Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 432

Search results for: microscopic evacuation

432 SOM Map vs Hopfield Neural Network: A Comparative Study in Microscopic Evacuation Application

Authors: Zouhour Neji Ben Salem

Abstract:

Microscopic evacuation focuses on the evacuee behavior and way of search of safety place in an egress situation. In recent years, several models handled microscopic evacuation problem. Among them, we have proposed Artificial Neural Network (ANN) as an alternative to mathematical models that can deal with such problem. In this paper, we present two ANN models: SOM map and Hopfield Network used to predict the evacuee behavior in a disaster situation. These models are tested in a real case, the second floor of Tunisian children hospital evacuation in case of fire. The two models are studied and compared in order to evaluate their performance.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, self-organization map, hopfield network, microscopic evacuation, fire building evacuation

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
431 A Study for the Effect of Fire Initiated Location on Evacuation Success Rate

Authors: Jin A Ryu, Hee Sun Kim

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As the number of fire accidents is gradually raising, many studies have been reported on evacuation. Previous studies have mostly focused on evaluating the safety of evacuation and the risk of fire in particular buildings. However, studies on effects of various parameters on evacuation have not been nearly done. Therefore, this paper aims at observing evacuation time under the effect of fire initiated location. In this study, evacuation simulations are performed on a 5-floor building located in Seoul, South Korea using the commercial program, Fire Dynamics Simulator with Evacuation (FDS+EVAC). Only the fourth and fifth floors are modeled with an assumption that fire starts in a room located on the fourth floor. The parameter for evacuation simulations is location of fire initiation to observe the evacuation time and safety. Results show that the location of fire initiation is closer to exit, the more time is taken to evacuate. The case having the nearest location of fire initiation to exit has the lowest ratio of successful occupants to the total occupants. In addition, for safety evaluation, the evacuation time calculated from computer simulation model is compared with the tolerable evacuation time according to code in Japan. As a result, all cases are completed within the tolerable evacuation time. This study allows predicting evacuation time under various conditions of fire and can be used to evaluate evacuation appropriateness and fire safety of building.

Keywords: fire simulation, evacuation simulation, temperature, evacuation safety

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430 Dynamic Reroute Modeling for Emergency Evacuation: Case Study of Brunswick City, Germany

Authors: Yun-Pang Flötteröd, Jakob Erdmann

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The human behaviors during evacuations are quite complex. One of the critical behaviors which affect the efficiency of evacuation is route choice. Therefore, the respective simulation modeling work needs to function properly. In this paper, Simulation of Urban Mobility’s (SUMO) current dynamic route modeling during evacuation, i.e. the rerouting functions, is examined with a real case study. The result consistency of the simulation and the reality is checked as well. Four influence factors (1) time to get information, (2) probability to cancel a trip, (3) probability to use navigation equipment, and (4) rerouting and information updating period are considered to analyze possible traffic impacts during the evacuation and to examine the rerouting functions in SUMO. Furthermore, some behavioral characters of the case study are analyzed with use of the corresponding detector data and applied in the simulation. The experiment results show that the dynamic route modeling in SUMO can deal with the proposed scenarios properly. Some issues and function needs related to route choice are discussed and further improvements are suggested.

Keywords: evacuation, microscopic traffic simulation, rerouting, SUMO

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
429 Statistical Analysis to Select Evacuation Route

Authors: Zaky Musyarof, Dwi Yono Sutarto, Dwima Rindy Atika, R. B. Fajriya Hakim

Abstract:

Each country should be responsible for the safety of people, especially responsible for the safety of people living in disaster-prone areas. One of those services is provides evacuation route for them. But all this time, the selection of evacuation route is seem doesn’t well organized, it could be seen that when a disaster happen, there will be many accumulation of people on the steps of evacuation route. That condition is dangerous to people because hampers evacuation process. By some methods in Statistical analysis, author tries to give a suggestion how to prepare evacuation route which is organized and based on people habit. Those methods are association rules, sequential pattern mining, hierarchical cluster analysis and fuzzy logic.

Keywords: association rules, sequential pattern mining, cluster analysis, fuzzy logic, evacuation route

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
428 Tabu Search to Draw Evacuation Plans in Emergency Situations

Authors: S. Nasri, H. Bouziri

Abstract:

Disasters are quite experienced in our days. They are caused by floods, landslides, and building fires that is the main objective of this study. To cope with these unexpected events, precautions must be taken to protect human lives. The emphasis on disposal work focuses on the resolution of the evacuation problem in case of no-notice disaster. The problem of evacuation is listed as a dynamic network flow problem. Particularly, we model the evacuation problem as an earliest arrival flow problem with load dependent transit time. This problem is classified as NP-Hard. Our challenge here is to propose a metaheuristic solution for solving the evacuation problem. We define our objective as the maximization of evacuees during earliest periods of a time horizon T. The objective provides the evacuation of persons as soon as possible. We performed an experimental study on emergency evacuation from the tunisian children’s hospital. This work prompts us to look for evacuation plans corresponding to several situations where the network dynamically changes.

