Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 625

Search results for: meteorological drought probabilities

625 Generalized Extreme Value Regression with Binary Dependent Variable: An Application for Predicting Meteorological Drought Probabilities

Authors: Retius Chifurira


Logistic regression model is the most used regression model to predict meteorological drought probabilities. When the dependent variable is extreme, the logistic model fails to adequately capture drought probabilities. In order to adequately predict drought probabilities, we use the generalized linear model (GLM) with the quantile function of the generalized extreme value distribution (GEVD) as the link function. The method maximum likelihood estimation is used to estimate the parameters of the generalized extreme value (GEV) regression model. We compare the performance of the logistic and the GEV regression models in predicting drought probabilities for Zimbabwe. The performance of the regression models are assessed using the goodness-of-fit tests, namely; relative root mean square error (RRMSE) and relative mean absolute error (RMAE). Results show that the GEV regression model performs better than the logistic model, thereby providing a good alternative candidate for predicting drought probabilities. This paper provides the first application of GLM derived from extreme value theory to predict drought probabilities for a drought-prone country such as Zimbabwe.

Keywords: generalized extreme value distribution, general linear model, mean annual rainfall, meteorological drought probabilities

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624 Critical Appraisal of Different Drought Indices of Drought Predection and Their Application in KBK Districts of Odisha

Authors: Bibhuti Bhusan Sahoo, Ramakar Jha


Mapping of the extreme events (droughts) is one of the adaptation strategies to consequences of increasing climatic inconsistency and climate alterations. There is no operational practice to forecast the drought. One of the suggestions is to update mapping of drought prone areas for developmental planning. Drought indices play a significant role in drought mitigation. Many scientists have worked on different statistical analysis in drought and other climatological hazards. Many researchers have studied droughts individually for different sub-divisions or for India. Very few workers have studied district wise probabilities over large scale. In the present study, district wise drought probabilities over KBK (Kalahandi-Balangir-Koraput) districts of Odisha, India, Which are seriously prone to droughts, has been established using Hydrological drought index and Meteorological drought index along with the remote sensing drought indices to develop a multidirectional approach in the field of drought mitigation. Mapping for moderate and severe drought probabilities for KBK districts has been done and regions belonging different class intervals of probabilities of drought have been demarcated. Such type of information would be a good tool for planning purposes, for input in modelling and better promising results can be achieved.

Keywords: drought indices, KBK districts, proposed drought severity index, SPI

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623 Satellite-Based Drought Monitoring in Korea: Methodologies and Merits

Authors: Joo-Heon Lee, Seo-Yeon Park, Chanyang Sur, Ho-Won Jang


Satellite-based remote sensing technique has been widely used in the area of drought and environmental monitoring to overcome the weakness of in-situ based monitoring. There are many advantages of remote sensing for drought watch in terms of data accessibility, monitoring resolution and types of available hydro-meteorological data including environmental areas. This study was focused on the applicability of drought monitoring based on satellite imageries by applying to the historical drought events, which had a huge impact on meteorological, agricultural, and hydrological drought. Satellite-based drought indices, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Global Precipitation Mission (GPM); Vegetation Health Index (VHI) using MODIS based Land Surface Temperature (LST), and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI); and Scaled Drought Condition Index (SDCI) were evaluated to assess its capability to analyze the complex topography of the Korean peninsula. While the VHI was accurate when capturing moderate drought conditions in agricultural drought-damaged areas, the SDCI was relatively well monitored in hydrological drought-damaged areas. In addition, this study found correlations among various drought indices and applicability using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) method, which will expand our understanding of the relationships between hydro-meteorological variables and drought events at global scale. The results of this research are expected to assist decision makers in taking timely and appropriate action in order to save millions of lives in drought-damaged areas.

Keywords: drought monitoring, moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS), remote sensing, receiver operating characteristic (ROC)

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622 Temporal Variation of Reference Evapotranspiration in Central Anatolia Region, Turkey and Meteorological Drought Analysis via Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index Method

Authors: Alper Serdar Anli


Analysis of temporal variation of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is important in arid and semi-arid regions where water resources are limited. In this study, temporal variation of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) and meteorological drought analysis through SPEI (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index) method have been carried out in provinces of Central Anatolia Region, Turkey. Reference evapotranspiration of concerning provinces in the region has been estimated using Penman-Monteith method and one calendar year has been split up four periods as r1, r2, r3 and r4. Temporal variation of reference evapotranspiration according to four periods has been analyzed through parametric Dickey-Fuller test and non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test. As a result, significant increasing trends for reference evapotranspiration have been detected and according to SPEI method used for estimating meteorological drought in provinces, mild drought has been experienced in general, and however there have been also a significant amount of events where moderate and severely droughts occurred.

