Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 1553

Search results for: multi-layer thin film

53 Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation: Feasible Alternative to Soil Chemical Fumigants

Authors: P. Serrano-Pérez, M. C. Rodríguez-Molina, C. Palo, E. Palo, A. Lacasa

Abstract:

Phytophthora nicotianae is the principal causal agent of root and crown rot disease of red pepper plants in Extremadura (Western Spain). There is a need to develop a biologically-based method of soil disinfestation that facilitates profitable and sustainable production without the use of chemical fumigants. Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD), as well know as biodisinfestation, has been shown to control a wide range of soil-borne pathogens and nematodes in numerous crop production systems. This method implies soil wetting, incorporation of a easily decomposable carbon-rich organic amendment and covering with plastic film for several weeks. ASD with rapeseed cake (var. Tocatta, a glucosinolates-free variety) used as C-source was assayed in spring 2014, before the pepper crop establishment. The field experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Centre Finca La Orden (Southwestern Spain) and the treatments were: rapeseed cake (RCP); rapeseed cake without plastic cover (RC); control non-amendment (CP) and control non-amendment without plastic cover (C). The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with four replicates and a plot size of 5 x 5 m. On 26 March, rapeseed cake (1 kg·m-2) was incorporated into the soil with a rotovator. Biological probes with the inoculum were buried at 15 and 30-cm depth (biological probes were previously prepared with 100 g of disinfected soil inoculated with chlamydospores (chlam) of P. nicotianae P13 isolate [100 chlam·g-1 of soil] and wrapped in agryl cloth). Sprinkler irrigation was run until field capacity and the corresponding plots were covered with transparent plastic (PE 0.05 mm). On 6 May plastics were removed, the biological probes were dug out and a bioassay was established. One pepper seedling at the 2 to 4 true-leaves stage was transplanted in the soil from each biological probe. Plants were grown in a climatic chamber and disease symptoms were recorded every week during 2 months. Fragments of roots and crown of symptomatic plants were analyzed on NARPH media and soil from rizospheres was analyzed using carnation petals as baits. Results of “survival” were expressed as the percentage of soil samples where P. nicotianae was detected and results of “infectivity” were expressed as the percentage of diseased plants. No differences were detected in deep effect. Infectivity of P. nicotianae chlamydospores was successfully reduced in RCP treatment (4.2% of infectivity) compared with the controls (41.7% of infectivity). The pattern of survival was similar to infectivity observed by the bioassay: 21% of survival in RCP; 79% in CP; 83% in C and 87% in RC. Although ASD may be an effective alternative to chemical fumigants to pest management, more research is necessary to show their impact on the microbial community and chemistry of the soil.

Keywords: biodisinfestation, BSD, soil fumigant alternatives, organic amendments

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52 Three Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Wall Condensation inside Inclined Tubes

Authors: Amirhosein Moonesi Shabestary, Eckhard Krepper, Dirk Lucas

Abstract:

The current PhD project comprises CFD-modeling and simulation of condensation and heat transfer inside horizontal pipes. Condensation plays an important role in emergency cooling systems of reactors. The emergency cooling system consists of inclined horizontal pipes which are immersed in a tank of subcooled water. In the case of an accident the water level in the core is decreasing, steam comes in the emergency pipes, and due to the subcooled water around the pipe, this steam will start to condense. These horizontal pipes act as a strong heat sink which is responsible for a quick depressurization of the reactor core when any accident happens. This project is defined in order to model all these processes which happening in the emergency cooling systems. The most focus of the project is on detection of different morphologies such as annular flow, stratified flow, slug flow and plug flow. This project is an ongoing project which has been started 1 year ago in Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf (HZDR), Fluid Dynamics department. In HZDR most in cooperation with ANSYS different models are developed for modeling multiphase flows. Inhomogeneous MUSIG model considers the bubble size distribution and is used for modeling small-scaled dispersed gas phase. AIAD (Algebraic Interfacial Area Density Model) is developed for detection of the local morphology and corresponding switch between them. The recent model is GENTOP combines both concepts. GENTOP is able to simulate co-existing large-scaled (continuous) and small-scaled (polydispersed) structures. All these models are validated for adiabatic cases without any phase change. Therefore, the start point of the current PhD project is using the available models and trying to integrate phase transition and wall condensing models into them. In order to simplify the idea of condensation inside horizontal tubes, 3 steps have been defined. The first step is the investigation of condensation inside a horizontal tube by considering only direct contact condensation (DCC) and neglect wall condensation. Therefore, the inlet of the pipe is considered to be annular flow. In this step, AIAD model is used in order to detect the interface. The second step is the extension of the model to consider wall condensation as well which is closer to the reality. In this step, the inlet is pure steam, and due to the wall condensation, a liquid film occurs near the wall which leads to annular flow. The last step will be modeling of different morphologies which are occurring inside the tube during the condensation via using GENTOP model. By using GENTOP, the dispersed phase is able to be considered and simulated. Finally, the results of the simulations will be validated by experimental data which will be available also in HZDR.

Keywords: wall condensation, direct contact condensation, AIAD model, morphology detection

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51 Preparation and Characterization of Poly(L-Lactic Acid)/Oligo(D-Lactic Acid) Grafted Cellulose Composites

Authors: Md. Hafezur Rahaman, Mohd. Maniruzzaman, Md. Shadiqul Islam, Md. Masud Rana

Abstract:

With the growth of environmental awareness, enormous researches are running to develop the next generation materials based on sustainability, eco-competence, and green chemistry to preserve and protect the environment. Due to biodegradability and biocompatibility, poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) has a great interest in ecological and medical applications. Also, cellulose is one of the most abundant biodegradable, renewable polymers found in nature. It has several advantages such as low cost, high mechanical strength, biodegradability and so on. Recently, an immense deal of attention has been paid for the scientific and technological development of α-cellulose based composite material. PLLA could be used for grafting of cellulose to improve the compatibility prior to the composite preparation. Here it is quite difficult to form a bond between lower hydrophilic molecules like PLLA and α-cellulose. Dimmers and oligomers can easily be grafted onto the surface of the cellulose by ring opening or polycondensation method due to their low molecular weight. In this research, α-cellulose extracted from jute fiber is grafted with oligo(D-lactic acid) (ODLA) via graft polycondensation reaction in presence of para-toluene sulphonic acid and potassium persulphate in toluene at 130°C for 9 hours under 380 mmHg. Here ODLA is synthesized by ring opening polymerization of D-lactides in the presence of stannous octoate (0.03 wt% of lactide) and D-lactic acids at 140°C for 10 hours. Composites of PLLA with ODLA grafted α-cellulose are prepared by solution mixing and film casting method. Confirmation of grafting was carried out through FTIR spectroscopy and SEM analysis. A strongest carbonyl peak of FTIR spectroscopy at 1728 cm⁻¹ of ODLA grafted α-cellulose confirms the grafting of ODLA onto α-cellulose which is absent in α-cellulose. It is also observed from SEM photographs that there are some white areas (spot) on ODLA grafted α-cellulose as compared to α-cellulose may indicate the grafting of ODLA and consistent with FTIR results. Analysis of the composites is carried out by FTIR, SEM, WAXD and thermal gravimetric analyzer. Most of the FTIR characteristic absorption peak of the composites shifted to higher wave number with increasing peak area may provide a confirmation that PLLA and grafted cellulose have better compatibility in composites via intermolecular hydrogen bonding and this supports previously published results. Grafted α-cellulose distributions in composites are uniform which is observed by SEM analysis. WAXD studied show that only homo-crystalline structures of PLLA present in the composites. Thermal stability of the composites is enhanced with increasing the percentages of ODLA grafted α-cellulose in composites. As a consequence, the resultant composites have a resistance toward the thermal degradation. The effects of length of the grafted chain and biodegradability of the composites will be studied in further research.

Keywords: Composite, poly(L-lactic acid), α-cellulose, graft polycondensation, oligo(D-lactic acid)

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50 Graphene Metamaterials Supported Tunable Terahertz Fano Resonance

Authors: Xiaoyong He

Abstract:

The manipulation of THz waves is still a challenging task due to lack of natural materials interacted with it strongly. Designed by tailoring the characters of unit cells (meta-molecules), the advance of metamaterials (MMs) may solve this problem. However, because of Ohmic and radiation losses, the performance of MMs devices is subjected to the dissipation and low quality factor (Q-factor). This dilemma may be circumvented by Fano resonance, which arises from the destructive interference between a bright continuum mode and dark discrete mode (or a narrow resonance). Different from symmetric Lorentz spectral curve, Fano resonance indicates a distinct asymmetric line-shape, ultrahigh quality factor, steep variations in spectrum curves. Fano resonance is usually realized through symmetry breaking. However, if concentric double rings (DR) are placed closely to each other, the near-field coupling between them gives rise to two hybridized modes (bright and narrowband dark modes) because of the local asymmetry, resulting into the characteristic Fano line shape. Furthermore, from the practical viewpoint, it is highly desirable requirement that to achieve the modulation of Fano spectral curves conveniently, which is an important and interesting research topics. For current Fano systems, the tunable spectral curves can be realized by adjusting the geometrical structural parameters or magnetic fields biased the ferrite-based structure. But due to limited dispersion properties of active materials, it is still a tough work to tailor Fano resonance conveniently with the fixed structural parameters. With the favorable properties of extreme confinement and high tunability, graphene is a strong candidate to achieve this goal. The DR-structure possesses the excitation of so-called “trapped modes,” with the merits of simple structure and high quality of resonances in thin structures. By depositing graphene circular DR on the SiO2/Si/ polymer substrate, the tunable Fano resonance has been theoretically investigated in the terahertz regime, including the effects of graphene Fermi level, structural parameters and operation frequency. The results manifest that the obvious Fano peak can be efficiently modulated because of the strong coupling between incident waves and graphene ribbons. As Fermi level increases, the peak amplitude of Fano curve increases, and the resonant peak position shifts to high frequency. The amplitude modulation depth of Fano curves is about 30% if Fermi level changes in the scope of 0.1-1.0 eV. The optimum gap distance between DR is about 8-12 μm, where the value of figure of merit shows a peak. As the graphene ribbon width increases, the Fano spectral curves become broad, and the resonant peak denotes blue shift. The results are very helpful to develop novel graphene plasmonic devices, e.g. sensors and modulators.

