Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 1952

Search results for: modified nanoclay

1952 Effect of Modified Layered Silicate Nanoclay on the Dynamic Viscoelastic Properties of Thermoplastic Polymers Nanocomposites

Authors: Benalia Kouini, Aicha Serier

Abstract:

This work aims to investigate the structure–property relationship in ternary nanocomposites consisting of polypropylene as the matrix, polyamide 66 as the minor phase and treated nanoclay DELLITE 67G as the reinforcement. All PP/PA66/Nanoclay systems with polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride PP-g-MAH as a compatibilizer were prepared via melt compounding and characterized in terms of nanoclay content. Morphological structure was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The rheological behavior of the nanocomposites was determined by various methods, viz melt flow index (MFI) and parallel plate rheological measurements. The PP/PP-g-MAH/PA66 nanocomposites showed a homogeneous morphology supporting the compatibility improvement between PP, PA66 and nanoclay. SEM results revealed the formation of nanocomposites as the nanoclay was intercalated and exfoliated. In the ternary nanocomposites, the rheological behavior showed that, the complex viscosity is increased with increasing the nanoclay content; however, at low frequencies this increase is governed by the content of nanofiller while at high frequencies it is mainly determined by talc content. A similar trend was also observed for the variations of storage modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G″) with frequency. The results showed that the use of nanoclay considerably affects the melt elasticity.

Keywords: nanocomposites, polypropylene, polyamide66, modified nanoclay, rheology

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1951 Utilization of Nanoclay to Reinforce Flax Fabric-Geopolymer Composites

Authors: H. S. Assaedi, F. U. A. Shaikh, I. M. Low

Abstract:

Geopolymer composites reinforced with flax fabrics and nano-clay are fabricated and studied for physical and mechanical properties using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Nanoclay platelets at a weight of 1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0% were added to geopolymer pastes. Nanoclay at 2.0 wt.% was found to improve density and decrease porosity while improving flexural strength and post-peak toughness. A microstructural analysis indicated that nanoclay behaves as filler and as an activator supporting geopolymeric reaction while producing a higher content geopolymer gel improving the microstructure of binders. The process enhances adhesion between the geopolymer matrix and flax fibres.

Keywords: flax fibres, geopolymer, mechanical properties, nanoclay

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
1950 Comparative Study of Impact Strength and Fracture Morphological of Nano-CaCO3 and Nanoclay Reinforced HDPE Nanocomposites

Authors: Harun Sepet, Necmettin Tarakcioglu

Abstract:

The present study investigated the impact strength and fracture mechanism of nano-CaCO3 and nanoclay reinforced HDPE nanocomposites by using Charpy impact test. The nano-CaCO3 and nanoclay reinforced HDPE granules were prepared by the melt blending method using a compounder system, which consists of industrial banbury mixer, single screw extruder and granule cutting in industrial-scale. The nano-CaCO3 and nanoclay reinforced HDPE granules were molded using an injection-molding machine as plates, and then impact samples were cut by using punching die from the nanocomposite plates. As a result of impact experiments, nano-CaCO3 and nanoclay reinforced HDPE nanocomposites were determined to have lower impact energy level than neat HDPE. Also, the impact strength of HDPE further decreased by addition nanoclay compared to nano-CaCO3. The occurred fracture areas with the impact were detected by SEM examination. It is understood that fracture surface morphology changes when nano-CaCO3 and nanoclay ratio increases. The fracture surface changes were examined to determine the fracture mechanism of nano-CaCO3 and nanoclay reinforced HDPE nanocomposites.

Keywords: charpy, HDPE, industrial scale nano-CaCO3, nanoclay, nanocomposite

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1949 Experimental Investigations on Nanoclay (Cloisite-15A) Modified Bitumen

Authors: Ashish Kumar, Sanjeev Kumar Suman

Abstract:

This study investigated the influence of Cloisite-15A nanoclay on the physical, performance, and mechanical properties of bitumen binder. Cloisite-15A was blended in the bitumen in variegated percentages from 1% to 9% with increment of 2%. The blended bitumen was characterized using penetration, softening point, and dynamic viscosity using rotational viscometer, and compared with unmodified bitumen equally penetration grade 60/70. The rheological parameters were investigated using Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR), and mechanical properties were investigated by using Marshall Stability test. The results indicated an increase in softening point, dynamic viscosity and decrease in binder penetration. Rheological properties of bitumen increase complex modulus, decrease phase angle and improve rutting resistances as well. There was significant improvement in Marshall Stability, rather marginal improvement in flow value. The best improvement in the modified binder was obtained with 5% Cloisite-15A nanoclay.