Keywords: central Anatolia region, drought index, Penman-Monteith, reference evapotranspiration, temporal variation

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621 Assessment of Climate Change Impact on Meteorological Droughts

Authors: Alireza Nikbakht Shahbazi


There are various factors that affect climate changes; drought is one of those factors. Investigation of efficient methods for estimating climate change impacts on drought should be assumed. The aim of this paper is to investigate climate change impacts on drought in Karoon3 watershed located south-western Iran in the future periods. The atmospheric general circulation models (GCM) data under Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios should be used for this purpose. In this study, watershed drought under climate change impacts will be simulated in future periods (2011 to 2099). Standard precipitation index (SPI) as a drought index was selected and calculated using mean monthly precipitation data in Karoon3 watershed. SPI was calculated in 6, 12 and 24 months periods. Statistical analysis on daily precipitation and minimum and maximum daily temperature was performed. LRAS-WG5 was used to determine the feasibility of future period's meteorological data production. Model calibration and verification was performed for the base year (1980-2007). Meteorological data simulation for future periods under General Circulation Models and climate change IPCC scenarios was performed and then the drought status using SPI under climate change effects analyzed. Results showed that differences between monthly maximum and minimum temperature will decrease under climate change and spring precipitation shall increase while summer and autumn rainfall shall decrease. The precipitation occurs mainly between January and May in future periods and summer or autumn precipitation decline and lead up to short term drought in the study region. Normal and wet SPI category is more frequent in B1 and A2 emissions scenarios than A1B.

Keywords: climate change impact, drought severity, drought frequency, Karoon3 watershed

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620 Computation of Flood and Drought Years over the North-West Himalayan Region Using Indian Meteorological Department Rainfall Data

Authors: Sudip Kumar Kundu, Charu Singh


The climatic condition over Indian region is highly dependent on monsoon. India receives maximum amount of rainfall during southwest monsoon. Indian economy is highly dependent on agriculture. The presence of flood and drought years influenced the total cultivation system as well as the economy of the country as Indian agricultural systems is still highly dependent on the monsoon rainfall. The present study has been planned to investigate the flood and drought years for the north-west Himalayan region from 1951 to 2014 by using area average Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) rainfall data. For this investigation the Normalized index (NI) has been utilized to find out whether the particular year is drought or flood. The data have been extracted for the north-west Himalayan (NWH) region states namely Uttarakhand (UK), Himachal Pradesh (HP) and Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) to find out the rainy season average rainfall for each year, climatological mean and the standard deviation. After calculation it has been plotted by the diagrams (or graphs) to show the results- some of the years associated with drought years, some are flood years and rest are neutral. The flood and drought years can also relate with the large-scale phenomena El-Nino and La-Lina.

Keywords: IMD, rainfall, normalized index, flood, drought, NWH

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619 The Challenge of Characterising Drought Risk in Data Scarce Regions: The Case of the South of Angola

Authors: Natalia Limones, Javier Marzo, Marcus Wijnen, Aleix Serrat-Capdevila


In this research we developed a structured approach for the detection of areas under the highest levels of drought risk that is suitable for data-scarce environments. The methodology is based on recent scientific outcomes and methods and can be easily adapted to different contexts in successive exercises. The research reviews the history of drought in the south of Angola and characterizes the experienced hazard in the episode from 2012, focusing on the meteorological and the hydrological drought types. Only global open data information coming from modeling or remote sensing was used for the description of the hydroclimatological variables since there is almost no ground data in this part of the country. Also, the study intends to portray the socioeconomic vulnerabilities and the exposure to the phenomenon in the region to fully understand the risk. As a result, a map of the areas under the highest risk in the south of the country is produced, which is one of the main outputs of this work. It was also possible to confirm that the set of indicators used revealed different drought vulnerability profiles in the South of Angola and, as a result, several varieties of priority areas prone to distinctive impacts were recognized. The results demonstrated that most of the region experienced a severe multi-year meteorological drought that triggered an unprecedent exhaustion of the surface water resources, and that the majority of their socioeconomic impacts started soon after the identified onset of these processes.

Keywords: drought risk, exposure, hazard, vulnerability

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618 Comprehensive Regional Drought Assessment Index

Authors: A. Zeynolabedin, M. A. Olyaei, B. Ghiasi


Drought is an inevitable part of the earth’s climate. It occurs regularly with no clear warning and without recognizing borders. In addition, its impact is cumulative and not immediately discernible. Iran is located in a semi-arid region where droughts occur periodically as natural hazard. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Surface Water Supply Index (SWSI), and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) are three well-known indices which describe drought severity; each has its own advantages and disadvantages and can be used for specific types of drought. These indices take into account some factors such as precipitation, reservoir storage and discharge, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration in determining drought severity. In this paper, first all three indices are calculated in Aharchay river watershed located in northwestern part of Iran in East Azarbaijan province. Next, based on two other important parameters which are groundwater level and solar radiation, two new indices are defined. Finally, considering all five aforementioned indices, a combined drought index (CDI) is presented and calculated for the region. This combined index is based on all the meteorological, hydrological, and agricultural features of the region. The results show that the most severe drought condition in Aharchay watershed happened in Jun, 2004. The result of this study can be used for monitoring drought and prepare for the drought mitigation planning.

