Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1670

Search results for: molecular topology

1550 Molecular Dynamics Analysis onI mpact Behaviour of Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene Sheets

Authors: Sajjad Seifoori


Impact behavior of striker on graphene sheet and carbon nanotube is investigated based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. A MD simulation is conducted to obtain the maximum dynamic deflections of a square and rectangular single-layered graphene sheets (SLGSs) with various values of side-length and striker parameter. Effect of (i) chirality, (ii) graphene side-length and nanotube length, (iii) striker mass on the maximum dynamic deflections of graphene and nanotube are investigated. The effect of different types of boundary condition on the maximum dynamic deflections is studied for zigzag and armchair SWCNTs with various aspect ratios (Length/Diameter).

Keywords: Graphene, Impact, molecular dynamic, spring mass

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1549 In-Vitro Dextran Synthesis and Characterization of an Intracellular Glucosyltransferase from Leuconostoc Mesenteroides AA1

Authors: Shah Ali Ul Qader, Afsheen Aman


Dextransucrase [EC] is a glucosyltransferase that catalysis the biosynthesis of a natural biopolymer called dextran. It can catalyze the transfer of D-glucopyranosyl residues from sucrose to the main chain of dextran. This unique biopolymer has multiple applications in several industries and the key utilization of dextran lies on its molecular weight and the type of branching. Extracellular dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides is most extensively studied and characterized. Limited data is available regarding cell-bound or intracellular dextransucrase and on the characterization of dextran produced by in-vitro reaction of intracellular dextransucrase. L. mesenteroides AA1 is reported to produce extracellular dextransucrase that catalyzes biosynthesis of a high molecular weight dextran with only α-(1→6) linkage. Current study deals with the characterization of an intracellular dextransucrase and in vitro biosynthesis of low molecular weight dextran from L. mesenteroides AA1. Intracellular dextransucrase was extracted from cytoplasm and purified to homogeneity for characterization. Kinetic constants, molecular weight and N-terminal sequence analysis of intracellular dextransucrase reveal unique variation with previously reported extracellular dextransucrase from the same strain. In vitro synthesized biopolymer was characterized using NMR spectroscopic techniques. Intracellular dextransucrase exhibited Vmax and Km values of 130.8 DSU ml-1 hr-1 and 221.3 mM, respectively. Optimum catalytic activity was detected at 35°C in 0.15 M citrate phosphate buffer (pH-5.5) in 05 minutes. Molecular mass of purified intracellular dextransucrase is approximately 220.0 kDa on SDS-PAGE. N-terminal sequence of the intracellular enzyme is: GLPGYFGVN that showed no homology with previously reported sequence for the extracellular dextransucrase. This intracellular dextransucrase is capable of in vitro synthesis of dextran under specific conditions. This intracellular dextransucrase is capable of in vitro synthesis of dextran under specific conditions and this biopolymer can be hydrolyzed into different molecular weight fractions for various applications.

Keywords: Characterization, dextran, dextransucrase, leuconostoc mesenteroides

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1548 Coding Considerations for Standalone Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Atomistic Structures

Authors: R. O. Ocaya, J. J. Terblans


The laws of Newtonian mechanics allow ab-initio molecular dynamics to model and simulate particle trajectories in material science by defining a differentiable potential function. This paper discusses some considerations for the coding of ab-initio programs for simulation on a standalone computer and illustrates the approach by C language codes in the context of embedded metallic atoms in the face-centred cubic structure. The algorithms use velocity-time integration to determine particle parameter evolution for up to several thousands of particles in a thermodynamical ensemble. Such functions are reusable and can be placed in a redistributable header library file. While there are both commercial and free packages available, their heuristic nature prevents dissection. In addition, developing own codes has the obvious advantage of teaching techniques applicable to new problems.

Keywords: Simulation, Molecular Dynamics, C language, embedded atom method

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1547 Heat Capacity of a Soluble in Water Protein: Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: A. Rajabpour, A. Hadizadeh Kheirkhah


Heat transfer is of great importance to biological systems in order to function properly. In the present study, specific heat capacity as one of the most important heat transfer properties is calculated for a soluble in water Lysozyme protein. Using equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, specific heat capacities of pure water, dry lysozyme, and lysozyme-water solution are calculated at 300K for different weight fractions. It is found that MD results are in good agreement with ideal binary mixing rule at small weight fractions. Results of all simulations have been validated with experimental data.

Keywords: Equilibrium, molecular dynamics simulation, specific heat capacity, lysozyme protein

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1546 Molecular Identification and Evolutionary Status of Lucilia bufonivora: An Obligate Parasite of Amphibians in Europe