Keywords: Metamaterials, Graphene, terahertz, tunable

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49 Biophysical Analysis of the Interaction of Polymeric Nanoparticles with Biomimetic Models of the Lung Surfactant

Authors: Weiam Daear, Patrick Lai, Elmar Prenner

Abstract:

The human body offers many avenues that could be used for drug delivery. The pulmonary route, which is delivered through the lungs, presents many advantages that have sparked interested in the field. These advantages include; 1) direct access to the lungs and the large surface area it provides, and 2) close proximity to the blood circulation. The air-blood barrier of the alveoli is about 500 nm thick. The air-blood barrier consist of a monolayer of lipids and few proteins called the lung surfactant and cells. This monolayer consists of ~90% lipids and ~10% proteins that are produced by the alveolar epithelial cells. The two major lipid classes constitutes of various saturation and chain length of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) representing 80% of total lipid component. The major role of the lung surfactant monolayer is to reduce surface tension experienced during breathing cycles in order to prevent lung collapse. In terms of the pulmonary drug delivery route, drugs pass through various parts of the respiratory system before reaching the alveoli. It is at this location that the lung surfactant functions as the air-blood barrier for drugs. As the field of nanomedicine advances, the use of nanoparticles (NPs) as drug delivery vehicles is becoming very important. This is due to the advantages NPs provide with their large surface area and potential specific targeting. Therefore, studying the interaction of NPs with lung surfactant and whether they affect its stability becomes very essential. The aim of this research is to develop a biomimetic model of the human lung surfactant followed by a biophysical analysis of the interaction of polymeric NPs. This biomimetic model will function as a fast initial mode of testing for whether NPs affect the stability of the human lung surfactant. The model developed thus far is an 8-component lipid system that contains major PC and PG lipids. Recently, a custom made 16:0/16:1 PC and PG lipids were added to the model system. In the human lung surfactant, these lipids constitute 16% of the total lipid component. According to the author’s knowledge, there is not much monolayer data on the biophysical analysis of the 16:0/16:1 lipids, therefore more analysis will be discussed here. Biophysical techniques such as the Langmuir Trough is used for stability measurements which monitors changes to a monolayer's surface pressure upon NP interaction. Furthermore, Brewster Angle Microscopy (BAM) employed to visualize changes to the lateral domain organization. Results show preferential interactions of NPs with different lipid groups that is also dependent on the monolayer fluidity. Furthermore, results show that the film stability upon compression is unaffected, but there are significant changes in the lateral domain organization of the lung surfactant upon NP addition. This research is significant in the field of pulmonary drug delivery. It is shown that NPs within a certain size range are safe for the pulmonary route, but little is known about the mode of interaction of those polymeric NPs. Moreover, this work will provide additional information about the nanotoxicology of NPs tested.

Keywords: Lipids, Nanoparticles, lung surfactant, Brewster angle microscopy

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48 Auto Surgical-Emissive Hand

Authors: Abhit Kumar

Abstract:

The world is full of master slave Telemanipulator where the doctor’s masters the console and the surgical arm perform the operations, i.e. these robots are passive robots, what the world needs to focus is that in use of these passive robots we are acquiring doctors for operating these console hence the utilization of the concept of robotics is still not fully utilized ,hence the focus should be on active robots, Auto Surgical-Emissive Hand use the similar concept of active robotics where this anthropomorphic hand focuses on the autonomous surgical, emissive and scanning operation, enabled with the vision of 3 way emission of Laser Beam/-5°C < ICY Steam < 5°C/ TIC embedded in palm of the anthropomorphic hand and structured in a form of 3 way disc. Fingers of AS-EH (Auto Surgical-Emissive Hand) as called, will have tactile, force, pressure sensor rooted to it so that the mechanical mechanism of force, pressure and physical presence on the external subject can be maintained, conversely our main focus is on the concept of “emission” the question arises how all the 3 non related methods will work together that to merged in a single programmed hand, all the 3 methods will be utilized according to the need of the external subject, the laser if considered will be emitted via a pin sized outlet, this radiation is channelized via a thin channel which further connect to the palm of the surgical hand internally leading to the pin sized outlet, here the laser is used to emit radiation enough to cut open the skin for removal of metal scrap or any other foreign material while the patient is in under anesthesia, keeping the complexity of the operation very low, at the same time the TIC fitted with accurate temperature compensator will be providing us the real time feed of the surgery in the form of heat image, this gives us the chance to analyze the level, also ATC will help us to determine the elevated body temperature while the operation is being proceeded, the thermal imaging camera in rooted internally in the AS-EH while also being connected to the real time software externally to provide us live feedback. The ICY steam will provide the cooling effect before and after the operation, however for more utilization of this concept we can understand the working of simple procedure in which If a finger remain in icy water for a long time it freezes the blood flow stops and the portion become numb and isolated hence even if you try to pinch it will not provide any sensation as the nerve impulse did not coordinated with the brain hence sensory receptor did not got active which means no sense of touch was observed utilizing the same concept we can use the icy stem to be emitted via a pin sized hole on the area of concern ,temperature below 273K which will frost the area after which operation can be done, this steam can also be use to desensitized the pain while the operation in under process. The mathematical calculation, algorithm, programming of working and movement of this hand will be installed in the system prior to the procedure, since this AS-EH is a programmable hand it comes with the limitation hence this AS-EH robot will perform surgical process of low complexity only.

Keywords: laser, Algorithm, Emission, active robots, icy steam, TIC

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47 Structure Domains Tuning Magnetic Anisotropy and Motivating Novel Electric Behaviors in LaCoO₃ Films

Authors: Yongqi Dong, Dechao Meng, Qiyuan Feng, Zhangzhang Cui, Xiang Hu, Haoliang Huang, Genhao Liang, Huanhua Wang, Hua Zhou, Hawoong Hong, Jinghua Guo, Qingyou Lu, Xiaofang Zhai, Yalin Lu

Abstract:

Great efforts have been taken to reveal the intrinsic origins of emerging ferromagnetism (FM) in strained LaCoO₃ (LCO) films. However, some macro magnetic performances of LCO are still not well understood and even controversial, such as magnetic anisotropy. Determining and understanding magnetic anisotropy might help to find the true causes of FM in turn. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) was the first time to be directly observed in high-quality LCO films with different thickness. The in-plane (IP) and out of plane (OOP) remnant magnetic moment ratio of 30 unit cell (u.c.) films is as large as 20. The easy axis lays in the OOP direction with an IP/OOP coercive field ratio of 10. What's more, the PMA could be simply tuned by changing the thickness. With the thickness increases, the IP/OOP magnetic moment ratio remarkably decrease with magnetic easy axis changing from OOP to IP. Such a huge and tunable PMA performance exhibit strong potentials in fundamental researches or applications. What causes PMA is the first concern. More OOP orbitals occupation may be one of the micro reasons of PMA. A cluster-like magnetic domain pattern was found in 30 u.c. with no obvious color contrasts, similar to that of LaAlO₃/SrTiO₃ films. And the nanosize domains could not be totally switched even at a large OOP magnetic field of 23 T. It indicates strong IP characters or none OOP magnetism of some clusters. The IP magnetic domains might influence the magnetic performance and help to form PMA. Meanwhile some possible nonmagnetic clusters might be the reason why the measured moments of LCO films are smaller than the calculated values 2 μB/Co, one of the biggest confusions in LCO films.What tunes PMA seems much more interesting. Totally different magnetic domain patterns were found in 180 u.c. films with cluster magnetic domains surrounded by < 110 > cross-hatch lines. These lines were regarded as structure domain walls (DWs) determined by 3D reciprocal space mapping (RSM). Two groups of in-plane features with fourfold symmetry were observed near the film diffraction peaks in (002) 3D-RSM. One is along < 110 > directions with a larger intensity, which is well match the lines on the surfaces. The other is much weaker and along < 100 > directions, which is from the normal lattice titling of films deposited on cubic substrates. The < 110 > domain features obtained from (103) and (113) 3D-RSMs exhibit similar evolution of the DWs percentages and magnetic behavior. Structure domains and domain walls are believed to tune PMA performances by transform more IP magnetic moments to OOP. Last but not the least, thick films with lots of structure domains exhibit different electrical transport behaviors. A metal-to-insulator transition (MIT) and an angular dependent negative magnetic resistivity were observed near 150 K, higher than FM transition temperature but similar to that of spin-orbital coupling related 1/4 order diffraction peaks.

Keywords: Magnetic Anisotropy, Magnetic Domain, strain, structure domain, domain wall

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46 Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals Based on Poly Vinyl Alcohol Boric Acid Matrix

Authors: Luminita Marin, Daniela Ailincai, Bogdan C. Simionescu

Abstract:

Polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLC) represent an interesting class of materials which combine the ability of polymers to form films and their mechanical strength with the opto-electronic properties of liquid crystals. The proper choice of the two components - the liquid crystal and the polymeric matrix - leads to materials suitable for a large area of applications, from electronics to biomedical devices. The objective of our work was to obtain PDLC films with potential applications in the biomedical field, using poly vinyl alcohol boric acid (PVAB) as a polymeric matrix for the first time. Presenting all the tremendous properties of poly vinyl alcohol (such as: biocompatibility, biodegradability, water solubility, good chemical stability and film forming ability), PVAB brings the advantage of containing the electron deficient boron atom, and due to this, it should promote the liquid crystal anchoring and a narrow liquid crystal droplets polydispersity. Two different PDLC systems have been obtained, by the use of two liquid crystals, a nematic commercial one: 4-cyano-4’-penthylbiphenyl (5CB) and a new smectic liquid crystal, synthesized by us: buthyl-p-[p’-n-octyloxy benzoyloxy] benzoate (BBO). The PDLC composites have been obtained by the encapsulation method, working with four different ratios between the polymeric matrix and the liquid crystal, from 60:40 to 90:10. In all cases, the composites were able to form free standing, flexible films. Polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, RAMAN- spectroscopy and the contact angle measurements have been performed, in order to characterize the new composites. The new smectic liquid crystal has been characterized using 1H-NMR and single crystal X-ray diffraction and its thermotropic behavior has been established using differential scanning calorimetry and polarized light microscopy. The polarized light microscopy evidenced the formation of round birefringent droplets, anchored homeotropic in the first case and planar in the second, with a narrow dimensional polydispersity, especially for the PDLC containing the largest amount of liquid crystal, fact evidenced by SEM, also. The obtained values for the water to air contact angle showed that the composites have a proper hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance, making them potential candidates for bioapplications. More than this, our studies demonstrated that the water to air contact angle varies as a function of PVAB matrix crystalinity degree, which can be controled as a function of time. This fact allowed us to conclude that the use of PVAB as matrix for PDLCs obtaining offers the possibility to modulate their properties for specific applications.