Keywords: Cloisite-15A, complex shear modulus, phase angle, rutting resistance

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1948 Effect of Nanoparticle Addition in the Urea-Formaldehyde Resin on the Formaldehyde Emission from MDF

Authors: Sezen Gurdag, Ayse Ebru Akin

Abstract:

There is a growing concern all over the world on the health effect of the formaldehyde emission coming from the adhesive used in the MDF production. In this research, we investigated the effect of nanoparticle addition such as nanoclay and halloysite into urea-formadehyde resin on the total emitted formaldehyde from MDF plates produced using the resin modified as such. First, the curing behavior of the resin was studied by monitoring the pH, curing time, solid content, density and viscosity of the modified resin in comparison to the reference resin with no added nanoparticle. The dosing of the nanoparticle in the dry resin was kept at 1wt%, 3wt% or 5wt%. Consecutively, the resin was used in the production of 50X50 cm MDF samples using laboratory scale press line with full automation system. Modulus of elasticity, bending strength, internal bonding strength, water absorption were also measured in addition to the main interested parameter formaldehyde emission levels which is determined via spectrometric technique following an extraction procedure. Threshold values for nanoparticle dosing levels were determined to be 5wt% for both nanoparticles. However, the reinforcing behavior was observed to be occurring at different levels in comparison to the reference plates with each nanoparticle such that the level of reinforcement with nanoclay was shown to be more favorable than the addition of halloysite due to higher surface area available with the former. In relation, formaldehyde emission levels were observed to be following a similar trend where addition of 5wt% nanoclay into the urea-formaldehyde adhesive helped decrease the formaldehyde emission up to 40% whereas addition of halloysite at its threshold level demonstrated as the same level, i.e., 5wt%, produced an improvement of 18% only.

Keywords: halloysite, nanoclay, fiberboard, urea-formaldehyde adhesive

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
1947 Effect of Volume Fraction of Fibre on the Mechanical Properties of Nanoclay Reinforced E-Glass-Epoxy Composites

Authors: K. Krushnamurty, D. Rasmitha, I. Srikanth, K. Ramji, Ch. Subrahmanyam

Abstract:

E-glass-epoxy laminated composites having different fiber volume fractions (40, 50, 60 and 70) were fabricated with and without the addition of nanoclay. Flexural strength and tensile strength of the composite laminates were determined. It was observed that, with increasing the fiber volume fraction (Vf) of fiber from 40 to 60, the ability of nanoclay to enhance the tensile and flexural strength of E-glass-epoxy composites decreases significantly. At 70Vf, the tensile and flexural strength of the nanoclay reinforced E-glass-epoxy were found to be lowest when compared to the E-glass-epoxy composite made without the addition of nanoclay. Based on the obtained data and microstructure of the tested samples, plausible mechanism for the observed trends has been proposed. The enhanced mechanical properties for nanoclay reinforced E-glass-epoxy composites for 40-60 Vf, due to higher interface toughness coupled with strong interfilament bonding may have ensured the homogeneous load distribution across all the glass fibers. Results in the decrease in mechanical properties at 70Vf, may be due to the inability of the matrix to bind the nanoclay and glass-fibers.

Keywords: e-glass-epoxy composite laminates, fiber volume fraction, e-glass fiber, mechanical properties, delamination

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
1946 A Bio-Inspired Approach to Produce Wettable Nylon Fabrics

Authors: Sujani B. Y. Abeywardena, Srimala Perera, K. M. Nalin De Silva, S. Walpalage

Abstract:

Surface modifications are vital to accomplish the moisture management property in highly demanded synthetic fabrics. Biomimetic and bio-inspired surface modifications are identified as one of the fascinating areas of research. In this study, nature’s way of cooling elephants’ body temperature using mud bathing was mimicked to create a superior wettable nylon fabric with improved comfortability. For that, bentonite nanoclay was covalently grafted on nylon fabric using silane as a coupling agent. Fourier transform infrared spectra and Scanning electron microscopy images confirmed the successful grafting of nanoclay on nylon. The superior wettability of surface modified nylon was proved by standard protocols. This fabric coating strongly withstands more than 50 cycles of laundry. It is expected that this bio-inspired wettable nylon fabric may break the barrier of using nylon in various hydrophilic textile applications.