Authors: Gerardo Arias, Richard Wall, Jamie Stevens


Lucilia bufonivora Moniez, is an obligate parasite of toads and frogs widely distributed in Europe. Its sister taxon Lucilia silvarum Meigen behaves mainly as a carrion breeder in Europe, however it has been reported as a facultative parasite of amphibians. These two closely related species are morphologically almost identical, which has led to misidentification, and in fact, it has been suggested that the amphibian myiasis cases by L. silvarum reported in Europe should be attributed to L. bufonivora. Both species remain poorly studied and their taxonomic relationships are still unclear. The identification of the larval specimens involved in amphibian myiasis with molecular tools and phylogenetic analysis of these two closely related species may resolve this problem. In this work seventeen unidentified larval specimens extracted from toad myiasis cases of the UK, the Netherlands and Switzerland were obtained, their COX1 (mtDNA) and EF1-α (Nuclear DNA) gene regions were amplified and then sequenced. The 17 larval samples were identified with both molecular markers as L. bufonivora. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out with 10 other blowfly species, including L. silvarum samples from the UK and USA. Bayesian Inference trees of COX1 and a combined-gene dataset suggested that L. silvarum and L. bufonivora are separate sister species. However, the nuclear gene EF1-α does not appear to resolve their relationships, suggesting that the rates of evolution of the mtDNA are much faster than those of the nuclear DNA. This work provides the molecular evidence for successful identification of L. bufonivora and a molecular analysis of the populations of this obligate parasite from different locations across Europe. The relationships with L. silvarum are discussed.

Keywords: Molecular Evolution, myiasis, calliphoridae, obligate parasitism

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1545 One Species into Five: Nucleo-Mito Barcoding Reveals Cryptic Species in 'Frankliniella Schultzei Complex': Vector for Tospoviruses

Authors: Vikas Kumar, Kailash Chandra, Kaomud Tyagi


The insect order Thysanoptera includes small insects commonly called thrips. As insect vectors, only thrips are capable of Tospoviruses transmission (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) affecting various crops. Currently, fifteen species of subfamily Thripinae (Thripidae) have been reported as vectors for tospoviruses. Frankliniella schultzei, which is reported as act as a vector for at least five tospovirses, have been suspected to be a species complex with more than one species. It is one of the historical unresolved issues where, two species namely, F. schultzei Trybom and F. sulphurea Schmutz were erected from South Africa and Srilanaka respectively. These two species were considered to be valid until 1968 when sulphurea was treated as colour morph (pale form) and synonymised under schultzei (dark form) However, these two have been considered as valid species by some of the thrips workers. Parallel studies have indicated that brown form of schultzei is a vector for tospoviruses while yellow form is a non-vector. However, recent studies have shown that yellow populations have also been documented as vectors. In view of all these facts, it is highly important to have a clear understanding whether these colour forms represent true species or merely different populations with different vector carrying capacities and whether there is some hidden diversity in 'Frankliniella schultzei species complex'. In this study, we aim to study the 'Frankliniella schultzei species complex' with molecular spectacles with DNA data from India and Australia and Africa. A total of fifty-five specimens was collected from diverse locations in India and Australia. We generated molecular data using partial fragments of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene (mtCOI) and 28S rRNA gene. For COI dataset, there were seventy-four sequences, out of which data on fifty-five was generated in the current study and others were retrieved from NCBI. All the four different tree construction methods: neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis, yielded the same tree topology and produced five cryptic species with high genetic divergence. For, rDNA, there were forty-five sequences, out of which data on thirty-nine was generated in the current study and others were retrieved from NCBI. The four tree building methods yielded four cryptic species with high bootstrap support value/posterior probability. Here we could not retrieve one cryptic species from South Africa as we could not generate data on rDNA from South Africa and sequence for rDNA from African region were not available in the database. The results of multiple species delimitation methods (barcode index numbers, automatic barcode gap discovery, general mixed Yule-coalescent, and Poisson-tree-processes) also supported the phylogenetic data and produced 5 and 4 Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTUs) for mtCOI and 28S dataset respectively. These results of our study indicate the likelihood that F. sulphurea may be a valid species, however, more morphological and molecular data is required on specimens from type localities of these two species and comparison with type specimens.

Keywords: DNA barcoding, thrips, species complex, species delimitation

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1544 Molecular Dynamics Simulation Studies of High-Intensity, Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Induced Membrane Electroporation

Authors: Jiahui Song


The use of high-intensity, nanosecond electric pulses has been a recent development in biomedical. High-intensity (∼100 kV/cm), nanosecond duration-pulsed electric fields have been shown to induce cellular electroporation. This will lead to an increase in transmembrane conductivity and diffusive permeability. These effects will also alter the electrical potential across the membrane. The applications include electrically triggered intracellular calcium release, shrinkage of tumors, and temporary blockage of the action potential in nerves. In this research, the dynamics of pore formation with the presence of an externally applied electric field is studied on the basis of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using the GROMACS package. MD simulations show pore formation occurs for a pulse with the amplitude of 0.5V/nm at 1ns at temperature 316°K. Also increasing temperatures facilitate pore formation. When the temperature is increased to 323°K, pore forms at 0.75ns with the pulse amplitude of 0.5V/nm. For statistical significance, a total of eight MD simulations are carried out with different starting molecular velocities for each simulation. Also, actual experimental observations are compared against MD simulation results.