Keywords: dynamic network flow, load dependent transit time, evacuation strategy, earliest arrival flow problem, tabu search metaheuristic

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427 Developing Integrated Model for Building Design and Evacuation Planning

Authors: Hao-Hsi Tseng, Hsin-Yun Lee

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In the process of building design, the designers have to complete the spatial design and consider the evacuation performance at the same time. It is usually difficult to combine the two planning processes and it results in the gap between spatial design and evacuation performance. Then the designers cannot complete an integrated optimal design solution. In addition, the evacuation routing models proposed by previous researchers is different from the practical evacuation decisions in the real field. On the other hand, more and more building design projects are executed by Building Information Modeling (BIM) in which the design content is formed by the object-oriented framework. Thus, the integration of BIM and evacuation simulation can make a significant contribution for designers. Therefore, this research plan will establish a model that integrates spatial design and evacuation planning. The proposed model will provide the support for the spatial design modifications and optimize the evacuation planning. The designers can complete the integrated design solution in BIM. Besides, this research plan improves the evacuation routing method to make the simulation results more practical. The proposed model will be applied in a building design project for evaluation and validation when it will provide the near-optimal design suggestion. By applying the proposed model, the integration and efficiency of the design process are improved and the evacuation plan is more useful. The quality of building spatial design will be better.

Keywords: building information modeling, evacuation, design, floor plan

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426 Hospital Evacuation: Best Practice Recommendations

Authors: Ronald Blough

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Hospitals, clinics, and medical facilities are the core of the Health Services sector providing 24/7 medical care to those in need. Any disruption of these important medical services highlights the vulnerabilities in the medical system. An internal or external event can create a catastrophic incident paralyzing the medical services causing the facility to shift into emergency operations with the possibility of evacuation. The hospital administrator and government officials must decide in a very short amount of time whether to shelter in place or evacuate. This presentation will identify best practice recommendations regarding the hospital evacuation decision and response analyzing previous hospital evacuations to encourage hospitals in the region to review or develop their own emergency evacuation plans.

Keywords: disaster preparedness, hospital evacuation, shelter-in-place, incident containment, health services vulnerability, hospital resources

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
425 Simulation of the Evacuation of Ships Carrying Dangerous Goods from Tsunami

Authors: Yoshinori Matsuura, Saori Iwanaga

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The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred at 14:46 on Friday, March 11, 2011. It was the most powerful known earthquake to have hit Japan. The earthquake triggered extremely destructive tsunami waves of up to 40.5 meters in height. We focus on the ship’s evacuation from tsunami. Then we analyze about ships evacuation from tsunami using multi-agent simulation and we want to prepare for a coming earthquake. We developed a simulation model of ships that set sail from the port in order to evacuate from the tsunami considering the ship carrying dangerous goods.

Keywords: Ship’s evacuation, multi-agent simulation, tsunami

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424 The Development of an Agent-Based Model to Support a Science-Based Evacuation and Shelter-in-Place Planning Process within the United States

Authors: Kyle Burke Pfeiffer, Carmella Burdi, Karen Marsh

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The evacuation and shelter-in-place planning process employed by most jurisdictions within the United States is not informed by a scientifically-derived framework that is inclusive of the behavioral and policy-related indicators of public compliance with evacuation orders. While a significant body of work exists to define these indicators, the research findings have not been well-integrated nor translated into useable planning factors for public safety officials. Additionally, refinement of the planning factors alone is insufficient to support science-based evacuation planning as the behavioral elements of evacuees—even with consideration of policy-related indicators—must be examined in the context of specific regional transportation and shelter networks. To address this problem, the Federal Emergency Management Agency and Argonne National Laboratory developed an agent-based model to support regional analysis of zone-based evacuation in southeastern Georgia. In particular, this model allows public safety officials to analyze the consequences that a range of hazards may have upon a community, assess evacuation and shelter-in-place decisions in the context of specified evacuation and response plans, and predict outcomes based on community compliance with orders and the capacity of the regional (to include extra-jurisdictional) transportation and shelter networks. The intention is to use this model to aid evacuation planning and decision-making. Applications for the model include developing a science-driven risk communication strategy and, ultimately, in the case of evacuation, the shortest possible travel distance and clearance times for evacuees within the regional boundary conditions.

Keywords: agent-based modeling for evacuation, decision-support for evacuation planning, evacuation planning, human behavior in evacuation

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423 Impact of an Onboard Fire for the Evacuation of a Rolling Stock

Authors: Guillaume Craveur

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This study highlights the impact of an onboard fire for the evacuation of a rolling stock. Two fires models are achieved. The first one is a zone model realized with the CFAST software. Then, this fire is imported in a building EXODUS model in order to determine the evacuation time with effects of fire effluents (temperature, smoke opacity, smoke toxicity) on passengers. The second fire is achieved with Fire Dynamics Simulator software. The fire defined is directly imported in the FDS+Evac model which will permit to determine the evacuation time and effects of fire effluents on passengers. These effects will be compared with tenability criteria defined in some standards in order to see if the situation is acceptable. Different power of fire will be underlined to see from what power source the hazard become unacceptable.

Keywords: fire safety engineering, numerical tools, rolling stock, evacuation

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422 Effect of Experience on Evacuation of Mice in Emergency Conditions

Authors: Teng Zhang, Shenshi Huang, Gang Xu, Xuelin Zhang, Shouxiang Lu

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With the acceleration of urbanization and the increasing of the population in the city, the evacuation of pedestrians suffering from disaster environments such as fire in a room or other limited space becomes a vital issue in modern society. Mice have been used in experimental crowd evacuation in recent years for its good similarities to human in physical structure and stress reaction. In this study, the effect of experience or memory on the collective behavior of mice was explored. To help mice familiarize themselves with the design of the space and the stimulus caused by smoke, we trained them repeatedly for 2 days so that they can escape from the emergency conditions as soon as possible. The escape pattern, trajectories, walking speed, turning angle and mean individual escape time of mice in each training trail were analyzed. We found that mice can build memory quickly after the first trial on the first day. On the second day, the evacuation of mice was maintained in a stable and efficient state. Meanwhile, the group with size of 30 (G30) had a shorter mean individual escape time compared with G12. Furthermore, we tested the experience of evacuation skill of mice after several days. The results showed that the mice can hold the experience or memory over 3 weeks. We proposed the importance of experience of evacuation skill and the research of training methods in experimental evacuation of mice. The results can deepen our understanding of collective behavior of mice and conduce to the establishment of animal models in the study of pedestrian crowd dynamics in emergency conditions.

