Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1393

Search results for: movement decoding

1393 Maximum-likelihood Inference of Multi-Finger Movements Using Neural Activities

Authors: Kyung-Jin You, Kiwon Rhee, Marc H. Schieber, Nitish V. Thakor, Hyun-Chool Shin

Abstract:

It remains unknown whether M1 neurons encode multi-finger movements independently or as a certain neural network of single finger movements although multi-finger movements are physically a combination of single finger movements. We present an evidence of correlation between single and multi-finger movements and also attempt a challenging task of semi-blind decoding of neural data with minimum training of the neural decoder. Data were collected from 115 task-related neurons in M1 of a trained rhesus monkey performing flexion and extension of each finger and the wrist (12 single and 6 two-finger-movements). By exploiting correlation of temporal firing pattern between movements, we found that correlation coefficient for physically related movements pairs is greater than others; neurons tuned to single finger movements increased their firing rate when multi-finger commands were instructed. According to this knowledge, neural semi-blind decoding is done by choosing the greatest and the second greatest likelihood for canonical candidates. We achieved a decoding accuracy about 60% for multiple finger movement without corresponding training data set. this results suggest that only with the neural activities on single finger movements can be exploited to control dexterous multi-fingered neuroprosthetics.

Keywords: finger movement, neural activity, blind decoding, M1

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1392 Decoding Kinematic Characteristics of Finger Movement from Electrocorticography Using Classical Methods and Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: Ksenia Volkova, Artur Petrosyan, Ignatii Dubyshkin, Alexei Ossadtchi

Abstract:

Brain-computer interfaces are a growing research field producing many implementations that find use in different fields and are used for research and practical purposes. Despite the popularity of the implementations using non-invasive neuroimaging methods, radical improvement of the state channel bandwidth and, thus, decoding accuracy is only possible by using invasive techniques. Electrocorticography (ECoG) is a minimally invasive neuroimaging method that provides highly informative brain activity signals, effective analysis of which requires the use of machine learning methods that are able to learn representations of complex patterns. Deep learning is a family of machine learning algorithms that allow learning representations of data with multiple levels of abstraction. This study explores the potential of deep learning approaches for ECoG processing, decoding movement intentions and the perception of proprioceptive information. To obtain synchronous recording of kinematic movement characteristics and corresponding electrical brain activity, a series of experiments were carried out, during which subjects performed finger movements at their own pace. Finger movements were recorded with a three-axis accelerometer, while ECoG was synchronously registered from the electrode strips that were implanted over the contralateral sensorimotor cortex. Then, multichannel ECoG signals were used to track finger movement trajectory characterized by accelerometer signal. This process was carried out both causally and non-causally, using different position of the ECoG data segment with respect to the accelerometer data stream. The recorded data was split into training and testing sets, containing continuous non-overlapping fragments of the multichannel ECoG. A deep convolutional neural network was implemented and trained, using 1-second segments of ECoG data from the training dataset as input. To assess the decoding accuracy, correlation coefficient r between the output of the model and the accelerometer readings was computed. After optimization of hyperparameters and training, the deep learning model allowed reasonably accurate causal decoding of finger movement with correlation coefficient r = 0.8. In contrast, the classical Wiener-filter like approach was able to achieve only 0.56 in the causal decoding mode. In the noncausal case, the traditional approach reached the accuracy of r = 0.69, which may be due to the presence of additional proprioceptive information. This result demonstrates that the deep neural network was able to effectively find a representation of the complex top-down information related to the actual movement rather than proprioception. The sensitivity analysis shows physiologically plausible pictures of the extent to which individual features (channel, wavelet subband) are utilized during the decoding procedure. In conclusion, the results of this study have demonstrated that a combination of a minimally invasive neuroimaging technique such as ECoG and advanced machine learning approaches allows decoding motion with high accuracy. Such setup provides means for control of devices with a large number of degrees of freedom as well as exploratory studies of the complex neural processes underlying movement execution.

Keywords: brain-computer interface, deep learning, ECoG, movement decoding, sensorimotor cortex

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1391 Coding and Decoding versus Space Diversity for ‎Rayleigh Fading Radio Frequency Channels ‎

Authors: Ahmed Mahmoud Ahmed Abouelmagd

Abstract:

The diversity is the usual remedy of the transmitted signal level variations (Fading phenomena) in radio frequency channels. Diversity techniques utilize two or more copies of a signal and combine those signals to combat fading. The basic concept of diversity is to transmit the signal via several independent diversity branches to get independent signal replicas via time – frequency - space - and polarization diversity domains. Coding and decoding processes can be an alternative remedy for fading phenomena, it cannot increase the channel capacity, but it can improve the error performance. In this paper we propose the use of replication decoding with BCH code class, and Viterbi decoding algorithm with convolution coding; as examples of coding and decoding processes. The results are compared to those obtained from two optimized selection space diversity techniques. The performance of Rayleigh fading channel, as the model considered for radio frequency channels, is evaluated for each case. The evaluation results show that the coding and decoding approaches, especially the BCH coding approach with replication decoding scheme, give better performance compared to that of selection space diversity optimization approaches. Also, an approach for combining the coding and decoding diversity as well as the space diversity is considered, the main disadvantage of this approach is its complexity but it yields good performance results.