Keywords: Molecular Dynamics, Electroporation, high-intensity, nanosecond

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1543 Molecular Analysis of Somaclonal Variation in Tissue Culture Derived Bananas Using MSAP and SSR Marker

Authors: Emma K. Sales, Nilda G. Butardo


The project was undertaken to determine the effects of modified tissue culture protocols e.g. age of culture and hormone levels (2,4-D) in generating somaclonal variation. Moreover, the utility of molecular markers (SSR and MSAP) in sorting off types/somaclones were investigated. Results show that somaclonal variation is in effect due to prolonged subculture and high 2,4-D concentration. The resultant variation was observed to be due to high level of methylation events specifically cytosine methylation either at the internal or external cytosine and was identified by methylation sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP). Simple sequence repeats (SSR) on the other hand, was able to associate a marker to a trait of interest. These therefore, show that molecular markers can be an important tool in sorting out variation/mutants at an early stage.

Keywords: methylation, MSAP, somaclones, SSR, subculture

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1542 A DFT-Based QSARs Study of Kovats Retention Indices of Adamantane Derivatives

Authors: Z. Bayat


A quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR) study was performed to develop models those relate the structures of 65 Kovats retention index (RI) of adamantane derivatives. Molecular descriptors derived solely from 3D structures of the molecular compounds. The usefulness of the quantum chemical descriptors, calculated at the level of the DFT theories using 6-311+G** basis set for QSAR study of adamantane derivatives was examined. The use of descriptors calculated only from molecular structure eliminates the need to experimental determination of properties for use in the correlation and allows for the estimation of RI for molecules not yet synthesized. The prediction results are in good agreement with the experimental value. A multi-parametric equation containing maximum Four descriptors at B3LYP/6-31+G** method with good statistical qualities (R2train=0.913, Ftrain=97.67, R2test=0.770, Ftest=3.21, Q2LOO=0.895, R2adj=0.904, Q2LGO=0.844) was obtained by Multiple Linear Regression using stepwise method.

Keywords: dft, QSAR, adamantane, Kovat

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1541 Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Free Vibration of Graphene Sheets

Authors: Reza Pilafkan, Seyyed Feisal Asbaghian Namin, Mahmood Kaffash Irzarahimi


TThis paper considers vibration of single-layered graphene sheets using molecular dynamics (MD) and nonlocal elasticity theory. Based on the MD simulations, Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS), an open source software, is used to obtain fundamental frequencies. On the other hand, governing equations are derived using nonlocal elasticity and first order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and solved using generalized differential quadrature method (GDQ). The small-scale effect is applied in governing equations of motion by nonlocal parameter. The effect of different side lengths, boundary conditions and nonlocal parameter are inspected for aforementioned methods. Results are obtained from MD simulations is compared with those of the nonlocal elasticity theory to calculate appropriate values for the nonlocal parameter. The nonlocal parameter value is suggested for graphene sheets with various boundary conditions. Furthermore, it is shown that the nonlocal elasticity approach using classical plate theory (CLPT) assumptions overestimates the natural frequencies.

Keywords: Molecular Dynamics Simulations, nonlocal elasticity theory, graphene sheets, fundamental frequencies, nonlocal parameter

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1540 Assessment of Drug Delivery Systems from Molecular Dynamic Perspective

Authors: F. Yazdian, M. Rahimnejad, B. Vahidi, B. Ebrahimi Hoseinzadeh, P. Motamed Fath, R. Jamjah


In this study, we developed and simulated nano-drug delivery systems efficacy in compare to free drug prescription. Computational models can be utilized to accelerate experimental steps and control the experiments high cost. Molecular dynamics simulation (MDS), in particular NAMD was utilized to better understand the anti-cancer drug interaction with cell membrane model. Paclitaxel (PTX) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) were selected for the drug molecule and as a natural phospholipid nanocarrier, respectively. This work focused on two important interaction parameters between molecules in terms of center of mass (COM) and van der Waals interaction energy. Furthermore, we compared the simulation results of the PTX interaction with the cell membrane and the interaction of DPPC as a nanocarrier loaded by the drug with the cell membrane. The molecular dynamic analysis resulted in low energy between the nanocarrier and the cell membrane as well as significant decrease of COM amount in the nanocarrier and the cell membrane system during the interaction. Thus, the drug vehicle showed notably better interaction with the cell membrane in compared to free drug interaction with the cell membrane.

Keywords: Anti-Cancer Drug, molecular dynamics simulation, nanocarrier, center of mass, interaction energy

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1539 Generalized Synchronization in Systems with a Complex Topology of Attractor

Authors: Olga I. Moskalenko, Alexey A. Koronovskii, Vladislav A. Khanadeev, Anastasya D. Koloskova, Anatoly A. Pivovarov