Keywords: bentonite nanoclay, biomimetic, covalent modification, nylon fabric, surface, wettability

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
1945 Thermomechanical Behavior of Asphalt Modified with Thermoplastic Polymer and Nanoclay Dellite 43B

Authors: L. F. Tamele Jr., G. Buonocore, H. F. Muiambo

Abstract:

Asphalt binders play an essential role in the performance and properties of asphalt mixtures. The increase in heavy loads, greater traffic volume, and high tire pressure, combined with a substantial variation in daily and seasonal pavement temperatures, are the main responsible for the failure of asphalt pavements. To avoid or mitigate these failures, the present research proposes the use of thermoplastic polymers, HDPE and LLDPE, and nanoclay Dellite 43B for modification of asphalt in order to improve its thermomechanical and rheological properties. The nanocomposites were prepared by the solution intercalation method in a high shear mixer for a mixing time of 2 h, at 180℃ and 5000 rpm. The addition of Dellite 43B improved the physical, rheological, and thermal properties of asphalt, either separated or in the form of polymer/bitumen blends. The results of the physical characterization showed a decrease in penetration and an increase in softening point, thermal susceptibility, viscosity, and stiffness. On the other hand, thermal characterization showed that the nanocomposites have greater stability at higher temperatures by exhibiting greater amounts of residues and improved initial and final decomposition temperatures. Thus, the modification of asphalt by polymers and nanoclays seems to be a suitable solution for road pavement in countries which experiment with high temperatures combined with long heavy rain seasons.

Keywords: asphalt, nanoclay dellite 43B, polymer modified asphalt, thermal and rheological properties

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1944 Use of Nanoclay in Various Modified Polyolefins

Authors: Michael Tupý, Alice Tesaříková-Svobodová, Dagmar Měřínská, Vít Petránek

Abstract:

Polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP), Polyethylene (vinyl acetate) (EVA) and Surlyn (modif-PE) nano composite samples were prepared with montmorillonite fillers Cloisite 93A and Dellite 67G. The amount of modified Na+ montmorillonite (MMT) was fixed to 5 % (w/w). For the compounding of polymer matrix and chosen nano fillers twin-screw kneader was used. The level of MMT intercalation or exfoliation in the nano composite systems was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. The properties of samples were evaluated by dynamical mechanical analysis (E* modulus at 30 °C) and by the measurement of tensile properties (stress and strain at break).

Keywords: polyethylene, polypropylene, polyethylene(vinyl acetate), clay, nanocomposite, montmorillonite

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1943 Fatigue of Multiscale Nanoreinforced Composites: 3D Modelling

Authors: Leon Mishnaevsky Jr., Gaoming Dai

Abstract:

3D numerical simulations of fatigue damage of multiscale fiber reinforced polymer composites with secondary nanoclay reinforcement are carried out. Macro-micro FE models of the multiscale composites are generated automatically using Python based software. The effect of the nanoclay reinforcement (localized in the fiber/matrix interface (fiber sizing) and distributed throughout the matrix) on the crack path, damage mechanisms and fatigue behavior is investigated in numerical experiments.

Keywords: computational mechanics, fatigue, nanocomposites, composites

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1942 Nano Composite of Clay and Modified Ketonic Resin as Fire Retardant Polyol for Polyurethane

Authors: D. Önen, N. Kızılcan, B. Yıldız, A. Akar

Abstract:

In situ modified cyclohexanone-formaldehyde resins were prepared by addition of alendronic acid during resin preparation. Clay nanocomposites in ketonic resins were achieved by adding clay into the flask at the beginning of the resin preparation. The prepared resins were used for the synthesis of fire resistant polyurethanes foam. Both phosphorous containing modifier compound alendronic acid and nanoclay increases fire resistance of the cyclohexanone-formaldehyde resin thus polyurethane produced from these resins. The effect of the concentrations of alendronic acid and clay on the fire resistance and physical properties of polyurethanes was studied.

Keywords: alendronic acid, clay, ketonic resin, polyurethane

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1941 The Effect of Nanoclay on the Hydraulic Conductivity of Clayey Sand Soils

Authors: Javad Saeidaskari, Mohammad Hassan Baziar

Abstract:

Soil structures have been frequently damaged during piping, earthquake and other types of failures. As far as adverse circumstances were developed subsequent to piping or other similar failure types, hydraulic parameters of soil such as hydraulic conductivity should be considered. As a result, acquiring an approach to diminish soil permeability is inevitable. There are many ground improvement methods to reduce seepage, which are classified under soil treatment and stabilization methods. Recently, one of the soil improvement methods is known as nanogeotechnology. This study aims to investigate the influence of Cloisite 30B nanoclay on permeability of compacted clayey sand soils. The samples are prepared by mixing two soil types, including Kaolin clay and Firouzkooh sand, in 1:9 and 1:5 clay:sand (by mass) proportions. In experimental procedure, initially, the optimum water content and maximum dry unit weight of each samples were obtained for compaction. Then, series of permeability tests were conducted by triaxial apparatus on prepared specimens with identical relative density of 95% of maximum dry density and water content of 1% wet of optimum for different weight percentages of nanoclay (1% to 4%). Therefore, in this paper, the effect of time on treated specimen was appraised, as well as two approaches of manual mixing and ball milling were compared to reveal the importance of dispersion issue. The results show that adding nanoclay up to 3%, as its optimum content, causes notable reduction in permeability (1.60e-03 to 5.51e-05 cm/s and 3.32e-04 to 8.44e-07 cm/s in samples with 1:9 and 1:5 mixture proportions, respectively). The hydraulic conductivity of treated clayey sand (1:5 mixture proportion with 3% nanoclay) decreases gradually from 8.44e-07 to 3.00e-07 cm/s within 90 days and then tends to be consistent. The influence of mixing method on permeability results shows that the utilization of ball mill mixing effectively leads to lower values than those of manual mixing, in other words, by adding 3% nanoclay, hydraulic conductivity of specimen declines from 8.44e-07 to 2.00e-07 cm/s. In order to evaluate the interaction between soil particles and, to ensure proper dispersion of nanoparticles through clayey sand mixture, they were magnified by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM). In conclusion, the nanoclay particles in vicinity of moisture can cause soil stabilization to prevent water penetration, which eventually result in lower usage of clay and operation costs.

Keywords: nanoclay, cloisite 30b, clayey sand, hydraulic conductivity

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1940 Studying the Effect of Nanoclays on the Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene/Polyamide Nanocomposites

Authors: Benalia Kouini, Aicha Serier

Abstract:

Nanocomposites based on polypropylene/polyamide 66 (PP/PA66) nanoblends containing organophilic montmorillonite (OMMT) and maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MAH) were prepared by melt compounding method followed by injection molding. Two different types of nanoclays were used in this work. DELLITE LVF is the untreated nanoclay and DELLITE 67G is the treated one. The morphology of the nanocomposites was studied using the XR diffraction (XRD). The results indicate that the incorporation of treated nanoclay has a significant effect on the impact strength of PP/PA66 nanocomposites. Furthermore, it was found that XRD results revealed the intercalation, exfoliation of nanaclays of nanocomposites.

Keywords: nNanoclay, Nanocomposites, Polypropylene, Polyamide, melt processing, mechanical properties.

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
1939 A Comparative Study on the Thermophysical and Lubricity Characteristics of Multiwall Carbon Nanotube/Oil and Nanoclay/Oil Nanofluids

Authors: H. Singh, H. Bhowmick

Abstract:

Now-a-days, particle based lubricants have been widely used to enhance the lubrication performance. Use of tailor made micro/nanofluids can reduce the friction losses and dissipate heat in a better way. Use of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) has gained interests because of its structure that can endure much better in a system mechanically or thermally in comparison to any other additive in oil. On the other hand, nanoclays have been characterized mechanically and tribologically for the use of clay/polymer composite, and they have been gaining huge interest. Hence it is interesting to be investigated the effect of nanoclays as additive in oil. Thermophysical characteristics of lubricant play a predominant role in defining the friction and wear characteristics of lubricated contacts. However, very limited studies have been carried out to correlate the thermophysical properties of nanolubricants with their lubricity characteristics. Besides, most of the lubricant formulations till dates are found to be optimized for steel/steel contacts. In the present study, Multiwall Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) and nanoclay are used as particle additives in mineral oil to develop nanofluids of various concentrations. The prepared lubricants are tested for their rheological, thermal and lubricity characteristics under aluminium-steel contacts. From the thermophysical investigation, it is observed that nanoclay particles significantly improve the viscosity of lubricant with an insignificant improvement in thermal conductivity. On the other hand, MWCNT particles moderately increase the viscosity but significantly increase the thermal conductivity of the base oil. Frictional responses of the nanofluids are characterized using a Pin-on-Disc tribometer which reveal some interesting facts. The findings from this study will greatly aid in formulating the particle based lubricants for cutting fluid in metal forming industries as well as fully developed nanolubricants for aluminium and Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite (AMMC) tribocontact for the use in the automotive and their allied industries.

Keywords: MWCNT, Multiwall Carbon Nanotube, nanoclay, nanolubricant, rheology, thermal conductivity

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1938 Thermal and Flammability Properties of Paraffin/Nanoclay Composite Phase Change Materials Incorporated in Building Materials for Thermal Energy Storage

Authors: Awni H. Alkhazaleh, Baljinder K. Kandola

Abstract:

In this study, a form-stable composite Paraffin/Nanoclay (PA-NC) has been prepared by absorbing PA into porous particles of NC to be used for low-temperature latent heat thermal energy storage. The leakage test shows that the maximum mass fraction of PA that can be incorporated in NC without leakage is 60 wt.%. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been used to measure the thermal properties of the PA and PA-NC both before and after incorporation in plasterboard (PL). The mechanical performance of the samples has been evaluated in flexural mode. The thermal energy storage performance has been studied using a small test chamber (100 mm × 100 mm × 100 mm) made from 10 mm thick PL and measuring the temperatures using thermocouples. The flammability of the PL+PL-NC has been discussed using a cone calorimeter. The results indicate that the form composite PA has good potential for use as thermal energy storage materials in building applications.

