Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5735

Search results for: masonry numerical modeling

5735 Behavior of the Masonry Infill in Structures Subjected to the Horizontal Loads

Authors: Mezigheche Nawel, Gouasmia Abdelhacine, Athmani Allaeddine, Merzoud Mouloud


Masonry infill walls are inevitable in the self-supporting structures, but their contribution in the resistance of earthquake loads is generally neglected in the structural analyses. The principal aim of this work through a numerical study of the behavior of masonry infill walls in structures subjected to horizontal load is to propose by finite elements numerical modeling, a more reliable approach, faster and close to reality. In this study, 3D finite element analysis was developed to study the behavior of masonry infill walls in structures subjected to horizontal load: The finite element software being used was ABAQUS, it is observed that more rigidity of the masonry filling is significant, more the structure is rigid, so we can conclude that the filling brings an additional rigidity to the structure not to be neglected. It is also observed that when the framework is subjected to horizontal loads, the framework separates from the filling on the level of the tended diagonal.

Keywords: finite element, masonry infill walls, rigidity of the masonry, tended diagonal

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5734 Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Mustafa Paşa Mosque in Skopje

Authors: Ozden Saygili, Eser Cakti


The masonry building stock in Istanbul and in other cities of Turkey are exposed to significant earthquake hazard. Determination of the safety of masonry structures against earthquakes is a complex challenge. This study deals with experimental tests and non-linear dynamic analysis of masonry structures modeled through discrete element method. The 1:10 scale model of Mustafa Paşa Mosque was constructed and the data were obtained from the sensors on it during its testing on the shake table. The results were used in the calibration/validation of the numerical model created on the basis of the 1:10 scale model built for shake table testing. 3D distinct element model was developed that represents the linear and nonlinear behavior of the shake table model as closely as possible during experimental tests. Results of numerical analyses with those from the experimental program were compared and discussed.

Keywords: dynamic analysis, non-linear modeling, shake table tests, masonry

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
5733 Investigation of Dynamic Heat Transfer in Masonry Walls

Authors: Joelle Al Fakhoury, Emilio Sassine, Yassine Cherif, Joseph Dgheim, Emmanuel Antczak


Hollow block masonry is the most used building technology in the Lebanese context. These blocks are manufactured in an artisanal way and have unknown thermal properties; their overall thermos-physical performance is thus unknown and also poorly investigated scientifically in both single wall and also double wall configurations. In this work, experimental measurements and numerical simulations are performed for a better understanding of the heat transfer in masonry walls. This study was realized using an experimental setup consisting of a masonry hollow block wall (0.1m x 1m x 1m) and two heat boxes, such that each covers one side of the wall. The first is a reference box having a constant interior temperature, and the other is a control box having an adjustable interior temperature. At first, the numerical model is validated using an experimental setup; then 3D numerical analyzes are held in order to investigate the effect of the air gap, the mortar joints, and the plastering on the thermal performance of masonry walls for a better understanding of the heat transfer process and the recommendation of suitable thermal improvements.

Keywords: masonry wall, hollow blocks, heat transfer, wall instrumentation, thermal improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
5732 Numerical Simulations on the Torsional Behavior of Multistory Concrete Masonry Buildings

Authors: Alvaro Jose Cordova, Hsuan Teh Hu


The use of concrete masonry constructions in developing countries has become very frequent, especially for domestic purpose. Most of them with asymmetric wall configurations in plan resulting in significant torsional actions when subjected to seismic loads. The study consisted on the finding of a material model for hollow unreinforced concrete masonry and a validation with experimental data found in literature. Numerical simulations were performed to 20 buildings with variations in wall distributions and heights. Results were analyzed by inspection and with a non-linear static method. The findings revealed that eccentricities as well as structure rigidities have a strong influence on the overall response of concrete masonry buildings. In addition, slab rotations depicted more accurate information about the torsional behavior than maximum versus average displacement ratios. The failure modes in low buildings were characterized by high tensile strains in the first floor. Whereas in tall buildings these strains were lowered significantly by higher compression stresses due to a higher self-weight. These tall buildings developed multiple plastic hinges along the height. Finally, the non-linear static analysis exposed a brittle response for all masonry assemblies. This type of behavior is undesired in any construction and the need for a material model for reinforced masonry is pointed out.