Keywords: experience, evacuation, mice, group size, behavior

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421 Microscopic Features Influences on Textile Fabrics Self-Cleaning Ability

Authors: Ayat Adnan Atwah

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Self-cleaning ability in textile fabrics was comprehensively investigated in the last decade. Most of these investigations have used surface roughness, and low surface energy features to establish a self-cleaning mechanism. Extensive research articles and reviews have been published to describe these processes along with their microscopic features. When these reviewed with a critical eye, it has been found that a comprehensive effort is still required to compile all these previous research, emphasizing how textile fabrics' microscopic features can influence their self-cleaning ability. No research has been conducted to explore the self-cleaning potential of microscopic geometrical features of fabric at the woven structural level. Researchers used microscopic features to increase the mechanical strength of the fabric. However, they did not change the microscopic features at a woven level to evaluate the self-cleaning ability. In the existing literature, researchers have tried to develop self-cleaning textiles with the help of coatings on the fabric. These coatings are applied to the fabrics by using spray and nanoparticle processing. The coatings create a different surface on the fabric, and hence the changes in the microscopic features of this surface control the self-cleaning ability. Instead of using an additional coating, the microscopic features of the fabric itself can also influence the surface roughness and low surface energy and provide self-cleaning ability at the woven structural level. Key microscopic features like surface roughness, porosity, and wettability of a textile fabric are still not comprehensively investigated for their influence on fabric’s self-cleaning ability. Significantly, the interdependencies between these features with overall fabric geometry at the woven level have not been explored quantitatively. Qualitative observations have been made mainly in the past literature. However, fabrics with self-cleaning ability to be produced in mass production require extensive empirical studies. These studies must involve parametric analysis on varying values of the microscopic features and their quantitative influence on the desired self-cleaning feature.

Keywords: self-cleaning ability, influence, microscopic features, textile fabrics

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420 Influence of Various Disaster Scenarios Assumption to the Advance Creation of Wide-Area Evacuation Plan Confronting Natural Disasters

Authors: Nemat Mohammadi, Yuki Nakayama

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After occurring Great East Japan earthquake and as a consequence the invasion of an extremely large Tsunami to the city, obligated many local governments to take into account certainly these kinds of issues. Poor preparation of local governments to deal with such kinds of disasters at that time and consequently lack of assistance delivery for local residents caused thousands of civilian casualties as well as billion dollars of economic damages. Those local governments who are responsible for governing such coastal areas, have to consider some countermeasures to deal with these natural disasters, prepare a comprehensive evacuation plan and contrive some feasible emergency plans for the purpose of victims’ reduction as much as possible. Under this evacuation plan, the local government should contemplate more about the traffic congestion during wide-area evacuation operation and estimate the minimum essential time to evacuate the whole city completely. This challenge will become more complicated for the government when the people who are affected by disasters are not only limited to the normal informed citizens but also some pregnant women, physically handicapped persons, old age citizens and foreigners or tourists who are not familiar with that conditions as well as local language are involved. The important issue to deal with this challenge is that how to inform these people to take a proper action right away noticing the Tsunami is coming. After overcoming this problem, next significant challenge is even more considerable. Next challenge is to evacuate the whole residents in a short period of time from the threated area to the safer shelters. In fact, most of the citizens will use their own vehicles to evacuate to the designed shelters and some of them will use the shuttle buses which are provided by local governments. The problem will arise when all residents want to escape from the threated area simultaneously and consequently creating a traffic jam on evacuation routes which will cause to prolong the evacuation time. Hence, this research mostly aims to calculate the minimum essential time to evacuate each region inside the threated area and find the evacuation start point for each region separately. This result will help the local government to visualize the situations and conditions during disasters and assist them to reduce the possible traffic jam on evacuation routes and consequently suggesting a comprehensive wide-area evacuation plan during natural disasters.

Keywords: BPR formula, disaster scenarios, evacuation completion time, wide-area evacuation

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419 Distributed Actor System for Traffic Simulation

Authors: Han Wang, Zhuoxian Dai, Zhe Zhu, Hui Zhang, Zhenyu Zeng

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In traditional microscopic traffic simulation, various approaches have been suggested to implement the single-agent behaviors about lane changing and intelligent driver model. However, when it comes to very large metropolitan areas, microscopic traffic simulation requires more resources and become time-consuming, then macroscopic traffic simulation aggregate trends of interests rather than individual vehicle traces. In this paper, we describe the architecture and implementation of the actor system of microscopic traffic simulation, which exploits the distributed architecture of modern-day cloud computing. The results demonstrate that our architecture achieves high-performance and outperforms all the other traditional microscopic software in all tasks. To the best of our knowledge, this the first system that enables single-agent behavior in macroscopic traffic simulation. We thus believe it contributes to a new type of system for traffic simulation, which could provide individual vehicle behaviors in microscopic traffic simulation.