Keywords: building materials, flammability, phase change materials, thermal energy storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
1937 Comparison of Silica-Filled Rubber Compound Prepared from Unmodified and Modified Silica

Authors: Thirawudh Pongprayoon, Watcharin Rassamee

Abstract:

Silica-filled natural rubber compounds were prepared from unmodified and surface-modified silica. The modified silica was coated by ultrathin film of polyisoprene by admicellar polymerization. FTIR and SEM were applied to characterize the modified silica. The cure, mechanic, and dynamics properties were investigated with the comparison of the compounds. Cure characterization of modified silica rubber compound was shorter than that of unmodified silica compound. Strength and abrasion resistance of modified silica compound were better than those of unmodified silica rubber compound. Wet grip and rolling resistance analyzed by DMA from tanδ at 0°C and 60°C using 5 Hz were also better than those of unmodified silica rubber compound.

Keywords: silica, admicellar polymerization, rubber compounds, mechanical properties, dynamic properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
1936 Microstructural Characterization of Bitumen/Montmorillonite/Isocyanate Composites by Atomic Force Microscopy

Authors: Francisco J. Ortega, Claudia Roman, Moisés García-Morales, Francisco J. Navarro

Abstract:

Asphaltic bitumen has been largely used in both industrial and civil engineering, mostly in pavement construction and roofing membrane manufacture. However, bitumen as such is greatly susceptible to temperature variations, and dramatically changes its in-service behavior from a viscoelastic liquid, at medium-high temperatures, to a brittle solid at low temperatures. Bitumen modification prevents these problems and imparts improved performance. Isocyanates like polymeric MDI (mixture of 4,4′-diphenylmethane di-isocyanate, 2,4’ and 2,2’ isomers, and higher homologues) have shown to remarkably enhance bitumen properties at the highest in-service temperatures expected. This comes from the reaction between the –NCO pendant groups of the oligomer and the most polar groups of asphaltenes and resins in bitumen. In addition, oxygen diffusion and/or UV radiation may provoke bitumen hardening and ageing. With the purpose of minimizing these effects, nano-layered-silicates (nanoclays) are increasingly being added to bitumen formulations. Montmorillonites, a type of naturally occurring mineral, may produce a nanometer scale dispersion which improves bitumen thermal, mechanical and barrier properties. In order to increase their lipophilicity, these nanoclays are normally treated so that organic cations substitute the inorganic cations located in their intergallery spacing. In the present work, the combined effect of polymeric MDI and the commercial montmorillonite Cloisite® 20A was evaluated. A selected bitumen with penetration within the range 160/220 was modified with 10 wt.% Cloisite® 20A and 2 wt.% polymeric MDI, and the resulting ternary composites were characterized by linear rheology, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The rheological tests evidenced a notable solid-like behavior at the highest temperatures studied when bitumen was just loaded with 10 wt.% Cloisite® 20A and high-shear blended for 20 minutes. However, if polymeric MDI was involved, the sequence of addition exerted a decisive control on the linear rheology of the final ternary composites. Hence, in bitumen/Cloisite® 20A/polymeric MDI formulations, the previous solid-like behavior disappeared. By contrast, an inversion in the order of addition (bitumen/polymeric MDI/ Cloisite® 20A) enhanced further the solid-like behavior imparted by the nanoclay. In order to gain a better understanding of the factors that govern the linear rheology of these ternary composites, a morphological and microstructural characterization based on XRD and AFM was conducted. XRD demonstrated the existence of clay stacks intercalated by bitumen molecules to some degree. However, the XRD technique cannot provide detailed information on the extent of nanoclay delamination, unless the entire fraction has effectively been fully delaminated (situation in which no peak is observed). Furthermore, XRD was unable to provide precise knowledge neither about the spatial distribution of the intercalated/exfoliated platelets nor about the presence of other structures at larger length scales. In contrast, AFM proved its power at providing conclusive information on the morphology of the composites at the nanometer scale and at revealing the structural modification that yielded the rheological properties observed. It was concluded that high-shear blending brought about a nanoclay-reinforced network. As for the bitumen/Cloisite® 20A/polymeric MDI formulations, the solid-like behavior was destroyed as a result of the agglomeration of the nanoclay platelets promoted by chemical reactions.