Keywords: drought, GIS, intensity index, regional assessment, variation maps

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617 Analysis and Quantification of Historical Drought for Basin Wide Drought Preparedness

Authors: Joo-Heon Lee, Ho-Won Jang, Hyung-Won Cho, Tae-Woong Kim


Drought is a recurrent climatic feature that occurs in virtually every climatic zone around the world. Korea experiences the drought almost every year at the regional scale mainly during in the winter and spring seasons. Moreover, extremely severe droughts at a national scale also occurred at a frequency of six to seven years. Various drought indices had developed as tools to quantitatively monitor different types of droughts and are utilized in the field of drought analysis. Since drought is closely related with climatological and topographic characteristics of the drought prone areas, the basins where droughts are frequently occurred need separate drought preparedness and contingency plans. In this study, an analysis using statistical methods was carried out for the historical droughts occurred in the five major river basins in Korea so that drought characteristics can be quantitatively investigated. It was also aimed to provide information with which differentiated and customized drought preparedness plans can be established based on the basin level analysis results. Conventional methods which quantifies drought execute an evaluation by applying a various drought indices. However, the evaluation results for same drought event are different according to different analysis technique. Especially, evaluation of drought event differs depend on how we view the severity or duration of drought in the evaluation process. Therefore, it was intended to draw a drought history for the most severely affected five major river basins of Korea by investigating a magnitude of drought that can simultaneously consider severity, duration, and the damaged areas by applying drought run theory with the use of SPI (Standardized Precipitation Index) that can efficiently quantifies meteorological drought. Further, quantitative analysis for the historical extreme drought at various viewpoints such as average severity, duration, and magnitude of drought was attempted. At the same time, it was intended to quantitatively analyze the historical drought events by estimating the return period by derived SDF (severity-duration-frequency) curve for the five major river basins through parametric regional drought frequency analysis. Analysis results showed that the extremely severe drought years were in the years of 1962, 1988, 1994, and 2014 in the Han River basin. While, the extreme droughts were occurred in 1982 and 1988 in the Nakdong river basin, 1994 in the Geumg basin, 1988 and 1994 in Youngsan river basin, 1988, 1994, 1995, and 2000 in the Seomjin river basin. While, the extremely severe drought years at national level in the Korean Peninsula were occurred in 1988 and 1994. The most damaged drought were in 1981~1982 and 1994~1995 which lasted for longer than two years. The return period of the most severe drought at each river basin was turned out to be at a frequency of 50~100 years.

Keywords: drought magnitude, regional frequency analysis, SPI, SDF(severity-duration-frequency) curve

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616 Variation in Adaptation Strategies of Commelina Communis L. Biotypes under Drought Stress Condition

Authors: Muhammad Haroon, LI Xiangju


C. communis L. is an important weed of many crop, but very little information about the adaptation strategies of C. communis L. biotypes under drought stress. We investigated five biotypes of C. communis L under drought stress to identify the adaptation mechanism. The expression of drought stress related genes (DRS1, EREB and HRB1) was up-regulated in biotypes, while in some biotypes their expression was down regulated. All five biotypes can thus regulate water balance to consume less water to maintain their status under drought stress condition. This result concluded that C. communis L. biotypes can survive longer under drought stress condition. Weed scientist should seek more effective management strategies to deal with C. communis L.

Keywords: C. communis, biotypes, drought stress, gene expression

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615 Community Adaptation of Drought Disaster in Grobogan District, Central Java Province, Indonesia

Authors: Chatarina Muryani, Sarwono, Sugiyanto Heribentus


Major part of Grobogan District, Central Java Province, Indonesia, always suffers from drought every year. The drought has implications toward almost all of the community activities, both domestic, agriculture, livestock, and industrial. The aim of this study was to determine (1) the drought distribution area in Grobogan District in 2015; (2) the impact of drought; and (3) the community adaptation toward the drought. The subject of the research was people who were impacted by the drought, purposive sampling technique was used to draw the sample. The data collection method was using field observation and in-depth interview while the data analysis was using descriptive analysis. The results showed that (1) in 2015, there were 14 districts which were affected by the drought and only 5 districts which do not suffer from drought, (2) the drought impacted to the reduction of water for domestic compliance, reduction of agricultural production, reduction of public revenue, (3) community adaptation to meet domestic water need was by making collective deep-wells and building water storages, adaptation in agriculture was done by setting the cropping pattern, while adaptation on economics was by allocating certain amount of funds for the family in anticipation of drought, which was mostly to purchase water.

