Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 55

Search results for: medieval vaults

55 Modelling Medieval Vaults: Digital Simulation of the North Transept Vault of St Mary, Nantwich, England

Authors: N. Webb, A. Buchanan

Abstract:

Digital and virtual heritage is often associated with the recreation of lost artefacts and architecture; however, we can also investigate works that were not completed, using digital tools and techniques. Here we explore physical evidence of a fourteenth-century Gothic vault located in the north transept of St Mary’s church in Nantwich, Cheshire, using existing springer stones that are built into the walls as a starting point. Digital surveying tools are used to document the architecture, followed by an analysis process to hypothesise and simulate possible design solutions, had the vault been completed. A number of options, both two-dimensionally and three-dimensionally, are discussed based on comparison with examples of other contemporary vaults, thus adding another specimen to the corpus of vault designs. Dissemination methods such as digital models and 3D prints are also explored as possible resources for demonstrating what the finished vault might have looked like for heritage interpretation and other purposes.

Keywords: digital simulation, heritage interpretation, medieval vaults, virtual heritage, 3d scanning

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54 Gendered Self-Expression and Muslim Medieval Women's Participation in the Creation and Production of Islam's Literary Heritage

Authors: Safa Moussoud

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Contrary to modern misconceptions, women in the Muslim Middle Ages enjoyed a generous degree of liberty both in the public and private sphere. Poetry was a significant component of public life throughout the Muslim Civilization as its vitality and multi-generic nature acted as a way for medieval Muslims to communicate with each other. As such, a continuity of poetic literary heritage was preserved through multiple centuries and dynasties. This paper will argue that Muslim women were active participants in medieval Muslim society’s social and public sphere and therefore, can be seen as vital contributors to the intellectual and literary creation of the Muslim Civilization. This paper will examine poetry written by Safiyya al-Baghddadiya and Salma bint al-Qaratisi from the Abbasid period, as well as Wallada bint al-Mustakfi from the Andalusian period and focus particularly at the poetesses’ modes of self-expression regarding beauty and sexuality to argue that Medieval Muslim women enjoyed creative and literary liberty thus allowing them to proclaim their subjectivity publicly through poetry. By emphasizing women’s involvement in the social aspects of Medieval Muslim societies, this paper will ultimately urge for a more thorough investigation of Muslim women’s role and function in the making of the Muslim Civilization.

Keywords: Arabo-Islamic society, medieval Muslims, Muslim poetesses, self-expression

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
53 Imperial/Royal Renewal in Byzantium and Medieval Georgia: Case of Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081–1118) and Davit IV the Builder (r. 1089–1125)

Authors: Sandro Nikolaishvili

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The end of the eleventh and the beginning of the twelfth century was a transitional period for the Byzantine empire as well as for the Caucasus. The empire was struggling for its survival under Alexios I Komnenos while Medieval Georgia was emerging as a dominant player in the Caucasus under Davit IV the Builder. The reigns of these two rulers were periods of renewal and transformation. I aim to compare the imperial image of Alexios I Komnenos with the renewed kingship ideology under Davit IV. I will hypothesize about the possible translation of the Byzantine political culture into the Medieval Georgia.

Keywords: Byzantium, Georgia, imperial, image

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52 Lost Maritime Culture in the Netherlands: Linking Material and Immaterial Datasets for a Modern Day Perception of the Late Medieval Maritime Cultural Landscape of the Zuiderzee Region

Authors: Y. T. van Popta

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This paper focuses on the never thoroughly examined yet in native relevant late medieval maritime cultural landscape of the former Zuiderzee (A.D. 1170-1932) in the center part of the Netherlands. Especially the northeastern part of the region, nowadays known as the Noordoostpolder, testifies of the dynamic battle of the Dutch against the water. This highly dynamic maritime region developed from a lake district into a sea and eventually into a polder. By linking physical and cognitive datasets from the Noordoostpol-der region in a spatial environment, new information on a late medieval maritime culture is brought to light, giving the opportunity to: (i) create a modern day perception on the late medieval maritime cultural landscape of the region and (ii) to underline the value of interdisciplinary and spatial research in maritime archaeology in general. Since the large scale reclamations of the region (A.D. 1932-1968), many remains have been discovered of a drowned and eroded late medieval maritime culture, represented by lost islands, drowned settlements, cultivated lands, shipwrecks and socio-economic networks. Recent archaeological research has proved the existence of this late medieval maritime culture by the discovery of the remains of the drowned settlement Fenehuysen (Veenhuizen) and its surroundings. The fact that this settlement and its cultivated surroundings remained hidden for so long proves that a large part of the maritime cultural landscape is ‘invisible’ and can only be found by extensive interdisciplinary research.

