Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1541

Search results for: multi-layer thin film

1421 Temperature Coefficients of the Refractive Index for Ge Film

Authors: Hui Zhou, Lingmao Xu

Abstract:

Ge film is widely used in infrared optical systems. Because of the special requirements of space application, it is usually used in low temperature. The refractive index of Ge film is always changed with the temperature which has a great effect on the manufacture of high precision infrared optical film. Specimens of Ge single film were deposited at ZnSe substrates by EB-PVD method. During temperature range 80K ~ 300K, the transmittance of Ge single film within 2 ~ 15 μm were measured every 20K by PerkinElmer FTIR cryogenic testing system. By the full spectrum inversion method fitting, the relationship between refractive index and wavelength within 2 ~ 12μm at different temperatures was received. It can be seen the relationship consistent with the formula Cauchy, which can be fitted. Then the relationship between refractive index of the Ge film and temperature/wavelength was obtained by fitting method based on formula Cauchy. Finally, the designed value obtained by the formula and the measured spectrum were compared to verify the accuracy of the formula.

Keywords: Low Temperature, infrared optical film, thermal refractive coefficient, Ge film

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1420 Comparative Studies on Thin Film of ZnO Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis and Sputtering Technique

Authors: A. U. Moreh, Musa Momoh, A. M. Bayawa, Sanusi Abdullahi, I. Atiku

Abstract:

In this study, thin films of ZnO were synthesized by two techniques namely RF sputtering and spray pyrolysis. The films were deposited on corning glass. The primary materials used are 99.99% pure. The optical and structural properties of the samples were studied. It has been noted that the samples deposited by Spray pyrolysis have and average transmittance, refractive index and extinction coefficient as 80-90%, 1.33-1.44 and 13.11-27.52 respectively. Those deposited by sputtering method are 34-80%, 1.51-1.52 and 3.15-3.28. The XRD patterns of the samples show that they are polycrystalline.

Keywords: Electrical Properties, Optical Properties, zinc oxide, RF sputtering, spray pyrolysis

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1419 Effects of Flame Retardant Nano Bio-Filler on the Fire Behaviour of Thin Film Intumescent Coatings

Authors: Rajkumar Durairaj, Ming Chian Yew, Ming Kun Yew, Lip Huat Saw, Tan Ching Ng, Jing Han Beh

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the fire protection performance, char formation and heat release characteristics of the thin film intumescent coatings that incorporate waste eggshell (ES) as a nano bio-filler. In this study, the Bunsen burner and the fire propagation (BS 476: Part 6) tests of coatings were measured. Experiments on the samples were also tested to evaluate their fire behavior using a cone calorimeter according to ISO 5660-1 specifications. On exposure, the samples B, C and D had been certified to be Class 0 due to the fire propagation indexes of the samples were less than 12. Samples B and D showed a significant reduction in total heat rate (B=11.6 MJ/m² and D=12.0 MJ/m²) and uniform char structures with the addition of 3.30 wt.% and 2.75 wt.% ES nano bio-filler, respectively. As a result, ES nano bio-filler composition good to slow down the fire expanding and demonstrate better fire protection due to its positive synergistic effect with flame retardant ingredients on physical and chemical reactions in fire protection.

Keywords: Fire Protection, intumescent coating, eggshell, heat release rate, cone calorimeter

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1418 Metallic and Semiconductor Thin Film and Nanoparticles for Novel Applications

Authors: P. John Thomas, Paul O’Brien, Hanan. Al Chaghouri, Mohammad Azad Malik

Abstract:

The process of assembling metal nanoparticles at the interface of two liquids has received a great interest over the past few years due to a wide range of important applications and their unusual properties compared to bulk materials. We present a low cost, simple and cheap synthesis of metal nanoparticles, core/shell structures and semiconductors followed by assembly of these particles between immiscible liquids. The aim of this talk is divided to three parts: firstly, to describe the achievement of a closed loop recycling for producing cadmium sulphide as powders and/or nanostructured thin films for solar cells or other optoelectronic devices applications by using a different chain length of commercially available secondary amines of dithiocarbamato complexes. The approach can be extended to other metal sulphides such as those of Zn, Pb, Cu, or Fe and many transition metals and oxides. Secondly, to synthesis significantly cheaper magnetic particles suited for the mass market. Ni/NiO nanoparticles with ferromagnetic properties at room temperature were among the smallest and strongest magnets (5 nm) were made in solution. The applications of this work can be applied to produce viable storage devices and the other possibility is to disperse these nanocrystals in solution and use it to make ferro-fluids which have a number of mature applications. The third part is about preparing and assembling of submicron silver, cobalt and nickel particles by using polyol methods and liquid/liquid interface, respectively. Noble metal like gold, copper and silver are suitable for plasmonic thin film solar cells because of their low resistivity and strong interactions with visible light waves. Silver is the best choice for solar cell application since it has low absorption losses and high radiative efficiency compared to gold and copper. Assembled cobalt and nickel as films are promising for spintronic, magnetic and magneto-electronic and biomedics.