Keywords: Contact angle, buthyl-p-[p’-n-octyloxy benzoyloxy] benzoate, polymer dispersed liquid crystals, poly vinyl alcohol boric acid

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45 Fathers and Daughters: Their Relationship and Its Impact on Body Image and Mental Health

Authors: John Toussaint

Abstract:

Objective: Our society is suffering from an epidemic of body image dissatisfaction, and related disorders appear to be increasing globally for children. There is much to indicate that children's body image and eating attitudes are being affected negatively by socio-cultural factors such as parents, peers and media. Most studies and theories, however, have focused extensively on the daughter-mother relationship. Very few studies have investigated the role of attachment to the father as an important factor in the development of girls’ and women’s attitudes towards themselves and their bodies. Recently, data have shown that the father’s parenting style, as well as the quality of the relationship with him is crucial for the understanding of the development and persistence of body image disorders. This presentation is based on samples of participants with self-defined body image dissatisfaction, and the self-reported measures of their fathers’ parental behaviours, emotional warmth, support, or protection. Attachment theory does offer support in exploring these relationships and it is used in this presentation to assist in understanding the relationship between the father and his daughter in relation to body image and mental health. Clinical implications are also offered in respect to work with body image, eating disorders and relational therapy. Methods: As awareness of the increasing frequency of body image concerns in children grows, so too does the need for a simple, valid and reliable measure of body image. The Children's Body Image Scale (CBIS) designed in Australia, depicts seven male and females figures from which children are to choose their perceived body type and ideal body type. This was compared with a range of international body mass index (BMI) reference standards. These measures together with individual one-on-one interviews were completed by 158 children aged 7-12 years. Results: A high frequency of body image dissatisfaction was indicated in the children's responses. 55% of girls and 41% of boys said they would like to be thinner, and wished for an ideal BMI figure below the 10th percentile. This is an unhealthy and unattainable level of body fatness for the majority of children when considered in relation to the reported secular trend of their increasing average body size. Thin children were generally ranked as best and perceived as kind, happy, academically skilled, and socially successful. Fat children were perceived as unintelligent, lazy, greedy, unpopular, and unable to play physical games. Conclusions: Body image ideals and fat stereotypes are well entrenched among children. There is much to indicate that children's body image and eating attitudes are being affected negatively by sociocultural factors such as parents, peers and media. Teachers and health professionals could promote intervention programs for children involving knowledge and acceptance of genetic influences on body type; the dangerous effects of weight loss dieting; the importance of physical activity and eating healthy; and scepticism and critical analysis of mass media messages.

Keywords: Mental Health, Body image, Eating Disorders, father attachment

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44 Effect of Ion Irradiation on the Microstructure and Properties of Chromium Coatings on Zircaloy-4 Substrate

Authors: Jean-Christophe Brachet, Elodie Rouesne, Alexia Wu, Joel Ribis, Emmanuel Clouet, Benoit Arnal, Stéphane Urvoy, Justine Roubaud, Yves Serruys, Frederic Lepretre

Abstract:

To enhance the safety of Light Water Reactor, accident tolerant fuel (ATF) claddings materials are under development. In the framework of CEA-AREVA-EDF collaborative program on ATF cladding materials, CEA has engaged specific studies on chromium coated zirconium alloys. Especially for Loss-of-Coolant-Accident situations, chromium coated claddings have shown some additional 'coping' time before achieving full embrittlement of the oxidized cladding, when compared to uncoated references – both tested in steam environment up to 1300°C. Nevertheless, the behavior of chromium coatings and the stability of the Zr-Cr interface under neutron irradiation remain unknown. Two main points are addressed: 1. Bulk Cr behavior under irradiation: Due to its BCC crystallographic structure, Cr is prone to Ductile-to-Brittle-Transition at quite high temperature. Irradiation could be responsible for a significant additional DBTT shift towards higher temperatures. 2. Zircaloy/Cr interface behavior under irradiation: Preliminary TEM examinations of un-irradiated samples revealed a singular Zircaloy-4/Cr interface with nanometric intermetallic phase layers. Such particular interfaces highlight questions of how they would behave under irradiation - intermetallic zirconium phases are known to be more or less stable under irradiations. Another concern is a potential enhancement of chromium diffusion into the zirconium-alpha based substrate. The purpose of this study is then to determine the behavior of such coatings after ion irradiations, as a surrogate to neutron irradiation. Ion irradiations were performed at the Jannus-Saclay facility (France). 20 MeV Kr8+ ions at 400°C with a flux of 2.8x1011 ions.cm-2.s-1 were used to irradiate chromium coatings of 1-2 µm thick on Zircaloy-4 sheets substrate. At the interface, the calculated damage is close to 10 dpa (SRIM, Quick Calculation Damage mode). Thin foil samples were prepared with FIB for both as-received and irradiated coated samples. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and in-situ tensile tests in a Scanning Electron Microscope are being used to characterize the un-irradiated and irradiated materials. High Resolution TEM highlights a great complexity of the interface before irradiation since it is formed of an alternation of intermetallic phases – C14 and C15. The interfaces formed by these intermetallic phases with chromium and zirconium show semi-coherency. Chemical analysis performed before irradiation shows some iron enrichment at the interface. The chromium coating bulk microstructures and properties are also studied before and after irradiation. On-going in-situ tensile tests focus on the capacity of chromium coatings to sustain some plastic deformation when tested up to 350°C. The stability of the Cr/Zr interface is shown after ion irradiation up to 10 dpa. This observation constitutes the first result after irradiation on these new coated claddings materials.

Keywords: Interface, HRTEM, accident tolerant fuel, ion-irradiation

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43 The Asymptotic Hole Shape in Long Pulse Laser Drilling: The Influence of Multiple Reflections

Authors: Torsten Hermanns, Wolfgang Schulz, You Wang, Stefan Janssen, Markus Niessen, Christoph Schoeler, Ulrich Thombansen

Abstract:

In long pulse laser drilling of metals, it can be demonstrated that the ablation shape approaches a so-called asymptotic shape such that it changes only slightly or not at all with further irradiation. These findings are already known from ultra short pulse (USP) ablation of dielectric and semiconducting materials. The explanation for the occurrence of an asymptotic shape in long pulse drilling of metals is identified, a model for the description of the asymptotic hole shape numerically implemented, tested and clearly confirmed by comparison with experimental data. The model assumes a robust process in that way that the characteristics of the melt flow inside the arising melt film does not change qualitatively by changing the laser or processing parameters. Only robust processes are technically controllable and thus of industrial interest. The condition for a robust process is identified by a threshold for the mass flow density of the assist gas at the hole entrance which has to be exceeded. Within a robust process regime the melt flow characteristics can be captured by only one model parameter, namely the intensity threshold. In analogy to USP ablation (where it is already known for a long time that the resulting hole shape results from a threshold for the absorbed laser fluency) it is demonstrated that in the case of robust long pulse ablation the asymptotic shape forms in that way that along the whole contour the absorbed heat flux density is equal to the intensity threshold. The intensity threshold depends on the special material and radiation properties and has to be calibrated be one reference experiment. The model is implemented in a numerical simulation which is called AsymptoticDrill and requires such a few amount of resources that it can run on common desktop PCs, laptops or even smart devices. Resulting hole shapes can be calculated within seconds what depicts a clear advantage over other simulations presented in literature in the context of industrial every day usage. Against this background the software additionally is equipped with a user-friendly GUI which allows an intuitive usage. Individual parameters can be adjusted using sliders while the simulation result appears immediately in an adjacent window. A platform independent development allow a flexible usage: the operator can use the tool to adjust the process in a very convenient manner on a tablet during the developer can execute the tool in his office in order to design new processes. Furthermore, at the best knowledge of the authors AsymptoticDrill is the first simulation which allows the import of measured real beam distributions and thus calculates the asymptotic hole shape on the basis of the real state of the specific manufacturing system. In this paper the emphasis is placed on the investigation of the effect of multiple reflections on the asymptotic hole shape which gain in importance when drilling holes with large aspect ratios.

Keywords: asymptotic hole shape, intensity threshold, long pulse laser drilling, robust process

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42 Natural Fibers Design Attributes

Authors: Brayan S. Pabón, R. Ricardo Moreno, Edith Gonzalez

Abstract:

Inside the wide Colombian natural fiber set is the banana stem leaf, known as Calceta de Plátano, which is a material present in several regions of the country and is a fiber extracted from the pseudo stem of the banana plant (Musa paradisiaca) as a regular maintenance process. Colombia had a production of 2.8 million tons in 2007 and 2008 corresponding to 8.2% of the international production, number that is growing. This material was selected to be studied because it is not being used by farmers due to it being perceived as a waste from the banana harvest and a propagation pest agent inside the planting. In addition, the Calceta does not have industrial applications in Colombia since there is not enough concrete knowledge that informs us about the properties of the material and the possible applications it could have. Based on this situation the industrial design is used as a link between the properties of the material and the need to transform it into industrial products for the market. Therefore, the project identifies potential design attributes that the banana stem leaf can have for product development. The methodology was divided into 2 main chapters: Methodology for the material recognition: -Data Collection, inquiring the craftsmen experience and bibliography. -Knowledge in practice, with controlled experiments and validation tests. -Creation of design attributes and material profile according to the knowledge developed. Moreover, the Design methodology: -Application fields selection, exploring the use of the attributes and the relation with product functions. -Evaluating the possible fields and selection of the optimum application. -Design Process with sketching, ideation, and product development. Different protocols were elaborated to qualitatively determine some material properties of the Calceta, and if they could be designated as design attributes. Once defined, performed and analyzed the validation protocols, 25 design attributes were identified and classified into 4 attribute categories (Environmental, Functional, Aesthetics and Technical) forming the material profile. Then, 15 application fields were defined based on the relation between functions of product and the use of the Calceta attributes. Those fields were evaluated to measure how much are being used the functional attributes. After fields evaluation, a final field was defined , influenced by traditional use of the fiber for packing food. As final result, two products were designed for this application field. The first one is the Multiple Container, which works to contain small or large-thin pieces of food, like potatoes chips or small sausages; it allows the consumption of food with sauces or dressings. The second is the Chorizo container, specifically designed for this food due to the long shape and the consumption mode. Natural fiber research allows the generation of a solider and a more complete knowledge about natural fibers. In addition, the research is a way to strengthen the identity through the investigation of the proper and autochthonous, allowing the use of national resources in a sustainable and creative way. Using divergent thinking and the design as a tool, this investigation can achieve advances in the natural fiber handling.