Keywords: drowned settlements, late middle ages, lost islands, maritime cultural landscape, the Netherlands

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51 The Identity of the Cairene Public Space: Manifestations of Social and Architectural Heritage in the City Square of Medieval Cairo

Authors: Muhammad Emad Feteha

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Cairo has been famous for the unique identity of its medieval architecture, which was formed by multiple dynasties that ruled Egypt. However, only a few researches were done on the identity of its public space. This paper links both the architectural and the socio-political aspects of the Cairene public space and studies how they affected each other. The subject of the study is Maydan Salah al-Din, the main city square of medieval Cairo, which reveals a quite useful information, not only about the architectural identity of the Cairene public space but also about the socio-political patterns that operated within. The analytical framework is based on Lefebvre’s theory, the ‘production of space’, in which he applied 'the Hegelian dialectic' in order to understand how the social practice forms the space, and how, in turn, the space forms the social practice. This framework offers a comprehensive understanding of the identity of the Cairene public space, which does not separate architecture from the social practice.

Keywords: architectural identity, Cairene public space, Islamic architectural history, production of space

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50 Optimizing Protection of Medieval Glass Mosaic

Authors: J. Valach, S. Pospisil, S. Kuznecov

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The paper deals with experimental estimation of future environmental load on medieval mosaic of Last Judgement on entrance to St. Vitus cathedral on Prague castle. The mosaic suffers from seasonal changes of weather pattern, as well as rains, their acidity, deposition of dust and sooth particles from polluted air and also from freeze-thaw cycles. These phenomena influence state of the mosaic. The mosaic elements, tesserae are mostly made from glass prone to weathering. To estimate future procedure of the best maintenance, relation between various weather scenarios and their effect on the mosaic was investigated. At the same time local method for evaluation of protective coating was developed. Together both methods will contribute to better care for the mosaic and also visitors aesthetical experience.

Keywords: environmental load, cultural heritage, glass mosaic, protection

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49 Enhancing National Integrity through Teaching Secular Perspectives in Medieval Indian History Curricula: A Secular Paradigms

Authors: Deepak Deshpande, Vikas Minchekar

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Day by day in modern India communal forces became stronger and stronger. Each and every caste group trying to show their strength through massive marches. Such kind of marches or ralliesruinous national integrity in India. To test this assumption present investigation has been carried out. This research was undertaken by using survey techniques. The study has been carried out in two phases. In the first stage, the students’ attitudes were collected while in the second phase the views of the members of the historical association were collected. The social dominance orientation scale and sources of social dominance inventory have been administered on 200 college students belonging to Maratha caste. Analyzed data revealed ahigh level of social dominance in Maratha caste students. Approximately, 80 percent students have reported that they have learned such dominance from the medieval history. The other sources disappear very less prominent. These results and present Indian social situation have been communicated with the members of the historical association of India. The majority members of this association agreed with this reality. The consensus also received on that Maratha caste person experiencing dominance due to the misinterpretation of the King Shivaji Empire; synchronize by politicians. The survey monkey app was used through electronic mail to collect the views on ‘The attitude towards the modification of curricula questionnaire’. The maximum number of members of the historical association agreed to employ to teach the medieval Indian history accordingly the secular perspectives.

Keywords: social dominance orientation, secular perceptive, national integrity, Maratha caste and medieval Indian history

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48 A Comparative Analysis of the Role, Representations and Architectural Identity of Public Space in Medieval and Contemporary Cairo

Authors: Muhammad Feteha

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The socio-political Middle East scene has radically changed over the last decade, and one major contributor to this change was the Egyptian revolution of 2011. The massive impact of this revolution that originally started as a small protest in the Tahrir square has attracted more scholars to study the public space in Egypt, where it has become a necessity in order to understand and improve the socio-political conditions. The status of public space in Egypt has been deteriorating due to many reasons, including privatization and neglect. This paper studies one of the major problems of the contemporary public space in Cairo, which is the lack of identity. This takes place through a comparative analysis between selected case studies from both medieval and contemporary Cairo. The theoretical framework upon which the analysis is based views public space as a ‘container of social action’ and a ‘product of spatial practice’. Through the ‘deciphering of space’, differences in the socio-political role, symbolism, and identity of public spaces between both eras are shown. The paper aims to extract some lessons from public space in medieval Cairo, which was truly the ‘centerpiece of the public realm’ and a ‘fundamental expressions’ of the unique trans-dynastic architectural identity of Cairo. In addition, it suggests some strategies to revive the Cairene identity of public space instead of constructing new ones to be only ‘utilitarian spaces used for circulation’ and lack any identity.

Keywords: architectural identity, Cairene public space, Islamic architectural history, production of space

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47 The Representation of the Medieval Idea of Ugliness in Messiaen's Saint François d’Assise