Keywords: Solar Cells, thin film, liquid/liquid interface, assembling nanoparticles, core/shell, recording media

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1417 Magnetron Sputtered Thin-Film Catalysts with Low Noble Metal Content for Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolysis

Authors: Peter Kus, Anna Ostroverkh, Yurii Yakovlev, Yevheniia Lobko, Roman Fiala, Ivan Khalakhan, Vladimir Matolin

Abstract:

Hydrogen economy is a concept of low-emission society which harvests most of its energy from renewable sources (e.g., wind and solar) and in case of overproduction, electrochemically turns the excess amount into hydrogen, which serves as an energy carrier. Proton exchange membrane water electrolyzers (PEMWE) are the backbone of this concept. By fast-response electricity to hydrogen conversion, the PEMWEs will not only stabilize the electrical grid but also provide high-purity hydrogen for variety of fuel cell powered devices, ranging from consumer electronics to vehicles. Wider commercialization of PEMWE technology is however hindered by high prices of noble metals which are necessary for catalyzing the redox reactions within the cell. Namely, platinum for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), running on cathode, and iridium for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) on anode. Possible way of how to lower the loading of Pt and Ir is by using conductive high-surface nanostructures as catalyst supports in conjunction with thin-film catalyst deposition. The presented study discusses unconventional technique of membrane electron assembly (MEA) preparation. Noble metal catalysts (Pt and Ir) were magnetron sputtered in very low loadings onto the surface of porous sublayers (located on gas diffusion layer or directly on membrane), forming so to say localized three-phase boundary. Ultrasonically sprayed corrosion resistant TiC-based sublayer was used as a support material on anode, whereas magnetron sputtered nanostructured etched nitrogenated carbon (CNx) served the same role on cathode. By using this configuration, we were able to significantly decrease the amount of noble metals (to thickness of just tens of nanometers), while keeping the performance comparable to that of average state-of-the-art catalysts. Complex characterization of prepared supported catalysts includes in-cell performance and durability tests, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Our research proves that magnetron sputtering is a suitable method for thin-film deposition of electrocatalysts. Tested set-up of thin-film supported anode and cathode catalysts with combined loading of just 120 ug.cm⁻² yields remarkable values of specific current. Described approach of thin-film low-loading catalyst deposition might be relevant when noble metal reduction is the topmost priority.

Keywords: Hydrogen Economy, magnetron sputtering, low-loading catalyst, proton exchange membrane water electrolyzer

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1416 Structural and Optoelectronic Properties of Monovalent Cation Doping PbS Thin Films

Authors: Melissa Chavez Portillo, Mauricio Pacio Castillo, Hector Juarez Santiesteban, Oscar Portillo Moreno

Abstract:

Nanocrystalline Li-doped PbS thin films have been deposited by chemical bath deposition technique. The goal of this work is to study the modification of the optoelectronic and structural properties of Lithium incorporation. The increase of Li doping in PbS thin films leads to an increase of band gap in the range of 1.4-2.3, consequently, quantum size effect becomes pronounced in the Li-doped PbS films, which lead to a significant enhancement in the optical band gap. Doping shows influence in the film growth and results in a reduction of crystallite size from 30 to 14 nm. The refractive index was calculated and a relationship with dielectric constant was investigated. The dc conductivities of Li-doped and undoped samples were measured in the temperature range 290-340K, the conductivity increase with increase of Lithium content in the PbS films.

Keywords: Doping, Quantum Confinement, Pbs, optical band gap

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1415 Estimation of Mobility Parameters and Threshold Voltage of an Organic Thin Film Transistor Using an Asymmetric Capacitive Test Structure

Authors: Rajesh Agarwal

Abstract:

Carrier mobility at the organic/insulator interface is essential to the performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFT). The present work describes estimation of field dependent mobility (FDM) parameters and the threshold voltage of an OTFT using a simple, easy to fabricate two terminal asymmetric capacitive test structure using admittance measurements. Conventionally, transfer characteristics are used to estimate the threshold voltage in an OTFT with field independent mobility (FIDM). Yet, this technique breaks down to give accurate results for devices with high contact resistance and having field dependent mobility. In this work, a new technique is presented for characterization of long channel organic capacitor (LCOC). The proposed technique helps in the accurate estimation of mobility enhancement factor (γ), the threshold voltage (V_th) and band mobility (µ₀) using capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement in OTFT. This technique also helps to get rid of making short channel OTFT or metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures for making C-V measurements. To understand the behavior of devices and ease of analysis, transmission line compact model is developed. The 2-D numerical simulation was carried out to illustrate the correctness of the model. Results show that proposed technique estimates device parameters accurately even in the presence of contact resistance and field dependent mobility. Pentacene/Poly (4-vinyl phenol) based top contact bottom-gate OTFT’s are fabricated to illustrate the operation and advantages of the proposed technique. Small signal of frequency varying from 1 kHz to 5 kHz and gate potential ranging from +40 V to -40 V have been applied to the devices for measurement.