Keywords: actor system, cloud computing, distributed system, traffic simulation

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418 A Comparative Analysis of Evacuation Behavior in Case of Cyclone Sidr, Typhoon Yolanda and the Great East Japan Earthquake

Authors: Swarnali Chakma, Akihiko Hokugo

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Research on three case studies reviewed here explains many aspects and complications of evacuation behavior during an emergency period. The scenario and phenomenon of the disaster were different, but the similarities are that after receiving the warning peoples does not take it seriously. Many individuals evacuated after taking some kind of action, for example; return to home, searching for family members, prepared valuable things etc. Based on a review of the literature, the data identified a number of factors that help explain evacuation behavior during the disaster. In the case of Japan, cultural inhibitors impact people’s behavior; for example, following the traffic rules, some people lost their time to skip because of the slow-moving car makes overcrowded traffic and some of them were washed away by the tsunami. In terms of Bangladeshi culture, women did not want to evacuate without men because staying men and women who do not know each other under the same roof together is not regular practice or comfortable. From these three case studies, it is observed that early warning plays an important role in cyclones, typhoons and earthquakes. A high level of trust from residents in the warning system is important to real evacuation. It is necessary to raise awareness of disaster and provide information on the vulnerability to cyclones, typhoons and earthquakes hazards at community levels. The local level may help decision makers and other stakeholders to make a better decision regarding an effective disaster management.

Keywords: disaster management, emergency period, evacuation, shelter, typhoon

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417 Fires in Historic Buildings: Assessment of Evacuation of People by Computational Simulation

Authors: Ivana R. Moser, Joao C. Souza

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Building fires are random phenomena that can be extremely violent, and safe evacuation of people is the most guaranteed tactic in saving lives. The correct evacuation of buildings, and other spaces occupied by people, means leaving the place in a short time and by the appropriate way. It depends on the perception of spaces by the individual, the architectural layout and the presence of appropriate routing systems. As historical buildings were constructed in other times, when, as in general, the current security requirements were not available yet, it is necessary to adapt these spaces to make them safe. Computer models of evacuation simulation are widely used tools for assessing the safety of people in a building or agglomeration sites and these are associated with the analysis of human behaviour, makes the results of emergency evacuation more correct and conclusive. The objective of this research is the performance evaluation of historical interest buildings, regarding the safe evacuation of people, through computer simulation, using PTV Viswalk software. The buildings objects of study are the Colégio Catarinense, centennial building, located in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina / Brazil. The software used uses the variables of human behaviour, such as: avoid collision with other pedestrians and avoid obstacles. Scenarios were run on the three-dimensional models and the contribution to safety in risk situations was verified as an alternative measure, especially in the impossibility of applying those measures foreseen by the current fire safety codes in Brazil. The simulations verified the evacuation time in situations of normality and emergency situations, as well as indicate the bottlenecks and critical points of the studied buildings, to seek solutions to prevent and correct these undesirable events. It is understood that adopting an advanced computational performance-based approach promotes greater knowledge of the building and how people behave in these specific environments, in emergency situations.

Keywords: computer simulation, escape routes, fire safety, historic buildings, human behavior

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416 Behavior Analysis Based on Nine Degrees of Freedom Sensor for Emergency Rescue Evacuation Support System

Authors: Maeng-Hwan Hyun, Dae-Man Do, Young-Bok Choi

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Around the world, there are frequent incidents of natural disasters, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, and snowstorms, as well as man made disasters such as fires, arsons, and acts of terror. These diverse and unpredictable adversities have resulted in a number of fatalities and injuries. If disaster occurrence can be assessed quickly and information such as the exact location of the disaster and evacuation routes can be provided, victims can promptly move to safe locations, minimizing losses. This paper proposes a behavior analysis method based on a nine degrees-of-freedom (9-DOF) sensor that is effective for the emergency rescue evacuation support system (ERESS), which is being researched with an objective of providing evacuation support during disasters. Based on experiments performed using the acceleration sensor and the gyroscope sensor in the 9-DOF sensor, data are analyzed for human behavior regarding stationary position, walking, running, and during emergency situation to suggest guidelines for system judgment. Using the results of the experiments performed to determine disaster occurrence, it was confirmed that the proposed method quickly determines whether a disaster has occurred.

Keywords: behavior analysis, nine degrees of freedom sensor, emergency rescue, disaster

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415 Passenger Movement Pattern during Ship Evacuation Considering the Combined Effect of Ship Heeling and Trim

Authors: Jinlu Sun, Shouxiang Lu, Siuming Lo

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Large passenger ship, especially luxury cruise, is one of the most prevalent means of marine transportation and tourism nowadays. In case of an accident, an effective evacuation would be the ultimate way to minimize the consequence. Ship heeling and trim has a considerable influence on passenger walking speed and posture during ship evacuation. To investigate passenger movement pattern under the combined effect of ship heeling and trim, a ship corridor simulator was developed. Both fast and freely individual walking experiments by male and female experimental subjects under heeling and trim conditions were conducted and recorded therein. It is found that routes of experimental subjects would change due to the heeling and trim angles, although they always walk along the right side because of cultural factors. Experimental subjects would also change their posture to adapt the combined heeling and trim conditions, such as leaning forward, adopting larger arm swaying, shorter and more frequent steps. While for individual walking speed, the speed would decrease with the increasing heeling and trim angles. But the maximum individual walking speed is achieved at heeling angle of 0° with trim angle ranging from -15° to -5 °, instead of on level ground, which may be attributable to the effect of the gravitational acceleration. Female is approximately 10% slower than male due to the discrepancy in physical quality. Besides, individual walking speed shows similar trends in both fast and freely walking modes, and the speed value in freely walking mode is about 78% of that in fast walking mode under each experimental condition. Furthermore, to designate the movement pattern of passengers in heeling and trim conditions, a model of the walking speed reduction was proposed. This work would provide guidance on the development of evacuation models and the design of evacuation facilities on board.