Authors: Nana Katsia

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This paper explores the ways both medieval and medievalist conceptions of ugliness might be linked to the physical and spiritual transformation of the protagonists and how it is realised through specific musical rhythm, such as the dochmiac rhythm in the opera. As Eco and Henderson note, only one kind of ugliness could be represented in conformity with nature in the Middle Ages without destroying all aesthetic pleasure and, in turn, artistic beauty: namely, a form of ugliness which arouses disgust. Moreover, Eco explores the fact that the enemies of Christ who condemn, martyr, and crucify him are represented as wicked inside. In turn, the representation of inner wickedness and hostility toward God brings with it outward ugliness, coarseness, barbarity, and rage. Ultimately these result in the deformation of the figure. In all these regards, the non-beautiful is represented here as a necessary phase, which is not the case with classical (the ancient Greek) concepts of Beauty. As we can see, the understanding of disfigurement and ugliness in the Middle Ages was both varied and complex. In the Middle Ages, the disfigurement caused by leprosy (and other skin and bodily conditions) was interpreted, in a somewhat contradictory manner, as both a curse and a gift from God. Some saints’ lives even have the saint appealing to be inflicted with the disease as part of their mission toward true humility. We shall explore that this ‘different concept’ of ugliness (non-classical beauty) might be represented in Messiaen’s opera. According to Messiaen, the Leper and Saint François are the principal characters of the third scene, as both of them will be transformed, and a double miracle will take place in the process. Messiaen mirrors the idea of the true humility of Saint’s life and positions Le Baiser au Lépreux as the culmination of the first act. The Leper’s character represents his physical and spiritual disfigurement, which are healed after the miracle. So, the scene can be viewed as an encounter between beauty and ugliness, and that much of it is spent in a study of ugliness. Dochmiac rhythm is one of the most important compositional elements in the opera. It plays a crucial role in the process of creating a dramatic musical narrative and structure in the composition. As such, we shall explore how Messiaen represents the medieval idea of ugliness in the opera through particular musical elements linked to the main protagonists’ spiritual or physical ugliness; why Messiaen makes reference to dochmiac rhythm, and how they create the musical and dramatic context in the opera for the medieval aesthetic category of ugliness.

Keywords: ugliness in music, medieval time, saint françois d’assise, messiaen

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46 The Reenactment of Historic Memory and the Ways to Read past Traces through Contemporary Architecture in European Urban Contexts: The Case Study of the Medieval Walls of Naples

Authors: Francesco Scarpati

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Because of their long history, ranging from ancient times to the present day, European cities feature many historical layers, whose single identities are represented by traces surviving in the urban design. However, urban transformations, in particular, the ones that have been produced by the property speculation phenomena of the 20th century, often compromised the readability of these traces, resulting in a loss of the historical identities of the single layers. The purpose of this research is, therefore, a reflection on the theme of the reenactment of the historical memory in the stratified European contexts and on how contemporary architecture can help to reveal past signs of the cities. The research work starts from an analysis of a series of emblematic examples that have already provided an original solution to the described problem, going from the architectural detail scale to the urban and landscape scale. The results of these analyses are then applied to the case study of the city of Naples, as an emblematic example of a stratified city, with an ancient Greek origin; a city where it is possible to read most of the traces of its transformations. Particular consideration is given to the trace of the medieval walls of the city, which a long time ago clearly divided the city itself from the outer fields, and that is no longer readable at the current time. Finally, solutions and methods of intervention are proposed to ensure that the trace of the walls, read as a boundary, can be revealed through the contemporary project.

Keywords: contemporary project, historic memory, historic urban contexts, medieval walls, naples, stratified cities, urban traces

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45 Mapping the Quotidian Life of Practitioners of Various Religious Sects in Late Medieval Bengal: Portrayals on the Front Façades of the Baranagar Temple Cluster

Authors: I. Gupta, B. Karmakar

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Bengal has a long history (8th century A.D. onwards) of decorating the wall of brick-built temples with curved terracotta plaques on a diverse range of subjects. These could be considered as one of the most significant visual archives to understand the various facets of the then contemporary societies. The temples under focus include Char-bangla temple complex (circa 1755 A.D.), Bhavanishvara temple (circa 1755 A.D.) and the Gangeshvara Shiva Jor-bangla temple (circa 1753 A.D.), located within a part of the river Bhagirathi basin in Baranagar, Murshidabad, West Bengal, India. Though, a diverse range of subjects have been intricately carved mainly on the front façades of the Baranagar temple cluster, the study specifically concentrates on depictions related to religious and non-religious acts performed by practitioners of various religious sects of late medieval Bengal with the intention to acquire knowledge about the various facets of their life. Apart from this, the paper also mapped the spatial location of these religious performers on the temples’ façades to examine if any systematic plan or arrangement had been employed for connoting a particular idea. Further, an attempt is made to provide a commentary on the attire worn by followers of various religious sects of late medieval Bengal. The primary materials for the study comprise the depictions which denote religious activities carved on the terracotta plaques. The secondary material has been collected from published and unpublished theses, journals and books. These data have been further supplemented with photographic documentation, some useful line-drawings and descriptions in table format to get a clear understanding of the concerned issues.

Keywords: attire, scheme of allocation, terracotta temple, various religious sect

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44 Logic and Arabic Grammar Debates at Medieval Ages: A Quest for Muslim Contributions to Philosophical Development

Authors: Umar Sheikh Tahir

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This paper focuses on the historiography of the relationship between Logic and Arabic grammar in the Muslim Medieval Ages (a period between 750 and 1100/ 150 and 500 Ah). This sensation appears in the famous debate among many others between grammarians represented by abū Sa'id al-Sairafī and logicians represented by abū Bishr Mattā on Logic and its validity. This incident took place in Baghdad around 932 AD. However, this study singlehandedly samples these debates as the base for the contributions of Islamic philosophers to philosophy of language as well as Epistemology. The question that shapes this research is: What is the intellectual development for Muslim thinkers to philosophy of language in regards to this debate? The current research addresses the Arabic grammar and logical debates by conducting historiography to emphasize on Islamic philosophers’ concerns about this issue. Consequently, this debate generates philosophical phenomena and resolutions in deep-thinking. In addition, these dialogues create a language impression for Philosophy in Islamic world from the period under study. Thereupon, Islamic philosophers’ discourse on this phenomenon serves as contribution to the Philosophy of Language.