Keywords: Atomic Force Microscopy, bitumen, composite, isocyanate, montmorillonite.

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
1935 Deformation Behavior of Virgin and Polypropylene Modified Bituminous Mixture

Authors: Noor Zainab Habib, Ibrahim Kamaruddin, Madzlan Napiah

Abstract:

This paper present a part of research conducted to investigate the creep behavior of bituminous concrete mixture prepared with well graded using the dynamic creep test. The samples were prepared from unmodified control mix and Polypropylene modified bituminous mix. Unmodified or control mix was prepared with 80/100 grade bitumen while polypropylene modified mix was prepared using polypropylene PP polymer as modifier, blended with 80/100 Pen bitumen. The concentration of polymer in the blend was kept at 1%, 2%, and 3% by weight of bitumen content. For Dynamic Creep Test, Marshall Specimen were prepared at optimum bitumen content and then tested using IPC Global Universal Testing Machine (UTM), in order to investigate the creep stiffness of both modified and control mix. From the results obtained it was found that 1% and 2% PP modified bituminous mix offer better results in comparison to control and 3% PP modified mix samples. The results verify all the findings of empirical and viscosity test results which indicates that polymer modification induces stiffening effect in the binder. Enhanced viscous component of the binder was considered responsible for this change which eventually enhances the mechanical strength of the modified bituminous mixes.

Keywords: polymer modified bitumen, stiffness, creep, viscosity

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1934 Gravitational Wave Solutions in Modified Gravity Theories

Authors: Hafiza Rizwana Kausar

Abstract:

In this paper, we formulate the wave equation in modified theories, particularly in f(R) theory, scalar-tensor theory, and metric palatine f(X) theory. We solve the wave equation in each case and try to find maximum possible solutions in the form polarization modes. It is found that modified theories present at most six modes however the mentioned metric theories allow four polarization modes, two of which are tensor in nature and other two are scalars.

Keywords: gravitational waves, modified theories, polariozation modes, scalar tensor theories

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
1933 L1-Convergence of Modified Trigonometric Sums

Authors: Sandeep Kaur Chouhan, Jatinderdeep Kaur, S. S. Bhatia

Abstract:

The existence of sine and cosine series as a Fourier series, their L1-convergence seems to be one of the difficult question in theory of convergence of trigonometric series in L1-metric norm. In the literature so far available, various authors have studied the L1-convergence of cosine and sine trigonometric series with special coefficients. In this paper, we present a modified cosine and sine sums and criterion for L1-convergence of these modified sums is obtained. Also, a necessary and sufficient condition for the L1-convergence of the cosine and sine series is deduced as corollaries.

Keywords: conjugate Dirichlet kernel, Dirichlet kernel, L1-convergence, modified sums

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1932 Isotherm Study of Modified Zeolite in Sorption of Naphthalene from Water Sample

Authors: Homayon Ahmad Panahi, Amir Hesam Hassani, Akram Torki, Elham Moniri

Abstract:

A new sorbent was synthesized through chemical modification of clinoptilolite zeolite using 2-naphtol, and characterized with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis methods and applied for the removal and elimination of trace naphthalene from water samples. The optimum pH value for sorption of the naphthalene by modified zeolite was in acidic pH. The sorption capacity of modified zeolite was 142 mg. g−1. Isotherm models, Langmuir, Frendlich and Temkin were employed to analyze the adsorption capacity of modified zeolite, which revealed that naphthalene adsorption by this zeolite follows Langmuir model.

Keywords: zeolite, clinoptilolite, modification, naphthalene

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1931 Synthesis of Mg/B Containing Compound in a Modified Microwave Oven

Authors: Gülşah Çelik Gül, Figen Kurtuluş

Abstract:

Magnesium containing boron compounds with hexagonal structure have been drawn much attention due to their superconductive nature. The main target of this work is new modified microwave oven by on our own has an ability about passing through a gas in the oven medium for attainment of oxygen-free compounds such as c-BN.  Mg containing boride was synthesized by modified-microwave method under nitrogen atmosphere using amorphous boron and magnesium source in appropriate molar ratio. Microwave oven with oxygen free environment has been modified to aimed to obtain magnesium boride without oxygen. Characterizations were done by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Mg containing boride, generally named magnesium boride, with amorphous character without oxygen is obtained via designed microwave oven system.