Keywords: evacuation, heeling, individual walking speed, ship corridor simulator, trim

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414 Risk and Coping: Understanding Community Responses to Calls for Disaster Evacuation in Central Philippines

Authors: Soledad Natalia M. Dalisay, Mylene De Guzman

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In archipelagic countries like the Philippines, many communities thrive along coastal areas. The sea is the community members’ main source of livelihood and the site of many cultural activities. For these communities, the sea is their life and livelihood. Nevertheless, the sea also poses a hazard during the rainy season when typhoons frequent their communities. Coastal communities often encounter threats from storm surges and flooding that are common when there are typhoons. During such periods, disaster evacuation programs are implemented. However, in many instances, evacuation has been the bane of local government officials implementing such programs in their communities as resistance from community members is often encountered. Such resistance is often viewed by program implementers as due to the fact that people were hard headed and ignorant of the potential impacts of living in hazard prone areas. This paper argues that it is not for these reasons that people refused to evacuate. Drawing from data collected from fieldwork done in three sites in Central Philippines affected by super typhoon Haiyan, this study aimed to provide a contextualized understanding of peoples’ refusal to heed disaster evacuation warnings. This study utilized the multi-sited ethnography approach with in-depth episodic interviews, focus group discussions, participatory risk mapping and key informant interviews in gathering data on peoples’ experiences and insights specifically on evacuation during typhoon Haiyan. This study showed that people have priorities and considerations vital in their social lives that they are protecting in their refusal to leave their homes for pre-emptive evacuation. It is not that they are not aware of the risks when the face the hazard. It is more that they had faith in the local knowledge and strategies that they have developed since the time of their ancestors as a result of living and engaging with hazards in their areas for as long as they could remember. The study also revealed that risk in encounters with hazards was gendered. Furthermore, previous engagement with local government officials and the manner in which the pre-emptive evacuation programs were implemented had cast doubt on the value of such programs in saving their lives. Life in the designated evacuation areas can be as dangerous if not more compared with living in their coastal homes. There seems to be the impression that in the evacuation program of the government, people were being moved from hazard zones to death zones. Thus, this paper ends with several recommendations that may contribute to building more responsive evacuation programs that aim to build people’s resilience while taking into consideration the local moral world in communities in identified hazard zones.

Keywords: coastal communities, disaster evacuation, disaster risk perception, social and cultural responses to hazards

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413 Analysis of Road Network Vulnerability Due to Merapi Volcano Eruption

Authors: Imam Muthohar, Budi Hartono, Sigit Priyanto, Hardiansyah Hardiansyah

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The eruption of Merapi Volcano in Yogyakarta, Indonesia in 2010 caused many casualties due to minimum preparedness in facing disaster. Increasing population capacity and evacuating to safe places become very important to minimize casualties. Regional government through the Regional Disaster Management Agency has divided disaster-prone areas into three parts, namely ring 1 at a distance of 10 km, ring 2 at a distance of 15 km and ring 3 at a distance of 20 km from the center of Mount Merapi. The success of the evacuation is fully supported by road network infrastructure as a way to rescue in an emergency. This research attempts to model evacuation process based on the rise of refugees in ring 1, expanded to ring 2 and finally expanded to ring 3. The model was developed using SATURN (Simulation and Assignment of Traffic to Urban Road Networks) program version 11.3. 12W, involving 140 centroid, 449 buffer nodes, and 851 links across Yogyakarta Special Region, which was aimed at making a preliminary identification of road networks considered vulnerable to disaster. An assumption made to identify vulnerability was the improvement of road network performance in the form of flow and travel times on the coverage of ring 1, ring 2, ring 3, Sleman outside the ring, Yogyakarta City, Bantul, Kulon Progo, and Gunung Kidul. The research results indicated that the performance increase in the road networks existing in the area of ring 2, ring 3, and Sleman outside the ring. The road network in ring 1 started to increase when the evacuation was expanded to ring 2 and ring 3. Meanwhile, the performance of road networks in Yogyakarta City, Bantul, Kulon Progo, and Gunung Kidul during the evacuation period simultaneously decreased in when the evacuation areas were expanded. The results of preliminary identification of the vulnerability have determined that the road networks existing in ring 1, ring 2, ring 3 and Sleman outside the ring were considered vulnerable to the evacuation of Mount Merapi eruption. Therefore, it is necessary to pay a great deal of attention in order to face the disasters that potentially occur at anytime.

Keywords: model, evacuation, SATURN, vulnerability

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412 Collective Behavior of Mice Passing through a Middle-Exit or Corner-Exit under Panic

Authors: Teng Zhang, Xuelin Zhang, Shouxiang Lu, Changhai Li

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The existence of animal groups and collective migration are common in nature, and collective behavior is attracting more and more attention of researchers. Previous results have shown that architectural design had an important effect on the process of crowd evacuation. In this paper, collective behavior of mice passing through a middle-exit or corner-exit under panic was investigated. Selfish behavior and herd behavior were easily observed in our video, which caused the congregation with high density near the exit. Triangle structure of congregation formed near the middle-exit while arch structure formed near the corner-exit. It is noteworthy that the exit located at the middle of the wall was more effective for evacuation than at the corner. Meanwhile, the escape sequence of mouse passing through the exit was investigated, and the result showed that the priority depends largely on its location in the congregation. With the level of stimulus increasing, these phenomena still exist. The frequency distributions of time intervals and the burst sizes were also analyzed in this study to explore the secret of collective behavior of mice. These results could provide evidence for the hypothesis or prediction about human behavior in crowd evacuation. However, it is not clear whether the simulated results from different species can correspond to reality or not. Broader comparison among different species about this topic will be eager to be conducted to deepen our understanding of collective behavior in nature.

