promising for spintronic, magnetic and magneto-electronic and biomedics.

Keywords: metal nanoparticles, core/shell structures and semiconductors, ferromagnetic properties, closed loop recycling, liquid/liquid interface

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1322 High Efficiency Achievement by a New Heterojunction N-Zno:Al/P-Si Solar Cell

Authors: A. Bouloufa, F. Khaled, K. Djessas


This paper presents a new structure of solar cell based on p-type microcrystalline silicon as an absorber and n-type aluminum doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) transparent conductive oxide as an optical window. The ZnO:Al layer deposited by rf-magnetron sputtering at room temperature yields a low resistivity about 7,64.10-2Ω.cm and more than 85% mean optical transmittance in the VIS–NIR range, with an optical band gap of 3.3 eV. These excellent optical properties of this layer in combination with an optimal contact at the front surface result in a superior light trapping yielding to efficiencies about 20%. In order to improve efficiency, we have used a p+-µc-Si thin layer highly doped as a back surface field which minimizes significantly the impact of rear surface recombination velocity on voltage and current leading to a high efficiency of 24%. Optoelectronic parameters were determined using the current density-voltage (J-V) curve by means of a numerical simulation with Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Structures (AMPS-1D) device simulator.

Keywords: Efficiency, Solar Cell, thin film, optical window

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1321 Study on the Voltage Induced Wrinkling of Elastomer with Different Electrode Areas

Authors: Fan Yang, Zhende Hou, Guoli Zhang


Dielectric elastomer is a promising class of Electroactive polymers which can deform in response to an applied electric field. Comparing general smart material, the Dielectric elastomer is more compliance and can achieve higher energy density, which can be for diverse applications such as actuators, artificial muscles, soft robotics, and energy harvesters. The coupling of the Electroactive polymers and the electric field is that the elastomer is sandwiched between two compliant electrodes and when the electrodes are subjected to a voltage, the positive and negative charges on the two electrodes compress the polymer, so that the polymer reduces in thickness and expands in area. However, the pre-stretched dielectric elastomer film not only can achieve large electric-field induced deformation but also is prone to wrinkling, under the interaction of its own strain energy and the applied electric field energy. For a uniaxially pre-stretched dielectric elastomer film, the electrode area is an important parameter to the electric-field induced deformation and may also be a key factor affecting the film wrinkling. To determine and quantify the effect experimentally, VHB 9473 tapes were employed and compliant electrodes with different areas were pant on each of them. The tape was first tensed to a uniaxial stretch of 8. Then a DC voltage was applied to the electrodes and increased gradually until wrinkling occurred in the film. Then, the critical wrinkling voltages of the film with different electrode areas were obtained, and the wrinkle wavelengths were obtained simultaneously for analyzing the wrinkling characteristics. Experimental results indicate when the electrode area is smaller the wrinkling voltage is higher, and with the increases of electrode area, the wrinkling voltage decreases rapidly until a specific area. Beyond that, the wrinkling voltage becomes larger gradually with the increases of the area. While the wrinkle wavelength decreases gradually with the increase of voltage monotonically. That is, the relation between the critical wrinkling voltage and the electrode areas is U-shaped. Analysis believes that the film wrinkling is a kind of local effect, the interaction and the energy transfer between electrode region and non-electrode region have great influence on wrinkling. In the experiment, very thin copper wires are used as the electrode leads that just contact with the electrodes, which can avoid the stiffness of the leads affecting the wrinkling.

Keywords: Wrinkling, Elastomers, uniaxial stretch, electrode area

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1320 Nanostructured Fluorine Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Deposited by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolisys Technique: Effect of Starting Solution Composition and Substrate Temperature on the Physical Characteristics