Keywords: concrete damaged plasticity, concrete masonry, macro-modeling, nonlinear static analysis, torsional capacity

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5731 Numerical Modelling of Dry Stone Masonry Structures Based on Finite-Discrete Element Method

Authors: Ž. Nikolić, H. Smoljanović, N. Živaljić


This paper presents numerical model based on finite-discrete element method for analysis of the structural response of dry stone masonry structures under static and dynamic loads. More precisely, each discrete stone block is discretized by finite elements. Material non-linearity including fracture and fragmentation of discrete elements as well as cyclic behavior during dynamic load are considered through contact elements which are implemented within a finite element mesh. The application of the model was conducted on several examples of these structures. The performed analysis shows high accuracy of the numerical results in comparison with the experimental ones and demonstrates the potential of the finite-discrete element method for modelling of the response of dry stone masonry structures.

Keywords: dry stone masonry structures, dynamic load, finite-discrete element method, static load

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5730 Effect of Masonry Infill in R.C. Framed Buildings

Authors: Pallab Das, Nabam Zomleen


Effective dissipation of lateral loads that are coming due to seismic force determines the strength, durability and safety concern of the structure. Masonry infill has high stiffness and strength capabilities which can be put into an effective utilization for lateral load dissipation by incorporating it into building construction, but masonry behaves in highly nonlinear manner, so it is highly important to find out generalized, yet a rational approach to determine its nonlinear behavior and failure mode and it’s response when it is incorporated into building. But most of the countries do not specify the procedure for design of masonry infill wall. Whereas, there are many analytical modeling method available in literature, e.g. equivalent diagonal strut method, finite element modeling etc. In this paper the masonry infill is modeled and 6-storey bare framed building and building with masonry infill is analyzed using SAP-200014 in order to find out inter-storey drift by time-history analysis and capacity curve by Pushover analysis. The analysis shows that, while, the structure is well within CP performance level for both the case, whereas, there is considerable reduction of inter-storey drift of about 28%, when the building is analyzed with masonry infill wall.

Keywords: capacity curve, masonry infill, nonlinear analysis, time history analysis

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5729 Effects of Blast Load on Historic Stone Masonry Buildings in Canada: A Review and Analytical Study

Authors: Abass Braimah, Maha Hussein Abdallah


The global ascendancy of terrorist attacks on building infrastructure with economic and heritage significance has increased awareness of the possibility of terrorism in Canada. Many structures in Canada that are at risk of terrorist attacks include government buildings, built many years ago of historic stone masonry construction. Although many researchers are investigating ways to retrofit masonry stone buildings to mitigate the effect of blast loadings, lack of knowledge on the dynamic behavior of historic stone masonry structures under blast loads makes it difficult to ascertain the effectiveness of the retrofitting techniques. This paper presents a review of open-source literature for the experimental and numerical stone masonry structures under blast loads. This review yielded very little information of the response of the historic stone masonry structures under blast loads. Thus, a comprehensive study is needed to understand the blast load effects on historic stone masonry buildings. The out-of-plane response of historic masonry structures to blast loads is investigated by using single-degree-of-freedom analysis. This approach presents equations that can be used effectively in the analysis of historic masonry walls to out-of-plane blast loading.

Keywords: blast loads, historical buildings, masonry structure, single-degree-of-freedom analysis

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5728 Simulations in Structural Masonry Walls with Chases Horizontal Through Models in State Deformation Plan (2D)

Authors: Raquel Zydeck, Karina Azzolin, Luis Kosteski, Alisson Milani


This work presents numerical models in plane deformations (2D), using the Discrete Element Method formedbybars (LDEM) andtheFiniteElementMethod (FEM), in structuralmasonrywallswith horizontal chasesof 20%, 30%, and 50% deep, located in the central part and 1/3 oftheupperpartofthewall, withcenteredandeccentricloading. Differentcombinationsofboundaryconditionsandinteractionsbetweenthemethodswerestudied.

Keywords: chases in structural masonry walls, discrete element method formed by bars, finite element method, numerical models, boundary condition

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
5727 The Necessity of Retrofitting for Masonry Buildings in Turkey

Authors: Soner Güler, Mustafa Gülen, Eylem Güzel


Masonry buildings constitute major part of building stock in Turkey. Masonry buildings were built up especially in rural areas and underdeveloped regions due to economic reasons. Almost all of these masonry buildings are not designed and detailed according to any design guidelines by designers. As a result of this, masonry buildings were totally collapsed or heavily damaged when subjected to destructive earthquake effects. Thus, these masonry buildings that were built up in our country must be retrofitted to improve their seismic performance. In this study, new seismic retrofitting techniques that is easy to apply and low-cost are summarized and the importance of seismic retrofitting is also emphasized for existing masonry buildings in Turkey.