Keywords: collective behavior, mice, evacuation, exit location

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411 Downward Vertical Evacuation for Disabilities People from Tsunami Using Escape Bunker Technology

Authors: Febrian Tegar Wicaksana, Niqmatul Kurniati, Surya Nandika

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Indonesia is one of the countries that have great number of disaster occurrence and threat because it is located in not only between three tectonic plates such as Eurasia plates, Indo-Australia plates and Pacific plates, but also in the Ring of Fire path, like earthquake, Tsunami, volcanic eruption and many more. Recently, research shows that there are potential areas that will be devastated by Tsunami in southern coast of Java. Tsunami is a series of waves in a body of water caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean. When the waves enter shallow water, they may rise to several feet or, in rare cases, tens of feet, striking the coast with devastating force. The parameter for reference such as magnitude, the depth of epicentre, distance between epicentres with land, the depth of every points, when reached the shore and the growth of waves. Interaction between parameters will bring the big variance of Tsunami wave. Based on that, we can formulate preparation that needed for disaster mitigation strategies. The mitigation strategies will take the important role in an effort to reduce the number of victims and damage in the area. It will reduce the number of victim and casualties. Reducing is directed to the most difficult mobilization casualties in the tsunami disaster area like old people, sick people and disabilities people. Until now, the method that used for rescuing people from Tsunami is basic horizontal evacuation. This evacuation system is not optimal because it needs so long time and it cannot be used by people with disabilities. The writers propose to create a vertical evacuation model with an escape bunker system. This bunker system is chosen because the downward vertical evacuation is considered more efficient and faster. Especially in coastal areas without any highlands surround it. The downward evacuation system is better than upward evacuation because it can avoid the risk of erosion at the ground around the structure which can affect the building. The structure of the bunker and the evacuation process while, and even after, disaster are the main priority to be considered. The power of bunker has quake’s resistance, the durability from water stream, variety of interaction to the ground, and waterproof design. When the situation is back to normal, victim and casualties can go into the safer place. The bunker will be located near the hospital and public places, and will have wide entrance supported by large slide in it so it will ease the disabilities people. The technology of the escape bunker system is expected to reduce the number of victims who have low mobility in the Tsunami.

Keywords: escape bunker, tsunami, vertical evacuation, mitigation, disaster management

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410 Ensuring Safety in Fire Evacuation by Facilitating Way-Finding in Complex Buildings

Authors: Atefeh Omidkhah, Mohammadreza Bemanian

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The issue of way-finding earmarks a wide range of literature in architecture and despite the 50 year background of way-finding studies, it still lacks a comprehensive theory for indoor settings. Way-finding has a notable role in emergency evacuation as well. People in the panic situation of a fire emergency need to find the safe egress route correctly and in as minimum time as possible. In this regard the parameters of an appropriate way-finding are mentioned in the evacuation related researches albeit scattered. This study reviews the fire safety related literature to extract a way-finding related framework for architectural purposes of the design of a safe evacuation route. In this regard a research trend review in addition with applied methodological approaches review is conducted. Then by analyzing eight original researches related to way-finding parameters in fire evacuation, main parameters that affect way-finding in emergency situation of a fire incident are extracted and a framework was developed based on them. Results show that the issues related to exit route and emergency evacuation can be chased in task oriented studies of way-finding. This research trend aims to access a high-level framework and in the best condition a theory that has an explanatory capability to define differences in way-finding in indoor/outdoor settings, complex/simple buildings and different building types or transitional spaces. The methodological advances demonstrate the evacuation way-finding researches in line with three approaches that the latter one is the most up-to-date and precise method to research this subject: real actors and hypothetical stimuli as in evacuation experiments, hypothetical actors and stimuli as in agent-based simulations and real actors and semi-real stimuli as in virtual reality environment by adding multi-sensory simulation. Findings on data-mining of 8 sample of original researches in way-finding in evacuation indicate that emergency way-finding design of a building should consider two level of space cognition problems in the time of emergency and performance consequences of them in the built environment. So four major classes of problems in way-finding which are visual information deficiency, confusing layout configuration, improper navigating signage and demographic issues had been defined and discussed as the main parameters that should be provided with solutions in design and interior of a building. In the design phase of complex buildings, which face more reported problem in way-finding, it is important to consider the interior components regarding to the building type of occupancy and behavior of its occupants and determine components that tend to become landmarks and set the architectural features of egress route in line with the directions that they navigate people. Research on topological cognition of environmental and its effect on way-finding task in emergency evacuation is proposed for future.