Generalized synchronization is one of the most intricate phenomena in nonlinear science. It can be observed both in systems with a unidirectional and mutual type of coupling including the complex networks. Such a phenomenon has a number of practical applications, for example, for the secure information transmission through the communication channel with a high level of noise. Known methods for the secure information transmission needs in the increase of the privacy of data transmission that arises a question about the observation of such phenomenon in systems with a complex topology of chaotic attractor possessing two or more positive Lyapunov exponents. The present report is devoted to the study of such phenomenon in two unidirectionally and mutually coupled dynamical systems being in chaotic (with one positive Lyapunov exponent) and hyperchaotic (with two or more positive Lyapunov exponents) regimes, respectively. As the systems under study, we have used two mutually coupled modified Lorenz oscillators and two unidirectionally coupled time-delayed generators. We have shown that in both cases the generalized synchronization regime can be detected by means of the calculation of Lyapunov exponents and phase tube approach whereas due to the complex topology of attractor the nearest neighbor method is misleading. Moreover, the auxiliary system approaches being the standard method for the synchronous regime observation, for the mutual type of coupling results in incorrect results. To calculate the Lyapunov exponents in time-delayed systems we have proposed an approach based on the modification of Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization procedure in the context of the time-delayed system. We have studied in detail the mechanisms resulting in the generalized synchronization regime onset paying a great attention to the field where one positive Lyapunov exponent has already been become negative whereas the second one is a positive yet. We have found the intermittency here and studied its characteristics. To detect the laminar phase lengths the method based on a calculation of local Lyapunov exponents has been proposed. The efficiency of the method has been verified using the example of two unidirectionally coupled Rössler systems being in the band chaos regime. We have revealed the main characteristics of intermittency, i.e. the distribution of the laminar phase lengths and dependence of the mean length of the laminar phases on the criticality parameter, for all systems studied in the report. This work has been supported by the Russian President's Council grant for the state support of young Russian scientists (project MK-531.2018.2).

Keywords: Lyapunov exponents, complex topology of attractor, generalized synchronization, hyperchaos

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1538 Mechanism of Melanin Inhibition of Morello Flavone- 7″- Sulphate and Sargaol extracts from Garcinia livingstonei (Clusiaceae): Homology Modelling, Molecular Docking, and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

Authors: Ncoza Dlova, Tivani Mashamba-Thompson


Garcinia livingstonei (Clusiaceae) extracts, morelloflavone- 7″- sulphate and sargaol were shown to be effective against hyper-pigmentation through inhibition of tyrosinase enzyme, in vitro . The aim of this study is to elucidate the structural mechanism through which morelloflavone- 7″- sulphate and sargaol binds human tyrosinase. Implementing a homology model to construct a tyrosinase model using the crystal structure of a functional unit from Octopus hemocyanin (PDB: 1JS8) as a reference template enabled us to create a human tyrosinase model. Molecular dynamics and binding free energy calculations were optimized to enable molecular dynamics simulation of the copper dependent inhibitors. Results show the importance of the hydrogen bond formation morelloflavone- 7″- sulphate and sargaol between compound and active site residues. Both complexes demonstrated the metallic coordination between compound and arginine residue as well as copper ions within the active site. The comprehensive molecular insight gained from this study should be vital in understanding the binding mechanism morelloflavone- 7″- sulphate and sargaol. Moreover, these results will assist in the design of novel of metal ion dependent enzyme inhibitors as potential anti-hyper-pigmentation disorder therapies.

Keywords: hyper-pigmentation disorders, dyschromia African skin, morelloflavone- 7″- sulphate, sagoal

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1537 Large-Scale Photovoltaic Generation System Connected to HVDC Grid with Centralized High Voltage and High Power DC/DC Converter

Authors: Xinke Huang, Huan Wang, Lidong Guo, Changbin Ju, Runbiao Liu, Shanshan Meng, Yibo Wang, Honghua Xu


Large-scale photovoltaic (PV) generation system connected to HVDC grid has many advantages compared to its counterpart of AC grid. DC connection can solve many problems that AC connection faces, such as the grid-connection and power transmission, and DC connection is the tendency. DC/DC converter as the most important device in the system has become one of the hot spots recently. The paper proposes a centralized DC/DC converter which uses Boost Full Bridge Isolated DC/DC Converter(BFBIC) topology and combination through input parallel output series(IPOS) method to improve power capacity and output voltage to match with the HVDC grid voltage. Meanwhile, it adopts input current sharing control strategy to realize input current and output voltage balance. A ±30kV/1MW system is modeled in MATLAB/SIMULINK, and a downscaled ±10kV/200kW DC/DC converter platform is built to verify the proposed topology and control strategy.

Keywords: High-Voltage, photovoltaic generation, cascaded dc/dc converter, galvanic isolation, direct current (HVDC)

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1536 DNA and DNA-Complexes Modified with Electromagnetic Radiation

Authors: Ewelina Nowak, Anna Wisla-Swider, Krzysztof Danel


Aqueous suspensions of DNA were illuminated with linearly polarized visible light and ultraviolet for 5, 15, 20 and 40 h. In order to check the nature of modification, DNA interactions were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. For each illuminated sample, weight average molecular weight and hydrodynamic radius were measured by high pressure size exclusion chromatography. Resulting optical changes for illuminated DNA were investigated using UV-Vis spectra and photoluminescent. Optical properties show potential application in sensors based on modified DNA. Then selected DNA-surfactant complexes were illuminated with electromagnetic radiation for 5h. Molecular structure, optical characteristic were examinated for obtained complexes. Illumination led to changes of complexes physicochemical properties as compared with native DNA. Observed changes were induced by rearrangement of the molecular structure of DNA chains.