Keywords: Mobility, Organic, Capacitance, thin film transistor

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1414 Barrier Characteristics of Molecular Semiconductor-Based Organic/Inorganic Au/C₄₂H₂₈/n-InP Hybrid Junctions

Authors: Bahattin Abay

Abstract:

Thin film of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon rubrene, C₄₂H₂₈ (5,6,11,12-tetraphenyltetracene), has been surfaced on Moderately Doped (MD) n-InP substrate as an interfacial layer by means of spin coating technique for the electronic modification of Au/MD n-InP structure. Ex situ annealing has been carried out at 150 °C for three minutes under a brisk flow of nitrogen for the better adhesion of the deposited film with the substrate surface. Room temperature electrical characterization has been performed on the C₄₂H₂₈/MD n-InP hybrid junctions by current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement in the dark. It has been seen that the C₄₂H₂₈/MD n-InP structure demonstrated extraordinary rectifying behavior. An effective barrier height (BH) as high as 0.743 eV, along with an ideality factor very close to unity (n=1.203), has been achieved for C₄₂H₂₈/n-InP organic/inorganic device. A thin C₄₂H₂₈ interfacial layer between Au and MD n-InP also reduce the reverse leakage current by almost four orders of magnitude and enhance the BH about 0.278 eV. This good performance of the device is ascribed to the passivation effect of organic interfacial layer between Au and n-InP. By using C-V measurement, in addition, the value of BH of the C₄₂H₂₈/n-InP organic/inorganic hybrid junctions have been obtained as 0.796 eV. It has been seen that both of the BH value (0.743 and 0.796 eV) for the organic/inorganic hybrid junction obtained I-V and C-V measurement, respectively are significantly larger than that of the conventional Au/n-InP structure (0.465 and 0.503 eV). It was also seen that the device had good sensitivity to the light under 100 mW/cm² illumination conditions. The obtained results indicated that modification of the interfacial potential barrier for Metal/n-InP junctions might be attained using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon thin interlayer C₄₂H₂₈.

Keywords: Surface Passivation, heterojunction, I-V and C-V measurements, n-InP, rubrene

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1413 Low-Surface Roughness and High Optical Quality CdS Thin Film Deposited on Heated Substrate Using Room-Temperature Chemical Solution

Authors: A. Elsayed, M. H. Dewaidar, M. Ghali, M. Elkemary

Abstract:

The high production cost of the conventional solar cells requires the search for economic methods suitable for solar energy conversion. Cadmium Sulfide (CdS) is one of the most important semiconductors used in photovoltaics, especially in large area solar cells; and can be prepared in a thin film form by a wide variety of deposition techniques. The preparation techniques include vacuum evaporation, sputtering and molecular beam epitaxy. Other techniques, based on chemical solutions, are also used for depositing CdS films with dramatically low-cost compared to other vacuum-based methods. Although this technique is widely used during the last decades, due to simplicity and low-deposition temperature (~100°C), there is still a strong need for more information on the growth process and its relation with the quality of the deposited films. Here, we report on deposition of high-quality CdS thin films; with low-surface roughness ( < 3.0 nm) and sharp optical absorption edge; on low-temperature glass substrates (70°C) using a new method based on the room-temperature chemical solution. In this method, a mixture solution of cadmium acetate and thiourea at room temperature was used under special growth conditions for deposition of CdS films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were used to examine the crystal structure properties of the deposited CdS films. In addition, UV-VIS transmittance and low-temperature (4K) photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed for quantifying optical properties of the deposited films. The deposited films show high optical quality as confirmed by observation of both, sharp edge in the transmittance spectra and strong PL intensity at room temperature. Furthermore, we found a strong effect of the growth conditions on the optical band gap of the deposited films; where remarkable red-shift in the absorption edge with temperature is clearly seen in both transmission and PL spectra. Such tuning of both optical band gap of the deposited CdS films can be utilized for tuning the electronic bands' alignments between CdS and other light-harvesting materials, like CuInGaSe or CdTe, for potential improvement in the efficiency of solar cells devices based on these heterostructures.

Keywords: Surface, Optical Properties, thin film, CDS, chemical deposition

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1412 Photoimpedance Spectroscopy Analysis of Planar and Nano-Textured Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

Authors: P. Kumar, D. Eisenhauer, M. M. K. Yousef, Q. Shi, A. S. G. Khalil, M. R. Saber, C. Becker, T. Pullerits, K. J. Karki

Abstract:

In impedance spectroscopy (IS) the response of a photo-active device is analysed as a function of ac bias. It is widely applied in a broad class of material systems and devices. It gives access to fundamental mechanisms of operation of solar cells. We have implemented a method of IS where we modulate the light instead of the bias. This scheme allows us to analyze not only carrier dynamics but also impedance of device locally. Here, using this scheme, we have measured the frequency-dependent photocurrent response of the thin-film planar and nano-textured Si solar cells using this method. Photocurrent response is measured in range of 50 Hz to 50 kHz. Bode and Nyquist plots are used to determine characteristic lifetime of both the cells. Interestingly, the carrier lifetime of both planar and nano-textured solar cells depend on back and front contact positions. This is due to either heterogeneity of device or contacts are not optimized. The estimated average lifetime is found to be shorter for the nano-textured cell, which could be due to the influence of the textured interface on the carrier relaxation dynamics.

Keywords: impedance, photocurrent, carrier lifetime, nano-textured

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1411 Investigating the Role of Combined Length Scale Effect on the Mechanical Properties of Ni/Cu Multilayer Structures

Authors: Naresh Radaliyagoda, Nigel M. Jennett, Rong Lan, David Parfitt

Abstract:

A series of length scale engineered multilayer material with temperature robust mechanical properties has been suggested. A range of polycrystalline copper sub-layers with the thickness varying from 1 to 25μm and buried in between two nickel layers was produced using electrodeposition dual bath technique. The structure of the multilayers was characterized using Electron Backscatter Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscope. The interface effect on the hardness and elastic modulus was tested using Nano-indentation. Results of the grain size and layer thickness measurements, and indentation hardness have been compared. It is found that there is a combined length scale effect that improves mechanical properties in Ni/Cu multilayer structures.