Keywords: masonry buildings, earthquake effects, seismic retrofitting techniques, seismic performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
5726 Observed Damages to Adobe Masonry Buildings after 2011 Van Earthquake

Authors: Eylem Güzel, Soner Güler, Mustafa Gülen


Masonry is the oldest building materials since ancient times. Adobe, stone, brick are the most widespread materials used in the construction of masonry buildings. Masonry buildings compose of a large part of building stock especially in rural areas and underdeveloped regions of Turkey. The seismic performance of adobe masonry buildings is vulnerable against earthquake effects. In this study, after 2011 Van earthquake with magnitude 7.2 Mw, damages occurred in existing adobe masonry buildings in Van city is investigated. The observed damages and reasons of adobe masonry buildings in design and construction phase are specified and evaluated.

Keywords: adobe masonry buildings, earthquake effects, damages, seismic performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
5725 Better Knowledge and Understanding of the Behavior of Masonry Buildings in Earthquake

Authors: A. R. Mirzaee, M. Khajehpour


Due to Simple Design, reasonable cost and easy implementation most people are reluctant to build buildings with masonry construction. Masonry Structures performance at earthquake are so limited. Of most earthquakes occurred in Iran and other countries, we can easily see that most of the damages are for masonry constructions and this is the evidence that we lack proper understanding of the performance of masonry buildings in earthquake. In this paper, according to field studies, conducted in past earthquakes. To evaluate the strengths and weaknesses points of the masonry constructions and also provide a solution to prevent such damage should be presented, and also program Examples of the correct bearing wall and tie-column design with the valid regulations (MSJC-08 (ASD)) will be explained.

Keywords: Masonry constructions, performance at earthquake, MSJC-08 (ASD), bearing wall, tie-column

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5724 Modeling of Masonry In-Filled R/C Frame to Evaluate Seismic Performance of Existing Building

Authors: Tarek M. Alguhane, Ayman H. Khalil, M. N. Fayed, Ayman M. Ismail


This paper deals with different modeling aspects of masonry infill: no infill model, Layered shell infill model, and strut infill model. These models consider the complicated behavior of the in-filled plane frames under lateral load similar to an earthquake load. Three strut infill models are used: NBCC (2005) strut infill model, ASCE/SEI 41-06 strut infill model and proposed strut infill model based on modification to Canadian, NBCC (2005) strut infill model. Pushover and modal analyses of a masonry infill concrete frame with a single storey and an existing 5-storey RC building have been carried out by using different models for masonry infill. The corresponding hinge status, the value of base shear at target displacement as well as their dynamic characteristics have been determined and compared. A validation of the structural numerical models for the existing 5-storey RC building has been achieved by comparing the experimentally measured and the analytically estimated natural frequencies and their mode shapes. This study shows that ASCE/SEI 41-06 equation underestimates the values for the equivalent properties of the diagonal strut while Canadian, NBCC (2005) equation gives realistic values for the equivalent properties. The results indicate that both ASCE/SEI 41-06 and Canadian, NBCC (2005) equations for strut infill model give over estimated values for dynamic characteristic of the building. Proposed modification to Canadian, NBCC (2005) equation shows that the fundamental dynamic characteristic values of the building are nearly similar to the corresponding values using layered shell elements as well as measured field results.

Keywords: masonry infill, framed structures, RC buildings, non-structural elements

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5723 Experimental and Numerical Analysis of a Historical Bell Tower

Authors: Milorad Pavlovic, Sebastiano Trevisani, Antonella Cecchi


In this paper, a procedure for the evaluation of seismic behavior of slender masonry structures (towers, bell towers, chimneys, minarets, etc.) is presented. The presented procedure is based on a full three-dimensional modal analyses and frequency measurements. As well-known, masonry is a composite material formed by bricks, or stone blocks, and mortar arranged more or less regularly and adopted for many centuries as structural material. Dynamic actions may represent the major risk of collapse of brickworks, and despite the progress achieved so far in science and mechanics; the assessment of their seismic performance remains a challenging task. Then, reliable physical and numerical models are worthy of recommendation. In this paper, attention is paid to the historical bell tower of the Basilica of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari - usually called Frari - one of the greatest churches in Venice, Italy.