Keywords: adaptation, distribution, drought, impacts

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614 Characterization of Some Bread Wheat Genotypes for Drought Tolerance Using Molecular Markers

Authors: Begüm Terzi, Özlem Ateş Sönmezoğlu, Ahmet Yildirim


Drought is the most important factor that limiting the production and productivity of wheat in the world. The yield of wheat, which is one of the most important crop in the world, reduced depend on drought. Researches to minimize effects of drought are one of the most important about breeding of drought resistant varieties. In recent years, benefiting from the drought resistance wild species and rapid advances in molecular biology studies, researches about drought have been accelerated and number of studies were made on molecular plant breeding which included the molecular mechanisms related to drought resistance. The aim of the present study was characterization of some bread wheat lines for drought tolerance which commonly cultivated in different location of Turkey. In this study, registered 9 bread wheat varieties which on the physiological tests about drought tolerance and 10 bread wheat line has been developed by Transitional Zone Agricultural Research Institute were used. SSR, STS, RAPD and SNP markers that associated with drought tolerance were used. The polymorphisms of the markers were determined by screening of two control varieties. For these purpose 40 molecular markers were used and 12 markers of them were polymorphic among the drought tolerance and the drought sensitive varieties. Control varieties were screened using polymorphic markers. All the DNAs on the genotypes will be searched for the presence of QTLs mapped to different chromosomes. Result of the research, the studied genotypes will be grouped according to drought tolerance and will be detected drought tolerance varieties by molecular markers. In addition, the results will be compared also with physiological tests. The drought tolerant wheat genotypes may be used in breeding studies related to drought stress.

Keywords: bread wheat, drought, molecular marker, Triticum aestivum

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613 The Expression of a Novel Gene Encoding an Ankyrin-Repeat Protein, DRA1, Is Regulated by Drought-Responsive Alternative Splicing

Authors: H. Sakamoto, Y. Nakagawara, S. Oguri


Drought stress is a critical environmental factor that adversely affects crop productivity and quality. Because of their immobile nature, plants have evolved mechanisms to sense and respond to drought stress. We identified a novel locus of Arabidopsis, designated DRA1 (drought responsive ankyrin 1), whose disruption leads to increased drought stress tolerance. DRA1 encodes a transmembrane protein with an ankyrin repeat motif that has been implicated in diverse cellular processes such as signal transduction. RT-PCR analysis revealed that there were at least two splicing variants of DRA1 transcripts in wild type plants. In response to drought stress, the levels of DRA1 transcripts retaining second and third introns were increased, whereas these introns were removed under unstressed conditions. These results suggest that DRA1 protein may negatively regulate plant drought tolerance and that the expression of DRA1 is regulated in response to drought stress by alternative splicing.

Keywords: alternative splicing, ankyrin repeat, Arabidopsis, drought tolerance

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612 Problems of Drought and Its Management in Yobe State, Nigeria

Authors: Hassan Gana Abdullahi, Michael A. Fullen, David Oloke


Drought poses an enormous global threat to sustainable development and is expected to increase with global climate change. Drought and desertification are major problems in Yobe State (north-east Nigeria). This investigation aims to develop a workable framework and management tool for drought mitigation in Yobe State. Mixed methods were employed during the study and additional qualitative information was gathered through Focus Group Discussions (FGD). Data on socio-economic impacts of drought were thus collected via both questionnaire surveys and FGD. In all, 1,040 questionnaires were distributed to farmers in the State and 721 were completed, representing a return rate of 69.3%. Data analysis showed that 97.9% of respondents considered themselves to be drought victims, whilst 69.3% of the respondents were unemployed and had no other means of income, except through rain-fed farming. Developing a viable and holistic approach to drought mitigation is crucial, to arrest and hopefully reverse environment degradation. Analysed data will be used to develop an integrated framework for drought mitigation and management in Yobe State. This paper introduces the socio-economic and environmental effects of drought in Yobe State.

Keywords: drought, climate change, mitigation, management, Yobe State

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611 Impact of Climate Variation on Natural Vegetations and Human Lives in Thar Desert, Pakistan

Authors: Sujo Meghwar, Zulfqar Ali laghari, Kanji Harijan, Muhib Ali Lagari, G. M. Mastoi, Ali Mohammad Rind


Thar Desert is the most populous Desert of the world. Climate variation in Thar Desert has induced an increase in the magnitude of drought. The variation in climate variation has caused a decrease in natural vegetations. Some plant species are eliminated forever. We have applied the SPI (standardized precipitation index) climate model to investigate the drought induced by climate change. We have gathered the anthropogenic response through a developed questionnaire. The data was analyzed in SPSS version 18. The met-data of two meteorological station elaborated by the time series has suggested an increase in temperature from 1-2.5 centigrade, the decrease in rain fall rainfall from 5-25% and reduction in humidity from 5-12 mm in the 20th century. The anthropogenic responses indicate high impact of climate change on human life and vegetations. Triangle data, we have collected, gives a new insight into the understanding of an association between climate change, drought and human activities.