Keywords: Size Effect, electrodeposition, nano-indentation, multilayers

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1410 Nazi Propaganda and the 1930 Berlin Film Premiere of “All Quiet on the Western Front”

Authors: Edward C. Smith

Abstract:

Historical narration in literature and film is an act that necessarily develops and deforms history, whether consciously or unconsciously. Such “translation” suffers or thrives depending on its historical context and on the ability of the artist/artists to make choices that enhance or diminish social and political reality. This “translation” and its challenges is examined from within the historical and political context of the 1930 Berlin film premiere of “All Quiet on the Western Front,” a film based on Erich Maria Remarque’s 1928 best-selling novel. Both the film and the novel appeared during a period in which the “aestheticization” of reality predominated. This was an era in early 20th-century European society in which life was conceived of as innately artistic and structured like an art form. The emergence of this modern consciousness, one in which memory and history surrendered their former authority, enabled conservative propaganda of the period to denounce all art that did not adhere conceptually to its political tenets, with “All Quiet” becoming yet another of its “victims.”

Keywords: documentary and propaganda film, film and TV audiences, international literature in film studies, popular culture and film

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1409 Synthesis of Crosslinked Konjac Glucomannan and Kappa Carrageenan Film with Glutaraldehyde

Authors: Sperisa Distantina, Mujtahid Kaavessina, Fadilah

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Crosslinked konjac glucomannan and kappa carrageenan film were prepared by chemical crosslinking using glutaraldehyde (GA) as the crosslinking agent. The effect crosslinking on the swelling degree was investigated. Konjac glucomanan and its mixture with kappa carragenan film was immersed in GA solution and then thermally cured. The obtained crosslinked film was washed and soaked in the ethanol to remove the unreacted GA. The obtained film was air dried at room temperature to a constant weight. The infrared spectra and the value of swelling degree of obtained crosslinked film showed that glucomannan and kappa carrageenan was able to be crosslinked using glutaraldehyde by film immersion and curing method without catalyst. The crosslinked films were found to be pH sensitive, indicating a potential to be used in drug delivery polymer system.

Keywords: Swelling, crosslinking, carrageenan, glucomannan

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1408 Preparation of Nanophotonics LiNbO3 Thin Films and Studying Their Morphological and Structural Properties by Sol-Gel Method for Waveguide Applications

Authors: A. Fakhri Makram, Marwa S. Alwazni, Al-Douri Yarub, Evan T. Salim, Hashim Uda, Chin C. Woei

Abstract:

Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) nanostructures are prepared on quartz substrate by the sol-gel method. They have been deposited with different molarity concentration and annealed at 500°C. These samples are characterized and analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The measured results showed an importance increasing in molarity concentrations that indicate the structure starts to become crystal, regular, homogeneous, well crystal distributed, which made it more suitable for optical waveguide application.

Keywords: thin film, morphological properties, XRD, lithium niobate, pechini method

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1407 Theoretical and Experimental Study of Iron Oxide Thin Film

Authors: M. Loutfi Benkhedir, Fahima Djefaflia

Abstract:

The aim of this work was to development and characterisation of iron oxide thin films by spray pyrolysis technique. Influences of deposition parameters pile temperature on structural and optical properties have been studied Thin films are analysed by various techniques of materials. The structural characterization of films by analysis of spectra of X-ray diffraction showed that the films prepared at T=350,400,450 are crystalline and amorphous at T=300C. For particular condition, two phases hematiteFe2O3 and magnetite Fe3O4 have been observed.The UV-Visible spectrophotometer of this films confirms that it is possible to obtain films with a transmittance of about 15-30% in the visible range. In addition, this analysis allowed us to determine the optical gap and disorder of films. We conclude that the increase in temperature is accompanied by a reduction in the optical gap with increasing in disorder. An ab initio calculation for this phase shows that the results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: Optical Properties, spray pyrolysis technique, iron oxide, ab initio calculation

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1406 Thai’s Film after Political Crisis in October 14, 1973 and Political Crisis between 2005-2014

Authors: Pison Suwanpakdee

Abstract:

The objective of presenting this article is to analyze between Thai’s film and Thai society in political crisis, to study the development and trend of the film which reflects society in Thailand from political crisis of 14 October 1973 and the present day political crisis using a comparative study of the two era, both the similarities and differences in the film reflects the society in an era of change.