Keywords: bell tower, FEM, masonry, modal analysis, non-destructive testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
5722 Structural Engineering Forensic Evaluation of Misdiagnosed Concrete Masonry Wall Cracking

Authors: W. C. Bracken


Given that concrete masonry walls are expected to experience shrinkage combined with thermal expansion and contraction, and in some cases even carbonation, throughout their service life, cracking is to be expected. However, after concrete masonry walls have been placed into service, originally anticipated and accounted for cracking is often misdiagnosed as a structural defect. Such misdiagnoses often result in or are used to support litigation. This paper begins by discussing the causes and types of anticipated cracking within concrete masonry walls followed by a discussion on the processes and analyses that exists for properly evaluating them and their significance. From here, the paper then presents a case of misdiagnosed concrete masonry cracking and the flawed logic employed to support litigation.

Keywords: concrete masonry, masonry wall cracking, structural defect, structural damage, construction defect, forensic investigation

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5721 Experimental Investigation on the Mechanical Behaviour of Three-Leaf Masonry Walls under In-Plane Loading

Authors: Osama Amer, Yaser Abdel-Aty, Mohamed Abd El Hady


The present paper illustrates an experimental approach to provide understanding of the mechanical behavior and failure mechanisms of different typologies of unreinforced three-leaf masonry walls of historical Islamic architectural heritage in Egypt. The main objective of this study is to investigate the propagation of possible cracking, ultimate load, deformations and failure mechanisms. Experimental data on interface-shear and compression tests on large scale three-leaf masonry wallets are provided. The wallets were built basically of Egyptian limestone and modified lime mortar. External wallets were built of stone blocks while the inner leaf was built of rubble limestone. Different loading conditions and dimensions of core layer for two types of collar joints (with and without shear keys) are considered in the tests. Mechanical properties of the constituent materials of masonry were tested and a database of characteristic properties was created. The results of the experiments will highlight the properties, force-displacement curves, stress distribution of multiple-leaf masonry walls contributing to the derivation of rational design rules and validation of numerical models.

Keywords: masonry, three-leaf walls, mechanical behavior, testing, architectural heritage

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5720 Behavior of Common Philippine-Made Concrete Hollow Block Structures Subjected to Seismic Load Using Rigid Body Spring-Discrete Element Method

Authors: Arwin Malabanan, Carl Chester Ragudo, Jerome Tadiosa, John Dee Mangoba, Eric Augustus Tingatinga, Romeo Eliezer Longalong


Concrete hollow blocks (CHB) are the most commonly used masonry block for walls in residential houses, school buildings and public buildings in the Philippines. During the recent 2013 Bohol earthquake (Mw 7.2), it has been proven that CHB walls are very vulnerable to severe external action like strong ground motion. In this paper, a numerical model of CHB structures is proposed, and seismic behavior of CHB houses is presented. In modeling, the Rigid Body Spring-Discrete Element method (RBS-DEM)) is used wherein masonry blocks are discretized into rigid elements and connected by nonlinear springs at preselected contact points. The shear and normal stiffness of springs are derived from the material properties of CHB unit incorporating the grout and mortar fillings through the volumetric transformation of the dimension using material ratio. Numerical models of reinforced and unreinforced walls are first subjected to linearly-increasing in plane loading to observe the different failure mechanisms. These wall models are then assembled to form typical model masonry houses and then subjected to the El Centro and Pacoima earthquake records. Numerical simulations show that the elastic, failure and collapse behavior of the model houses agree well with shaking table tests results. The effectiveness of the method in replicating failure patterns will serve as a basis for the improvement of the design and provides a good basis of strengthening the structure.

Keywords: concrete hollow blocks, discrete element method, earthquake, rigid body spring model

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5719 Properties of Modified Dry Masonry Mixtures for Effective Masonry Units

Authors: Vyacheslav S. Semenov, Tamara A. Rozovskaya


The paper is devoted to the problem of the development of dry light-weight mixtures with hollow ceramics microspheres (CMS) for masonry works. For the one-layer fencing structures including effective masonry units, the use of “warm” masonry mortars is necessary. The used light-weight masonry mortars do not provide the brand strength and thermal uniformity of the fencing structures because of high average density. The CMS are effective light-weight aggregate for such mortars. The influence of the dosage of CMS on the physics-and-mechanics parameters and the technological properties of the masonry mortars were studied. The optimal mixture compositions have been obtained and their main properties have been determined. The influence of an air-entraining admixture and redispersible polymer powders on the average density and physics-and-mechanics parameters of the masonry mortars were studied. The optimal compositions of light-weight dry masonry mixtures with CMS have been suggested.