Keywords: debates, epistemology, grammar and grammarians, Islamic philosophy, philosophy language, logic

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43 Georgian Churches in the Eastern Provinces of Turkey

Authors: Mustafa Tahir Ocak, Gülsün Tanyeli

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Georgia became Christian in the 4th century. During the 7th and 8th centuries, Georgia, with its capital at Tiflis, was devastated by Arab invasions from the south and east. Tiflis was abandoned and a new Georgia, with its capital at present-day Ardanuç; in Turkey, was established, based on the provinces of Tao, Klarjeti and Shavsheti. Georgian power revived during the 9th century and the new kings embarked on a notable period of church building, each prince intent on raising memorials to his reign. Georgia was weakened again in the 11th century. First, by Byzantium which now feared the Georgians’ growing power and, second, by the advance of the Seljuk Turks. But defeat did not last long and under David II, ‘the Builder’, Georgian armies recaptured Tiflis in 1122, heralding a second political and cultural renascence. There has been a remarkable increase in the number of monuments in 9th-11th centuries. Kingdom of Georgia’s boundaries have changed lots of times over the centuries, and consequently a considerable number of churches are to be found in other countries, especially in north-eastern provinces of Turkey. Georgian monuments spread to valleys of the Çoruh, Oltu and Tortum rivers in north-east Turkey. These churches have significant role in architectural history. The medieval Georgians and the Armenians had known contacts with Byzantium. Their churches influenced mid-Byzantine architecture and were a factor in the evolution of the Romanesque style in Europe. In the centuries following the inclusion of Tao and Klarjeti within the expanding Ottoman Empire, the monasteries and churches were gradually abandoned with migration of Christian population. Although some of those monuments are in good condition through the conversion of churches to use as mosques, the rest of those monuments are under threat from neglect and lack of maintenance. Many fell into ruin or were plundered for their stone; others were damaged by earthquakes, by treasure hunters. The only hope for the Georgian churches is for them to be recognised as a touristic value in a beautiful region of deep valleys and magnificent mountain scenery. As coeval churches in modern Georgian boundaries, these churches in north-eastern provinces of Turkey have to evaluated by UNESCO. This study aims to create awereness about the conservation of Georgian churches in north-eastern provinces of Turkey as world heritage taking advantages of tourism. Georgian churches as a heritage should be evaluated not only a monument but also cultural landscape. The cultural route is created visiting both churches and the other medieval structures in these regions.

Keywords: Georgian churches, medieval monuments, Tao-Klarjeti, Turkey

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42 Battle of Narratives: Georgia between Dialogue and Confrontation

Authors: Ketevan Epadze

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The paper aims to examine conflicting historical narratives proposed by the Georgian and Abkhazian scholars on the territorial affiliation of Abkhazia in the 1950s, explain how these narratives were connected to the Soviet nationalities policy after WW II and demonstrate the dynamic of the narratives’ battle in the last years of the Soviet system, which was followed by military conflict in the post-Soviet era. Abkhazia –a breakaway region of Georgia- self-declared its independence in 1992. Historical dispute on the territorial rights of Abkhazia emerged long before the military conflict began and was connected to the theory of Abkhazian ethnogenesis written by the Georgian literary scholar Pavle Ingorokva. He argued that medieval Abkhazians were Georgians, while modern Abkhazians are newcomers in Abkhazia. After the de-Stalinization, Abkhazian historians developed historical narrative opposed to Ingorokva’s theory. In the 1980s, Georgian dissidents who strove for Georgia’s independence used Ingorokva’s thesis to oppose Abkhazians desire for self-determination and sovereignty. Abkhazian political actors in their turn employed opposite historical arguments to legitimate their rights over autonomy. Ingorokva’s theory is one of the principal issues, discussed during the Georgian-Abkhazian dialogue; it often confuses Georgians and gives the reasons to Abkhazians for complaining about the Georgian discrimination in the Soviet past. The study is based on the different kind of sources: archival materials of the 1950s (Communist Party Archive of Georgia, Soviet Journal ‘Mnatobi’), the book by Pavle Ingorokva ‘Giorgi Merchule’ (1947-1954) and Zurab Anchabadze’s responsive work to Ingorokva’s book – ‘From the medieval history of Abkhazia’ (1956-1959), political speeches of the Georgian and Abkhazian political actors in the 1980s, secondary sources on the Soviet nationalities policy from the 1950s to the 1990s.