Keywords: Biopolymers, Ionic Liquids, Ultraviolet, Deoxyribonucleic Acid, linearly polarized visible light

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1535 Application of Learning Media Based Augmented Reality on Molecular Geometry Concept

Authors: F. S. Irwansyah, I. Farida, Y. Maulana


Studying chemistry requires the ability to understand three levels of understanding in the form of macroscopic, submicroscopic and symbolic, but the lack of emphasis on the submicroscopic level leads to the understanding of chemical concepts becoming incomplete, due to the limitations of the tools capable of providing visualization of submicroscopic concepts. The purpose of this study describes the stages of making augmented reality learning media on the concept of molecular geometry and analyze the feasibility test result of augmented reality learning media on the concept of molecular geometry. This research uses Research and Development (R & D) method which produces a product of AR learning media on molecular geometry concept and test the effectiveness of the product. Research stages include concept analysis and learning indicators, design development, validation, feasibility, and limited testing. The stages of validation and limited trial are aimed to get feedback in the form of assessment, suggestion and improvement on learning aspect, material substance aspect, visual communication aspect and software engineering aspects and media feasibility in terms of media creation purpose to be used in learning. The results of the overall feasibility test obtained r-calculation 0,7-0,9 with the interpretation of high feasibility value, whereas the result of limited trial got the percentage of eligibility with the average value equal to 70,83-92,5%. This percentage indicates that AR's learning media product on the concept of molecular geometry, deserves to be used as a learning resource.

Keywords: Geometry, Augmented Reality, android, chemical learning

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1534 Preparation of Flurbiprofen Derivative for Enhanced Brain Penetration

Authors: Jungkyun Im


Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective for relieving pain and reducing inflammation. They are nonselective inhibitors of two isoforms of COX, cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and thereby inhibiting the production of hormone-like lipid compounds such as, prostaglandins and thromboxanes which cause inflammation, pain, fever, platelet aggregation, etc. In addition, recently there are many research articles reporting the neuroprotective effect of NSAIDs in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the clinical use of NSAIDs in these diseases is limited by low brain distribution. Therefore, in order to assist the in-depth investigation on the pharmaceutical mechanism of flurbiprofen in neuroprotection and to make flurbiprofen a more potent drug to prevent or alleviate neurodegenerative diseases, delivery of flurbiprofen to brain should be effective and sufficient amount of flurbiprofen must penetrate the BBB thus gaining access into the patient’s brain. We have recently developed several types of guanidine-rich molecular carriers with high molecular weights and good water solubility that readily cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and display efficient distributions in the mouse brain. The G8 (having eight guanidine groups) molecular carrier based on D-sorbitol was found to be very effective in delivering anticancer drugs to a mouse brain. In the present study, employing the same molecular carrier, we prepared the flurbiprofen conjugate and studied its BBB permeation by mouse tissue distribution study. Flurbiprofen was attached to a molecular carrier with a fluorescein probe and multiple terminal guanidiniums. The conjugate was found to internalize into live cells and readily cross the BBB to enter the mouse brain. Our novel synthetic flurbiprofen conjugate will hopefully delivery NSAIDs into brain, and is therefore applicable to the neurodegenerative diseases treatment or prevention.

Keywords: drug delivery, Organic Synthesis, Flurbiprofen, molecular carrier

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1533 Gas Aggregation and Nanobubbles Stability on Substrates Influenced by Surface Wettability: A Molecular Dynamics Study

Authors: Tsu-Hsu Yen


The interfacial gas adsorption presents a frequent challenge and opportunity for micro-/nano-fluidic operation. In this study, we investigate the wettability, gas accumulation, and nanobubble formation on various homogeneous surface conditions by using MD simulation, including a series of 3D and quasi-2D argon-water-solid systems simulation. To precisely determine the wettability on various substrates, several indicators were calculated. Among these wettability indicators, the water PMF (potential of mean force) has the most correlation tendency with interfacial water molecular orientation than depletion layer width and droplet contact angle. The results reveal that the aggregation of argon molecules on substrates not only depending on the level of hydrophobicity but also determined by the competition between gas-solid and water-solid interaction as well as water molecular structure near the surface. In addition, the surface nanobubble is always observed coexisted with the gas enrichment layer. The water structure adjacent to water-gas and water-solid interfaces also plays an important factor in gas out-flux and gas aggregation, respectively. The quasi-2D simulation shows that only a slight difference in the curved argon-water interface from the plane interface which suggests no noticeable obstructing effect on gas outflux from the gas-water interfacial water networks.

Keywords: Wettability, molecular dynamics simulation, gas aggregation, interfacial nanobubble

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1532 Effect of Low Temperature on Structure and RNA Binding of E.coli CspA: A Molecular Dynamics Based Study

Authors: Amit Chaudhary, S. Srivastava, A. M., A. Mani, S. Singh, B. S. Yadav, P. K. Maurya


Cold shock protein A (CspA) is major cold inducible protein present in Escherichia coli. The protein is involved in stabilizing secondary structure of RNA by working as chaperone during cold temperature. Two RNA binding motifs play key role in the stabilizing activity. This study aimed to investigate implications of low temperature on structure and RNA binding activity of E. coli CspA. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to compare the stability of the protein at 37°C and 10 °C. The protein was mutated at RNA binding motifs and docked with RNA to assess the stability of both complexes. Results suggest that CspA as well as CspA-RNA complex is more stable at low temperature. It was also confirmed that RNP1 and RNP2 play key role in RNA binding.