Keywords: Rayleigh fading, diversity, BCH codes, Replication decoding, ‎convolution coding, viterbi decoding, space diversity

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1390 Resistance towards Education System through Street Library Movement: A Study in Sukabumi, Indonesia

Authors: M. Inbar Daeribi, Vara Leoni

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Street Library Movement has been established and started to grow in some cities in Indonesia as a social movement. In the beginning, this movement emerged as a response to Indonesian lack of reading culture. Nevertheless, this study found out that street library movement is not only a literacy movement for developing reading culture. Furthermore, this movement is also a resistance towards education system in Indonesia. Street library movement is a critical consciousness driven by autonomous working group (community) as counter-public form towards Indonesia’s education condition legitimated by the government. This study, conducted in qualitative method with street library movement in Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia as the object of study, will examine resistance forms of this movement and its social impacts. By studying this paper, it can be explained how street library movement served as an engine for social development.

Keywords: street library movement, social movement, resistance, education system

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1389 The Third Islamic Defend Action: The Completeness Model of Islamic Peace Movement in Indonesia

Authors: Husnul Isa Harahap

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On December 2, 2016 occurred mass movements in Indonesia, led by the National Movement of Fatwa Guard, Indonesian Ulema Council (GNPF MUI). This movement is named 212 in accordance with the date, and also called The Third Islamic Defend Action, a continued movement of Islamic defend earlier (November 4, 2016 and October 14, 2016). All three movements have raised the issue of the demand that Basuki Tjahaja Purnama (Jakarta governor) also known as Ahok put on trial for allegedly insulting the Quran. The interesting view of this movement is that: first, the great social movement could emerge from a small but sensitive issues. Second, although this movement followed by radical Islamic groups, that movement known as the largest and most peaceful Islamic Movement in Indonesia. Third, the movement succeeded in answer the doubts of many parties that the social movements with large masses can not maintain security, order, and even the cleanliness of the site action. What causes all this happen? First, the emphasis on the use of basic religious elements that Islam is love for peace. Second, the role of leadership that is trusted and based on religious relationship. Third, this movement is well organized and trying reflect Islamic values.

Keywords: Islamic values, social movement, peaceful group, sensitive issue

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1388 Method of False Alarm Rate Control for Cyclic Redundancy Check-Aided List Decoding of Polar Codes

Authors: Dmitry Dikarev, Ajit Nimbalker, Alexei Davydov

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Polar coding is a novel example of error correcting codes, which can achieve Shannon limit at block length N→∞ with log-linear complexity. Active research is being carried to adopt this theoretical concept for using in practical applications such as 5th generation wireless communication systems. Cyclic redundancy check (CRC) error detection code is broadly used in conjunction with successive cancellation list (SCL) decoding algorithm to improve finite-length polar code performance. However, there are two issues: increase of code block payload overhead by CRC bits and decrease of CRC error-detection capability. This paper proposes a method to control CRC overhead and false alarm rate of polar decoding. As shown in the computer simulations results, the proposed method provides the ability to use any set of CRC polynomials with any list size while maintaining the desired level of false alarm rate. This level of flexibility allows using polar codes in 5G New Radio standard.

Keywords: 5G New Radio, channel coding, cyclic redundancy check, list decoding, polar codes

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1387 Advances in Artificial intelligence Using Speech Recognition

Authors: Khaled M. Alhawiti

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This research study aims to present a retrospective study about speech recognition systems and artificial intelligence. Speech recognition has become one of the widely used technologies, as it offers great opportunity to interact and communicate with automated machines. Precisely, it can be affirmed that speech recognition facilitates its users and helps them to perform their daily routine tasks, in a more convenient and effective manner. This research intends to present the illustration of recent technological advancements, which are associated with artificial intelligence. Recent researches have revealed the fact that speech recognition is found to be the utmost issue, which affects the decoding of speech. In order to overcome these issues, different statistical models were developed by the researchers. Some of the most prominent statistical models include acoustic model (AM), language model (LM), lexicon model, and hidden Markov models (HMM). The research will help in understanding all of these statistical models of speech recognition. Researchers have also formulated different decoding methods, which are being utilized for realistic decoding tasks and constrained artificial languages. These decoding methods include pattern recognition, acoustic phonetic, and artificial intelligence. It has been recognized that artificial intelligence is the most efficient and reliable methods, which are being used in speech recognition.

Keywords: speech recognition, acoustic phonetic, artificial intelligence, hidden markov models (HMM), statistical models of speech recognition, human machine performance

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1386 Towards Real-Time Classification of Finger Movement Direction Using Encephalography Independent Components

Authors: Mohamed Mounir Tellache, Hiroyuki Kambara, Yasuharu Koike, Makoto Miyakoshi, Natsue Yoshimura

Abstract:

This study explores the practicality of using electroencephalographic (EEG) independent components to predict eight-direction finger movements in pseudo-real-time. Six healthy participants with individual-head MRI images performed finger movements in eight directions with two different arm configurations. The analysis was performed in two stages. The first stage consisted of using independent component analysis (ICA) to separate the signals representing brain activity from non-brain activity signals and to obtain the unmixing matrix. The resulting independent components (ICs) were checked, and those reflecting brain-activity were selected. Finally, the time series of the selected ICs were used to predict eight finger-movement directions using Sparse Logistic Regression (SLR). The second stage consisted of using the previously obtained unmixing matrix, the selected ICs, and the model obtained by applying SLR to classify a different EEG dataset. This method was applied to two different settings, namely the single-participant level and the group-level. For the single-participant level, the EEG dataset used in the first stage and the EEG dataset used in the second stage originated from the same participant. For the group-level, the EEG datasets used in the first stage were constructed by temporally concatenating each combination without repetition of the EEG datasets of five participants out of six, whereas the EEG dataset used in the second stage originated from the remaining participants. The average test classification results across datasets (mean ± S.D.) were 38.62 ± 8.36% for the single-participant, which was significantly higher than the chance level (12.50 ± 0.01%), and 27.26 ± 4.39% for the group-level which was also significantly higher than the chance level (12.49% ± 0.01%). The classification accuracy within [–45°, 45°] of the true direction is 70.03 ± 8.14% for single-participant and 62.63 ± 6.07% for group-level which may be promising for some real-life applications. Clustering and contribution analyses further revealed the brain regions involved in finger movement and the temporal aspect of their contribution to the classification. These results showed the possibility of using the ICA-based method in combination with other methods to build a real-time system to control prostheses.

Keywords: brain-computer interface, electroencephalography, finger motion decoding, independent component analysis, pseudo real-time motion decoding

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1385 Contribution of Word Decoding and Reading Fluency on Reading Comprehension in Young Typical Readers of Kannada Language

Authors: Vangmayee V. Subban, Suzan Deelan. Pinto, Somashekara Haralakatta Shivananjappa, Shwetha Prabhu, Jayashree S. Bhat

Abstract:

Introduction and Need: During early years of schooling, the instruction in the schools mainly focus on children’s word decoding abilities. However, the skilled readers should master all the components of reading such as word decoding, reading fluency and comprehension. Nevertheless, the relationship between each component during the process of learning to read is less clear. The studies conducted in alphabetical languages have mixed opinion on relative contribution of word decoding and reading fluency on reading comprehension. However, the scenarios in alphasyllabary languages are unexplored. Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore the role of word decoding, reading fluency on reading comprehension abilities in children learning to read Kannada between the age ranges of 5.6 to 8.6 years. Method: In this cross sectional study, a total of 60 typically developing children, 20 each from Grade I, Grade II, Grade III maintaining equal gender ratio between the age range of 5.6 to 6.6 years, 6.7 to 7.6 years and 7.7 to 8.6 years respectively were selected from Kannada medium schools. The reading fluency and reading comprehension abilities of the children were assessed using Grade level passages selected from the Kannada text book of children core curriculum. All the passages consist of five questions to assess reading comprehension. The pseudoword decoding skills were assessed using 40 pseudowords with varying syllable length and their Akshara composition. Pseudowords are formed by interchanging the syllables within the meaningful word while maintaining the phonotactic constraints of Kannada language. The assessment material was subjected to content validation and reliability measures before collecting the data on the study samples. The data were collected individually, and reading fluency was assessed for words correctly read per minute. Pseudoword decoding was scored for the accuracy of reading. Results: The descriptive statistics indicated that the mean pseudoword reading, reading comprehension, words accurately read per minute increased with the Grades. The performance of Grade III children found to be higher, Grade I lower and Grade II remained intermediate of Grade III and Grade I. The trend indicated that reading skills gradually improve with the Grades. Pearson’s correlation co-efficient showed moderate and highly significant (p=0.00) positive co-relation between the variables, indicating the interdependency of all the three components required for reading. The hierarchical regression analysis revealed 37% variance in reading comprehension was explained by pseudoword decoding and was highly significant. Subsequent entry of reading fluency measure, there was no significant change in R-square and was only change 3%. Therefore, pseudoword-decoding evolved as a single most significant predictor of reading comprehension during early Grades of reading acquisition. Conclusion: The present study concludes that the pseudoword decoding skills contribute significantly to reading comprehension than reading fluency during initial years of schooling in children learning to read Kannada language.

Keywords: alphasyllabary, pseudo-word decoding, reading comprehension, reading fluency

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1384 Genesis and Achievements of Madhesh Movement in Nepal

Authors: Deepak Chaudhary

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The main objective of the study is to explore the genesis and achievements of the Madhesh movement. Madhesh Movement is a social movement that brought massive political changes and contributed a lot to the nation-building process in the modern history of Nepal. This movement erupted in January 2007 in the Tarai/Madhesh region following the promulgation of the Interim Constitution that left the incorporation of federalism and proportional representation in the Constitution. The most excluded community in Nepal- Madheshi community, seemed to have angered against state-sponsored discrimination and exclusion that have been occurred for centuries. Since Madheshis were treated as non-Nepali, though the history of Nepal’s Tarai/Madhesh has been ancient. In the beginning, this movement was against Maoist, but later, it went against the state's prejudices and discriminations. It extended across the Tarai/Madhesh region of Nepal for a month. The movement was spontaneous to a large extent. A researcher himself is a witness to the movement. Key Informant Interviews with participants, including politicians, journalists, and activists, have mainly carried out for the study. This movement ensured Madheshi identity first. Secondly, the number of electoral constituencies was increased as it reached 120 in Tarai/Madhesh while it was 80 only. As a result, Madheshi representation in the Constitution Assembly reached 35 %, while it was 20% only. The main thing that this movement played a major role in ensuring the federalism as a political system in Nepal.