Keywords: dry mortar mixtures, light-weight dry mixtures, hollow ceramics microspheres, masonry mortars, “warm” mortars, air-entraining admixture, redispersible polymer powders

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5718 Development of Palm Kernel Shell Lightweight Masonry Mortar

Authors: Kazeem K. Adewole


There need to construct building walls with lightweight masonry bricks/blocks and mortar to reduce the weight and cost of cooling/heating of buildings in hot/cold climates is growing partly due to legislations on energy use and global warming. In this paper, the development of Palm Kernel Shell masonry mortar (PKSMM) prepared with Portland cement and crushed PKS fine aggregate (an agricultural waste) is demonstrated. We show that PKSMM can be used as a lightweight mortar for the construction of lightweight masonry walls with good thermal insulation efficiency than the natural river sand commonly used for masonry mortar production.

Keywords: building walls, fine aggregate, lightweight masonry mortar, palm kernel shell, wall thermal insulation efficacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
5717 Development and Application of an Intelligent Masonry Modulation in BIM Tools: Literature Review

Authors: Sara A. Ben Lashihar


The heritage building information modelling (HBIM) of the historical masonry buildings has expanded lately to meet the urgent needs for conservation and structural analysis. The masonry structures are unique features for ancient building architectures worldwide that have special cultural, spiritual, and historical significance. However, there is a research gap regarding the reliability of the HBIM modeling process of these structures. The HBIM modeling process of the masonry structures faces significant challenges due to the inherent complexity and uniqueness of their structural systems. Most of these processes are based on tracing the point clouds and rarely follow documents, archival records, or direct observation. The results of these techniques are highly abstracted models where the accuracy does not exceed LOD 200. The masonry assemblages, especially curved elements such as arches, vaults, and domes, are generally modeled with standard BIM components or in-place models, and the brick textures are graphically input. Hence, future investigation is necessary to establish a methodology to generate automatically parametric masonry components. These components are developed algorithmically according to mathematical and geometric accuracy and the validity of the survey data. The main aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the state of the art of the existing researches and papers that have been conducted on the HBIM modeling of the masonry structural elements and the latest approaches to achieve parametric models that have both the visual fidelity and high geometric accuracy. The paper reviewed more than 800 articles, proceedings papers, and book chapters focused on "HBIM and Masonry" keywords from 2017 to 2021. The studies were downloaded from well-known, trusted bibliographic databases such as Web of Science, Scopus, Dimensions, and Lens. As a starting point, a scientometric analysis was carried out using VOSViewer software. This software extracts the main keywords in these studies to retrieve the relevant works. It also calculates the strength of the relationships between these keywords. Subsequently, an in-depth qualitative review followed the studies with the highest frequency of occurrence and the strongest links with the topic, according to the VOSViewer's results. The qualitative review focused on the latest approaches and the future suggestions proposed in these researches. The findings of this paper can serve as a valuable reference for researchers, and BIM specialists, to make more accurate and reliable HBIM models for historic masonry buildings.

Keywords: HBIM, masonry, structure, modeling, automatic, approach, parametric

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
5716 Understanding Seismic Behavior of Masonry Buildings in Earthquake

Authors: Alireza Mirzaee, Soosan Abdollahi, Mohammad Abdollahi


Unreinforced Masonry (URM) wall is vulnerable in resisting horizontal load such as wind and seismic loading. It is due to the low tensile strength of masonry, the mortar connection between the brick units. URM structures are still widely used in the world as an infill wall and commonly constructed with door and window openings. This research aimed to investigate the behavior of URM wall with openings when horizontal load acting on it and developed load-drift relationship of the wall. The finite element (FE) method was chosen to numerically simulate the behavior of URM with openings. In this research, ABAQUS, commercially available FE software with explicit solver was employed. In order to ensure the numerical model can accurately represent the behavior of an URM wall, the model was validated for URM wall without openings using available experimental results. Load-displacement relationship of numerical model is well agreed with experimental results. Evidence shows the same load displacement curve shape obtained from the FE model. After validating the model, parametric study conducted on URM wall with openings to investigate the influence of area of openings and pre-compressive load on the horizontal load capacity of the wall. The result showed that the increasing of area of openings decreases the capacity of the wall in resisting horizontal loading. It is also well observed from the result that capacity of the wall increased with the increasing of pre-compressive load applied on the top of the walls.