Keywords: Thar desert, human impact, vegetations, temperature, rainfall, humidity

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610 Multi-Indicator Evaluation of Agricultural Drought Trends in Ethiopia: Implications for Dry Land Agriculture and Food Security

Authors: Dawd Ahmed, Venkatesh Uddameri


Agriculture in Ethiopia is the main economic sector influenced by agricultural drought. A simultaneous assessment of drought trends using multiple drought indicators is useful for drought planning and management. Intra-season and seasonal drought trends in Ethiopia were studied using a suite of drought indicators. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), and Z-index for long-rainy, dry, and short-rainy seasons are used to identify drought-causing mechanisms. The Statistical software package R version 3.5.2 was used for data extraction and data analyses. Trend analysis indicated shifts in late-season long-rainy season precipitation into dry in the southwest and south-central portions of Ethiopia. Droughts during the dry season (October–January) were largely temperature controlled. Short-term temperature-controlled hydrologic processes exacerbated rainfall deficits during the short rainy season (February–May) and highlight the importance of temperature- and hydrology-induced soil dryness on the production of short-season crops such as tef. Droughts during the long-rainy season (June–September) were largely driven by precipitation declines arising from the narrowing of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). Increased dryness during long-rainy season had severe consequences on the production of corn and sorghum. PDSI was an aggressive indicator of seasonal droughts suggesting the low natural resilience to combat the effects of slow-acting, moisture-depleting hydrologic processes. The lack of irrigation systems in the nation limits the ability to combat droughts and improve agricultural resilience. There is an urgent need to monitor soil moisture (a key agro-hydrologic variable) to better quantify the impacts of meteorological droughts on agricultural systems in Ethiopia.

Keywords: autocorrelation, climate change, droughts, Ethiopia, food security, palmer z-index, PDSI, SPEI, SPI, trend analysis

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609 Climatic Roots of Piracy in Red Sea

Authors: Nasser Karami


Piracy in the North West of Indian Ocean and the Red Sea has become a global crisis in recent years. Pirates of this area are often very poor people from the Horn of Africa and the western coast of the Red Sea. Climatic and geographical evidence suggests that poverty and destruction of social structures in the region have directly relation to prolonged-drought. Indeed, after the seventies (more than 40 years ago) due to the long-term drought in the region, all political, economic and social structures had declined. Spread of terrorism, violent extremism and of course piracy, are main effects of climate change and drought of this regression. It is disturbing to say the climatic documents say that because of global climate change, severe drought will continue in this region. This mean that the dangers worse than piracy threatens the future of this area. Forty-year data that has assessed in this study indicate that there is direct relationship between spread of drought and piracy in the Red Sea.

Keywords: climate, poverty, climate change, drought, piracy in red sea

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608 Response of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Genotypes to Drought Stress at Different Growth Stages

Authors: Ali. Marjani, M. Farsi, M. Rahimizadeh


Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the important grain legume crops in the world. However, drought stress is a serious threat to chickpea production, and development of drought-resistant varieties is a necessity. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the response of 8 chickpea genotypes (MCC* 696, 537, 80, 283, 392, 361, 252, 397) and drought stress (S1: non-stress, S2: stress at vegetative growth stage, S3: stress at early bloom, S4: stress at early pod visible) at different growth stages. Experiment was arranged in split plot design with four replications. Difference among the drought stress time was found to be significant for investigated traits except biological yield. Differences were observed for genotypes in flowering time, pod information time, physiological maturation time and yield. Plant height reduced due to drought stress in vegetative growth stage. Stem dry weight reduced due to drought stress in pod visibly. Flowering time, maturation time, pod number, number of seed per plant and yield cause of drought stress in flowering was also reduced. The correlation between yield and number of seed per plant and biological yield was positive. The MCC283 and MCC696 were the high-tolerance genotypes. These results demonstrated that drought stress delayed phonological growth in chickpea and that flowering stage is sensitive.

Keywords: chickpea, drought stress, growth stage, tolerance

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607 Phosphoproteomic Analysis of the Response of Rice Leaves to Chitosan under Drought Stress

Authors: Narumon Phaonakrop, Janthima Jaresitthikunchai, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Wasinee Pongprayoon


Chitosan has been proposed as a natural polymer, and it is derived from chitin. The objective of this research was to determine the growth promoting responses induced by chitosan at the molecular physiology level in Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML 105) rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings under drought stress by adding of 2% polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG4000) to the nutrient solution and after removal of the drought stress (re-water). Oligomeric chitosan at 40 ppm could enhance shoot fresh weight and shoot dry weight during drought stress and re-water. After 7 days of drought stress and re-water, significant increases in chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b contents in KDML 105 cultivar were observed. The 749 phosphoproteins in rice leaf treated with chitosan could be resolved by phosphoprotein enrichment, tryptic digestion and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. They can be classified into 10 groups. Proteins involved in the metabolic process and biological regulation were upregulated in response to chitosan during drought stress. This work will help us to understand protein phosphorylation relating to chitosan response during drought stress in aromatic rice seedlings.