Keywords: dignity, exclusion, federalism, inclusion, Madhesh movement, nation-building

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1383 Dalit Struggle in Nepal: From Invoking Dalit to Becoming Part of the Nepalese Power

Authors: Mom Bishwakarma

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This research traces out how the Dalit in Nepal evolved from the early 1950s to the current day, from invoking Dalit against caste discrimination through to the asserting proportional representation in state structures. The research focused most closely on the formation of Dalit association and resistance, as well as on the different struggles throughout this period. It then discusses the expansion of Dalit movement in NGOs, its internationalization and responses. The research sees that Dalit movement has been influenced by its network with the national and international civil rights movement particularly Dalit movement in India and argues that Dalit movement in Nepal have in many ways, challenged the orthodox based caste stratification for Dalit equality and justice. It can be seen that at the same time as Dalit participation was increasing, divisions by caste line also emerged. Rather reshaping the power structures, Dalit movement encircled into division and contentious politics.

Keywords: Dalit, equality, justice, movements, Nepal

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1382 New Media and Its Role in Shaping the 'Bersih Movement' in Malaysia

Authors: Rosyidah Muhamad

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New media is facilitating collective action in ways never thought possible. Although the broader political climate may have a powerful influence on the success or failure of emerging social movement organizations, the Internet is enabling groups previously incapable of political action to find their voices Whether this shift is offering greater relative benefit to previously underrepresented or incumbent political fixtures is subject to debate, but it is clear that like-minded people are now able to better locate and converse with each other via many Internet. The recent social movement in Malaysia – the BERSIH Movement had attracted demonstrators from countries all over the world. The movement with an unforeseen mixture of nationalities became world news. Interestingly, the new media seemed to play a crucial role in the organization of the protests around the world. This article maps this movement via an analysis of their websites. It examines the contribution of these websites based on the collective identity, actual mobilization and a network of organizations. This research indicates signs of an integration of different organizations that contributed to an important role of the new media.

Keywords: Bersih Movement, Malaysian politics, new media, social movement

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1381 Network Coding with Buffer Scheme in Multicast for Broadband Wireless Network

Authors: Gunasekaran Raja, Ramkumar Jayaraman, Rajakumar Arul, Kottilingam Kottursamy

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Broadband Wireless Network (BWN) is the promising technology nowadays due to the increased number of smartphones. Buffering scheme using network coding considers the reliability and proper degree distribution in Worldwide interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) multi-hop network. Using network coding, a secure way of transmission is performed which helps in improving throughput and reduces the packet loss in the multicast network. At the outset, improved network coding is proposed in multicast wireless mesh network. Considering the problem of performance overhead, degree distribution makes a decision while performing buffer in the encoding / decoding process. Consequently, BuS (Buffer Scheme) based on network coding is proposed in the multi-hop network. Here the encoding process introduces buffer for temporary storage to transmit packets with proper degree distribution. The simulation results depend on the number of packets received in the encoding/decoding with proper degree distribution using buffering scheme.

Keywords: encoding and decoding, buffer, network coding, degree distribution, broadband wireless networks, multicast

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1380 High Performance Field Programmable Gate Array-Based Stochastic Low-Density Parity-Check Decoder Design for IEEE 802.3an Standard

Authors: Ghania Zerari, Abderrezak Guessoum, Rachid Beguenane

Abstract:

This paper introduces high-performance architecture for fully parallel stochastic Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) field programmable gate array (FPGA) based LDPC decoder. The new approach is designed to decrease the decoding latency and to reduce the FPGA logic utilisation. To accomplish the target logic utilisation reduction, the routing of the proposed sub-variable node (VN) internal memory is designed to utilize one slice distributed RAM. Furthermore, a VN initialization, using the channel input probability, is achieved to enhance the decoder convergence, without extra resources and without integrating the output saturated-counters. The Xilinx FPGA implementation, of IEEE 802.3an standard LDPC code, shows that the proposed decoding approach attain high performance along with reduction of FPGA logic utilisation.

Keywords: low-density parity-check (LDPC) decoder, stochastic decoding, field programmable gate array (FPGA), IEEE 802.3an standard

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1379 Predicting Reading Comprehension in Spanish: The Evidence for the Simple View Model