Keywords: Product Design, Natural Fibers, banana stem leaf, Calceta de Plátano, design attributes

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41 Isolation and Structural Elucidation of 20 Hydroxyecdystone from Vitex doniana Sweet Stem Bark

Authors: Mustapha A. Tijjani, Fanna I. Abdulrahman, Irfan Z. Khan, Umar K. Sandabe, Cong Li

Abstract:

Air dried sample V. doniana after collection and identification was extracted with ethanol and further partition with chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. Ethanolic extract (11.9g) was fractionated on a silica gel accelerated column chromatography using solvents such as n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Each eluent fractions (150ml aliquots) were collected and monitored with thin layer chromatography. Fractions with similar Rf values from same solvents system were pooled together. Phytochemical test of all the fractions were performed using standard procedure. Complete elution yielded 48 fractions (150ml/fraction) which were pooled to 24 fractions base on the Rf values. It was further recombined and 12 fractions were obtained on the basis on Rf values and coded Vd1 to Vd12 fractions. Vd8 was further eluted with ethylacetate and methanol and gave fourteen sub fractions Vd8-a, -Vd8-m. Fraction Vd8-a (56mg) gave a white crystal compound coded V1. It was further checked on TLC and observed under ultraviolet lamp and was found to give a single spot. The Rf values were calculated to be 0.433. The melting point was determined using Gallenkamp capillary melting point apparatus and found to be 241-243°C uncorrected. Characterization of the isolated compound coded V1 was done using FT-infra-red spectroscopy, HNMR, 13CNMR(1and 2D) and HRESI-MS. The IR spectrum of compound V1 shows prominent peaks that corresponds to OHstr (3365cm-1) and C=0 (1652cm-1) etc. This spectrum suggests that among the functional moiety in compound V1 are the carbonyl and hydroxyl group. The 1H NMR (400 MHz) spectrum of compound V1 in DMSO-d6 displayed five singlet signals at δ 0.72 (3H, s, H-18), 0.79 (3H, s, H-19), 1.03 (3H, s, H-21), 1.04 (3H, s, H-26), 1.06 (3H, s, H-27) each integrating for three protons indicating the five methyl functional groups present in the compound. It further showed a broad singlet at δ 5.58 integrated for 1 H due to an olefinic H-atom adjacent to the carbonyl carbon atom. Three signals at δ 3.10 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, H-22), 3.59 (m, 1H, 2H-a) and 3.72 (m, 1H, 3H-e), each integrating for one proton is due to oxymethine protons indicating that three oxymethine H-atoms are present in the compound. These all signals are characteristic to the ecdysteroid skeletons. The 13C-NMR spectrum showed the presence of 27 carbon atoms, suggesting that may be steroid skeleton. The DEPT-135 experiment showed the presence of five CH3, eight CH2, and seven CH groups, and seven quaternary C-atoms. The molecular formula was established as C27H44O7 by high resolution electron spray ionization-mass spectroscopy (HRESI-MS) positive ion mode m/z 481.3179. The signals in mass spectrum are 463, 445, and 427 peaks corresponding to losses of one, two, three, or four water molecules characteristic for ecdysterone skeleton reported in the literature. Based on the spectral analysis (HNMR, 13CNMR, DEPT, HMQC, IR, HRESI-MS) the compound V1 is thus concluded to have ecdysteriod skeleton and conclusively conforms with 2β, 3β 14α, 20R, 22R, 25-hexahydroxy-5 β cholest-7-ene-6- one, or 2, 3, 14, 20, 22, 25 hexahydroxy cholest-7-ene-6-one commonly known as 20-hydroxyecdysone.

Keywords: Spectroscopy, Purification, Chromatography, Isolation, phytochemical, vitex

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40 ‘Non-Legitimate’ Voices as L2 Models: Towards Becoming a Legitimate L2 Speaker

Authors: Marylise Rilliard

Abstract:

Foreign language classes function to enforce linguistic norms—in part by presenting unattainable ‘ideal’ native-speaker models—and leave little or no room for students to develop their own L2, one that feels true to them. Based on a Multiliteracies-inspired Advanced French Composition class, this project looks at how presenting auto- or semi-autobiographical narratives from speakers traditionally considered as non-legitimate models for L2 teaching purposes encourages students’ development of their own L2 voices and participates in them becoming authentic L2 speakers. Foreign language classes, for the most part, present L1 speakers of a standard variety as the only legitimate models for L2 learners. Non-standard voices such as L2 speakers or L1 speakers of stigmatized varieties are presented as peripheral, and while worthy of literary or linguistic analysis, they are not introduced as linguistic models to be emulated. Yet, some researchers argue against the unattainable native-speaker model in L2 teaching and learning and for more sociolinguistic agency. By expanding its understanding of ‘meaning’ beyond propositional content and literary analysis, the Multiliteracies approach makes sociolinguistic variation a legitimate meaning-making tool to develop in language classes. With this in mind, a sociolinguistically-informed advanced composition class was created at a large American university in order for students to develop their identity in L2 French through a self-inspired fictional character. To help them through this process, two auto- or semi-autobiographical narratives of identity quest by traditionally ‘non-legitimate’ speakers of French were used as models: the novel Le bleu des abeilles (2013) and the film Qu’Allah bénisse la France (2014), narrated by an Argentine immigrant child, L2 French speaker, and a project dweller, son of Congolese immigrants, respectively. Students’ written and oral productions for different genres—personal narrative, characterization, and personal letter—as well as two personal reflections in English on their experience developing their identity in French constitute the data for this study. The impact of the models described above is assessed through an analysis of the students’ French productions’ content and form and their meta-comments on what tools and concepts from class were useful to them in the expression of their character’s—and in turn, their own—identity in French. Preliminary results indicate that relatable ideas and materials were the most useful for students in developing their L2 identities. Thus, the linguistic journey of the narrator in Le bleu des abeilles was a good source of inspiration and reflection on their own experiences as L2 French speakers. Additionally, students valued materials and conversations about non-standard and colloquial varieties of French in this identity-building process, of which Qu’Allah bénisse la France was the main example. These results point towards the benefits of using non-traditional model speakers in legitimizing students’ L2-speaker and ‘beyond-academia’ identities, which ultimately leads them towards more L2 authenticity.

Keywords:

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39 Numerical Analyses of Dynamics of Deployment of PW-Sat2 Deorbit Sail Compared with Results of Experiment under Micro-Gravity and Low Pressure Conditions

Authors: P. Brunne, K. Ciechowska, K. Gajc, K. Gawin, M. Gawin, M. Kania, J. Kindracki, Z. Kusznierewicz, D. Pączkowska, F. Perczyński, K. Pilarski, D. Rafało, E. Ryszawa, M. Sobiecki, I. Uwarowa

Abstract:

Big amount of space debris constitutes nowadays a real thread for operating space crafts; therefore the main purpose of PW-Sat2’ team was to create a system that could help cleanse the Earth’s orbit after each small satellites’ mission. After 4 years of development, the motorless, low energy consumption and low weight system has been created. During series of tests, the system has shown high reliable efficiency. The PW-Sat2’s deorbit system is a square-shaped sail which covers an area of 4m². The sail surface is made of 6 μm aluminized Mylar film which is stretched across 4 diagonally placed arms, each consisting of two C-shaped flat springs and enveloped in Mylar sleeves. The sail is coiled using a special, custom designed folding stand that provides automation and repeatability of the sail unwinding tests and placed in a container with inner diameter of 85 mm. In the final configuration the deorbit system weights ca. 600 g and occupies 0.6U (in accordance with CubeSat standard). The sail’s releasing system requires minimal amount of power based on thermal knife that burns out the Dyneema wire, which holds the system before deployment. The Sail is being pushed out of the container within a safe distance (20 cm away) from the satellite. The energy for the deployment is completely assured by coiled C-shaped flat springs, which during the release, unfold the sail surface. To avoid dynamic effects on the satellite’s structure, there is the rotational link between the sail and satellite’s main body. To obtain complete knowledge about complex dynamics of the deployment, a number of experiments have been performed in varied environments. The numerical model of the dynamics of the Sail’s deployment has been built and is still under continuous development. Currently, the integration of the flight model and Deorbit Sail is performed. The launch is scheduled for February 2018. At the same time, in cooperation with United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, sail models and requested facilities are being prepared for the sail deployment experiment under micro-gravity and low pressure conditions at Bremen Drop Tower, Germany. Results of those tests will provide an ultimate and wide knowledge about deployment in space environment to which system will be exposed during its mission. Outcomes of the numerical model and tests will be compared afterwards and will help the team in building a reliable and correct model of a very complex phenomenon of deployment of 4 c-shaped flat springs with surface attached. The verified model could be used inter alia to investigate if the PW-Sat2’s sail is scalable and how far is it possible to go with enlarging when creating systems for bigger satellites.