Keywords: magnesium containing boron compounds, modified microwave synthesis, powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR

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1930 Modification of Four Layer through the Thickness Woven Structure for Improved Impact Resistance

Authors: Muhammad Liaqat, Hafiz Abdul Samad, Syed Talha Ali Hamdani, Yasir Nawab

Abstract:

In the current research, the four layers, orthogonal through the thickness, 2D woven, 3D fabric structure was modified to improve the impact resistance of 3D fabric reinforced composites. This was achieved by imparting the auxeticity into four layers through the thickness woven structure. A comparison was made between the standard and modified four layers through the thickness woven structure in terms of auxeticity, penetration and impact resistance. It was found that the modified structure showed auxeticity in both warp and weft direction. It was also found that the penetration resistance of modified sample was less as compared to the standard structure, but impact resistance was improved up to 6.7% of modified four layers through the thickness woven structure.

Keywords: 2D woven, 3D fabrics, auxetic, impact resistance, orthogonal through the thickness

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1929 The Effect of Nanoclay on Long Term Performance of Asphalt Concrete Pavement

Authors: A. Khodadadi, Hasani, Salehi

Abstract:

The advantages of using modified asphalt binders are widely recognized—primarily, improved rutting resistance, reduced fatigue cracking and less cold-temperature cracking. Nanoclays are known to enhance the properties of many polymers. Nanoclays are used to improve modulus and tensile strength, flame resistance and thermal and structural properties of many materials. This paper intends to investigate the application and development of nano-technological concepts for bituminous materials and asphalt pavements. The application of nano clay on the fatigue life of asphalt pavement have not been yet thoroughly understood. In this research, two type of highway asphalt materials, dense Marshall specimens, with 2% nano clay and without nano clay, were employed for the fatigue behavior of the asphalt pavement.The effect of nano additive on the performance of flexible pavements has been investigated through the indirect tensile test for the samples prepared with 2% nano clay and without nano clay in four stress levels from 200–500 kPa. The primary results indicated samples with 2% nano clay have almost double or even more fatigue life in most of stress levels.

Keywords: Nano clay, Asphalt, fatigue life, pavement

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1928 Development and Characterization of a Polymer Composite Electrolyte to Be Used in Proton Exchange Membranes Fuel Cells

Authors: B. A. Berns, V. Romanovicz, M. M. de Camargo Forte, D. E. O. S. Carpenter

Abstract:

The Proton Exchange Membranes (PEM) are largely studied because they operate at low temperatures and they are suitable for mobile applications. However, There are some deficiencies in their operation, Mainly those that use ethanol as a hydrogen source that require a certain attention. Therefore, This research aimed to develop Nafion® composite membranes, Mixing clay minerals, Kaolin and halloysite to the polymer matrix in order to improve the ethanol molecule retentions and at the same time to keep the system’s protonic conductivity. The modified Nafion/Kaolin, Nafion/Halloysite composite membranes were prepared in weight proportion of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5. The membranes obtained were characterized as to their ethanol permeability, Protonic conductivity and water absorption. The composite morphology and structure are characterized by SEM and EDX and also the thermal behavior is determined by TGA and DSC. The analysis of the results shows ethanol permeability reduction from 48% to 63%. However, The protonic conductivity results are lower in relation to pure Nafion®. As to the thermal behavior, The Nafion® composite membranes were stable up to a temperature of 325ºC.

Keywords: Polymer-matrix composites (PMCs), thermal properties, nanoclay, differential scanning calorimetry

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1927 Nanoindentation and Physical Properties of Polyvinyl Chloride/Styrene Co-Maleic Anhydride Blend Reinforced by Organo-Bentonite

Authors: D. E. Abulyazied, S. M. Mokhtar, A. M. Motawie

Abstract:

Polymer blends represent an important class of materials in engineering applications. The incorporation of clay nanofiller may provide new opportunities for this type of materials to enhance their applications. This article reports on the effects of clay on the structure and properties of polymer blends nanocomposites, based on Polyvinyl chloride PVC and styrene co-maleic anhydride SMA blend. Modification of the Egyptian Bentonite EB was carried out using organo-modifier namely; octadecylamine ODA. Before the modification, the cation exchange capacity CEC of the EB was measured. The octadecylamine bentonite ODA-B was characterized using Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy FTIR, X-Ray Diffraction XRD, and Transition Electron Microscope TEM. A blend of Polyvinyl chloride PVC and styrene co-maleic anhydride SMA (50:50) was prepared in Tetra Hydro Furan (THF). Then nanocomposites of PVC/SMA/ODA-B were prepared by solution intercalation polymerization from 0.50% up to 5% by weight of ODA-B. The nanocomposites are characterized by XRD, TEM. Thermal, nanoindentation, swelling and electrical properties of the nanocomposites were measured. The morphology of the nanocomposites showed that ODA-B achieved good dispersion in the PVC/SMA matrix. Incorporation of 0.5 %, 1%, 3% and 5% by weight nanoclay into the PVC/SMA blends results in an improvement in nanohardness of 16%, 76%, 92%, and 68% respectively. The elastic modulus increased from 4.59 GPa for unreinforced PVC/SMA blend to 6.30 GPa (37% increase) with the introduction of 3% by weight nanoclay. The cross-link density of the nanocomposites increases with increasing the content of ODA-B.