Authors: Gabriela Silva-Maceda, Silvia Romero-Contreras

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Spanish is a more transparent language than English given that it has more direct correspondences between sounds and letters. It has become important to understand how decoding and linguistic comprehension contribute to reading comprehension in the framework of the widely known Simple View Model. This study aimed to identify the level of prediction by these two components in a sample of 1st to 4th grade children attending two schools in central Mexico (one public and one private). Within each school, ten children were randomly selected in each grade level, and their parents were asked about reading habits and socioeconomic information. In total, 79 children completed three standardized tests measuring decoding (pseudo-word reading), linguistic comprehension (understanding of paragraphs) and reading comprehension using subtests from the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Spanish, Fourth Edition, and the Test de Lectura y Escritura en Español (LEE). The data were analyzed using hierarchical regression, with decoding as a first step and linguistic comprehension as a second step. Results showed that decoding accounted for 19.2% of the variance in reading comprehension, while linguistic comprehension accounted for an additional 10%, adding up to 29.2% of variance explained: F (2, 75)= 15.45, p <.001. Socioeconomic status derived from parental questionnaires showed a statistically significant association with the type of school attended, X2 (3, N= 79) = 14.33, p =.002. Nonetheless when analyzing the Simple View components, only decoding differences were statistically significant (t = -6.92, df = 76.81, p < .001, two-tailed); reading comprehension differences were also significant (t = -3.44, df = 76, p = .001, two-tailed). When socioeconomic status was included in the model, it predicted a 5.9% unique variance, even when already accounting for Simple View components, adding to a 35.1% total variance explained. This three-predictor model was also significant: F (3, 72)= 12.99, p <.001. In addition, socioeconomic status was significantly correlated with the amount of non-textbook books parents reported to have at home for both adults (rho = .61, p<.001) and children (rho= .47, p<.001). Results converge with a large body of literature finding socioeconomic differences in reading comprehension; in addition this study suggests that these differences were also present in decoding skills. Although linguistic comprehension differences between schools were expected, it is argued that the test used to collect this variable was not sensitive to linguistic differences, since it came from a test to diagnose clinical language disabilities. Even with this caveat, results show that the components of the Simple View Model can predict less than a third of the variance in reading comprehension in Spanish. However, the results also suggest that a fuller model of reading comprehension is obtained when considering the family’s socioeconomic status, given the potential differences shown by the socioeconomic status association with books at home, factors that are particularly important in countries where inequality gaps are relatively large.

Keywords: decoding, linguistic comprehension, reading comprehension, simple view model, socioeconomic status, Spanish

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1378 Movement Optimization of Robotic Arm Movement Using Soft Computing

Authors: V. K. Banga

Abstract:

Robots are now playing a very promising role in industries. Robots are commonly used in applications in repeated operations or where operation by human is either risky or not feasible. In most of the industrial applications, robotic arm manipulators are widely used. Robotic arm manipulator with two link or three link structures is commonly used due to their low degrees-of-freedom (DOF) movement. As the DOF of robotic arm increased, complexity increases. Instrumentation involved with robotics plays very important role in order to interact with outer environment. In this work, optimal control for movement of various DOFs of robotic arm using various soft computing techniques has been presented. We have discussed about different robotic structures having various DOF robotics arm movement. Further stress is on kinematics of the arm structures i.e. forward kinematics and inverse kinematics. Trajectory planning of robotic arms using soft computing techniques is demonstrating the flexibility of this technique. The performance is optimized for all possible input values and results in optimized movement as resultant output. In conclusion, soft computing has been playing very important role for achieving optimized movement of robotic arm. It also requires very limited knowledge of the system to implement soft computing techniques.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, kinematics, robotic arm, neural networks, fuzzy logic

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1377 Laban Movement Analysis Using Kinect

Authors: Bernstein Ran, Shafir Tal, Tsachor Rachelle, Studd Karen, Schuster Assaf

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Laban Movement Analysis (LMA), developed in the dance community over the past seventy years, is an effective method for observing, describing, notating, and interpreting human movement to enhance communication and expression in everyday and professional life. Many applications that use motion capture data might be significantly leveraged if the Laban qualities will be recognized automatically. This paper presents an automated recognition method of Laban qualities from motion capture skeletal recordings and it is demonstrated on the output of Microsoft’s Kinect V2 sensor.

Keywords: Laban movement analysis, multitask learning, Kinect sensor, machine learning

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1376 POP Music and Tai Chi – Movement and Stillness Intertwined in The Contemporary World

Authors: Patricia Portugal Marques de Carvalho Lourenço

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Pop Music embodies both the music that is popular with the audiences and the one that is widespread amongst the general public associated with a state of mind and rhythm. Tai Chi epitomises Yin and Yang, two interconnected opposite states of being. Undivided, they are one, a neutral state of consciousness that does not swing to either pole. It remains constant and even minded. Sound flows and vibrations cause movement, a physical response to the tempo. When an excessive movement is reached leads to stillness therefore, extreme Yang leads to Yin. Pop Music and Tai Chi are comparable to state of inner being versus a state of outer being, emotional control versus emotional expression, stillness, and movement; opposites that are independent of one another yet interdependent concepts in motion.

Keywords: Pop music, C-Pop, Tai Chi, Ba Gua, communication, entertainment education

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1375 The Use of Software and Internet Search Engines to Develop the Encoding and Decoding Skills of a Dyslexic Learner: A Case Study

Authors: Rabih Joseph Nabhan

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This case study explores the impact of two major computer software programs Learn to Speak English and Learn English Spelling and Pronunciation, and some Internet search engines such as Google on mending the decoding and spelling deficiency of Simon X, a dyslexic student. The improvement in decoding and spelling may result in better reading comprehension and composition writing. Some computer programs and Internet materials can help regain the missing awareness and consequently restore his self-confidence and self-esteem. In addition, this study provides a systematic plan comprising a set of activities (four computer programs and Internet materials) which address the problem from the lowest to the highest levels of phoneme and phonological awareness. Four methods of data collection (accounts, observations, published tests, and interviews) create the triangulation to validly and reliably collect data before the plan, during the plan, and after the plan. The data collected are analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Sometimes the analysis is either quantitative or qualitative, and some other times a combination of both. Tables and figures are utilized to provide a clear and uncomplicated illustration of some data. The improvement in the decoding, spelling, reading comprehension, and composition writing skills that occurred is proved through the use of authentic materials performed by the student under study. Such materials are a comparison between two sample passages written by the learner before and after the plan, a genuine computer chat conversation, and the scores of the academic year that followed the execution of the plan. Based on these results, the researcher recommends further studies on other Lebanese dyslexic learners using the computer to mend their language problem in order to design and make a most reliable software program that can address this disability more efficiently and successfully.