Keywords: masonry constructions, performance at earthquake, MSJC-08 (ASD), bearing wall, tie-column

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5715 The Behavior of Masonry Wall Constructed Using Biaxial Interlocking Concrete Block, Solid Concrete Block and Cement Sand Brick Subjected to the Compressive Load

Authors: Fauziah Aziz, Mohd.fadzil Arshad, Hazrina Mansor, Sedat Kömürcü


Masonry is an isotropic and heterogeneous material due to the presence of the different components within the assembly process. Normally the mortar plays a significant role in the compressive behavior of the traditional masonry structures. Biaxial interlocking concrete block is a masonry unit that comes out with the interlocking concept. This masonry unit can improve the quality of the construction process, reduce the cost of labor, reduce high skill workmanship, and speeding the construction time. Normally, the interlocking concrete block masonry unit in the market place was designed in a way interlocking concept only either x or y-axis, shorter in length, and low compressive strength value. However, the biaxial interlocking concrete block is a dry-stack concept being introduced in this research, offered the specialty compared to the normal interlocking concrete available in the market place due to its length and the geometry of the groove and tongue. This material can be used as a non-load bearing wall, or load-bearing wall depends on the application of the masonry. But, there is a lack of technical data that was produced before. This paper presents a finding on the compressive resistance of the biaxial interlocking concrete block masonry wall compared to the other traditional masonry walls. Two series of biaxial interlocking concrete block masonry walls, namely M1 and M2, a series of solid concrete block and cement sand brick walls M3, and M4 have tested the compressive resistance. M1 is the masonry wall of a hollow biaxial interlocking concrete block meanwhile; M2 is the grouted masonry wall, M3 is a solid concrete block masonry wall, and M4 is a cement sand brick masonry wall. All the samples were tested under static compressive load. The results examine that M2 is higher in compressive resistance compared to the M1, M3, and M4. It shows that the compressive strength of the concrete masonry units plays a significant role in the capacity of the masonry wall.

Keywords: interlocking concrete block, compressive resistance, concrete masonry unit, masonry

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
5714 Improving the Residence Time of a Rectangular Contact Tank by Varying the Geometry Using Numerical Modeling

Authors: Yamileth P. Herrera, Ronald R. Gutierrez, Carlos, Pacheco-Bustos


This research aims at the numerical modeling of a rectangular contact tank in order to improve the hydrodynamic behavior and the retention time of the water to be treated with the disinfecting agent. The methodology to be followed includes a hydraulic analysis of the tank to observe the fluid velocities, which will allow evidence of low-speed areas that may generate pathogenic agent incubation or high-velocity areas, which may decrease the optimal contact time between the disinfecting agent and the microorganisms to be eliminated. Based on the results of the numerical model, the efficiency of the tank under the geometric and hydraulic conditions considered will be analyzed. This would allow the performance of the tank to be improved before starting a construction process, thus avoiding unnecessary costs.

Keywords: contact tank, numerical models, hydrodynamic modeling, residence time

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5713 Large Scale Method to Assess the Seismic Vulnerability of Heritage Buidings: Modal Updating of Numerical Models and Vulnerability Curves

Authors: Claire Limoge Schraen, Philippe Gueguen, Cedric Giry, Cedric Desprez, Frédéric Ragueneau