Keywords: Space, CubeSat, deorbitation, sail, debris

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38 Impact of Sufism on Indian Cinema: A New Cultural Construct for Mediating Conflict

Authors: Ravi Chaturvedi, Ghanshyam Beniwal

Abstract:

Without going much into the detail of long history of Sufism in the world and the etymological definition of the word ‘Sufi’, it will be sufficient to underline that the concept of Sufism was to focus the mystic power on the spiritual dimension of Islam with a view-shielding the believers from the outwardly and unrealistic dogma of the faith. Sufis adopted rather a liberal view in propagating the religious order of Islam suitable to the cultural and social environment of the land. It is, in fact, a mission of higher religious order of any faith, which disdains strife and conflict in any form. The joy of self-realization being the essence of religion is experienced after a long spiritual practice. India had Sufi and Bhakti (devotion) traditions in Islam and Hinduism, respectively. Both Sufism and Bhakti traditions were based on respect for different religions. The poorer and lower caste Hindus and Muslims were greatly influenced by these traditions. Unlike Ulemas and Brahmans, the Sufi and Bhakti saints were highly tolerant and open to the truth in other faiths. They never adopted sectarian attitudes and were never involved in power struggles. They kept away from power structures. Sufism is integrated with the Indian cinema since its initial days. In the earliest Bollywood movies, Sufism was represented in the form of qawwali which made its way from dargahs (shrines). Mixing it with pop influences, Hindi movies began using Sufi music in a big way only in the current decade. However, of late, songs with Sufi influences have become de rigueur in almost every film being released these days, irrespective of the genre, whether it is a romantic Gangster or a cerebral Corporate. 'Sufi is in the DNA of the Indian sub-continent', according to several contemporary filmmakers, critics, and spectators.The inherent theatricality motivates the performer of the 'Sufi' rituals for a dramatic behavior. The theatrical force of these stages of Sufi practice is so powerful that even the spectator cannot resist himself from being moved. In a multi-cultural country like India, the mediating streams have acquired a multi-layered importance in recent history. The second half of Indian post-colonial era has witnessed a regular chain of some conflicting religio-political waves arising from various sectarian camps in the country, which have compelled the counter forces to activate for keeping the spirit of composite cultural ethos alive. The study has revealed that the Sufi practice methodology is also being adapted for inclusion of spirituality in life at par to Yoga practice. This paper, a part of research study, is an attempt to establish that the Sufism in Indian cinema is one such mediating voice which is very active and alive throughout the length and width of the country continuously bridging the gap between various religious and social factions, and have a significant role to play in future as well.

Keywords: Indian cinema, mediating voice, Sufi, yoga practice

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37 Comparative Appraisal of Polymeric Matrices Synthesis and Characterization Based on Maleic versus Itaconic Anhydride and 3,9-Divinyl-2,4,8,10-Tetraoxaspiro[5.5]-Undecane

Authors: Loredana E. Nita, Aurica P. Chiriac, Alina Diaconu, Mihai Asandulesa, Elena Butnaru, Nita Tudorachi, Iordana Neamtu

Abstract:

In the last decade, the attention of many researchers is focused on the synthesis of innovative “intelligent” copolymer structures with great potential for different uses. This considerable scientific interest is stimulated by possibility of the significant improvements in physical, mechanical, thermal and other important specific properties of these materials. Functionalization of polymer in synthesis by designing a suitable composition with the desired properties and applications is recognized as a valuable tool. In this work is presented a comparative study of the properties of the new copolymers poly(maleic anhydride maleic-co-3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro[5.5]undecane) and poly(itaconic-anhydride-co-3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro[5.5]undecane) obtained by radical polymerization in dioxane, using 2,2′-azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) as free-radical initiator. The comonomers are able for generating special effects as for example network formation, biodegradability and biocompatibility, gel formation capacity, binding properties, amphiphilicity, good oxidative and thermal stability, good film formers, and temperature and pH sensitivity. Maleic anhydride (MA) and also the isostructural analog itaconic anhydride (ITA) as polyfunctional monomers are widely used in the synthesis of reactive macromolecules with linear, hyperbranched and self & assembled structures to prepare high performance engineering, bioengineering and nano engineering materials. The incorporation of spiroacetal groups in polymer structures improves the solubility and the adhesive properties, induce good oxidative and thermal stability, are formers of good fiber or films with good flexibility and tensile strength. Also, the spiroacetal rings induce interactions on ether oxygen such as hydrogen bonds or coordinate bonds with other functional groups determining bulkiness and stiffness. The synthesized copolymers are analyzed by DSC, oscillatory and rotational rheological measurements and dielectric spectroscopy with the aim of underlying the heating behavior, solution viscosity as a function of shear rate and temperature and to investigate the relaxation processes and the motion of functional groups present in side chain around the main chain or bonds of the side chain. Acknowledgments This work was financially supported by the grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, CNCS-UEFISCDI, project number PN-II-132/2014 “Magnetic biomimetic supports as alternative strategy for bone tissue engineering and repair’’ (MAGBIOTISS).

Keywords: Poly(maleic anhydride-co-3

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36 Histogenesis of the Stomach of Pre-Hatching Quail: A Light and Electron Microscopic Study

Authors: Soha A Soliman, Yasser A Ahmed, Mohamed A Khalaf

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Although the enormous literature describing the histology of the stomach of different avian species during the posthatching development, the available literature on the pre-hatching development of quail stomach development is scanty. Thus, the current study was undertaken to provide a careful description of the main histological events during the embryonic development of quail stomach. To achieve this aim, daily histological specimens from the stomach of quail of 4 days post-incubation till the day 17 (few hours before hatching) were examined with light microscopy. The current study showed that the primitive gut tube of the embryonic quail appeared at the 4th day post incubation, and both parts of stomach (proventriculus and gizzard) were similar in structure and composed of endodermal epithelium of pseudostratified type surrounded by undifferentiated mesenchymal tissue. The sequences of the developmental events in the gut tube were preceded in a cranio-caudal pattern. By the 5th day, the endodermal covering of the primitive proventriculus gave rise to sac-like invaginations. The primitive gizzard was distinguished into thick-walled bodies and thin-walled sacs. In the 6th day, the prospective proventricular glandular epithelium became canalized and the muscular layer was developed in the cranial part of the proventriculus, whereas the primitive muscular coat of the gizzard was represented by a layer of condensed mesenchyme. In the 7th day, the proventricular glandular epithelial invaginations increased in depth and number, while, the muscularis mucosa and the muscular layer began to be distinguished. In the 8th day, the myoblasts differentiated into spindle shaped smooth muscle fibers. In the 10th day, branching of the proventricular glands began. The branching continued later on. The surface and the glandular epithelium were transformed into simple columnar type in the 12th day. The epithelial covering of the gizzard gave rise to tubular invaginations lined by simple cuboidal epithelium and the surface epithelium became simple columnar. Canalization of the tubular glands was recognized in the 14th day. In the 15th day, the proventricular surface epithelium invaginated in an concentric manner around a central cavity to form immature secretory units. The central cavity was lined by eosinophilic cells which form the ductal epithelia. The peripheral lamellae were lined by basophilic cells; the undifferentiated oxyntico-peptic cells. Entero-endocrine cells stained positive for silver impregnation in the proventricular glands. The mucosal folding in the gizzard appeared in the 15th day to form the plicae and the sulci. The wall of the proventriculus and gizzard in the 17th day acquired the main histological features of post-hatching birds, but neither the surface nor the ductal epithelium were differentiated to mucous producing cells. The current results shoed be considered in the molecular developmental studies.

Keywords: Histology, quail, proventriculus, gizzard, pre-hatching

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35 Waveguiding in an InAs Quantum Dots Nanomaterial for Scintillation Applications

Authors: Katherine Dropiewski, Michael Yakimov, Vadim Tokranov, Allan Minns, Pavel Murat, Serge Oktyabrsky

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InAs Quantum Dots (QDs) in a GaAs matrix is a well-documented luminescent material with high light yield, as well as thermal and ionizing radiation tolerance due to quantum confinement. These benefits can be leveraged for high-efficiency, room temperature scintillation detectors. The proposed scintillator is composed of InAs QDs acting as luminescence centers in a GaAs stopping medium, which also acts as a waveguide. This system has appealing potential properties, including high light yield (~240,000 photons/MeV) and fast capture of photoelectrons (2-5ps), orders of magnitude better than currently used inorganic scintillators, such as LYSO or BaF2. The high refractive index of the GaAs matrix (n=3.4) ensures light emitted by the QDs is waveguided, which can be collected by an integrated photodiode (PD). Scintillation structures were grown using Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and consist of thick GaAs waveguiding layers with embedded sheets of modulation p-type doped InAs QDs. An AlAs sacrificial layer is grown between the waveguide and the GaAs substrate for epitaxial lift-off to separate the scintillator film and transfer it to a low-index substrate for waveguiding measurements. One consideration when using a low-density material like GaAs (~5.32 g/cm³) as a stopping medium is the matrix thickness in the dimension of radiation collection. Therefore, luminescence properties of very thick (4-20 microns) waveguides with up to 100 QD layers were studied. The optimization of the medium included QD shape, density, doping, and AlGaAs barriers at the waveguide surfaces to prevent non-radiative recombination. To characterize the efficiency of QD luminescence, low temperature photoluminescence (PL) (77-450 K) was measured and fitted using a kinetic model. The PL intensity degrades by only 40% at RT, with an activation energy for electron escape from QDs to the barrier of ~60 meV. Attenuation within the waveguide (WG) is a limiting factor for the lateral size of a scintillation detector, so PL spectroscopy in the waveguiding configuration was studied. Spectra were measured while the laser (630 nm) excitation point was scanned away from the collecting fiber coupled to the edge of the WG. The QD ground state PL peak at 1.04 eV (1190 nm) was inhomogeneously broadened with FWHM of 28 meV (33 nm) and showed a distinct red-shift due to self-absorption in the QDs. Attenuation stabilized after traveling over 1 mm through the WG, at about 3 cm⁻¹. Finally, a scintillator sample was used to test detection and evaluate timing characteristics using 5.5 MeV alpha particles. With a 2D waveguide and a small area of integrated PD, the collected charge averaged 8.4 x10⁴ electrons, corresponding to a collection efficiency of about 7%. The scintillation response had 80 ps noise-limited time resolution and a QD decay time of 0.6 ns. The data confirms unique properties of this scintillation detector which can be potentially much faster than any currently used inorganic scintillator.