Keywords: analysis, awareness, dyslexic, software

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1374 Filmic and Verbal Metafphors

Authors: Manana Rusieshvili, Rusudan Dolidze

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This paper aims at 1) investigating the ways in which a traditional, monomodal written verbal metaphor can be transposed as a monomodal non-verbal (visual) or multimodal (aural and -visual) filmic metaphor ; 2) exploring similarities and differences in the process of encoding and decoding of monomodal and multimodal metaphors. The empiric data, on which the research is based, embrace three sources: the novel by Harry Gray ‘The Hoods’, the script of the film ‘Once Upon a Time in America’ (English version by David Mills) and the resultant film by Sergio Leone. In order to achieve the above mentioned goals, the research focuses on the following issues: 1) identification of verbal and non-verbal monomodal and multimodal metaphors in the above-mentioned sources and 2) investigation of the ways and modes the specific written monomodal metaphors appearing in the novel and the script are enacted in the film and become visual, aural or visual-aural filmic metaphors ; 3) study of the factors which play an important role in contributing to the encoding and decoding of the filmic metaphor. The collection and analysis of the data were carried out in two stages: firstly, the relevant data, i.e. the monomodal metaphors from the novel, the script and the film were identified and collected. In the second, final stage the metaphors taken from all of the three sources were analysed, compared and two types of phenomena were selected for discussion: (1) the monomodal written metaphors found in the novel and/or in the script which become monomodal visual/aural metaphors in the film; (2) the monomodal written metaphors found in the novel and/or in the script which become multimodal, filmic (visual-aural) metaphors in the film.

Keywords: encoding, decoding, filmic metaphor, multimodality

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1373 Effectiveness of Using Phonemic Awareness Based Activities in Improving Decoding Skills of Third Grade Students Referred for Reading Disabilities in Oman

Authors: Mahmoud Mohamed Emam

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In Oman the number of students referred for reading disabilities is on the rise. Schools serve these students by placement in the so-called learning disabilities unit. Recently the author led a strategic project to train teachers on the use of curriculum based measurement to identify students with reading disabilities in Oman. Additional the project involved training teachers to use phonemic awareness based activities to improve reading skills of those students. Phonemic awareness refers to the ability to notice, think about, and work with the individual sounds in words. We know that a student's skill in phonemic awareness is a good predictor of later reading success or difficulty. Using multiple baseline design across four participants the current studies investigated the effectiveness of using phonemic awareness based activities to improve decoding skills of third grade students referred for reading disabilities in Oman. During treatment students received phonemic awareness based activities that were designed to fulfill the idiosyncratic characteristics of Arabic language phonology as well as orthography. Results indicated that the phonemic awareness based activities were effective in substantially increasing the number of correctly decoded word for all four participants. Maintenance of strategy effects was evident for the weeks following the termination of intervention for the four students. In addition, the effects of intervention generalized to decoding novel words for all four participants.

Keywords: learning disabilities, phonemic awareness, third graders, Oman

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1372 Observation of the Orthodontic Tooth's Long-Term Movement Using Stereovision System

Authors: Hao-Yuan Tseng, Chuan-Yang Chang, Ying-Hui Chen, Sheng-Che Chen, Chih-Han Chang

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Orthodontic tooth treatment has demonstrated a high success rate in clinical studies. It has been agreed upon that orthodontic tooth movement is based on the ability of surrounding bone and periodontal ligament (PDL) to react to a mechanical stimulus with remodeling processes. However, the mechanism of the tooth movement is still unclear. Recent studies focus on the simple principle compression-tension theory while rare studies directly measure tooth movement. Therefore, tracking tooth movement information during orthodontic treatment is very important in clinical practice. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanism responses of the tooth movement during the orthodontic treatments. A stereovision system applied to track the tooth movement of the patient with the stamp brackets. The system was established by two cameras with their relative position calibrate. And the orthodontic force measured by 3D printing model with the six-axis load cell to determine the initial force application. The result shows that the stereovision system accuracy revealed the measurement presents a maximum error less than 2%. For the study on patient tracking, the incisor moved about 0.9 mm during 60 days tracking, and half of movement occurred in the first few hours. After removing the orthodontic force in 100 hours, the distance between before and after position incisor tooth decrease 0.5 mm consisted with the release of the phenomenon. Using the stereovision system can accurately locate the three-dimensional position of the teeth and superposition of 3D coordinate system for all the data to integrate the complex tooth movement.