Keywords: Soviet, history, ethnicity, nationalism, politics, post-Soviet, conflict

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41 When Pain Becomes Love For God: The Non-Object Self

Authors: Roni Naor-Hofri

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This paper shows how self-inflicted pain enabled the expression of love for God among Christian monastic ascetics in medieval central Europe. As scholars have shown, being in a state of pain leads to a change in or destruction of language, an essential feature of the self. The author argues that this transformation allows the self to transcend its boundaries as an object, even if only temporarily and in part. The epistemic achievement of love for God, a non-object, would not otherwise have been possible. To substantiate her argument, the author shows that the self’s transformation into a non-object enables the imitation of God: not solely in the sense of imitatio Christi, of physical and visual representations of God incarnate in the flesh of His son Christ, but also in the sense of the self’s experience of being a non-object, just like God, the target of the self’s love.

Keywords: love for God , pain, philosophy, religion

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40 Reviving Sustainable Architecture in Non-Wester Culture

Authors: Khaled Asfour

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Going for LEED certification is the latest concern in Egyptian practice that only materialized during the last 4 years. Egyptian Consultant Group (ECG) together with Credit Agricole had the vision to design a headquarters (Cairo) that delivers a serious sustainable design. The bank is a strong advocator of “green banking” and supports renewable energy and energy saving projects. Their HQ in Cairo has passed all the hurdles to become the first platinum LEED certificate holder in Egypt. With this design Egyptian practice has finally re-engaged in a serious way with its long-standing traditions in sustainable architecture. Perhaps the closest to our memory is the medieval houses of Cairo. Few centuries later these qualities disappeared with the advent of Modern Movement that focused more on standard modernist image making than real localized quality of living environments. The first person to note this disappearance was Hassan Fathy half a century ago. Despite international applaud for his efforts he had no effect on prevailing local practice that continued senselessly adopting recycled modernist templates. The Egyptian society was not ready to accept any reference to historic architecture. Disciples of Hassan Fathy, few decades later sought, of tackling the lack of interest in green architecture in a different way. Mohamed Awad introduced in his design sustainable ideals inspired from traditional architecture rather than recycling directly historic forms and images. Despite success, this approach did not go far enough to influence the prevailing practice. Since year 2000 Egyptian economy was ebbing and flowing dramatically. This staggering fluctuation coupled by energy crisis has disillusioned architects and clients on the issue of modern image making. No more shining architecture under the sun with high running cost of fossil fuel. They sought of adopting contemporary green measures that offer pleasant living while saving on energy. A revival is on its way but is very slow and timid. The paper will present this problem of reviving sustainable architecture. How this process can be accelerated in order to give stronger impact on current practice will be addressed through the works of Mario Cucinella and Norman Foster.

Keywords: LEED certification, Hasan Fathy, Medieval architecture, Mario Cucinella, Norman Foster

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39 Multilingualism in Medieval Romance: A French Case Study

Authors: Brindusa Grigoriu

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Inscribing itself in the field of the history of multilingual communities with a focus on the evolution of language didactics, our paper aims at providing a pragmatic-interactional approach on a corpus proposing to scholars of the international scientific community a relevant text of early modern European literature: the first romance in French, The Conte of Flore and Blanchefleur by Robert d’Orbigny (1150). The multicultural context described by the romance is one in which an Arab-speaking prince, Floire, and his Francophone protégée, Blanchefleur, learn Latin together at the court of Spain and become fluent enough to turn it into the language of their love. This learning process is made up of interactional patterns of affective relevance, in which the proficiency of the protagonists in the domain of emotive acts becomes a matter of linguistic and pragmatic emulation. From five to ten years old, the pupils are efficiently stimulated by their teacher of Latin, Gaidon – a Moorish scholar of the royal entourage – to cultivate their competencies of oral expression and reading comprehension (of Antiquity classics), while enjoying an ever greater freedom of written expression, including the composition of love poems in this second language of culture and emotional education. Another relevant parameter of the educational process at court is that Latin shares its prominent role as a language of culture with French, whose exemplary learner is the (Moorish) queen herself. Indeed, the adult 'First lady' strives to become a pupil benefitting from lifelong learning provided by a fortuitous slave-teacher with little training, her anonymous chambermaid and Blanchefleur’s mother, who, despite her status of a war trophy, enjoys her Majesty’s confidence as a cultural agent of change in linguistic and theological fields. Thus, the two foreign languages taught at Spains’s court, Latin and French – as opposed to Arabic -, suggest a spiritual authority allowing the mutual enrichment of intercultural pioneers of cross-linguistic communication, in the aftermath of religious wars. Durably, and significantly – if not everlastingly – the language of physical violence rooted in intra-cultural solipsism is replaced by two Romance languages which seem to embody, together and yet distinctly, the parlance of peace-making.

Keywords: multilingualism, history of European language learning, French and Latin learners, multicultural context of medieval romance

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38 Transmogrification of the Danse Macabre Image: Capturing the Journey towards Creativity

Authors: Javaria Farooqui

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This study, “Transmogrification of the Danse Macabre Image: Capturing the Journey towards Creativity,” traces the evolution of the concept of Danse Macabre. In Every man death takes away the sinful when they least expect it, in Solyman and Perseda everyone falls prey to death irrespective of their deeds and in Tauba-tun-Nasuh, the sinner is plagued. The climatic point in this brief research comes with the Modern texts, The Moon and Sixpence, Roohe-e-Insani and Amédéé, ou Comment s’en débarrasser, when Danse Macabre extends its boundaries, uniting the idea of creativity with death. Similarly in the visual context, Danse Macabre image, initially a horrifying idea, becomes a part of the present day comics and serves an entertaining rather than a cathartic purpose.