Keywords: Mutation, molecular dynamics simulation, homology modelling, CspA

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1531 Hydrothermal Synthesis of Octahedral Molecular Sieve from Mn Oxide Residues

Authors: Irlana C. do Mar, Thayna A. Ferreira, Dayane S. Rezende, Bruno A. M. Figueira, José M. R. Mercury


This work presents a low-cost Mn starting material to synthesis manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve with Mg²⁺ in the tunnel (Mg-OMS-1), based on the Mn residues from Carajás Mineral Province (Amazon, Brazil). After hydrothermal and cation exchange procedures, the Mn residues transformed to a single phase, Mg-OMS-1. The raw material and the synthesis processes were analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The tunnel structure was synthesized hydrothermally at 180 °C for three days without impurities. According to the XRD analysis, the formation of crystalline Mg-OMS-1 was identified through reflections at 9.8º, 12º and 18º (2θ), as well as a thermal stability around 300 ºC. The SEM analysis indicated that the final product presents good crystallinity with a homogeneous size. In addition, an intense and diagnostic FTIR band was identified at 515 cm⁻¹ related to the MnO₆ octahedral stretching vibrations.

Keywords: Characterization, Synthesis, Mn residues, Octahedral Molecular Sieve

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1530 Morphological and Molecular Studies (ITS1) of Hydatid Cysts in Slaughtered Sheep in Mashhad Area

Authors: G. R. Hashemi Tabar, G. R. Razmi, F. Mirshekar


Echinococcus granulosus have ten strains from G1 to G9. Each strain is related to special intermediated host. The morphology, epidemiology, treatment and control in these strains are different. There are many morphological and molecular methods to differentiate of Echinococcus strains. However, using both methods were provided better information about identification of each strain. The aim of study was to identify Echinococcus granulosus strain of hydrated cysts in slaughtered sheep using morphological and molecular methods in Mashhad area. In the present study, the infected liver and lung with hydatid cysts were collected and transferred to laboratory. The hydatid cyst liquid was extracted and morphological characters of rostellar hook protosclocies were measured using micrometer ocular. The total length of large blade length of large hooks, total length of small and blade length of small hooks, and number of hooks per protoscolex were 23± 0.3μm, 11.7±0.5 μm, 19.3±1.1 μm,8±1.1 and 33.7±0.7 μm, respectively. In molecular section of the study, DNA each samples was extracted with MBST Kit and development of PCR using special primers (EgF, EgR) which amplify fragment of ITS1 gen. The PCR product was digested with Bsh1236I enzyme. Based on pattern of PCR-RLFP results (four band forming), G1, G2 and G3 strain of Echinococcus granulosus were obtained. Differentiation of three strains was done using sequencing analysis and G1 strain was diagnosed. The agreement between the molecular results with morphometric characters of rosetellar hook was confirmed the presence of G1 strain of Echinococcus in the slaughtered sheep of Mashhad area.

Keywords: Sheep, PCR, Echinococcus granulosus, hydatid cyst

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1529 Thermal and Caloric Imperfections Effect on the Supersonic Flow Parameters with Application for Air in Nozzles

Authors: Merouane Salhi, Toufik Zebbiche, Omar Abada


When the stagnation pressure of perfect gas increases, the specific heat and their ratio do not remain constant anymore and start to vary with this pressure. The gas does not remain perfect. Its state equation change and it becomes a real gas. In this case, the effects of molecular size and inter molecular attraction forces intervene to correct the state equation. The aim of this work is to show and discuss the effect of stagnation pressure on supersonic thermo dynamical, physical and geometrical flow parameters, to find a general case for real gas. With the assumptions that Berthelot’s state equation accounts for molecular size and inter molecular force effects, expressions are developed for analyzing supersonic flow for thermally and calorically imperfect gas lower than the dissociation molecules threshold. The designs parameters for supersonic nozzle like thrust coefficient depend directly on stagnation parameters of the combustion chamber. The application is for air. A computation of error is made in this case to give a limit of perfect gas model compared to real gas model.

Keywords: Supersonic Flow, real gas model, Berthelot’s state equation, Simpson’s method, condensation function, stagnation pressure

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1528 Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Effect of the Solid Gas Interface Nanolayer on Enhanced Thermal Conductivity of Copper-CO2 Nanofluid

Authors: Zeeshan Ahmed, Ajinkya Sarode, Pratik Basarkar, Atul Bhargav, Debjyoti Banerjee


The use of CO2 in oil recovery and in CO2 capture and storage is gaining traction in recent years. These applications involve heat transfer between CO2 and the base fluid, and hence, there arises a need to improve the thermal conductivity of CO2 to increase the process efficiency and reduce cost. One way to improve the thermal conductivity is through nanoparticle addition in the base fluid. The nanofluid model in this study consisted of copper (Cu) nanoparticles in varying concentrations with CO2 as a base fluid. No experimental data are available on thermal conductivity of CO2 based nanofluid. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are an increasingly adopted tool to perform preliminary assessments of nanoparticle (NP) fluid interactions. In this study, the effect of the formation of a nanolayer (or molecular layering) at the gas-solid interface on thermal conductivity is investigated using equilibrium MD simulations by varying NP diameter and keeping the volume fraction (1.413%) of nanofluid constant to check the diameter effect of NP on the nanolayer and thermal conductivity. A dense semi-solid fluid layer was seen to be formed at the NP-gas interface, and the thickness increases with increase in particle diameter, which also moves with the NP Brownian motion. Density distribution has been done to see the effect of nanolayer, and its thickness around the NP. These findings are extremely beneficial, especially to industries employed in oil recovery as increased thermal conductivity of CO2 will lead to enhanced oil recovery and thermal energy storage.