Authors: Esmeralda Chávez Vargas, M. de la L. Olvera, A. Maldonado


The doping it is believed as follows, at high concentration fluorine in ZnO: F films is incorporated to the lattice by substitution of O-2 ions by F-1 ions; at middle fluorine concentrations, F ions may form interstitials, whereas for low concentrations it is increased the carriers and mobility could be explained by the surface passivation effect of fluorine. ZnO:F thin films were deposited on sodocalcic glass substratesat 425 °C , 450°C, 475 during 8, 12, 15 min from a 0.2 M solution. Doping concentration in the starting solutions was varied, namely, [F]/[F+Zn] = 0, 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90 at. %; solvent composition was varied as well, 100:100; 50:50; 100:50(acetic acid: water: methanol ratios, in volume). In this work it is reported the characterization results of fluorine doped zinc oxide (ZnO:F) thin films deposited by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique, using zinc acetate and ammonium fluorine as Zn an F precursors, respectively. The effect of varying the fluorine concentration in the starting solutions, the solvent composition, and the ageing time of the starting solutions, on the electrical resistivity, optical transmittance, structure and surface morphology was analyzed. In order to have a quantitative evaluation of the ZnO:F thin films for its application as transparent electrodes, the Figure of Merit was estimated from the Haacke´s formula. After a thoroughly study, it can be found that optimal conditions for the deposition of transparent and conductive ZnO:F thin films on sodocalcic substrates, were as follows; substrate temperature: solution molar concentration 0.2, doping concentration in the starting solution of [F]/[Zn]= 60 at. %, (water content)/(acetic acid) in starting solution: [H2O/ CH3OH]= 50:50, substrate temperature: 450 °C. The effects of aging of the starting solution has also been analyzed thoroughly and it has been found a dramatic effect on the electric resistivity of the material, aged by 40 days, show an electrical resitivity as low as 120 Ω/□, with a transmittance around 80% in the visible range. X-ray diffraction spectra show a polycrystalline of ZnO (wurtzite structure) where the amount of fluorine doping affects to preferential orientation (002 plane). Therefore, F introduction in lattice is by the substitution of O-2 ions by F-1 ions. The results show that ZnO:F thin films are potentially adequate for application as transparent conductive oxide in thin film solar cells.

Keywords: Transparent Electrodes, zinc oxide, TCOs, ultrasonic spray pyrolysis, ZnO:F

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1319 An Investigation on the Suitability of Dual Ion Beam Sputtered GMZO Thin Films: For All Sputtered Buffer-Less Solar Cells

Authors: Shailendra Kumar, Amitesh Kumar, Vivek Garg, Brajendra S. Sengar, Gaurav Siddharth, Nisheka Anadkat, Shaibal Mukherjee


CuInGaSe (CIGSe) is the dominant thin film solar cell technology. The band alignment of Buffer/CIGSe interface is one of the most crucial parameters for solar cell performance. In this article, the valence band offset (VBOff) and conduction band offset (CBOff) values of Cu(In0.70Ga0.30)Se/ 1 at.% Ga: Mg0.25Zn0.75O (GMZO) heterojunction, grown by dual ion beam sputtering system (DIBS), are calculated to understand the carrier transport mechanism at the heterojunction for the realization of all sputtered buffer-less solar cells. To determine the valence band offset (VBOff), ∆E_V at GMZO/CIGSe heterojunction interface, the standard method based on core-level photoemission is utilized. The value of ∆E_V can be evaluated by considering common core-level peaks. In our study, the values of (Valence band onset)VBOn, obtained by linear extrapolation method for GMZO and CIGSe films are calculated to be 2.86 and 0.76 eV. In the UPS spectra peak positions of Se 3d is observed in UPS spectra at 54.82 and 54.7 eV for CIGSe film and GMZO/CIGSe interface respectively, while the peak position of Mg 2p is observed at 50.09 and 50.12 eV for GMZO and GMZO/CIGSe interface respectively. The optical band gap of CIGSe and GMZO are obtained from absorption spectra procured from spectroscopic ellipsometry are 1.26 and 3.84 eV respectively. The calculated average values of ∆E_v and ∆E_C are estimated to be 2.37 and 0.21 eV, respectively, at room temperature. The calculated positive conduction band offset termed as a spike at the absorber junction is the required criterion for the high-efficiency solar cells for the efficient charge extraction from the junction. So we can conclude that the above study confirms GMZO thin films grown by the dual ion beam sputtering system are the suitable candidate for the CIGSe thin films based ultra-thin buffer-less solar cells. We investigated the band-offset properties at the GMZO/CIGSe heterojunction to verify the suitability of the GMZO for the realization of the buffer-less solar cells. The calculated average values of ∆E_V and ∆E_C are estimated to be 2.37 and 0.21 eV, respectively, at room temperature. The calculated positive conduction band offset termed as a spike at the absorber junction is the required criterion for the high-efficiency solar cells for the efficient charge extraction from the junction. So we can conclude that the above study confirms GMZO thin films grown by the dual ion beam sputtering system are the suitable candidate for the CIGSe thin films based ultra-thin buffer-less solar cells. Acknowledgment: We are thankful to DIBS, EDX, and XRD facility equipped at Sophisticated Instrument Centre (SIC) at IIT Indore. The authors B.S.S and A.K acknowledge CSIR and V.G acknowledge UGC, India for their fellowships. B.S.S is thankful to DST and IUSSTF for BASE Internship Award. Prof. Shaibal Mukherjee is thankful to DST and IUSSTF for BASE Fellowship and MEITY YFRF award. This work is partially supported by DAE BRNS, DST CERI, and DST-RFBR Project under India-Russia Programme of Cooperation in Science and Technology. We are thankful to Mukul Gupta for SIMS facility equipped at UGC-DAE Indore.