Keywords: Danse macabre, transmogrification, Medieval, death, character

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37 Young’s Modulus Variability: Influence on Masonry Vault Behavior

Authors: Abdelmounaim Zanaz, Sylvie Yotte, Fazia Fouchal, Alaa Chateauneuf

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This paper presents a methodology for probabilistic assessment of bearing capacity and prediction of failure mechanism of masonry vaults at the ultimate state with consideration of the natural variability of Young’s modulus of stones. First, the computation model is explained. The failure mode is the most reported mode, i.e. the four-hinge mechanism. Based on this assumption, the study of a vault composed of 16 segments is presented. The Young’s modulus of the segments is considered as random variable defined by a mean value and a coefficient of variation CV. A relationship linking the vault bearing capacity to the modulus variation of voussoirs is proposed. The failure mechanisms, in addition to that observed in the deterministic case, are identified for each CV value as well as their probability of occurrence. The results show that the mechanism observed in the deterministic case has decreasing probability of occurrence in terms of CV, while the number of other mechanisms and their probability of occurrence increase with the coefficient of variation of Young’s modulus. This means that if a significant change in the Young modulus of the segments is proven, taken it into account in computations becomes mandatory, both for determining the vault bearing capacity and for predicting its failure mechanism.

Keywords: masonry, mechanism, probability, variability, vault

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36 The Hindu Temple: Architecture, Culture and Spirituality

Authors: Tanisha Dutta, Vinayak S. Adane

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A Hindu temple has always been the centre of worldly knowledge, art, culture, and spiritual knowledge. The temple centers and the temple structures alike, teach the observer about all kinds of worldly systems, codes of conduct, performing and other arts etc. During the medieval period, these were the only centers of knowledge. Therefore, these spaces had the burden and responsibility of covering all the various facets of life. It is understandable therefore, that a Hindu temple is easily the confluence of intricate architecture, cultural blossoming and spiritual knowledge transmittance. The architecture of a Hindu temple supports all these in a way that they co-exist and develop a symbiotic relationship, each enhancing the manifested form of the other. This symbiosis is presented through the temples of Khajuraho, India. This paper, therefore, elaborates the finer aspects of the mentioned areas in a Hindu temple context, through the case study of the Khajuraho group of temples.

Keywords: Hindu temples' concept, symbolism, temple architecture

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35 Kitchen Bureaucracy: The Preparation of Banquets for Medieval Japanese Royalty

Authors: Emily Warren

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Despite the growing body of research on Japanese food history, little has been written about the attitudes and perspectives premodern Japanese people held about their food, even on special celebratory days. In fact, the overall image that arises from the literature is one of ambivalence: that the medieval nobility of the Heian and Kamakura periods (795-1333) did not much care about what they ate and for that reason, food seems relatively scarce in certain historical records. This study challenges this perspective by analyzing the manuals written to guide palace management and feast preparation for royals, introducing two of the sources into English for the first time. This research is primarily based on three manuals that address different aspects of royal food culture and preparation. The Chujiruiki, or Record of the Palace Kitchens (1295), is a fragmentary manual written by a bureaucrat in charge of the main palace kitchen office. This document collection details the utensils, furnishing, and courses that officials organized for the royals’ two daily meals in the morning (asagarei gozen) and in the afternoon (hiru gozen) when they enjoyed seven courses, each one carefully cooked and plated. The orchestration of daily meals and frequent banquets would have been complicated affairs for those preparing the tableware and food, thus requiring texts like the Chûjiruiki, as well as another manual, the Nicchûgyôji (11th c.), or The Daily Functions. Because of the complex coordination between various kitchen-related bureaucratic offices, kitchen officials endeavored to standardize the menus and place settings depending on the time of year, religious abstinence days, and available ingredients flowing into the capital as taxes. For the most important annual banquets and rites celebrating deities and the royal family, kitchen officials would likely refer to the Engi Shiki (927), or Protocols of the Engi Era, for details on offerings, servant payments, and menus. This study proposes that many of the great feast events, and indeed even daily meals at the palace, were so standardized and carefully planned for repetition that there would have been little need for the contents of such feasts to be detailed in diaries or novels—places where historians have noted a lack of the mention of food descriptions. These descriptions were not included for lack of interest on the part of the nobility, but rather because knowledge of what would be served at banquets and feasts would be considered a matter-of-course in the same way that a modern American would likely not need to state the menu of a traditional Thanksgiving meal to an American audience. Where food was concerned, novelty more so than tradition prompted a response in personal records, like diaries.