Mediterranean area is characterized by numerous monumental or vernacular masonry structures illustrating old ways of build and live. Those precious buildings are often poorly documented, present complex shapes and loadings, and are protected by the States, leading to legal constraints. This area also presents a moderate to high seismic activity. Even moderate earthquakes can be magnified by local site effects and cause collapse or significant damage. Moreover the structural resistance of masonry buildings, especially when less famous or located in rural zones has been generally lowered by many factors: poor maintenance, unsuitable restoration, ambient pollution, previous earthquakes. Recent earthquakes prove that any damage to these architectural witnesses to our past is irreversible, leading to the necessity of acting preventively. This means providing preventive assessments for hundreds of structures with no or few documents. In this context we want to propose a general method, based on hierarchized numerical models, to provide preliminary structural diagnoses at a regional scale, indicating whether more precise investigations and models are necessary for each building. To this aim, we adapt different tools, being developed such as photogrammetry or to be created such as a preprocessor starting from pictures to build meshes for a FEM software, in order to allow dynamic studies of the buildings of the panel. We made an inventory of 198 baroque chapels and churches situated in the French Alps. Then their structural characteristics have been determined thanks field surveys and the MicMac photogrammetric software. Using structural criteria, we determined eight types of churches and seven types for chapels. We studied their dynamical behavior thanks to CAST3M, using EC8 spectrum and accelerogramms of the studied zone. This allowed us quantifying the effect of the needed simplifications in the most sensitive zones and choosing the most effective ones. We also proposed threshold criteria based on the observed damages visible in the in situ surveys, old pictures and Italian code. They are relevant in linear models. To validate the structural types, we made a vibratory measures campaign using vibratory ambient noise and velocimeters. It also allowed us validating this method on old masonry and identifying the modal characteristics of 20 churches. Then we proceeded to a dynamic identification between numerical and experimental modes. So we updated the linear models thanks to material and geometrical parameters, often unknown because of the complexity of the structures and materials. The numerically optimized values have been verified thanks to the measures we made on the masonry components in situ and in laboratory. We are now working on non-linear models redistributing the strains. So we validate the damage threshold criteria which we use to compute the vulnerability curves of each defined structural type. Our actual results show a good correlation between experimental and numerical data, validating the final modeling simplifications and the global method. We now plan to use non-linear analysis in the critical zones in order to test reinforcement solutions.

Keywords: heritage structures, masonry numerical modeling, seismic vulnerability assessment, vibratory measure

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5712 The Review for Repair of Masonry Structures Using the Crack Stitching Technique

Authors: Sandile Daniel Ngidi


Masonry structures often crack due to different factors, which include differential movement of structures, thermal expansion, and seismic waves. Retrofitting is introduced to ensure that these cracks do not expand to a point of making the wall fail. Crack stitching is one of many repairing methods used to repair cracked masonry walls. It is done by stitching helical stainless steel reinforcement bars to reconnect and stabilize the wall. The basic element of this reinforcing system is the mechanical interlink between the helical stainless-steel bar and the grout, which makes it such a flexible and well-known masonry repair system. The objective of this review was to use previous experimental work done by different authors to check the efficiency and effectiveness of using the crack stitching technique to repair and stabilize masonry walls. The technique was found to be effective to rejuvenate the strength of a masonry structure to be stronger than initial strength. Different factors were investigated, which include economic features, sustainability, buildability, and suitability of this technique for application in developing communities.

Keywords: brickforce, crack-stitching, masonry concrete, reinforcement, wall panels

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5711 Impact of Masonry Joints on Detection of Humidity Distribution in Aerated Concrete Masonry Constructions by Electric Impedance Spectrometry Measurements

Authors: Sanita Rubene, Martins Vilnitis, Juris Noviks


Aerated concrete is a load bearing construction material, which has high heat insulation parameters. Walls can be erected from aerated concrete masonry constructions and in perfect circumstances additional heat insulation is not required. The most common problem in aerated concrete heat insulation properties is the humidity distribution throughout the cross section of the masonry elements as well as proper and conducted drying process of the aerated concrete construction because only dry aerated concrete masonry constructions can reach high heat insulation parameters. In order to monitor drying process of the masonry and detect humidity distribution throughout the cross section of aerated concrete masonry construction application of electrical impedance spectrometry is applied. Further test results and methodology of this non-destructive testing method is described in this paper.

Keywords: aerated concrete, electrical impedance spectrometry, humidity distribution, non-destructive testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
5710 Effect of Infill Walls on Response of Multi Storey Reinforced Concrete Structure

Authors: Ayman Abd-Elhamed, Sayed Mahmoud


The present research work investigates the seismic response of reinforced concrete (RC) frame building considering the effect of modeling masonry infill (MI) walls. The seismic behavior of a residential 6-storey RC frame building, considering and ignoring the effect of masonry, is numerically investigated using response spectrum (RS) analysis. The considered herein building is designed as a moment resisting frame (MRF) system following the Egyptian code (EC) requirements. Two developed models in terms of bare frame and infill walls frame are used in the study. Equivalent diagonal strut methodology is used to represent the behavior of infill walls, whilst the well-known software package ETABS is used for implementing all frame models and performing the analysis. The results of the numerical simulations such as base shear, displacements, and internal forces for the bare frame as well as the infill wall frame are presented in a comparative way. The results of the study indicate that the interaction between infill walls and frames significantly change the responses of buildings during earthquakes compared to the results of bare frame building model. Specifically, the seismic analysis of RC bare frame structure leads to underestimation of base shear and consequently damage or even collapse of buildings may occur under strong shaking. On the other hand, considering infill walls significantly decrease the peak floor displacements and drifts in both X and Y-directions.