Keywords: architectural design, egress route, way-finding, fire safety, evacuation

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409 An Immersive Serious Game for Firefighting and Evacuation Training in Healthcare Facilities

Authors: Anass Rahouti, Guillaume Salze, Ruggiero Lovreglio, Sélim Datoussaïd

Abstract:

In healthcare facilities, training the staff for firefighting and evacuation in real buildings is very challenging due to the presence of a vulnerable population in such an environment. In a standard environment, traditional approaches, such as fire drills, are often used to train the occupants and provide them with information about fire safety procedures. However, those traditional approaches may be inappropriate for a vulnerable population and can be inefficient from an educational viewpoint as it is impossible to expose the occupants to scenarios similar to a real emergency. Immersive serious games could be used as an alternative to traditional approaches to overcome their limitations. Serious games are already being used in different safety domains such as fires, earthquakes and terror attacks for several building types (e.g., office buildings, train stations, tunnels, etc.). In this study, we developed an immersive serious game to improve the fire safety skills of staff in healthcare facilities. An accurate representation of the healthcare environment was built in Unity3D by including visual and audio stimuli inspired from those employed in commercial action games. The serious game is organised in three levels. In each of them, the trainee is presented with a specific fire emergency and s/he can perform protective actions (e.g., firefighting, helping non-ambulant occupants, etc.) or s/he can ignore the opportunity for action and continue the evacuation. In this paper, we describe all the steps required to develop such a prototype, as well as the key questions that need to be answered, to develop a serious game for firefighting and evacuation in healthcare facilities.

Keywords: fire safety, healthcare, serious game, training

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
408 A Study on an Evacuation Test to Measure Delay Time in Using an Evacuation Elevator

Authors: Kyungsuk Cho, Seungun Chae, Jihun Choi

Abstract:

Elevators are examined as one of evacuation methods in super-tall buildings. However, data on the use of elevators for evacuation at a fire are extremely scarce. Therefore, a test to measure delay time in using an evacuation elevator was conducted. In the test, time taken to get on and get off an elevator was measured and the case in which people gave up boarding when the capacity of the elevator was exceeded was also taken into consideration. 170 men and women participated in the test, 130 of whom were young people (20 ~ 50 years old) and 40 were senior citizens (over 60 years old). The capacity of the elevator was 25 people and it travelled between the 2nd and 4th floors. A video recording device was used to analyze the test. An elevator at an ordinary building, not a super-tall building, was used in the test to measure delay time in getting on and getting off an elevator. In order to minimize interference from other elements, elevator platforms on the 2nd and 4th floors were partitioned off. The elevator travelled between the 2nd and 4th floors where people got on and off. If less than 20 people got on the elevator which was empty, the data were excluded. If the elevator carrying 10 passengers stopped and less than 10 new passengers got on the elevator, the data were excluded. Getting-on an empty elevator was observed 49 times. The average number of passengers was 23.7, it took 14.98 seconds for the passengers to get on the empty elevator and the load factor was 1.67 N/s. It took the passengers, whose average number was 23.7, 10.84 seconds to get off the elevator and the unload factor was 2.33 N/s. When an elevator’s capacity is exceeded, the excessive number of people should get off. Time taken for it and the probability of the case were measure in the test. 37% of the times of boarding experienced excessive number of people. As the number of people who gave up boarding increased, the load factor of the ride decreased. When 1 person gave up boarding, the load factor was 1.55 N/s. The case was observed 10 times, which was 12.7% of the total. When 2 people gave up boarding, the load factor was 1.15 N/s. The case was observed 7 times, which was 8.9% of the total. When 3 people gave up boarding, the load factor was 1.26 N/s. The case was observed 4 times, which was 5.1% of the total. When 4 people gave up boarding, the load factor was 1.03 N/s. The case was observed 5 times, which was 6.3% of the total. Getting-on and getting-off time data for people who can walk freely were obtained from the test. In addition, quantitative results were obtained from the relation between the number of people giving up boarding and time taken for getting on. This work was supported by the National Research Council of Science & Technology (NST) grant by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. CRC-16-02-KICT).

Keywords: evacuation elevator, super tall buildings, evacuees, delay time

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407 Use of Numerical Tools Dedicated to Fire Safety Engineering for the Rolling Stock

Authors: Guillaume Craveur

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This study shows the opportunity to use numerical tools dedicated to Fire Safety Engineering for the Rolling Stock. Indeed, some lawful requirements can now be demonstrated by using numerical tools. The first part of this study presents the use of modelling evacuation tool to satisfy the criteria of evacuation time for the rolling stock. The buildingEXODUS software is used to model and simulate the evacuation of rolling stock. Firstly, in order to demonstrate the reliability of this tool to calculate the complete evacuation time, a comparative study was achieved between a real test and simulations done with buildingEXODUS. Multiple simulations are performed to capture the stochastic variations in egress times. Then, a new study is done to calculate the complete evacuation time of a train with the same geometry but with a different interior architecture. The second part of this study shows some applications of Computational Fluid Dynamics. This work presents the approach of a multi scales validation of numerical simulations of standardized tests with Fire Dynamics Simulations software developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This work highlights in first the cone calorimeter test, described in the standard ISO 5660, in order to characterize the fire reaction of materials. The aim of this process is to readjust measurement results from the cone calorimeter test in order to create a data set usable at the seat scale. In the second step, the modelisation concerns the fire seat test described in the standard EN 45545-2. The data set obtained thanks to the validation of the cone calorimeter test was set up in the fire seat test. To conclude with the third step, after controlled the data obtained for the seat from the cone calorimeter test, a larger scale simulation with a real part of train is achieved.