Keywords: PVC, SMA, nanocomposites, nanoindentation, organo-bentonite

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1926 Methyl Red Adsorption and Photodegradation on TiO₂ Modified Mesoporous Carbon Photocatalyst

Authors: Seyyed Ershad Moradi, Javad Khodaveisi, Atefeh Nasrollahpour

Abstract:

In this study, the highly ordered mesoporous carbon molecular sieve with high surface area and pore volume have been synthesized and modified by TiO₂ doping. The titanium oxide modified mesoporous carbon (Ti-OMC) was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), BET surface area, DRS also XRD analysis (low and wide angle). Degradation experiments were conducted in batch mode with the variables such as amount of contact time, initial solution concentration, and solution pH. The optimal conditions for the degradation of methyl red (MR) were 100 mg/L dye concentration, pH of 7, and 0.12 mg/L of TiO₂ modified mesoporous carbon photocatalyst dosage.

Keywords: mesoporous carbon, photodegradation, surface modification, titanium oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
1925 Surface Modified Nano-Diamond/Polyimide Hybrid Composites

Authors: Hati̇ce Bi̇rtane, Asli Beyler Çi̇ği̇l, Memet Vezi̇r Kahraman

Abstract:

Polyimide (PI) is one of the most important super-engineering materials because of its mechanical properties and its thermal stability. Electronic industry is the typical extensive applications of polyimides including interlayer insulation films, buffer coating, films, alpha-ray shielding films, and alignment films for liquid crystal displays. The mechanical and thermal properties of polymers are generally improved by the addition of inorganic additives. The challenges in this area of high-performance organic/inorganic hybrid materials are to obtain significant improvements in the interfacial adhesion between the polymer matrix and the reinforcing material since the organic matrix is relatively incompatible with the inorganic phase. In this study, modified nanodiamond was prepared from the reaction of nanodiamond and (3-Mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane. Poly(amic acid) was prepared from the reaction of 3,3',4,4'-Benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) and 4,4'-Oxydianiline (ODA). Polyimide/modified nanodiamond hybrids were prepared by blending of poly(amic acid) and organically modified nanodiamond. The morphology of the Polyimide/ modified nanodiamond hybrids was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical structure of polyimide and Polyimide/modified nanodiamond hybrids was characterized by FTIR. FTIR results showed that the Polyimide/modified nanodiamond hybrids were successfully prepared. A thermal property of the Polyimide/modified nanodiamond hybrids was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

Keywords: hybrid materials, nanodiamond, polyimide, polymer

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
1924 Modification of Newton Method in Two Points Block Differentiation Formula

Authors: Khairil Iskandar Othman, Nadhirah Kamal, Zarina Bibi Ibrahim

Abstract:

Block methods for solving stiff systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are based on backward differential formulas (BDF) with PE(CE)2 and Newton method. In this paper, we introduce Modified Newton as a new strategy to get more efficient result. The derivation of BBDF using modified block Newton method is presented. This new block method with predictor-corrector gives more accurate result when compared to the existing BBDF.

Keywords: modified Newton, stiff, BBDF, Jacobian matrix

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
1923 Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) and the Effect of Chemical Preservative to Enhance Shelf Life of Khoa

Authors: Tanima Chowdhury, Sanjay Chattopadhaya, Narayan Ch. Saha

Abstract:

Khoa is an indigenous heat desiccated milk product having very poor shelf life. At ambient condition, shelf-life of khoa is normally only 2 days. The aim of present study was to determine the effect of benzoic acid as preservative as well as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) technology to enhance shelf life of khoa at 27±2°C and 65% RH. During storage, analysis of chemical, sensory as well as microbiological characteristics were taken into consideration to mark distinguishable changes between the package of modified atmosphere technology (MAP) and ordinarily packed khoa (with and without preservative) samples. The results indicated a significant decrease of moisture content, pH and sensory scores and increase in titratable acidity, standard plate count and yeast and mould count during storage, irrespective of the type of packaging conditions. However, the rate of changes in characteristics of product packed in modified atmosphere was found to be slow. The storage study indicated that the khoa packed in ordinary packaging, with and without preservative, was acceptable for 4 and 8 days, respectively, whereas for modified atmosphere packed samples, it was consumable up to 8 and 12 days, respectively.

Keywords: benzoic acid, khoa, modified atmosphere packaging, shelf life

Procedia PDF Downloads 207