Keywords: masonry infill, bare frame, response spectrum, seismic response

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5709 Numerical Modeling of a Retaining Wall in Soil Reinforced by Layers of Geogrids

Authors: M. Mellas, S. Baaziz, A. Mabrouki, D. Benmeddour


The reinforcement of massifs of backfill with horizontal layers of geosynthetics is an interesting economic solution, which ensures the stability of retaining walls. The mechanical behavior of reinforced soil by geosynthetic is complex, and requires studies and research to understand the mechanisms of rupture. The behavior of reinforcements in the soil and the behavior of the main elements of the system: reinforcement-wall-soil. The present study is interested in numerical modeling of a retaining wall in soil reinforced by horizontal layers of geogrids. This modeling makes use of the software FLAC3D. This work aims to analyze the effect of the length of the geogrid "L" where the soil massif is supporting a uniformly distributed surcharge "Q", taking into account the fixing elements rather than the layers of geogrids to the wall.

Keywords: retaining wall, geogrid, reinforced soil, numerical modeling, FLAC3D

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5708 Evaluation of Flange Effects on the Lateral In-Plane Response of Brick Masonry Walls

Authors: Hizb Ullah Sajid, Muhammad Ashraf, Naveed Ahmad Qaisar Ali, Sikandar Hayat Sajid


This research study investigates experimentally the effects of flanges (transverse walls) on the lateral in-plane response of brick masonry walls. The experimental work included lateral in-plane quasi-static cyclic tests on full-scale walls (both with & without flanges). The flanges were introduced at both ends of the in-plane wall. In particular the damage mechanism, lateral in-plane stiffness & strength, deformability and energy dissipation of the two classes of walls are compared and the differences are quantified to help understand the effects of flanges on the in-plane response of masonry walls. The available analytical models for the in-plane shear strength & deformation evaluation of masonry walls are critically analyzed. Recommendations are made for the lateral in-plane capacity assessment of brick masonry walls including the contribution of transverse walls.

Keywords: brick masonry, damage mechanism, flanges effects, in-plane response

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5707 The Effect of an Infill on the Bearing Capacity and Stiffness of Infilled Frames

Authors: Goran Baloevic, Jure Radnic, Nikola Grgic


The application of frames with masonry or panel infill is common in the engineering practice. In these cases, a frame is often considered to be a primary structure, while an infill is considered to be a secondary structure. In past calculations, the infill was rarely included in the design of frame structures in terms of their bearing capacity and safety. Recent calculations of such structures necessarily include the effect of infill since it contributes to stiffness and bearing capacity of overall system, especially under horizontal loads. In certain cases, if the infill is not included in the seismic design of frame structures, the result can be lower design safety. However, since the different configuration of the infill through the building’s height can be made, it is possible that contribution of such infill to the overall bearing capacity can be lower and seismic forces on the building can be increased due to greater stiffness of the structure. So far, many experimental and numerical researches on the behavior of infilled frames under horizontal static forces and earthquake have been performed. In this paper, several masonry-infilled concrete and steel frames under horizontal static forces and earthquake are analysed. The experimental results by shake-table and numerical results are compared in terms of the bearing capacity of bare and infilled frames. Herein, the stiffness of frames and infill were varied, with different position of the infill and different types of openings. Cases with positive and negative effects of the infill to the bearing capacity of the frames were considered. Finally, main conclusions and recommendations for practical application and design of masonry-infilled concrete and steel frames are given.

Keywords: bearing capacity, infilled frame, numerical model, shake table

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5706 Experimental Approach and Numerical Modeling of Thermal Properties of Porous Materials: Application to Construction Materials

Authors: Nassima Sotehi


This article presents experimental and numerical results concerning the thermal properties of the porous materials used as heat insulator in the buildings sector. Initially, the thermal conductivity of three types of studied walls (classic concrete, concrete with cork aggregate and polystyrene concrete) was measured in experiments by the method of the boxes. Then a numerical modeling of the heat and mass transfers which occur within porous materials was applied to these walls. This work shows the influence of the presence of water in building materials on their thermophysical properties, as well as influence of the nature of materials and dosage of fibers introduced within these materials on the thermal and mass transfers.

Keywords: modeling, porous media, thermal materials, thermal properties

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