Keywords: orthodontic treatment, tooth movement, stereovision system, long-term tracking

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1371 Determining the Effects of Wind-Aided Midge Movement on the Probability of Coexistence of Multiple Bluetongue Virus Serotypes in Patchy Environments

Authors: Francis Mugabi, Kevin Duffy, Joseph J. Y. T Mugisha, Obiora Collins

Abstract:

Bluetongue virus (BTV) has 27 serotypes, with some of them coexisting in patchy (different) environments, which make its control difficult. Wind-aided midge movement is a known mechanism in the spread of BTV. However, its effects on the probability of coexistence of multiple BTV serotypes are not clear. Deterministic and stochastic models for r BTV serotypes in n discrete patches connected by midge and/or cattle movement are formulated and analyzed. For the deterministic model without midge and cattle movement, using the comparison principle, it is shown that if the patch reproduction number R0 < 1, i=1,2,...,n, j=1,2,...,r, all serotypes go extinct. If R^j_i0>1, competitive exclusion takes place. Using numerical simulations, it is shown that when the n patches are connected by midge movement, coexistence takes place. To account for demographic and movement variability, the deterministic model is transformed into a continuous-time Markov chain stochastic model. Utilizing a multitype branching process, it is shown that the midge movement can have a large effect on the probability of coexistence of multiple BTV serotypes. The probability of coexistence can be brought to zero when the control interventions that directly kill the adult midges are applied. These results indicate the significance of wind-aided midge movement and vector control interventions on the coexistence and control of multiple BTV serotypes in patchy environments.

Keywords: bluetongue virus, coexistence, multiple serotypes, midge movement, branching process

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1370 Design and Manufacture Detection System for Patient's Unwanted Movements during Radiology and CT Scan

Authors: Anita Yaghobi, Homayoun Ebrahimian

Abstract:

One of the important tools that can help orthopedic doctors for diagnose diseases is imaging scan. Imaging techniques can help physicians in see different parts of the body, including the bones, muscles, tendons, nerves, and cartilage. During CT scan, a patient must be in the same position from the start to the end of radiation treatment. Patient movements are usually monitored by the technologists through the closed circuit television (CCTV) during scan. If the patient makes a small movement, it is difficult to be noticed by them. In the present work, a simple patient movement monitoring device is fabricated to monitor the patient movement. It uses an electronic sensing device. It continuously monitors the patient’s position while the CT scan is in process. The device has been retrospectively tested on 51 patients whose movement and distance were measured. The results show that 25 patients moved 1 cm to 2.5 cm from their initial position during the CT scan. Hence, the device can potentially be used to control and monitor patient movement during CT scan and Radiography. In addition, an audible alarm situated at the control panel of the control room is provided with this device to alert the technologists. It is an inexpensive, compact device which can be used in any CT scan machine.

Keywords: CT scan, radiology, X Ray, unwanted movement

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1369 Political Economy of Social Movements: The Influence of Capitalism on the Emergence of the Feminist Movement in Ukraine

Authors: Nadiya Didyk

Abstract:

This thesis deals with the unique history of the emergence of the Ukrainian feminist movement. Ukrainian feminism is still in its making, so the field is under-investigated in general. Nevertheless, the perspective of political economy and the enabling and constraining effects of capitalist dynamics are almost absent from the research on the emergence and the development of the feminist movement in Ukraine. This research was inspired by Hetland and Goodwin’s approach and an attempt to test their approach on the case of the Ukrainian feminist movement. Hetland and Goodwin claim that many scholars tend to neglect political economy from analysis of feminism as a new social movements, namely because such movement are not about class or materialist concerns, and thus have no discernible connection to capitalism. Both scholars, however, point out that there at least four ways in which capitalism has been of high importance for any social movement. Accordingly, the following issues are analysed in this paper: capitalism as the facilitator of the emergence and development of Ukrainian feminism; the influence of class balance in society on the formation of the Ukrainian feminist movement, and the ways in which class divisions within the movement shape its goals and strategies. This paper also focuses on the role of capitalist institutions and free wage labour expansion in shaping collective feminist identities and solidarities. Specific attention is paid to the representativeness of women in the highest echelons in business and politics under the capitalist systems. This study shows that there is a significant hole in the literature regarding the feminist movement in Ukraine and aims to motivate further detailed research.

Keywords: feminism, hetland, goodwin, new soical movements, political economy

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1368 Prediction of Dubai Financial Market Stocks Movement Using K-Nearest Neighbor and Support Vector Regression

Authors: Abdulla D. Alblooshi

Abstract:

The stock market is a representation of human behavior and psychology, such as fear, greed, and discipline. Those are manifested in the form of price movements during the trading sessions. Therefore, predicting the stock movement and prices is a challenging effort. However, those trading sessions produce a large amount of data that can be utilized to train an AI agent for the purpose of predicting the stock movement. Predicting the stock market price action will be advantageous. In this paper, the stock movement data of three DFM listed stocks are studied using historical price movements and technical indicators value and used to train an agent using KNN and SVM methods to predict the future price movement. MATLAB Toolbox and a simple script is written to process and classify the information and output the prediction. It will also compare the different learning methods and parameters s using metrics like RMSE, MAE, and R².