Keywords: Political, Film, Thailand, neorealism

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1405 Sensing Characteristics of Gold Nanoparticles Decorated Sputtered Tin Oxide Thin Films as Nitrogen Oxide Sensor

Authors: Qasem Drmosh, Zain Yamai, Amar Mohamedkhair, Abdulmajid Hendi

Abstract:

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the reduction of the nitrogen oxides NOx (NO2, NO) gases resulting from automotive or combustion emissions. Recently, metal additives in nanometer dimension onto the surface of SnO2 nanorods, nanowires and nanotubes sensitizer to further increase the sensor response have been used. In contrast, there is a lack study focused on modifying the surface of SnO2 thin films by nanoparticles. The challenge in case of thin films is how to fabricate these nanoparticles on the surfaces in cost-effective method, high purity as well as without hampering electrical and topographical properties. Here in this report, a simple and facile strategy has been demonstrated to acquire high sensitive and fast response NO2 gas sensor. Structural, electrical, morphological, optical, and compositional properties of the fabricated sensors were investigated through different analytical technique including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning emission microscope (FESEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The sensing performance of the prepared sensors are studied at different temperatures for various concentrations of NO2 and compared with pristine SnO2 film.

Keywords: Thin Films, sputtering, SnO2, NO2 sensor

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1404 A Neural Network System for Predicting the Hardness of Titanium Aluminum Nitrite (TiAlN) Coatings

Authors: Omar M. Elmabrouk

Abstract:

The cutting tool, in the high-speed machining process, is consistently dealing with high localized stress at the tool tip, tip temperature exceeds 800°C and the chip slides along the rake face. These conditions are affecting the tool wear, the cutting tool performances, the quality of the produced parts and the tool life. Therefore, a thin film coating on the cutting tool should be considered to improve the tool surface properties while maintaining its bulks properties. One of the general coating processes in applying thin film for hard coating purpose is PVD magnetron sputtering. In this paper, the prediction of the effects of PVD magnetron sputtering coating process parameters, sputter power in the range of (4.81-7.19 kW), bias voltage in the range of (50.00-300.00 Volts) and substrate temperature in the range of (281.08-600.00 °C), were studied using artificial neural network (ANN). The results were compared with previously published results using RSM model. It was found that the ANN is more accurate in prediction of tool hardness, and hence, it will not only improve the tool life of the tool but also significantly enhances the efficiency of the machining processes.

Keywords: Hardness, prediction, Artificial Neural Network, titanium aluminium nitrate coating

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1403 FTIR and AFM Properties of Doubly Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Spin Coating Technique

Authors: Bahattin Düzgün, Adem Kocyigit, Demet Tatar, Ahmet Battal

Abstract:

Tin oxide thin films are semiconductor materials highly transparent and with high mechanical and chemical stability, except for their interactions with oxygen atoms at high temperature. Many dopants, such as antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), fluorine (F), indium (In), molybdenum and (Mo) etc. have been used to improve the electrical properties of tin oxide films. Among these, Sb and F are found to be the most commonly used dopants for solar cell layers. Also Tin oxide tin films investigated and characterized by researchers different film deposition and analysis method. In this study, tin oxide thin films are deposited on glass substrate by spin coating technique and characterized by FTIR and AFM. FTIR spectroscopy revealed that all films have O-Sn-O and Sn-OH vibration bonds not changing with layer effect. AFM analysis indicates that all films are homogeneity and uniform. It can be seen that all films have needle shape structure in their surfaces. Uniformity and homogeneity of the films generally increased for increasing layers. The results found in present study showed that doubly doped SnO2 thin films is a good candidate for solar cells and other optoelectronic and technological applications.

Keywords: doubly doped, spin coating, FTIR analysis, AFM analysis

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1402 Fabrication of Highly Conductive Graphene/ITO Transparent Bi-Film through Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Organic Additives-Free Sol-Gel Techniques

Authors: Jae-Kwan Kim, Ji-Myon Lee, Bastian Waduge Naveen Harindu Hemasiri

Abstract:

Indium tin oxide (ITO) remains the industrial standard transparent conducting oxides with better performances. Recently, graphene becomes as a strong material with unique properties to replace the ITO. However, graphene/ITO hybrid composite material is a newly born field in the electronic world. In this study, the graphene/ITO composite bi-film was synthesized by a two steps process. 10 wt.% tin-doped, ITO thin films were produced by an environmentally friendly aqueous sol-gel spin coating technique with economical salts of In(NO3)3.H2O and SnCl4 without using organic additives. The wettability and surface free energy (97.6986 mJ/m2) enhanced oxygen plasma treated glass substrates were used to form voids free continuous ITO film. The spin-coated samples were annealed at 600 0C for 1 hour under low vacuum conditions to obtained crystallized, ITO film. The crystal structure and crystalline phases of ITO thin films were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The Scherrer equation was used to determine the crystallite size. Detailed information about chemical composition and elemental composition of the ITO film were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) coupled with FE-SEM respectively. Graphene synthesis was done under chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method by using Cu foil at 1000 0C for 1 min. The quality of the synthesized graphene was characterized by Raman spectroscopy (532nm excitation laser beam) and data was collected at room temperature and normal atmosphere. The surface and cross-sectional observation were done by using FE-SEM. The optical transmission and sheet resistance were measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy and four point probe head at room temperature respectively. Electrical properties were also measured by using V-I characteristics. XRD patterns reveal that the films contain the In2O3 phase only and exhibit the polycrystalline nature of the cubic structure with the main peak of (222) plane. The peak positions of In3d5/2 (444.28 eV) and Sn3d5/2 (486.7 eV) in XPS results indicated that indium and tin are in the oxide form only. The UV-visible transmittance shows 91.35 % at 550 nm with 5.88 x 10-3 Ωcm specific resistance. The G and 2D band in Raman spectroscopy of graphene appear at 1582.52 cm-1 and 2690.54 cm-1 respectively when the synthesized CVD graphene on SiO2/Si. The determined intensity ratios of 2D to G (I2D/IG) and D to G (ID/IG) were 1.531 and 0.108 respectively. However, the above-mentioned G and 2D peaks appear at 1573.57 cm-1 and 2668.14 cm-1 respectively when the CVD graphene on the ITO coated glass, the positions of G and 2D peaks were red shifted by 8.948 cm-1 and 22.396 cm-1 respectively. This graphene/ITO bi-film shows modified electrical properties when compares with sol-gel derived ITO film. The reduction of sheet resistance in the bi-film was 12.03 % from the ITO film. Further, the fabricated graphene/ITO bi-film shows 88.66 % transmittance at 550 nm wavelength.