Keywords: Thermal Conductivity, molecular dynamics simulation, copper-CO2 nanofluid, molecular interfacial layer

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1527 Synthesis, Structural, Spectroscopic and Nonlinear Optical Properties of New Picolinate Complex of Manganese (II) Ion

Authors: Ömer Tamer, Davut Avcı, Yusuf Atalay


Novel picolinate complex of manganese(II) ion, [Mn(pic)2] [pic: picolinate or 2-pyridinecarboxylate], was prepared and fully characterized by single crystal X-ray structure determination. The manganese(II) complex was characterized by FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV–Vis spectroscopic techniques. The C=O, C=N and C=C stretching vibrations were found to be strong and simultaneously active in IR and spectra. In order to support these experimental techniques, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed at Gaussian 09W. Although the supramolecular interactions have some influences on the molecular geometry in solid state phase, the calculated data show that the predicted geometries can reproduce the structural parameters. The molecular modeling and calculations of IR, Raman and UV-vis spectra were performed by using DFT levels. Nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of synthesized complex were evaluated by the determining of dipole moment (µ), polarizability (α) and hyperpolarizability (β). Obtained results demonstrated that the manganese(II) complex is a good candidate for NLO material. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization was analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The highest occupied and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMO and LUMO) which is also known the frontier molecular orbitals were simulated, and obtained energy gap confirmed that charge transfer occurs within manganese(II) complex. Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) for synthesized manganese(II) complex displays the electrophilic and nucleophilic regions. From MEP, the the most negative region is located over carboxyl O atoms while positive region is located over H atoms.

Keywords: dft, picolinate, Raman, nonlinear optic

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1526 Chemometric QSRR Evaluation of Behavior of s-Triazine Pesticides in Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Strahinja Z. Kovačević, Lidija R. Jevrić, Sanja O. Podunavac-Kuzmanović


This study considers the selection of the most suitable in silico molecular descriptors that could be used for s-triazine pesticides characterization. Suitable descriptors among topological, geometrical and physicochemical are used for quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRR) model establishment. Established models were obtained using linear regression (LR) and multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis. In this paper, MLR models were established avoiding multicollinearity among the selected molecular descriptors. Statistical quality of established models was evaluated by standard and cross-validation statistical parameters. For detection of similarity or dissimilarity among investigated s-triazine pesticides and their classification, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were used and gave similar grouping. This study is financially supported by COST action TD1305.

Keywords: Pesticides, Chemometrics, Regression analysis, molecular descriptors, classification analysis

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1525 Understanding Nanocarrier Efficacy in Drug Delivery Systems Using Molecular Dynamics

Authors: Fatemeh Yazdian, Maedeh Rahimnejad, Bahman Vahidi, Bahman Ebrahimi Hoseinzadeh, Puria Motamed Fath, Roghieh Jamjah


Introduction: The intensive labor and high cost of developing new vehicles for controlled drug delivery highlights the need for a change in their discovery process. Computational models can be used to accelerate experimental steps and control the high cost of experiments. Methods: In this work, to better understand the interaction of anti-cancer drug and the nanocarrier with the cell membrane, we have done molecular dynamics simulation using NAMD. We have chosen paclitaxel for the drug molecule and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) as a natural phospholipid nanocarrier. Results: Next, center of mass (COM) between molecules and the van der Waals interaction energy close to the cell membrane has been analyzed. Furthermore, the simulation results of the paclitaxel interaction with the cell membrane and the interaction of DPPC as a nanocarrier loaded by the drug with the cell membrane have been compared. Discussion: Analysis by molecular dynamics (MD) showed that not only the energy between the nanocarrier and the cell membrane is low, but also the center of mass amount decreases in the nanocarrier and the cell membrane system during the interaction; therefore they show significantly better interaction in comparison to the individual drug with the cell membrane.

Keywords: Anti-Cancer Drug, molecular dynamics simulation, nanocarrier, center of mass, interaction energy

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1524 The Effect of Lead(II) Lone Electron Pair and Non-Covalent Interactions on the Supramolecular Assembly and Fluorescence Properties of Pb(II)-Pyrrole-2-Carboxylato Polymer

Authors: M. Kowalik, J. Masternak, K. Kazimierczuk, O. V. Khavryuchenko, B. Kupcewicz, B. Barszcz