Keywords: KNN, ANN, style, SVM, stocks, technical indicators, RSI, MACD, moving averages, RMSE, MAE

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1367 Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Functional Movement in 16-years old Schoolchildren: A Multilevel Modelling Approach

Authors: Josip Karuc, Marjeta Mišigoj-Duraković, Goran Marković, Vedran Hadžić, Michael J. Duncan, Hrvoje Podnar, Maroje Sorić

Abstract:

As a part of the CRO-PALS longitudinal study, this investigation aimed to examine the association between different levels of physical activity (PA) and movement quality in 16-years old school children. The total number of participants in this research was 725. Movement quality was assessed via the Functional Movement Screen (FMSTM), and the PA level was estimated using the School Health Action, Planning, and Evaluation System (SHAPES) questionnaire. In addition, body fat and socioeconomic status (SES) were assessed. In order to investigate the association between total FMS score and different levels of PA, multilevel modeling was employed for boys (n=359) and girls (n=366) separately. All models were adjusted for age, body fat, and SES. Among boys, MVPA, MPA, and VPA were not significant predictors of the total FMS score (β=0.000, p=0.78; β=-0.002, p=0.455; β=0.004, p=0.158, respectively). On the contrary, among girls, VPA and MVPA showed significant effects on the total FMS score (β=0.011, p=0.001, β=0.005, p=0.006, respectively). The findings of this research provide evidence that the intensity of PA is a minor but relevant factor in describing the association between PA and movement quality in adolescent girls but not in boys. This means that the PA level does not guarantee optimal functional movement patterns. Therefore, practicing functional movement patterns in an isolated manner and at moderate to vigorous intensity could be beneficial in order to reduce the risk of injury incidence and potential orthopedic abnormalities in later life. This work was supported by the Croatian Science Foundation, grant no: IP-2016-06-9926 and grant no: DOK-2018-01-2328.

Keywords: functional movement screen, fundamental movement patterns, movement quality, pediatric

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1366 Developing Laser Spot Position Determination and PRF Code Detection with Quadrant Detector

Authors: Mohamed Fathy Heweage, Xiao Wen, Ayman Mokhtar, Ahmed Eldamarawy

Abstract:

In this paper, we are interested in modeling, simulation, and measurement of the laser spot position with a quadrant detector. We enhance detection and tracking of semi-laser weapon decoding system based on microcontroller. The system receives the reflected pulse through quadrant detector and processes the laser pulses through a processing circuit, a microcontroller decoding laser pulse reflected by the target. The seeker accuracy will be enhanced by the decoding system, the laser detection time based on the receiving pulses number is reduced, a gate is used to limit the laser pulse width. The model is implemented based on Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) technique with two microcontroller units (MCU). MCU1 generates laser pulses with different codes. MCU2 decodes the laser code and locks the system at the specific code. The codes EW selected based on the two selector switches. The system is implemented and tested in Proteus ISIS software. The implementation of the full position determination circuit with the detector is produced. General system for the spot position determination was performed with the laser PRF for incident radiation and the mechanical system for adjusting system at different angles. The system test results show that the system can detect the laser code with only three received pulses based on the narrow gate signal, and good agreement between simulation and measured system performance is obtained.

Keywords: four quadrant detector, pulse code detection, laser guided weapons, pulse repetition frequency (PRF), Atmega 32 microcontrollers

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
1365 Survey of the Relationship between Functional Movement Screening Tests and Anthropometric Dimensions in Healthy People, 2018

Authors: Akram Sadat Jafari Roodbandi, Parisa Kahani, Fatollah Rahimi Bafrani, Ali Dehghan, Nava Seyedi, Vafa Feyzi, Zohreh Forozanfar

Abstract:

Introduction: Movement function is considered as the ability to produce and maintain balance, stability, and movement throughout the movement chain. Having a score of 14 and above on 7 sub-tests in the functional movement screening (FMS) test shows agility and optimal movement performance. On the other hand, the person's body is an important factor in physical fitness and optimal movement performance. The aim of this study was to identify effective anthropometric dimensions in increasing motor function. Methods: This study was a descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study using simple random sampling. FMS test and 25 anthropometric dimensions and subcutaneous in five body regions measured in 139 healthy students of Bam University of Medical Sciences. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software and univariate tests and linear regressions at a significance level of 0.05. Results: 139 students were enrolled in the study, 51.1% (71 subjects) and the rest were female. The mean and standard deviation of age, weight, height, and arm subcutaneous fat were 21.5 ± 1.45, 12.6 ± 64.3, 168.7 ± 9.8, 15.3 ± 7, respectively. 17 subjects (12.2%) of the participants in the study have a score of less than 14, and the rest were above 14. Using regression analysis, it was found that exercise and arm subcutaneous fat are predictive variables associated with obtaining a high score in the FMS test. Conclusion: Exercise and weight loss are effective factors for increasing the movement performance of individuals, and this factor is independent of the size of other physical dimensions.

Keywords: functional movement, screening test, anthropometry, ergonomics

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1364 Observation of Critical Sliding Velocity

Authors: Visar Baxhuku, Halil Demolli, Alishukri Shkodra

Abstract:

This paper presents the monitoring of vehicle movement, namely the developing of speed of vehicles during movement in a certain twist. The basic geometry data of twist are measured with the purpose of calculating the slide in border speed. During the research, measuring developed speed of passenger vehicles for the real conditions of the road surface, dry road with average damage, was realised. After setting values, the analysis was done in function security of movement in twist.

Keywords: critical sliding velocity, moving velocity, curve, passenger vehicles

Procedia PDF Downloads 322