Keywords: Graphene, Raman spectroscopy, sol-gel, chemical vapor deposition, ITO

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1401 The Formation of Thin Copper Films on Graphite Surface Using Magnetron Sputtering Method

Authors: Zydrunas Kavaliauskas, Aleksandras Iljinas, Liutauras Marcinauskas, Mindaugas Milieska, Vitas Valincius

Abstract:

The magnetron sputtering deposition method is often used to obtain thin film coatings. The main advantage of magnetron vaporization compared to other deposition methods is the high rate erosion of the cathode material (e.g., copper, aluminum, etc.) and the ability to operate under low-pressure conditions. The structure of the formed coatings depends on the working parameters of the magnetron deposition system, which is why it is possible to influence the properties of the growing film, such as morphology, crystal orientation, and dimensions, stresses, adhesion, etc. The properties of these coatings depend on the distance between the substrate and the magnetron surface, the vacuum depth, the gas used, etc. Using this deposition technology, substrates are most often placed near the anode. The magnetic trap of the magnetrons for localization of electrons in the cathode region is formed using a permanent magnet system that is on the side of the cathode. The scientific literature suggests that, after insertion of a small amount of copper into graphite, the electronic conductivity of graphite increase. The aim of this work is to create thin (up to 300 nm) layers on a graphite surface using a magnetron evaporation method, to investigate the formation peculiarities and microstructure of thin films, as well as the mechanism of copper diffusion into graphite inner layers at different thermal treatment temperatures. The electron scanning microscope was used to investigate the microrelief of the coating surface. The chemical composition is determined using the EDS method, which shows that, with an increase of the thermal treatment of the copper-carbon layer from 200 °C to 400 °C, the copper content is reduced from 8 to 4 % in atomic mass units. This is because the EDS method captures only the amount of copper on the graphite surface, while the temperature of the heat treatment increases part of the copper because of the diffusion processes penetrates into the inner layers of the graphite. The XRD method shows that the crystalline copper structure is not affected by thermal treatment.

Keywords: Coatings, Carbon, Copper, magnetron sputtering

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1400 Electrochemical Synthesis of ZnTe and Cu-ZnTe Thin Films for Low Resistive Ohmic Back Contact for CdS/CdTe Solar Cells

Authors: N. B. Chaure, Shivaji M. Sonawane

Abstract:

ZnTe is direct band gap, the P-type semiconductor with the high absorption coefficient of the order of 104cm-1 is suitable for solar cell development. It can be used as a low resistive ohmic contact to CdS/CdTe or tandem solar cell application. ZnTe and Cu-ZnTe thin film have been electrochemically synthesized on to fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass substrates using three electrode systems containing Ag/AgCl, graphite and FTO as reference, counter and working electrode respectively were used to deposit the thin films. The aqueous electrolytic solution consist of 0.5M TeO2, 0.2M ZnSO4, and 0.1M Na3C6H5O7:2H2O, 0.1MC6H8O7:H2O and 0.1mMCuSO4 with PH 2.5 at room temperature was used. The reaction mechanism is studied in the cyclic voltammetry to identify the deposition potentials of ZnTe and Cu-ZnTe.The potential was optimized in the range -0,9 to -1,1 V. Vs Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The effect of deposition potential on the structural properties was studied by using X-ray diffraction. The X-ray diffraction result reveled cubic crystal structure of ZnTe with preferential (111) orientation with cubic structure. The surface morphology and film composition were analyzed by means of Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Analysis of X- Rays (EDAX). The optical absorption measurement has been analyzed for the band gap determination of deposited layers about 2.26 eV by UV-Visible spectroscopy. The drastic change in resistivity has been observed due to incorporation of copper probably due to the diffusion of Cu into grain boundaries.

Keywords: Photovoltaic devices, electrodeposition, ohmic back contact, zinc telluride

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1399 In2S3 Buffer Layer Properties for Thin Film Solar Cells Based on CIGS Absorber

Authors: A. Bouloufa, K. Djessas

Abstract:

In this paper, we reported the effect of substrate temperature on the structural, electrical and optical properties of In2S3 thin films deposited on soda-lime glass substrates by physical vapor deposition technique at various substrate temperatures. The In2Se3 material used for deposition was synthesized from its constituent elements. It was found that all samples exhibit one phase which corresponds to β-In2S3 phase. Values of band gap energy of the films obtained at different substrate temperatures vary in the range of 2.38-2.80 eV and decrease with increasing substrate temperature.