Keywords: Quantum Dots, GaAs, molecular beam epitaxy, InAs, III-V semiconductor

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34 Barbie in India: A Study of Effects of Barbie in Psychological and Social Health

Authors: Suhrita Saha

Abstract:

Barbie is a fashion doll manufactured by the American toy company Mattel Inc and it made debut at the American International Toy Fair in New York in 9 March 1959. From being a fashion doll to a symbol of fetishistic commodification, Barbie has come a long way. A Barbie doll is sold every three seconds across the world, which makes the billion dollar brand the world’s most popular doll for the girls. The 11.5 inch moulded plastic doll has a height of 5 feet 9 inches at 1/6 scale. Her vital statistics have been estimated at 36 inches (chest), 18 inches (waist) and 33 inches (hips). Her weight is permanently set at 110 pounds which would be 35 pounds underweight. Ruth Handler, the creator of Barbie wanted a doll that represented adulthood and allowed children to imagine themselves as teenagers or adults. While Barbie might have been intended to be independent, imaginative and innovative, the physical uniqueness does not confine the doll to the status of a play thing. It is a cultural icon but with far reaching critical implications. The doll is a commodity bearing more social value than practical use value. The way Barbie is produced represents industrialization and commodification of the process of symbolic production. And this symbolic production and consumption is a standardized planned one that produce stereotypical ‘pseudo-individuality’ and suppresses cultural alternatives. Children are being subject to and also arise as subjects in this consumer context. A very gendered, physiologically dissected sexually charged symbolism is imposed upon children (both male and female), childhood, their social worlds, identity, and relationship formation. Barbie is also very popular among Indian children. While the doll is essentially an imaginative representation of the West, it is internalized by the Indian sensibilities. Through observation and questionnaire-based interview within a sample population of adolescent children (primarily female, a few male) and parents (primarily mothers) in Kolkata, an Indian metropolis, the paper puts forth findings of sociological relevance. 1. Barbie creates, recreates, and accentuates already existing divides between the binaries like male- female, fat- thin, sexy- nonsexy, beauty- brain and more. 2. The Indian girl child in her associative process with Barbie wants to be like her and commodifies her own self. The male child also readily accepts this standardized commodification. Definition of beauty is thus based on prejudice and stereotype. 3. Not being able to become Barbie creates health issues both psychological and physiological varying from anorexia to obesity as well as personality disorder. 4. From being a plaything Barbie becomes the game maker. Barbie along with many other forms of simulation further creates a consumer culture and market for all kind of fitness related hyper enchantment and subsequent disillusionment. The construct becomes the reality and the real gets lost in the play world. The paper would thus argue that Barbie from being an innocuous doll transports itself into becoming social construct with long term and irreversible adverse impact.

Keywords: Commodification, Personality Disorder, Barbie, sterotype

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33 Analytical and Numerical Modeling of Strongly Rotating Rarefied Gas Flows

Authors: S. Pradhan, V. Kumaran

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Centrifugal gas separation processes effect separation by utilizing the difference in the mole fraction in a high speed rotating cylinder caused by the difference in molecular mass, and consequently the centrifugal force density. These have been widely used in isotope separation because chemical separation methods cannot be used to separate isotopes of the same chemical species. More recently, centrifugal separation has also been explored for the separation of gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. The efficiency of separation is critically dependent on the secondary flow generated due to temperature gradients at the cylinder wall or due to inserts, and it is important to formulate accurate models for this secondary flow. The widely used Onsager model for secondary flow is restricted to very long cylinders where the length is large compared to the diameter, the limit of high stratification parameter, where the gas is restricted to a thin layer near the wall of the cylinder, and it assumes that there is no mass difference in the two species while calculating the secondary flow. There are two objectives of the present analysis of the rarefied gas flow in a rotating cylinder. The first is to remove the restriction of high stratification parameter, and to generalize the solutions to low rotation speeds where the stratification parameter may be O (1), and to apply for dissimilar gases considering the difference in molecular mass of the two species. Secondly, we would like to compare the predictions with molecular simulations based on the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method for rarefied gas flows, in order to quantify the errors resulting from the approximations at different aspect ratios, Reynolds number and stratification parameter. In this study, we have obtained analytical and numerical solutions for the secondary flows generated at the cylinder curved surface and at the end-caps due to linear wall temperature gradient and external gas inflow/outflow at the axis of the cylinder. The effect of sources of mass, momentum and energy within the flow domain are also analyzed. The results of the analytical solutions are compared with the results of DSMC simulations for three types of forcing, a wall temperature gradient, inflow/outflow of gas along the axis, and mass/momentum input due to inserts within the flow. The comparison reveals that the boundary conditions in the simulations and analysis have to be matched with care. The commonly used diffuse reflection boundary conditions at solid walls in DSMC simulations result in a non-zero slip velocity as well as a temperature slip (gas temperature at the wall is different from wall temperature). These have to be incorporated in the analysis in order to make quantitative predictions. In the case of mass/momentum/energy sources within the flow, it is necessary to ensure that the homogeneous boundary conditions are accurately satisfied in the simulations. When these precautions are taken, there is excellent agreement between analysis and simulations, to within 10 %, even when the stratification parameter is as low as 0.707, the Reynolds number is as low as 100 and the aspect ratio (length/diameter) of the cylinder is as low as 2, and the secondary flow velocity is as high as 0.2 times the maximum base flow velocity.

Keywords: rotating flows, generalized onsager and carrier-Maslen model, DSMC simulations, rarefied gas flow

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32 New Findings on the Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) of Aluminium

Authors: J. Martin, A. Nominé, T. Czerwiec, G. Henrion, T. Belmonte

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The plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is a particular electrochemical process to produce protective oxide ceramic coatings on light-weight metals (Al, Mg, Ti). When applied to aluminum alloys, the resulting PEO coating exhibit improved wear and corrosion resistance because thick, hard, compact and adherent crystalline alumina layers can be achieved. Several investigations have been carried out to improve the efficiency of the PEO process and one particular way consists in tuning the suitable electrical regime. Despite the considerable interest in this process, there is still no clear understanding of the underlying discharge mechanisms that make possible metal oxidation up to hundreds of µm through the ceramic layer. A key parameter that governs the PEO process is the numerous short-lived micro-discharges (micro-plasma in liquid) that occur continuously over the processed surface when the high applied voltage exceeds the critical dielectric breakdown value of the growing ceramic layer. By using a bipolar pulsed current to supply the electrodes, we previously observed that micro-discharges are delayed with respect to the rising edge of the anodic current. Nevertheless, explanation of the origin of such phenomena is still not clear and needs more systematic investigations. The aim of the present communication is to identify the relationship that exists between this delay and the mechanisms responsible of the oxide growth. For this purpose, the delay of micro-discharges ignition is investigated as the function of various electrical parameters such as the current density (J), the current pulse frequency (F) and the anodic to cathodic charge quantity ratio (R = Qp/Qn) delivered to the electrodes. The PEO process was conducted on Al2214 aluminum alloy substrates in a solution containing potassium hydroxide [KOH] and sodium silicate diluted in deionized water. The light emitted from micro-discharges was detected by a photomultiplier and the micro-discharge parameters (number, size, life-time) were measured during the process by means of ultra-fast video imaging (125 kfr./s). SEM observations and roughness measurements were performed to characterize the morphology of the elaborated oxide coatings while XRD was carried out to evaluate the amount of corundum -Al203 phase. Results show that whatever the applied current waveform, the delay of micro-discharge appearance increases as the process goes on. Moreover, the delay is shorter when the current density J (A/dm2), the current pulse frequency F (Hz) and the ratio of charge quantity R are high. It also appears that shorter delays are associated to stronger micro-discharges (localized, long and large micro-discharges) which have a detrimental effect on the elaborated oxide layers (thin and porous). On the basis of the results, a model for the growth of the PEO oxide layers will be presented and discussed. Experimental results support that a mechanism of electrical charge accumulation at the oxide surface / electrolyte interface takes place until the dielectric breakdown occurs and thus until micro-discharges appear.

Keywords: Aluminium, Oxidation Mechanisms, plasma electrolytic oxidation, micro-discharges

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31 Density Determination of Liquid Niobium by Means of Ohmic Pulse-Heating for Critical Point Estimation

Authors: Matthias Leitner, Gernot Pottlacher

Abstract:

Experimental determination of critical point data like critical temperature, critical pressure, critical volume and critical compressibility of high-melting metals such as niobium is very rare due to the outstanding experimental difficulties in reaching the necessary extreme temperature and pressure regimes. Experimental techniques to achieve such extreme conditions could be diamond anvil devices, two stage gas guns or metal samples hit by explosively accelerated flyers. Electrical pulse-heating under increased pressures would be another choice. This technique heats thin wire samples of 0.5 mm diameter and 40 mm length from room temperature to melting and then further to the end of the stable phase, the spinodal line, within several microseconds. When crossing the spinodal line, the sample explodes and reaches the gaseous phase. In our laboratory, pulse-heating experiments can be performed under variation of the ambient pressure from 1 to 5000 bar and allow a direct determination of critical point data for low-melting, but not for high-melting metals. However, the critical point also can be estimated by extrapolating the liquid phase density according to theoretical models. A reasonable prerequisite for the extrapolation is the existence of data that cover as much as possible of the liquid phase and at the same time exhibit small uncertainties. Ohmic pulse-heating was therefore applied to determine thermal volume expansion, and from that density of niobium over the entire liquid phase. As a first step, experiments under ambient pressure were performed. The second step will be to perform experiments under high-pressure conditions. During the heating process, shadow images of the expanding sample wire were captured at a frame rate of 4 × 105 fps to monitor the radial expansion as a function of time. Simultaneously, the sample radiance was measured with a pyrometer operating at a mean effective wavelength of 652 nm. To increase the accuracy of temperature deduction, spectral emittance in the liquid phase is also taken into account. Due to the high heating rates of about 2 × 108 K/s, longitudinal expansion of the wire is inhibited which implies an increased radial expansion. As a consequence, measuring the temperature dependent radial expansion is sufficient to deduce density as a function of temperature. This is accomplished by evaluating the full widths at half maximum of the cup-shaped intensity profiles that are calculated from each shadow image of the expanding wire. Relating these diameters to the diameter obtained before the pulse-heating start, the temperature dependent volume expansion is calculated. With the help of the known room-temperature density, volume expansion is then converted into density data. The so-obtained liquid density behavior is compared to existing literature data and provides another independent source of experimental data. In this work, the newly determined off-critical liquid phase density was in a second step utilized as input data for the estimation of niobium’s critical point. The approach used, heuristically takes into account the crossover from mean field to Ising behavior, as well as the non-linearity of the phase diagram’s diameter.