Keywords: banquets, bureaucracy, Engi shiki, Japanese food

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34 Using Shape Memory Alloys for Structural Engineering Applications

Authors: Donatello Cardone

Abstract:

Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have great potential for use in the field of civil engineering. The author of this manuscript has been involved, since 1996, in several experimental and theoretical studies on the application of SMAs in structural engineering, within national and international research projects. This paper provides an overview of the main results achieved, including the conceptual design, implementation, and testing of different SMA-based devices, namely: (i) energy-dissipating braces for RC buildings, (ii) seismic isolation devices for buildings and bridges, (iii) smart tie-rods for arches and vaults and (iv) seismic restrainers for bridges. The main advantages of using SMA-based devices in the seismic protection of structures derive from the double-flag shape of their hysteresis loops, which implies three favourable features, i.e., self-centering capability, good energy dissipation capability, and high stiffness for small displacements. The main advantages of SMA-based units for steel tie-rods are associated with the thermal behaviour of superelastic SMAs, which is antagonistic compared to that of steel. This implies a strong reduction of force changes due to air temperature variations. Finally, SMA-based seismic restrainers proved to be effective in preventing bridge deck unseating and pounding.

Keywords: seismic protection of structures, shape memory alloys, structural engineering, steel tie-rods, seismic restrainers for bridges

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33 Formex Algebra Adaptation into Parametric Design Tools: Dome Structures

Authors: Réka Sárközi, Péter Iványi, Attila B. Széll

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to present the adaptation of the dome construction tool for formex algebra to the parametric design software Grasshopper. Formex algebra is a mathematical system, primarily used for planning structural systems such like truss-grid domes and vaults, together with the programming language Formian. The goal of the research is to allow architects to plan truss-grid structures easily with parametric design tools based on the versatile formex algebra mathematical system. To produce regular structures, coordinate system transformations are used and the dome structures are defined in spherical coordinate system. Owing to the abilities of the parametric design software, it is possible to apply further modifications on the structures and gain special forms. The paper covers the basic dome types, and also additional dome-based structures using special coordinate-system solutions based on spherical coordinate systems. It also contains additional structural possibilities like making double layer grids in all geometry forms. The adaptation of formex algebra and the parametric workflow of Grasshopper together give the possibility of quick and easy design and optimization of special truss-grid domes.

Keywords: parametric design, structural morphology, space structures, spherical coordinate system

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32 Chemical and Oxygen Isotope Analysis of Roman Glasses from Northern Greece

Authors: P. Karalis, E. Dotsika, A. Godelitsas, M. Tassi, D. Ignatiadou

Abstract:

Glass artefacts originated from Northern Greece, dated between 1st and 6th AC, were analyzed for their oxygen isotopic and chemical compositions in order to identify their raw materials provenance. The chemical composition of these glasses is rather heterogeneous although they are all obtained with natron as flux, having both K₂O and MgO contents lower than 1.5 wt%. The majority of these samples have a homogeneous oxygen isotopic composition (𝛿18O= 16‰,), which is equal to or very close to the mean value of “Roman” glass (from about 15‰ to 16.0‰). The rest of the samples present heavily enriched 𝛿18O values that indicate that their raw materials differ from those normally used in Roman and Medieval glass production, and this matches with the possibility of the different origins of these materials. So, all these fragments are soda-lime-silica natron-glass produced from natron, possibly coming from more than one source.

Keywords: ancient glass, provenance of raw materials of ancient glass, roman glass, oxygen isotope analysis in glass

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31 Transformative Concept of Logic to Islamic Science: Reflections on Al-Ghazālī's Influence

Authors: Umar Sheikh Tahir

Abstract:

Before al-Ghazālī, Islamic scholars perceived logic as an intrusive knowledge. The knowledge therefore, did not receive ample attention among scholars on how it should be adapted into Islamic sciences. General scholarship in that period rejects logic as an instrumental knowledge. This attitude became unquestionable to the scholars from different perspectives with diversification of suggestions in the pre-al-Ghazālī’s period. However, al-Ghazālī proclaimed with new perspective that transform Logic from ‘intrusive knowledge’ to a useful tool for Islamic sciences. This study explores the contributions of al-Ghazālī to epistemology regarding the use and the relevance of Logic. The study applies qualitative research methodology dealing strictly with secondary data from medieval age and contemporary sources. The study concludes that al-Ghazālī’s contributions which supported the transformation of Logic to useful tool in the Muslim world were drawn from his experience within Islamic tradition. He succeeded in reconciling Islamic tradition with the wisdom of Greek sciences.

Keywords: Al-Ghazālī, classical logic, epistemology, Islamdom and Islamic sciences

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30 Studying the Function of Green Belt around the Metropolises

Authors: Soroush Mokallaei

Abstract:

Since ancient times, urbanization engineers have always thought of creating green spaces along with urbanization. Athens and Rome have attempted to construct public gardens around streets and palaces. Since then developing green space has become a part of urban civilization. In medieval ages, all Western cities had palaces and houses with internal gardens. In different sources green belt is defined as a green band of trees and bushes around the cities which has multiple functions. It is said that green belts are not only around the mountains, cities, and rivers but also around houses, subways, and highways. Constructing green belt around cities has different advantages such as: protecting cities against pollution, purifying air, screening dust, being a place for recreation, buffer zone of city internal lands, confronting the phenomenon of heat island, increasing agricultural products, helping to prevent illegal city development, confronting deforestation, preventing flood and increasing subterranean water resources.