Keywords: Solar Cells, CIGSe, DIBS, GMZO, UPS

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1318 Nano-Coating for Corrosion Prevention

Authors: M. J. Suriani, F. Mansor, W. Siti Maizurah, I. Nurizwani


Silicon Carbide (SiC) is one of the Silicon-based materials, which get interested by the researcher. SiC is an emerging semiconductor material, which has received a great deal of attention due to their application in high frequency and high power systems. Although its superior characteristic for a semiconductor material, its outstanding mechanical properties, chemical inertness and thermal stability has gained important aspect for a surface coating for deployment in extreme environments. Very high frequency (VHF)-PECVD technique utilized to deposit nano ns-SiC film in which variation in chamber pressure, substrate temperature, RF power and precursor gases flow rate will be investigated in order to get a good quality of thin film coating. Characterization of the coating performed in order to study the surface morphology, structural information. This performance of coating evaluated through corrosion test to determine the effectiveness of the coating for corrosion prevention. Ns-SiC film expected to possess better corrosion resistance and optical properties, as well as preserving the metal from the marine environment. Through this research project, corrosion protection performance by applying coating will be explored to obtain a great corrosion prevention method to the shipping and oil and gas industry in Malaysia. Besides, the cost of repair and maintenance spending by the government of Malaysia can be reduced through practicing this method.

Keywords: Composite Materials, Marine Corrosion, nano-composite, nano structure–coating

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1317 Film Censorship and Female Chastity: Exploring State's Discourses and Patriarchal Values in Reconstructing Chinese Film Stardom of Tang Wei

Authors: Xinchen Zhu


The rapid fame of the renowned female film star Tang Wei has made her a typical subject (or object) entangled with sensitive issues involving the official ideology, sexuality, and patriarchal values of contemporary China. In 2008, Tang Wei’s official ban has triggered the wave of debates concerning state power and censorship, actor’s rights, sexual ethics, and feminism in the public sphere. Her ban implies that Chinese film censorship acts as a key factor in reconstructing Chinese film stardom. Following the ban, as sensational media texts are re-interpreting the official discourses, the texts also functioned as a crucial vehicle in reconstructing Tang's female image. Therefore, the case study of Tang's film stardom allows us to further explore how female stardom has been entangled with the issues involving official ideology, female sexual ethics, and patriarchal values in contemporary China. This paper argues that Chinese female film stars shoulder the responsibility of film acting which would conform to the official male-dominated values. However, with the development of the Internet, the state no longer remains an absolute control over the new venues. The netizens’ discussion about her ban reshaped Tang’s image as a victim and scapegoat under the unfair oppression of the official authority. Additionally, this paper argues that similar to State’s discourse, netizens’ discourse did not reject patriarchal values, and in turn emphasized Tang Wei’s female chastity.

Keywords: film censorship, Chinese female film stardom, party-state’s power, national discourses, Tang Wei

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1316 Effect of O2 Pressure of Fe-Doped TiO2 Nanostructure on Morphology Properties for Gas Sensing

Authors: Samar Y. Al-Dabagh, Adawiya J. Haider, Mirvat D. Majed


Pure nanostructure TiO2 and thin films doped with transition metal Fe were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on Si (111) substrate. The thin films structures were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphology properties were determined from atomic force microscopy (AFM), which shows that the roughness increases when TiO2 is doped with Fe. Results show TiO2 doped with Fe metal thin films deposited on Si (111) substrate has maximum sensitivity to ethanol vapor at 10 mbar oxygen pressure than at 0.01 and 0.1 mbar with optimum operation temperature of 250°C.