Keywords: Optical Properties, structural properties, buffer layer, In2S3, PVD

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1398 Non Linear Stability of Non Newtonian Thin Liquid Film Flowing down an Incline

Authors: Lamia Bourdache, Amar Djema

Abstract:

The effect of non-Newtonian property (power law index n) on traveling waves of thin layer of power law fluid flowing over an inclined plane is investigated. For this, a simplified second-order two-equation model (SM) is used. The complete model is second-order four-equation (CM). It is derived by combining the weighted residual integral method and the lubrication theory. This is due to the fact that at the beginning of the instability waves, a very small number of waves is observed. Using a suitable set of test functions, second order terms are eliminated from the calculus so that the model is still accurate to the second order approximation. Linear, spatial, and temporal stabilities are studied. For travelling waves, a particular type of wave form that is steady in a moving frame, i.e., that travels at a constant celerity without changing its shape is studied. This type of solutions which are characterized by their celerity exists under suitable conditions, when the widening due to dispersion is balanced exactly by the narrowing effect due to the nonlinearity. Changing the parameter of celerity in some range allows exploring the entire spectrum of asymptotic behavior of these traveling waves. The (SM) model is converted into a three dimensional dynamical system. The result is that the model exhibits bifurcation scenarios such as heteroclinic, homoclinic, Hopf, and period-doubling bifurcations for different values of the power law index n. The influence of the non-Newtonian parameter on the nonlinear development of these travelling waves is discussed. It is found at the end that the qualitative characters of bifurcation scenarios are insensitive to the variation of the power law index.

Keywords: nonlinear stability, thin film, non-Newtonian, inclined plane

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1397 A 1T1R Nonvolatile Memory with Al/TiO₂/Au and Sol-Gel Processed Barium Zirconate Nickelate Gate in Pentacene Thin Film Transistor

Authors: Ke-Jing Lee, Cheng-Jung Lee, Yu-Chi Chang, Li-Wen Wang, Yeong-Her Wang

Abstract:

To avoid the cross-talk issue of only resistive random access memory (RRAM) cell, one transistor and one resistor (1T1R) architecture with a TiO₂-based RRAM cell connected with solution barium zirconate nickelate (BZN) organic thin film transistor (OTFT) device is successfully demonstrated. The OTFT were fabricated on a glass substrate. Aluminum (Al) as the gate electrode was deposited via a radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering system. The barium acetate, zirconium n-propoxide, and nickel II acetylacetone were synthesized by using the sol-gel method. After the BZN solution was completely prepared using the sol-gel process, it was spin-coated onto the Al/glass substrate as the gate dielectric. The BZN layer was baked at 100 °C for 10 minutes under ambient air conditions. The pentacene thin film was thermally evaporated on the BZN layer at a deposition rate of 0.08 to 0.15 nm/s. Finally, gold (Au) electrode was deposited using an RF magnetron sputtering system and defined through shadow masks as both the source and drain. The channel length and width of the transistors were 150 and 1500 μm, respectively. As for the manufacture of 1T1R configuration, the RRAM device was fabricated directly on drain electrodes of TFT device. A simple metal/insulator/metal structure, which consisting of Al/TiO₂/Au structures, was fabricated. First, Au was deposited to be a bottom electrode of RRAM device by RF magnetron sputtering system. Then, the TiO₂ layer was deposited on Au electrode by sputtering. Finally, Al was deposited as the top electrode. The electrical performance of the BZN OTFT was studied, showing superior transfer characteristics with the low threshold voltage of −1.1 V, good saturation mobility of 5 cm²/V s, and low subthreshold swing of 400 mV/decade. The integration of the BZN OTFT and TiO₂ RRAM devices was finally completed to form 1T1R configuration with low power consumption of 1.3 μW, the low operation current of 0.5 μA, and reliable data retention. Based on the I-V characteristics, the different polarities of bipolar switching are found to be determined by the compliance current with the different distribution of the internal oxygen vacancies used in the RRAM and 1T1R devices. Also, this phenomenon can be well explained by the proposed mechanism model. It is promising to make the 1T1R possible for practical applications of low-power active matrix flat-panel displays.

Keywords: sol-gel, one transistor and one resistor (1T1R), organic thin-film transistor (OTFT), resistive random access memory (RRAM)

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1396 Modeling of Daily Global Solar Radiation Using Ann Techniques: A Case of Study

Authors: Said Benkaciali, Mourad Haddadi, Abdallah Khellaf, Kacem Gairaa, Mawloud Guermoui

Abstract:

In this study, many experiments were carried out to assess the influence of the input parameters on the performance of multilayer perceptron which is one the configuration of the artificial neural networks. To estimate the daily global solar radiation on the horizontal surface, we have developed some models by using seven combinations of twelve meteorological and geographical input parameters collected from a radiometric station installed at Ghardaïa city (southern of Algeria). For selecting of best combination which provides a good accuracy, six statistical formulas (or statistical indicators) have been evaluated, such as the root mean square errors, mean absolute errors, correlation coefficient, and determination coefficient. We noted that multilayer perceptron techniques have the best performance, except when the sunshine duration parameter is not included in the input variables. The maximum of determination coefficient and correlation coefficient are equal to 98.20 and 99.11%. On the other hand, some empirical models were developed to compare their performances with those of multilayer perceptron neural networks. Results obtained show that the neural networks techniques give the best performance compared to the empirical models.