Keywords: Chitosan, drought, phosphoproteome, rice

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606 Identification of a Novel Maize Dehydration-Responsive Gene with a Potential Role in Improving Maize Drought Tolerance

Authors: Kyle Phillips, Ndiko Ludidi


Global climate change has resulted in altered rainfall patterns, which has resulted in annual losses in maize crop yields due to drought. Therefore it is important to produce maize cultivars that are more drought-tolerant, which is not an easily accomplished task as plants have a plethora of physical and biochemical adaptation methods. One such mechanism is the drought-induced expression of enzymatic and non-enzymatic proteins which assist plants to resist the effects of drought on their growth and development. One of these proteins is AtRD22 which has been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using an in silico approach, a maize protein with 48% sequence homology to AtRD22 has been identified. This protein appears to be localized in the extracellular matrix, similarly to AtRD22. Promoter analysis of the encoding gene reveals cis-acting elements suggestive of induction of the gene’s expression by abscisic acid (ABA). Semi-quantitative transcriptomic analysis of the putative maize RD22 has revealed an increase in transcript levels after the exposure to drought. Current work elucidates the effect of up-regulation and silencing of the maize RD22 gene on the tolerance of maize to drought. The potential role of the maize RD22 gene in maize drought tolerance can be used as a tool to improve food security.

Keywords: abscisic acid, drought-responsive cis-acting elements, maize drought tolerance, RD22

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605 Minerals of Canola (Brassica napus) as Affected by Water Stress and Applied Calcium

Authors: Rizwan Alam, Ikhtiar Khan, Aqib Iqbal


Plants are naturally exposed to a wide variety of environmental stresses. The stresses may be biotic or/and abiotic. These environmental stresses have adverse effects on photosynthesis, water relation and nutrients uptake of plants. Fertilization of plants with exogenous minerals can enhance the drought tolerance in plants. In this experiment, canola (Brassica napus) was treated with solutions of calcium nitrate in different concentrations before the imposition of drought stress for 10 days. It was observed that drought stress decreased the tissue-K, Ca and K/Ca ratio of canola seedlings. The tissue-carbon and nitrogen contents were also depressed by the drought stress. Application of calcium nitrate, however, could alleviate the adverse effects of drought stress by showing a positive effect on all the aforementioned parameters.

Keywords: Brassica napus, calcium, carbon, potassium

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604 Impact of Drought on Agriculture in the Upper Middle Gangetic Plain in India

Authors: Reshmita Nath


In this study, we investigate the spatiotemporal characteristics of drought in India and its impact on agriculture during the summer season (April to September). For our analysis, we have used Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) datasets between 1982 and 2012 at six-month timescale. Based on the criteria SPEI<-1 we obtain the vulnerability map and have found that the Humid subtropical Upper Middle Gangetic Plain (UMGP) region is highly drought prone with an occurrence frequency of 40-45%. This UMGP region contributes at least 18-20% of India’s annual cereal production. Not only the probability, but the region becomes more and more drought-prone in the recent decades. Moreover, the cereal production in the UMGP has experienced a gradual declining trend from 2000 onwards and this feature is consistent with the increase in drought affected areas from 20-25% to 50-60%, before and after 2000, respectively. The higher correlation coefficient (-0.69) between the changes in cereal production and drought affected areas confirms that at least 50% of the agricultural (cereal) losses is associated with drought. While analyzing the individual impact of precipitation and surface temperature anomalies on SPEI (6), we have found that in the UMGP region surface temperature plays the primary role in lowering of SPEI. The linkage is further confirmed by the correlation analysis between the SPEI (6) and surface temperature rise, which exhibits strong negative values in the UMGP region. Higher temperature might have caused more evaporation and drying, which therefore increases the area affected by drought in the recent decade.

Keywords: drought, agriculture, SPEI, Indo-Gangetic plain

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603 Estimation of Soil Moisture at High Resolution through Integration of Optical and Microwave Remote Sensing and Applications in Drought Analyses

Authors: Donglian Sun, Yu Li, Paul Houser, Xiwu Zhan


California experienced severe drought conditions in the past years. In this study, the drought conditions in California are analyzed using soil moisture anomalies derived from integrated optical and microwave satellite observations along with auxiliary land surface data. Based on the U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM) classifications, three typical drought conditions were selected for the analysis: extreme drought conditions in 2007 and 2013, severe drought conditions in 2004 and 2009, and normal conditions in 2005 and 2006. Drought is defined as negative soil moisture anomaly. To estimate soil moisture at high spatial resolutions, three approaches are explored in this study: the universal triangle model that estimates soil moisture from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST); the basic model that estimates soil moisture under different conditions with auxiliary data like precipitation, soil texture, topography, and surface types; and the refined model that uses accumulated precipitation and its lagging effects. It is found that the basic model shows better agreements with the USDM classifications than the universal triangle model, while the refined model using precipitation accumulated from the previous summer to current time demonstrated the closest agreements with the USDM patterns.