Keywords: Density, Liquid Metals, niobium, critical point data, ohmic pulse-heating, volume expansion

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30 Pushover Analysis of a Typical Bridge Built in Central Zone of Mexico

Authors: Jatziri Y. Moreno-Martínez, Arturo Galván, Daniel Arroyo-Montoya, Jose M. Gutierrez-Villalobos

Abstract:

Bridges are one of the most seismically vulnerable structures on highway transportation systems. The general process for assessing the seismic vulnerability of a bridge involves the evaluation of its overall capacity and demand. One of the most common procedures to obtain this capacity is by means of pushover analysis of the structure. Typically, the bridge capacity is assessed using non-linear static methods or non-linear dynamic analyses. The non-linear dynamic approaches use step by step numerical solutions for assessing the capacity with the consuming computer time inconvenience. In this study, a nonlinear static analysis (‘pushover analysis’) was performed to predict the collapse mechanism of a typical bridge built in the central zone of Mexico (Celaya, Guanajuato). The bridge superstructure consists of three simple supported spans with a total length of 76 m: 22 m of the length of extreme spans and 32 m of length of the central span. The deck width is of 14 m and the concrete slab depth is of 18 cm. The bridge is built by means of frames of five piers with hollow box-shaped sections. The dimensions of these piers are 7.05 m height and 1.20 m diameter. The numerical model was created using a commercial software considering linear and non-linear elements. In all cases, the piers were represented by frame type elements with geometrical properties obtained from the structural project and construction drawings of the bridge. The deck was modeled with a mesh of rectangular thin shell (plate bending and stretching) finite elements. The moment-curvature analysis was performed for the sections of the piers of the bridge considering in each pier the effect of confined concrete and its reinforcing steel. In this way, plastic hinges were defined on the base of the piers to carry out the pushover analysis. In addition, time history analyses were performed using 19 accelerograms of real earthquakes that have been registered in Guanajuato. In this way, the displacements produced by the bridge were determined. Finally, pushover analysis was applied through the control of displacements in the piers to obtain the overall capacity of the bridge before the failure occurs. It was concluded that the lateral deformation of the piers due to a critical earthquake occurred in this zone is almost imperceptible due to the geometry and reinforcement demanded by the current design standards and compared to its displacement capacity, they were excessive. According to the analysis, it was found that the frames built with five piers increase the rigidity in the transverse direction of the bridge. Hence it is proposed to reduce these frames of five piers to three piers, maintaining the same geometrical characteristics and the same reinforcement in each pier. Also, the mechanical properties of materials (concrete and reinforcing steel) were maintained. Once a pushover analysis was performed considering this configuration, it was concluded that the bridge would continue having a “correct” seismic behavior, at least for the 19 accelerograms considered in this study. In this way, costs in material, construction, time and labor would be reduced in this study case.

Keywords: collapse mechanism, moment-curvature analysis, overall capacity, push-over analysis

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29 The Role of Uterine Artery Embolization in the Management of Postpartum Hemorrhage

Authors: Chee Wai Ku, Pui See Chin

Abstract:

As an emerging alternative to hysterectomy, uterine artery embolization (UAE) has been widely used in the management of fibroids and in controlling postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) unresponsive to other therapies. Research has shown UAE to be a safe, minimally invasive procedure with few complications and minimal effects on future fertility. We present two cases highlighting the use of UAE in preventing PPH in a patient with a large fibroid at the time of cesarean section and in the treatment of secondary PPH refractory to other therapies in another patient. We present a 36-year primiparous woman who booked at 18+6 weeks gestation with a 13.7 cm subserosal fibroid at the lower anterior wall of the uterus near the cervix and a 10.8 cm subserosal fibroid in the left wall. Prophylactic internal iliac artery occlusion balloons were placed prior to the planned classical midline cesarean section. The balloons were inflated once the baby was delivered. Bilateral uterine arteries were embolized subsequently. The estimated blood loss (EBL) was 400 mls and hemoglobin (Hb) remained stable at 10 g/DL. Ultrasound scan 2 years postnatally showed stable uterine fibroids 10.4 and 7.1 cm, which was significantly smaller than before. We present the second case of a 40-year-old G2P1 with a previous cesarean section for failure to progress. There were no antenatal problems, and the placenta was not previa. She presented with term labour and underwent an emergency cesarean section for failed vaginal birth after cesarean. Intraoperatively extensive adhesions were noted with bladder drawn high, and EBL was 300 mls. Postpartum recovery was uneventful. She presented with secondary PPH 3 weeks later complicated by hypovolemic shock. She underwent an emergency examination under anesthesia and evacuation of the uterus, with EBL 2500mls. Histology showed decidua with chronic inflammation. She was discharged well with no further PPH. She subsequently returned one week later for secondary PPH. Bedside ultrasound showed that the endometrium was thin with no evidence of retained products of conception. Uterotonics were administered, and examination under anesthesia was performed, with uterine Bakri balloon and vaginal pack insertion after. EBL was 1000 mls. There was no definite cause of PPH with no uterine atony or products of conception. To evaluate a potential cause, pelvic angiogram and super selective left uterine arteriogram was performed which showed profuse contrast extravasation and acute bleeding from the left uterine artery. Superselective embolization of the left uterine artery was performed. No gross contrast extravasation from the right uterine artery was seen. These two cases demonstrated the superior efficacy of UAE. Firstly, the prophylactic use of intra-arterial balloon catheters in pregnant patients with large fibroids, and secondly, in the diagnosis and management of secondary PPH refractory to uterotonics and uterine tamponade. In both cases, the need for laparotomy hysterectomy was avoided, resulting in the preservation of future fertility. UAE should be a consideration for hemodynamically stable patients in centres with access to interventional radiology.

Keywords: Fertility Preservation, secondary postpartum hemorrhage, uterine embolization, uterine fibroids

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28 Investigation of Linezolid, 127I-Linezolid and 131I-Linezolid Effects on Slime Layer of Staphylococcus with Nuclear Methods

Authors: Hasan Demiroğlu, Uğur Avcıbaşı, Serhan Sakarya, Perihan Ünak

Abstract:

Implanted devices are progressively practiced in innovative medicine to relieve pain or improve a compromised function. Implant-associated infections represent an emerging complication, caused by organisms which adhere to the implant surface and grow embedded in a protective extracellular polymeric matrix, known as a biofilm. In addition, the microorganisms within biofilms enter a stationary growth phase and become phenotypically resistant to most antimicrobials, frequently causing treatment failure. In such cases, surgical removal of the implant is often required, causing high morbidity and substantial healthcare costs. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen causing implant-associated infections. Successful treatment of these infections includes early surgical intervention and antimicrobial treatment with bactericidal drugs that also act on the surface-adhering microorganisms. Linezolid is a promising anti-microbial with ant-staphylococcal activity, used for the treatment of MRSA infections. Linezolid is a synthetic antimicrobial and member of oxazolidinoni group, with a bacteriostatic or bactericidal dose-dependent antimicrobial mechanism against gram-positive bacteria. Intensive use of antibiotics, have emerged multi-resistant organisms over the years and major problems have begun to be experienced in the treatment of infections occurred with them. While new drugs have been developed worldwide, on the other hand infections formed with microorganisms which gained resistance against these drugs were reported and the scale of the problem increases gradually. Scientific studies about the production of bacterial biofilm increased in recent years. For this purpose, we investigated the activity of Lin, Lin radiolabeled with 131I (131I-Lin) and cold iodinated Lin (127I-Lin) against clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus DSM 4910 in biofilm. In the first stage, radio and cold labeling studies were performed. Quality-control studies of Lin and iodo (radio and cold) Lin derivatives were carried out by using TLC (Thin Layer Radiochromatography) and HPLC (High Pressure Liquid Chromatography). In this context, it was found that the binding yield was obtained to be about 86±2 % for 131I-Lin. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Lin, 127I-Lin and 131I-Lin for Staphylococcus aureus DSM 4910 strain were found to be 1µg/mL. In time-kill studies of Lin, 127I-Lin and 131I-Lin were producing ≥ 3 log10 decreases in viable counts (cfu/ml) within 6 h at 2 and 4 fold of MIC respectively. No viable bacteria were observed within the 24 h of the experiments. Biofilm eradication of S. aureus started with 64 µg/mL of Lin, 127I-Lin and 131I-Lin, and OD630 was 0.507±0.0.092, 0.589±0.058 and 0.266±0.047, respectively. The media control of biofilm producing Staphylococcus was 1.675±0,01 (OD630). 131I and 127I did not have any effects on biofilms. Lin and 127I-Lin were found less effectively than 131I-Lin at killing cells in biofilm and biofilm eradication. Our results demonstrate that the 131I-Lin have potent anti-biofilm activity against S. aureus compare to Lin, 127I-Lin and media control. This is suggested that, 131I may have harmful effect on biofilm structure.

Keywords: iodine-131, linezolid, radiolabeling, slime layer, Staphylococcus

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27 Design, Control and Implementation of 300Wp Single Phase Photovoltaic Micro Inverter for Village Nano Grid Application

Authors: Ramesh P., Aby Joseph

Abstract:

Micro Inverters provide Module Embedded Solution for harvesting energy from small-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) panels. In addition to higher modularity & reliability (25 years of life), the MicroInverter has inherent advantages such as avoidance of long DC cables, eliminates module mismatch losses, minimizes partial shading effect, improves safety and flexibility in installations etc. Due to the above-stated benefits, the renewable energy technology with Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Micro Inverter becomes more widespread in Village Nano Grid application ensuring grid independence for rural communities and areas without access to electricity. While the primary objective of this paper is to discuss the problems related to rural electrification, this concept can also be extended to urban installation with grid connectivity. This work presents a comprehensive analysis of the power circuit design, control methodologies and prototyping of 300Wₚ Single Phase PV Micro Inverter. This paper investigates two different topologies for PV Micro Inverters, based on the first hand on Single Stage Flyback/ Forward PV Micro-Inverter configuration and the other hand on the Double stage configuration including DC-DC converter, H bridge DC-AC Inverter. This work covers Power Decoupling techniques to reduce the input filter capacitor size to buffer double line (100 Hz) ripple energy and eliminates the use of electrolytic capacitors. The propagation of the double line oscillation reflected back to PV module will affect the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) performance. Also, the grid current will be distorted. To mitigate this issue, an independent MPPT control algorithm is developed in this work to reject the propagation of this double line ripple oscillation to PV side to improve the MPPT performance and grid side to improve current quality. Here, the power hardware topology accepts wide input voltage variation and consists of suitably rated MOSFET switches, Galvanically Isolated gate drivers, high-frequency magnetics and Film capacitors with a long lifespan. The digital controller hardware platform inbuilt with the external peripheral interface is developed using floating point microcontroller TMS320F2806x from Texas Instruments. The firmware governing the operation of the PV Micro Inverter is written in C language and was developed using code composer studio Integrated Development Environment (IDE). In this work, the prototype hardware for the Single Phase Photovoltaic Micro Inverter with Double stage configuration was developed and the comparative analysis between the above mentioned configurations with experimental results will be presented.