Recently, the growing interest of chemists in metal-organic coordination polymers (MOCPs) is primarily derived from their intriguing structures and potential applications in catalysis, gas storage, molecular sensing, ion exchanges, nonlinear optics, luminescence, etc. Currently, we are devoting considerable effort to finding the proper method of synthesizing new coordination polymers containing S- or N-heteroaromatic carboxylates as linkers and characterizing the obtained Pb(II) compounds according to their structural diversity, luminescence, and thermal properties. The choice of Pb(II) as the central ion of MOCPs was motivated by several reasons mentioned in the literature: i) a large ionic radius allowing for a wide range of coordination numbers, ii) the stereoactivity of the 6s2 lone electron pair leading to a hemidirected or holodirected geometry, iii) a flexible coordination environment, and iv) the possibility to form secondary bonds and unusual non-covalent interactions, such as classic hydrogen bonds and π···π stacking interactions, as well as nonconventional hydrogen bonds and rarely reported tetrel bonds, Pb(lone pair)···π interactions, C–H···Pb agostic-type interactions or hydrogen bonds, and chelate ring stacking interactions. Moreover, the construction of coordination polymers requires the selection of proper ligands acting as linkers, because we are looking for materials exhibiting different network topologies and fluorescence properties, which point to potential applications. The reaction of Pb(NO₃)₂ with 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (2prCOOH) leads to the formation of a new four-nuclear Pb(II) polymer, [Pb4(2prCOO)₈(H₂O)]ₙ, which has been characterized by CHN, FT-IR, TG, PL and single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. In view of the primary Pb–O bonds, Pb1 and Pb2 show hemidirected pentagonal pyramidal geometries, while Pb2 and Pb4 display hemidirected octahedral geometries. The topology of the strongest Pb–O bonds was determined as the (4·8²) fes topology. Taking the secondary Pb–O bonds into account, the coordination number of Pb centres increased, Pb1 exhibited a hemidirected monocapped pentagonal pyramidal geometry, Pb2 and Pb4 exhibited a holodirected tricapped trigonal prismatic geometry, and Pb3 exhibited a holodirected bicapped trigonal prismatic geometry. Moreover, the Pb(II) lone pair stereoactivity was confirmed by DFT calculations. The 2D structure was expanded into 3D by the existence of non-covalent O/C–H···π and Pb···π interactions, which was confirmed by the Hirshfeld surface analysis. The above mentioned interactions improve the rigidity of the structure and facilitate the charge and energy transfer between metal centres, making the polymer a promising luminescent compound.

Keywords: Coordination Polymers, fluorescence properties, lead(II), lone electron pair stereoactivity, non-covalent interactions

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1523 Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Structural, Elastic and Thermodynamic Properties of Cubic GaBi

Authors: Y. Benallou, K. Amara, M. Zemouli, M. Elkeurti


We present the molecular dynamic simulations results of the structural and dynamical properties of the zinc-blende GaBi over a wide range of temperature (300-1000) K. Our simulation where performed in the framework of the three-body Tersoff potential, which accurately reproduces the lattice constants and elastic constants of the GaBi. A good agreement was found between our calculated results and the available theoretical data of the lattice constant, the bulk modulus and the cohesive energy. Our study allows us to predict the thermodynamic properties such as the specific heat and the lattice thermal expansion. In addition, this method allows us to check its ability to predict the phase transition of this compound. In particular, the transition pressure to the rock-salt phase is calculated and the results are compared with other available works.

Keywords: Molecular Dynamics Simulations, structural phase transition, Gallium compounds, interatomic potential thermodynamic properties

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1522 Preparation of Low-Molecular-Weight 6-Amino-6-Deoxychitosan (LM6A6DC) for Immobilization of Growth Factor

Authors: Koo-Yeon Kim, Eun-Hye Kim, Tae-Il Son


Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF, Mw=6,045) has been reported to have high efficiency of wound repair and anti-wrinkle effect. However, the half-life of EGF in the body is too short to exert the biological activity effectively when applied in free form. Growth Factors can be stabilized by immobilization with carbohydrates from thermal and proteolytic degradation. Low molecular weight chitosan (LMCS) and its derivate prepared by hydrogen peroxide has high solubility. LM6A6DC was successfully prepared as a reactive carbohydrate for the stabilization of EGF by the reactions of LMCS with alkalization, tosylation, azidation and reduction. The structure of LM6A6DC was confirmed by FT-IR, 1H NMR and elementary analysis. For enhancing the stability of free EGF, EGF was attached with LM6A6DC by using water-soluble carbodiimide. EGF-LM6A6DC conjugates did not show any cytotoxicity on the Normal Human Dermal Fibroblast(NHDF) 3T3 proliferation at least under 100 ㎍/㎖. In the result, it was considered that LM6A6DC is suitable to immobilize of growth factor.

Keywords: immobilization, epidermal growth factor (EGF), low-molecular-weight chitosan

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1521 Investigation of Chlorophylls a and b Interaction with Inner and Outer Surfaces of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Using Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: M. Dehestani, M. Ghasemi-Kooch


In this work, adsorption of chlorophylls a and b pigments in aqueous solution on the inner and outer surfaces of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) has been studied using molecular dynamics simulation. The linear interaction energy algorithm has been used to calculate the binding free energy. The results show that the adsorption of two pigments is fine on the both positions. Although there is the close similarity between these two pigments, their interaction with the nanotube is different. This result is useful to separate these pigments from one another. According to interaction energy between the pigments and carbon nanotube, interaction between these pigments-SWCNT on the inner surface is stronger than the outer surface. The interaction of SWCNT with chlorophylls phytol tail is stronger than the interaction of SWCNT with porphyrin ring of chlorophylls.

Keywords: Nanotube, Interaction, Adsorption, chlorophyll, molecular dynamics simulation

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