Keywords: environment, garden cities, green belt, metropolises

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29 The Reason Why Al-Kashi’s Understanding of Islamic Arches Was Wrong

Authors: Amin Moradi, Maryam Moeini

Abstract:

It is a widely held view that Ghiyath al-Din Jamshid-e-Kashani, also known as al-Kashi (1380-1429 CE), was the first who played a significant role in the interaction between mathematicians and architects by introducing theoretical knowledge in Islamic architecture. In academic discourses, geometric rules extracted from his splendid volume titled as Key of Arithmetic has uncritically believed by historians of architecture to contemplate the whole process of arch design all throughout the Islamic buildings. His theories tried to solve the fundamental problem of structural design and to understand what makes an Islamic structure safe or unsafe. As a result, al-Kashi arrived at the conclusion that a safe state of equilibrium is achieved through a specific geometry as a rule. This paper reassesses the stability of al-Kashi's systematized principal forms to evaluate the logic of his hypothesis with a special focus on large spans. Besides the empirical experiences of the author in masonry constructions, the finite element approach was proposed considering the current standards in order to get a better understanding of the validity of geometric rules proposed by al-Kashi for the equilibrium conditions of Islamic masonry arches and vaults. The state of damage of his reference arches under loading condition confirms beyond any doubt that his conclusion of the geometrical configuration measured through his treaties present some serious operational limits and do not go further than some individualized mathematical hypothesis. Therefore, the nature of his mathematical studies regarding Islamic arches is in complete contradiction with the practical knowledge of construction methodology.

Keywords: Jamshid al-Kashani, Islamic architecture, Islamic geometry, construction equilibrium, collapse mechanism

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28 Abraham Ibn Ezra on the Torah’s Authorship

Authors: Eran Viezel

Abstract:

Critical biblical scholarship emerged in the early modern period, yet scholars frequently search for precursors to it among medieval commentators who adopted critical positions—and many mention Abraham Ibn Ezra (Spain–England, 1089–1164/7) in this context. Indeed, in several places, Ibn Ezra claims that there are verses in the Torah that were added to it after the time of Moses; and some major thinkers and scholars in the early modern period (for example, Baruch Spinoza) were aware of these remarks and influenced by them. However, Ibn Ezra’s belief that the Torah includes verses added at a later time is not based on the considerations that led the founders of critical biblical scholarship to their conclusion that Moses did not write the Torah. Ibn Ezra’s positions on the question of the Torah’s authorship are an example of the fact that similarity in conclusions and even in interpretive methodology should not obscure the different interpretive and attitudinal points of departure that distinguish traditional biblical interpretation from a critical biblical scholarship. Ultimately, a chasm exists between the views of Ibn Ezra and those of critical thinkers such as Spinoza.

Keywords: hebrew bible, Abraham Ibn Ezra, exegesis, biblical scholarship

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27 Education and Development: An Overview of Islam

Authors: Rasheed Sanusi Adeleke

Abstract:

Several attempts have been made by scholars, both medieval and contemporary on the impact of Islam on scientific discovery. Lesser attention, however, is always accorded to the historical antecedents of the earlier Muslim scholars, who made frantic efforts towards the discoveries. Islam as a divine religion places high premium on the acquisition of knowledge especially that of sciences. It considers knowledge as a comprehensive whole, which covers both spiritual and material aspects of human life. Islam torches every aspect of human life for the growth, development and advancement of society. Acquisition of knowledge of humanity, social sciences as well as the pure and applied sciences is comprehensively expressed in Islamic education. Not only this, the history portrays the leading indelible roles played by the early Muslims on these various fields of knowledge. That is why Islam has declared acquisition of knowledge compulsory for all Muslims. This paper therefore analyses the contributions of Islam to civilization with particular reference to sciences. It also affirms that Islam is beyond the religion of prayers and rituals. The work is historic, analytic and explorative in nature. Recommendations are also also put forward as suggestions for the present generation cum posterity in general and Muslims in particular.

Keywords: education, development, Islam, development and Islam

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26 Interaction Issues at Patan Stepwell in Western India

Authors: Shekhar Chatterjee

Abstract:

Architectural marvels of the Patan stepwell in Gujarat state in India were studied, to look into the cultural and design attributes in them. Direct observation, photography and interviewing the local people (especially senior citizens) were the methodology adopted. The aim was to look for clues into how culture and design affected architectural marvels of a building and convey that to the tourists. These interpretations from this building can offer many ideas to the contemporary design world in the form of design of modern day garments for various occasions, ornaments or accessory products for daily usage like bags, shoes and similar products. These monuments currently lack proper information system for guiding a tourist. Absence of any qualified tourist guides at the site compounds the problem further. This project investigates the feasibility of making the space more interactive for the tourist through proper digital information design and installations at places. Along with this, illumination and sound are also being used to narrate the history of these ancient monuments so that tourists get a flavor of the medieval past. Most importantly, all these digital interventions are low cost and done with easily available throw-away materials and can be replicated for other monuments as well.

Keywords: interaction, well, building, context

Procedia PDF Downloads 202