Keywords: Power Decoupling, MPPT, double line oscillation, micro inverter, nano grid

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26 Petrogeochemistry of Hornblende-Bearing Gabbro Intrusive, the Greater Caucasus

Authors: Giorgi Beridze, Tamara Tsutsunava, Giorgi Chichinadze, David Shengelia, Nikoloz Maisuradze

Abstract:

The Jalovchat gabbro intrusive is exposed on the northern and southern slopes of Main Range zone of the Greater Caucasus, on an area about 25km2. It is intruded in Precambrian crystalline schists and amphibolites intensively metamorphose them along the contact zone. The intrusive is represented by hornblende-bearing gabbro, gabbro-norites and norites including thin vein bodies of gabbro-pegmatites, anorthosites and micro-gabbros. Especially should be noted the veins of gabbro-pegmatites with the gigantic (up to 0.5m) hornblende crystals. From this point of view, the Jalovchat gabbroid intrusive is particularly interesting and by its unusual composition has no analog in the Caucasus overall. The comprehensive petrologic and geochemical study of the intrusive was carried out by the authors. The results of investigations are following. Amphiboles correspond to magnesiohastingsite and magnesiohornblende. In hastingsite and hornblende as a result of isovalent isomorphism of Fe2+ by Mg, content of the latter has been increased. By AMF and Na20+K diagrams the intrusive rocks correspond to tholeiitic basalts or to basalts close to it by composition. According to ACM-AMF double diagram the samples distributed in the fields of MORB and alkali cumulates. In TiO2/FeO+Fe2O3, Zr/Y-Zr and Ti-Cr/Ni diagrams and Ti-Cr-Y triangular diagram samples are arranged in the fields of island-arc and mid-oceanic basalts or along the trends reflecting mid-oceanic ridges or island arcs. K2O/TiO2 diagram shows that these rocks belong to normal and enriched MORB type. According to Th/Nb/Y ratio, the Jalovchat intrusive composition corresponds to depleted mantle, but by Sm/Y-Ce/Sm - to the MORB area. Th/Y and Nb/Y ratios coincide with the MORB composition, Th/Yb-Ta/Yb and La/Nb-Ti ratios correspond to N MORB, and Rb/Y and N/Y - to the lower crust formations. Exceptional are Ce/Pb-Ce and Nb/Th-Nb diagrams, showing the area of primitive mantle. Spidergrams are characterized by almost horizontal trend, weakly expressed Eu minimums and by a slight depletion of light REE. Similar are characteristic of typical tholeiit basalts. In comparison to MORB spidergrams, they are characterized by depletion of light REE. Their correlation to the spidergrams of Jalovchat intrusive proves that they are more depleted. The above cited points to the gradual depletion of mantle with the light REE in geological time. The RE and REE diagrams reveal unexpected regularity. In particular, petro-geochemical characteristics of Jalovchat gabbroid intrusive predominantly correspond to MORB, that usually is an anomalous phenomenon, since in ‘ophiolitic’ section magmatic formations represented mainly by gigantic prismatic hornblende-bearing gabbro and gabbro-pegmatite are not indicated. On the basis of petro-mineralogical and petro-geochemical data analysis, the authors consider that the Jalovchat intrusive belongs to the subduction geodynamic type. In the depleted mantle rich in water the MORB rock system has subducted, where the favorable conditions for crystallization of hornblende and especially for its gigantic crystals occurred. It is considered that the Jalovchat intrusive was formed in deep horizons of the Earth’s crust as a result of crystallization of water-bearing Bajocian basalt magma.

Keywords: The Greater Caucasus, gabbro-pegmatite, hornblende-bearing gabbro, petrogenesis

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25 Collagen/Hydroxyapatite Compositions Doped with Transitional Metals for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications

Authors: D. Ficai, A. Ficai, D. Gudovan, I. A. Gudovan, I. Ardelean, R. Trusca, E. Andronescu, V. Mitran, A. Cimpean

Abstract:

In the last years, scientists struggled hardly to mimic bone structures to develop implants and biostructures which present higher biocompatibility and reduced rejection rate. One way to obtain this goal is to use similar materials as that of bone, namely collagen/hydroxyapatite composite materials. However, it is very important to tailor both compositions but also the microstructure of the bone that would ensure both the optimal osteointegartion and the mechanical properties required by the application. In this study, new collagen/hydroxyapatites composite materials doped with Cu, Li, Mn, Zn were successfully prepared. The synthesis method is described below: weight the Ca(OH)₂ mass, i.e., 7,3067g, and ZnCl₂ (0.134g), CuSO₄ (0.159g), LiCO₃ (0.133g), MnCl₂.4H₂O (0.1971g), and suspend in 100ml distilled water under magnetic stirring. The solution thus obtained is added a solution of NaH₂PO₄*H2O (8.247g dissolved in 50ml distilled water) under slow dropping of 1 ml/min followed by adjusting the pH to 9.5 with HCl and finally filter and wash until neutral pH. The as-obtained slurry was dried in the oven at 80°C and then calcined at 600°C in order to ensure a proper purification of the final product of organic phases, also inducing a proper sterilization of the mixture before insertion into the collagen matrix. The collagen/hydroxyapatite composite materials are tailored from morphological point of view to optimize their biocompatibility and bio-integration against mechanical properties whereas the addition of the dopants is aimed to improve the biological activity of the samples. The addition of transitional metals can improve the biocompatibility and especially the osteoblasts adhesion (Mn²⁺) or to induce slightly better osteoblast differentiation of the osteoblast, Zn²⁺ being a cofactor for many enzymes including those responsible for cell differentiation. If the amount is too high, the final material can become toxic and lose all of its biocompatibility. In order to achieve a good biocompatibility and not reach the cytotoxic effect, the amount of transitional metals added has to be maintained at low levels (0.5% molar). The amount of transitional metals entering into the elemental cell of HA will be verified using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometric system. This highly sensitive technique is necessary, because, at such low levels of transitional metals, the difference between biocompatible and cytotoxic is a very thin line, thus requiring proper and thorough investigation using a precise technique. In order to determine the structure and morphology of the obtained composite materials, IR spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry (EDS) were used. Acknowledgment: The present work was possible due to the EU-funding grant POSCCE-A2O2.2.1-2013-1, Project No. 638/12.03.2014, code SMIS-CSNR 48652. The financial contribution received from the national project “Biomimetic porous structures obtained by 3D printing developed for bone tissue engineering (BIOGRAFTPRINT), No. 127PED/2017 is also highly acknowledged.

Keywords: Composite Materials, Bone Tissue Engineering, hydroxyapatite, collagen

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24 The Monitor for Neutron Dose in Hadrontherapy Project: Secondary Neutron Measurement in Particle Therapy

Authors: V. Giacometti, R. Mirabelli, V. Patera, D. Pinci, A. Sarti, A. Sciubba, G. Traini, M. Marafini

Abstract:

The particle therapy (PT) is a very modern technique of non invasive radiotherapy mainly devoted to the treatment of tumours untreatable with surgery or conventional radiotherapy, because localised closely to organ at risk (OaR). Nowadays, PT is available in about 55 centres in the word and only the 20\% of them are able to treat with carbon ion beam. However, the efficiency of the ion-beam treatments is so impressive that many new centres are in construction. The interest in this powerful technology lies to the main characteristic of PT: the high irradiation precision and conformity of the dose released to the tumour with the simultaneous preservation of the adjacent healthy tissue. However, the beam interactions with the patient produce a large component of secondary particles whose additional dose has to be taken into account during the definition of the treatment planning. Despite, the largest fraction of the dose is released to the tumour volume, a non-negligible amount is deposed in other body regions, mainly due to the scattering and nuclear interactions of the neutrons within the patient body. One of the main concerns in PT treatments is the possible occurrence of secondary malignant neoplasm (SMN). While SMNs can be developed up to decades after the treatments, their incidence impacts directly life quality of the cancer survivors, in particular in pediatric patients. Dedicated Treatment Planning Systems (TPS) are used to predict the normal tissue toxicity including the risk of late complications induced by the additional dose released by secondary neutrons. However, no precise measurement of secondary neutrons flux is available, as well as their energy and angular distributions: an accurate characterization is needed in order to improve TPS and reduce safety margins. The project MONDO (MOnitor for Neutron Dose in hadrOntherapy) is devoted to the construction of a secondary neutron tracker tailored to the characterization of that secondary neutron component. The detector, based on the tracking of the recoil protons produced in double-elastic scattering interactions, is a matrix of thin scintillating fibres, arranged in layer x-y oriented. The final size of the object is 10 x 10 x 20 cm3 (squared 250µm scint. fibres, double cladding). The readout of the fibres is carried out with a dedicated SPAD Array Sensor (SBAM) realised in CMOS technology by FBK (Fondazione Bruno Kessler). The detector is under development as well as the SBAM sensor and it is expected to be fully constructed for the end of the year. MONDO will make data tacking campaigns at the TIFPA Proton Therapy Center of Trento, at the CNAO (Pavia) and at HIT (Heidelberg) with carbon ion in order to characterize the neutron component and predict the additional dose delivered on the patients with much more precision and to drastically reduce the actual safety margins. Preliminary measurements with charged particles beams and MonteCarlo FLUKA simulation will be presented.

Keywords: elastic scattering, secondary neutrons, particle therapy, tracking detector

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