Keywords: soil moisture, high resolution, regional drought, analysis and monitoring

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602 The Effect of Gibberellic Acid on Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Metabolism in Phaseolus Vulgaris L. Plant Exposed to Drought and Salt Stresses

Authors: Fazilet Özlem Çekiç, Seyda Yılmaz


Salinity and drought are important environmental problems in the world and have negative effects on plant metabolism. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), four-carbon non-protein amino acid, is a significant component of the free amino acid pool. GABA is widely distributed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Environmental stress factors increase GABA accumulation in plants. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid (GA) on GABA metabolism system during drought and salt stress factors in Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants. GABA, Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity, chlorophyll, and lipid peroxidation (MDA) analyses were determined. According to our results we can suggest that GA play a role in GABA metabolism during salt and drought stresses in bean plants. Also GABA shunt is an important metabolic pathway and key signaling allowing to adapt to drought and salt stresses.

Keywords: gibberellic acid, GABA, Phaseolus vulgaris L., salinity, drought

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601 Antioxidant Capacity of Maize Corn under Drought Stress from the Different Zones of Growing

Authors: Astghik R. Sukiasyan


The semidental sweet maize of Armenian population under drought stress and pollution by some heavy metals (HMs) in sites along the river Debet was studied. Accordingly, the objective of this work was to investigate the antioxidant status of maize plant in order to identify simple and reliable criteria for assessing the degree of adaptation of plants to abiotic stress of drought and HMs. It was found that in the case of removal from the mainstream of the river, the antioxidant status of the plant varies. As parameters, the antioxidant status of the plant has been determined by the activity of malondialdehyde (MDA) and Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP), taking into account the characteristics of natural drought of this region. The possibility of using some indicators which characterized the antioxidant status of the plant was concluded. The criteria for assessing the extent of environmental pollution could be HMs. This fact can be used for the early diagnosis of diseases in the population who lives in these areas and uses corn as the main food.

Keywords: antioxidant status, maize corn, drought stress, heavy metal

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600 Yield Loss Estimation Using Multiple Drought Severity Indices

Authors: Sara Tokhi Arab, Rozo Noguchi, Tofeal Ahamed


Drought is a natural disaster that occurs in a region due to a lack of precipitation and high temperatures over a continuous period or in a single season as a consequence of climate change. Precipitation deficits and prolonged high temperatures mostly affect the agricultural sector, water resources, socioeconomics, and the environment. Consequently, it causes agricultural product loss, food shortage, famines, migration, and natural resources degradation in a region. Agriculture is the first sector affected by drought. Therefore, it is important to develop an agricultural drought risk and loss assessment to mitigate the drought impact in the agriculture sector. In this context, the main purpose of this study was to assess yield loss using composite drought indices in the drought-affected vineyards. In this study, the CDI was developed for the years 2016 to 2020 by comprising five indices: the vegetation condition index (VCI), temperature condition index (TCI), deviation of NDVI from the long-term mean (NDVI DEV), normalized difference moisture index (NDMI) and precipitation condition index (PCI). Moreover, the quantitative principal component analysis (PCA) approach was used to assign a weight for each input parameter, and then the weights of all the indices were combined into one composite drought index. Finally, Bayesian regularized artificial neural networks (BRANNs) were used to evaluate the yield variation in each affected vineyard. The composite drought index result indicated the moderate to severe droughts were observed across the Kabul Province during 2016 and 2018. Moreover, the results showed that there was no vineyard in extreme drought conditions. Therefore, we only considered the severe and moderated condition. According to the BRANNs results R=0.87 and R=0.94 in severe drought conditions for the years of 2016 and 2018 and the R= 0.85 and R=0.91 in moderate drought conditions for the years of 2016 and 2018, respectively. In the Kabul Province within the two years drought periods, there was a significate deficit in the vineyards. According to the findings, 2018 had the highest rate of loss almost -7 ton/ha. However, in 2016 the loss rates were about – 1.2 ton/ha. This research will support stakeholders to identify drought affect vineyards and support farmers during severe drought.

Keywords: grapes, composite drought index, yield loss, satellite remote sensing

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599 Regulation of Water Balance of the Plant from the Different Geo-Environmental Locations

Authors: Astghik R. Sukiasyan


Under the drought stress condition, the plants would grow slower. Temperature is one of the most important abiotic factors which suppress the germination processes. However, the processes of transpiration are regulated directly by the cell water, which followed to an increase in volume of vacuoles. During stretching under the influence of water pressure, the cell goes into the state of turgor. In our experiments, lines of the semi-dental sweet maize of Armenian population from various zones of growth under mild and severe drought stress were tested. According to results, the value of the water balance of the plant cells may reflect the ability of plants to adapt to drought stress. It can be assumed that the turgor allows evaluating the number of received dissolved substance in cell.