Keywords: nanostructure, Gas Sensor, pulsed laser deposition (PLD), TiO2 doped thin films

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1315 Viability of EBT3 Film in Small Dimensions to Be Use for in-Vivo Dosimetry in Radiation Therapy

Authors: Sharib Ahmed, Abdul Qadir Jangda, Khadija Mariam, Usman Ahmed


The Gafchromic EBT3 film has the characteristic of high spatial resolution, weak energy dependence and near tissue equivalence which makes them viable to be used for in-vivo dosimetry in External Beam and Brachytherapy applications. The aim of this study is to assess the smallest film dimension that may be feasible for the use in in-vivo dosimetry. To evaluate the viability, the film sizes from 3 x 3 mm to 20 x 20 mm were calibrated with 6 MV Photon and 6 MeV electron beams. The Gafchromic EBT3 (Lot no. A05151201, Make: ISP) film was cut into five different sizes in order to establish the relationship between absorbed dose vs. film dimensions. The film dimension were 3 x 3, 5 x 5, 10 x 10, 15 x 15, and 20 x 20 mm. The films were irradiated on Varian Clinac® 2100C linear accelerator for dose range from 0 to 1000 cGy using PTW solid water phantom. The irradiation was performed as per clinical absolute dose rate calibratin setup, i.e. 100 cm SAD, 5.0 cm depth and field size of 10x10 cm2 and 100 cm SSD, 1.4 cm depth and 15x15 cm2 applicator for photon and electron respectively. The irradiated films were scanned with the landscape orientation and a post development time of 48 hours (minimum). Film scanning accomplished using Epson Expression 10000 XL Flatbed Scanner and quantitative analysis carried out with ImageJ freeware software. Results show that the dose variation with different film dimension ranging from 3 x 3 mm to 20 x 20 mm is very minimal with a maximum standard deviation of 0.0058 in Optical Density for a dose level of 3000 cGy and the the standard deviation increases with the increase in dose level. So the precaution must be taken while using the small dimension films for higher doses. Analysis shows that there is insignificant variation in the absorbed dose with a change in film dimension of EBT3 film. Study concludes that the film dimension upto 3 x 3 mm can safely be used up to a dose level of 3000 cGy without the need of recalibration for particular dimension in use for dosimetric application. However, for higher dose levels, one may need to calibrate the films for a particular dimension in use for higher accuracy. It was also noticed that the crystalline structure of the film got damage at the edges while cutting the film, which can contribute to the wrong dose if the region of interest includes the damage area of the film

Keywords: external beam radiotherapy, film calibration, film dosimetery, in-vivo dosimetery

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1314 Analysis of Multilayer Neural Network Modeling and Long Short-Term Memory

Authors: Danilo López, Nelson Vera, Luis Pedraza


This paper analyzes fundamental ideas and concepts related to neural networks, which provide the reader a theoretical explanation of Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks operation classified as Deep Learning Systems, and to explicitly present the mathematical development of Backward Pass equations of the LSTM network model. This mathematical modeling associated with software development will provide the necessary tools to develop an intelligent system capable of predicting the behavior of licensed users in wireless cognitive radio networks.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Mathematical Analysis, multilayer perceptron, long short-term memory, recurrent neuronal network

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1313 Soap Film Enneper Minimal Surface Model

Authors: Yee Hooi Min, Mohdnasir Abdul Hadi


Tensioned membrane structure in the form of Enneper minimal surface can be considered as a sustainable development for the green environment and technology, it also can be used to support the effectiveness used of energy and the structure. Soap film in the form of Enneper minimal surface model has been studied. The combination of shape and internal forces for the purpose of stiffness and strength is an important feature of membrane surface. For this purpose, form-finding using soap film model has been carried out for Enneper minimal surface models with variables u=v=0.6 and u=v=1.0. Enneper soap film models with variables u=v=0.6 and u=v=1.0 provides an alternative choice for structural engineers to consider the tensioned membrane structure in the form of Enneper minimal surface applied in the building industry. It is expected to become an alternative building material to be considered by the designer.

Keywords: Enneper, minimal surface, soap film, tensioned membrane structure

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1312 Production and Characterization of Silver Doped Hydroxyapatite Thin Films for Biomedical Applications

Authors: S. L. Iconaru, A. Costescu, D. Predoi, C. L Popa, C.S. Ciobanu, P. Chapon, P. Le Coustumer


In this paper, the preparation and characterization of silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films and their antimicrobial activity characterized is reported. The resultant Ag: HAp films coated on commercially pure Si disks substrates were systematically characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy detector (X-EDS), Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy (GDOES) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). GDOES measurements show that a substantial Ag content has been deposited in the films. The X-EDS and GDOES spectra revealed the presence of a material composed mainly of phosphate, calcium, oxygen, hydrogen and silver. The antimicrobial efficiency of Ag:HAp thin films against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was demonstrated. Ag:HAp thin films could lead to a decrease of infections especially in the case of bone and dental implants by surface modification of implantable medical devices.

Keywords: Thin Films, Silver, SEM, hydroxyapatite, GDOES, FTIR, antimicrobial effect

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