Keywords: fire safety engineering, numerical tools, rolling stock, multi-scales validation

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406 Improvement of Microscopic Detection of Acid-Fast Bacilli for Tuberculosis by Artificial Intelligence-Assisted Microscopic Platform and Medical Image Recognition System

Authors: Hsiao-Chuan Huang, King-Lung Kuo, Mei-Hsin Lo, Hsiao-Yun Chou, Yusen Lin

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The most robust and economical method for laboratory diagnosis of TB is to identify mycobacterial bacilli (AFB) under acid-fast staining despite its disadvantages of low sensitivity and labor-intensive. Though digital pathology becomes popular in medicine, an automated microscopic system for microbiology is still not available. A new AI-assisted automated microscopic system, consisting of a microscopic scanner and recognition program powered by big data and deep learning, may significantly increase the sensitivity of TB smear microscopy. Thus, the objective is to evaluate such an automatic system for the identification of AFB. A total of 5,930 smears was enrolled for this study. An intelligent microscope system (TB-Scan, Wellgen Medical, Taiwan) was used for microscopic image scanning and AFB detection. 272 AFB smears were used for transfer learning to increase the accuracy. Referee medical technicians were used as Gold Standard for result discrepancy. Results showed that, under a total of 1726 AFB smears, the automated system's accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were 95.6% (1,650/1,726), 87.7% (57/65), and 95.9% (1,593/1,661), respectively. Compared to culture, the sensitivity for human technicians was only 33.8% (38/142); however, the automated system can achieve 74.6% (106/142), which is significantly higher than human technicians, and this is the first of such an automated microscope system for TB smear testing in a controlled trial. This automated system could achieve higher TB smear sensitivity and laboratory efficiency and may complement molecular methods (eg. GeneXpert) to reduce the total cost for TB control. Furthermore, such an automated system is capable of remote access by the internet and can be deployed in the area with limited medical resources.

Keywords: TB smears, automated microscope, artificial intelligence, medical imaging

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405 Map UI Design of IoT Application Based on Passenger Evacuation Behaviors in Underground Station

Authors: Meng-Cong Zheng

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When the public space is in an emergency, how to quickly establish spatial cognition and emergency shelter in the closed underground space is the urgent task. This study takes Taipei Station as the research base and aims to apply the use of Internet of things (IoT) application for underground evacuation mobility design. The first experiment identified passengers' evacuation behaviors and spatial cognition in underground spaces by wayfinding tasks and thinking aloud, then defined the design conditions of User Interface (UI) and proposed the UI design.  The second experiment evaluated the UI design based on passengers' evacuation behaviors by wayfinding tasks and think aloud again as same as the first experiment. The first experiment found that the design conditions that the subjects were most concerned about were "map" and hoping to learn the relative position of themselves with other landmarks by the map and watch the overall route. "Position" needs to be accurately labeled to determine the location in underground space. Each step of the escape instructions should be presented clearly in "navigation bar." The "message bar" should be informed of the next or final target exit. In the second experiment with the UI design, we found that the "spatial map" distinguishing between walking and non-walking areas with shades of color is useful. The addition of 2.5D maps of the UI design increased the user's perception of space. Amending the color of the corner diagram in the "escape route" also reduces the confusion between the symbol and other diagrams. The larger volume of toilets and elevators can be a judgment of users' relative location in "Hardware facilities." Fire extinguisher icon should be highlighted. "Fire point tips" of the UI design indicated fire with a graphical fireball can convey precise information to the escaped person. "Fire point tips" of the UI design indicated fire with a graphical fireball can convey precise information to the escaped person. However, "Compass and return to present location" are less used in underground space.

Keywords: evacuation behaviors, IoT application, map UI design, underground station

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404 Experimental Research on the Elastic Modulus of Bones at the Lamellar Level under Fatigue Loading

Authors: Xianjia Meng, Chuanyong Qu

Abstract:

Compact bone produces fatigue damage under the inevitable physiological load. The accumulation of fatigue damage can change the bone’s micro-structure at different scales and cause the catastrophic failure eventually. However, most tests were limited to the macroscopic modulus of bone and there is a need to assess the microscopic modulus during fatigue progress. In this paper, nano-identation was used to investigate the bone specimen subjected to four point bending. The microscopic modulus of the same area were measured at different degrees of damage including fracture. So microscopic damage can be divided into three stages: first, the modulus decreased rapidly and then They fell slowly, before fracture the decline became fast again. After fracture, the average modulus decreased by 20%. The results of inner and outer planes explained the influence of compressive and tensile loads on modulus. Both the compressive and tensile moduli decreased with the accumulation of damage. They reached the minimum at ending and increased after fracture. The modulus evolution under different strains were revealed by the side. They all fell slowly and then fast with the accumulation of damage. The fractured results indicated that the elastic modulus decreased obviously at the high strain while decreased less at the low strain. During the fatigue progress, there was a significant difference in modulus at low degree of damage. However, the dispersed modulus tended to be similar at high degree of damage, but they became different again after the failure.

Keywords: fatigue damage, fracture, microscopic modulus, bone, nano-identation

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403 Use of Smartphone in Practical Classes to Facilitate Teaching and Learning of Microscopic Analysis and Interpretation of Tissues Sections

Authors: Lise P. Labéjof, Krisnayne S. Ribeiro, Nicolle P. dos Santos

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An unrecorded experiment of use of the smartphone as a tool for practical classes of histology is presented in this article. Behavior, learning of the students of three science courses at the University were analyzed and compared as well as the mode of teaching of this discipline and the appreciation of the students, using either digital photographs taken by phone or drawings for record microscopic observations, analyze and interpret histological sections of human or animal tissues.

Keywords: cell phone, digital micrographies, learning of sciences, teaching practices

Procedia PDF Downloads 463