Keywords: Solar Radiation, multilayer perceptron neural network, empirical models, statistical formulas

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
1395 Structural and Optical Properties of RF-Sputtered ZnS and Zn(S,O) Thin Films

Authors: Abdelkader Outzourhit, Ould Mohamed Cheikh, Mounir Chaik, Hind El Aakib, Mohamed Aggour

Abstract:

Zinc sulfide [ZnS] and oxygenated zinc sulfide Zn(O,S) thin films were deposited on glass substrates, by reactive cathodic radio-frequency (RF) sputtering. The substrates power and percentage of oxygen were varied in the range of 100W to 250W and from 5% to 20% respectively. The structural, morphological and optical properties of these thin films were investigated. The optical properties (mainly the refractive index, absorption coefficient and optical band gap) were examined by optical transmission measurements in the ultraviolet-visible-near Infrared wavelength range. XRD analysis indicated that all sputtered ZnS films were a single phase with a preferential orientation along the (111) plane of zinc blend (ZB). The crystallite size was in the range of 19.5 nm to 48.5 nm, the crystallite size varied with RF power reaching a maximum at 200 W. The Zn(O,S) films, on the other hand, were amorphous. UV-Visible, measurements showed that the ZnS film had more than 80% transmittance in the visible wavelength region while that of Zn(O,S is 85%. Moreover, it was observed that the band gap energy of the ZnS films increases slightly from 3.4 to 3.52 eV as the RF power was increased. The optical band gap of Zn(O,S), on the other hand, decreased from 4.2 to 3.89 eV as the oxygen partial pressure is increased in the sputtering atmosphere at a fixed RF-power. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed smooth surfaces for both type of films. The X-ray reflectometry measurements on the ZnS films showed that the density of the films (3.9 g/cm3) is close that of bulk ZnS.

Keywords: thin films Zn(O, S) properties, Zn(O, S) by Rf-sputtering, ZnS for solar cells, thin films for renewable energy

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1394 Anti-Site Disorder Effects on the Magnetic Properties of Sm₂NiMnO₆ Thin Films

Authors: Geetanjali Singh, R. J. Choudhary, Anjana Dogra

Abstract:

Here we report the effects of anti-site disorder, present in the sample, on the magnetic properties of Sm₂NiMnO₆ (SNMO) thin films. To our best knowledge, there are no studies available on the thin films of SNMO. Thin films were grown using pulsed laser deposition technique on SrTiO₃ (STO) substrate under oxygen pressure of 800 mTorr. X-ray diffraction (XRD) profiles show that the film grown is epitaxial. Field cooled (FC) and zero field cooled (ZFC) magnetization curve increase as we decrease the temperature till ~135K. A broad dip was observed in both the curves below this temperature which is more dominating in ZFC curve. An additional sharp cusplike shape was observed at low temperature (~20 K) which is due to the re-entrant spin-glass like properties present in the sample. Super-exchange interaction between Ni²⁺-O-Mn⁴⁺ is attributed to the FM ordering in these samples. The spin-glass feature is due to anti-site disorder within the homogeneous sample which was stated to be due to the mixed valence states Ni³⁺ and Mn³⁺ present in the sample. Anti-site disorder was found to play very crucial role in different magnetic phases of the sample.

Keywords: magnetization, double perovskite, pulsed laser deposition, spin-glass

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1393 Neo-Realism in Thai’s Film after Political Crisis in October 14, 1973 and Political Crisis between 2005-2014

Authors: S. Pison

Abstract:

The objective of presenting this article is to analyze between Thai’s film and Thai society in political crisis, to study the development and trend of the film which reflects society in Thailand from political crisis of 14 October 1973 and the present day political crisis using a comparative study of the two era, both the similarities and differences in the film reflects the society in an era of change.

Keywords: Political, Film, Social, Thailand, neo-realism

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
1392 Climate Adaptive Building Shells for Plus-Energy-Buildings, Designed on Bionic Principles

Authors: Andreas Hammer

Abstract:

Six peculiar architecture designs from the Frankfurt University will be discussed within this paper and their future potential of the adaptable and solar thin-film sheets implemented facades will be shown acting and reacting on climate/solar changes of their specific sites. The different aspects, as well as limitations with regard to technical and functional restrictions, will be named. The design process for a “multi-purpose building”, a “high-rise building refurbishment” and a “biker’s lodge” on the river Rheine valley, has been critically outlined and developed step by step from an international studentship towards an overall energy strategy, that firstly had to push the design to a plus-energy building and secondly had to incorporate bionic aspects into the building skins design. Both main parameters needed to be reviewed and refined during the whole design process. Various basic bionic approaches have been given [e.g. solar ivyᵀᴹ, flectofinᵀᴹ or hygroskinᵀᴹ, which were to experiment with, regarding the use of bendable photovoltaic thin film elements being parts of a hybrid, kinetic façade system.

Keywords: Plus-Energy-Buildings, bionic and bioclimatic design, climate adaptive building shells [CABS], energy-strategy, harvesting façade, high-efficiency building skin, photovoltaic in building skins, solar gain, sustainable building concept

Procedia PDF Downloads 298