Keywords: turgor, drought stress, plant growth, Armenian Zea Maize Semidentata

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598 Yield, Biochemical Responses and Evaluation of Drought Tolerance of Two Barley Accessions 'Ardhaoui' under Deficit Drip Irrigation Using Saline Water in Southern Tunisia

Authors: Mohamed Bagues, Ikbel Souli, Feiza Boussora, Kamel Nagaz


In southern Tunisia, two local barley accessions CV. Ardhaoui; 'Bengardeni' and 'Karkeni' were cultivated in the field under deficit drip irrigation with saline water. Three treatments were used: control or full irrigation T0 (100%ETc) and stressed T1 (75%ETc), T2 (50%ETc). Proline and soluble sugars contents increase significantly under drought between accessions compared to control and varies between growth stages. Moreover, the increasing of Ca2+ concentration enhances the absorption of Na+ ion, consequently K+/Na+ decrease significantly between accessions, these results suggest that a high tolerance of Bengardeni accession to drought stress. Therefore, drought tolerance indices (STI, SSI, MP, GMP, YSI and TOL) were used to identify high yielding and drought tolerant between accessions. MP explained the variation of GYi. GMP and STI explained the variation of GYs. The high values of MP, STI and GMP were associated with higher yielding accession. Higher TOL value is associated with significant grain yield reduction in stressed environment suggesting higher stress responses of accessions. Significant positive correlations between MP, STI and GMP and negative between YSI and SSI. MP, STI, GMP and YSI, TOL, SSI are not correlated with each other.

Keywords: drought, proline, soluble sugars, minerals, yield, drought tolerance indices, barley

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597 Forecasting of Scaffolding Work Comfort Parameters Based on Data from Meteorological Stations

Authors: I. Szer, J. Szer, M. Pieńko, A. Robak, P. Jamińska-Gadomska


Work at height, such as construction works on scaffoldings, is associated with a considerable risk. Scaffolding workers are usually exposed to changing weather conditions what can additionally increase the risk of dangerous situations. Therefore, it is very important to foresee the risk of adverse conditions to which the worker may be exposed. The data from meteorological stations may be used to asses this risk. However, the dependency between weather conditions on a scaffolding and in the vicinity of meteorological station, should be determined. The paper presents an analysis of two selected environmental parameters which have influence on the behavior of workers – air temperature and wind speed. Measurements of these parameters were made between April and November of 2016 on ten scaffoldings located in different parts of Poland. They were compared with the results taken from the meteorological stations located closest to the studied scaffolding. The results gathered from the construction sites and meteorological stations were not the same, but statistical analyses have shown that they were correlated.

Keywords: scaffolding, health and safety at work, temperature, wind velocity

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596 Amino Acid Responses of Wheat Cultivars under Glasshouse Drought Accurately Predict Yield-Based Drought Tolerance in the Field

Authors: Arun K. Yadav, Adam J. Carroll, Gonzalo M. Estavillo, Greg J. Rebetzke, Barry J. Pogson


Water limits crop productivity, so selecting for minimal yield-gap in drier environments is critical to mitigate against climate change and land-use pressures. To date, no markers measured in glasshouses have been reported to predict field-based drought tolerance. In the field, the best measure of drought tolerance is yield-gap; but this requires multisite trials that are an order of magnitude more resource intensive and can be impacted by weather variation. We investigated the responses of relative water content (RWC), stomatal conductance (gs), chlorophyll content and metabolites in flag leaves of commercial wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars to three drought treatments in the glasshouse and field environments. We observed strong genetic associations between glasshouse-based RWC, metabolites and Yield gap-based Drought Tolerance (YDT): the ratio of yield in water-limited versus well-watered conditions across 24 field environments spanning sites and seasons. Critically, RWC response to glasshouse drought was strongly associated with both YDT (r2 = 0.85, p < 8E-6) and RWC under field drought (r2 = 0.77, p < 0.05). Multiple regression analyses revealed that 98% of genetic YDT variance was explained by drought responses of four metabolites: serine, asparagine, methionine and lysine (R2 = 0.98; p < 0.01). Fitted coefficients suggested that, for given levels of serine and asparagine, stronger methionine and lysine accumulation was associated with higher YDT. Collectively, our results demonstrate that high-throughput, targeted metabolic phenotyping of glasshouse-grown plants may be an effective tool for the selection of wheat cultivars with high YDT in the field.

Keywords: drought stress, grain yield, metabolomics, stomatal conductance, wheat

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