Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13443

Search results for: local area network

13443 Performance of Total Vector Error of an Estimated Phasor within Local Area Networks

Authors: Ahmed Abdolkhalig, Rastko Zivanovic

Abstract:

This paper evaluates the Total Vector Error of an estimated Phasor as define in IEEE C37.118 standard within different medium access in Local Area Networks (LAN). Three different LAN models (CSMA/CD, CSMA/AMP, and Switched Ethernet) are evaluated. The Total Vector Error of the estimated Phasor has been evaluated for the effect of Nodes Number under the standardized network Band-width values defined in IEC 61850-9-2 communication standard (i.e. 0.1, 1, and 10 Gbps).

Keywords: phasor, local area network, total vector error, IEEE C37.118, IEC 61850

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13442 Design and Implementation of Campus Wireless Networking for Sharing Resources in Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria

Authors: Hassan Abubakar

Abstract:

This paper will serve as a guide to good design and implementation of wireless networking for campus institutions in Nigeria. It can be implemented throughout the primary, secondary and tertiary institutions. This paper describe the some technical functions, standard configurations and layouts of the 802.11 wireless LAN(Local Area Network) that can be implemented across the campus network. The paper also touches upon the wireless infrastructure standards involved with enhanced services, such as voice over wireless and wireless guest hotspot. The paper also touch the benefits derived from implementing campus wireless network and share some lights on how to arrive at the success in increasing the performance of wireless and using the campus wireless to share resources like software applications, printer and documents.

Keywords: networking, standards, wireless local area network (WLAN), radio frequency (RF), campus

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13441 Analyzing the Impact of DCF and PCF on WLAN Network Standards 802.11a, 802.11b, and 802.11g

Authors: Amandeep Singh Dhaliwal

Abstract:

Networking solutions, particularly wireless local area networks have revolutionized the technological advancement. Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) have gained a lot of popularity as they provide location-independent network access between computing devices. There are a number of access methods used in Wireless Networks among which DCF and PCF are the fundamental access methods. This paper emphasizes on the impact of DCF and PCF access mechanisms on the performance of the IEEE 802.11a, 802.11b and 802.11g standards. On the basis of various parameters viz. throughput, delay, load etc performance is evaluated between these three standards using above mentioned access mechanisms. Analysis revealed a superior throughput performance with low delays for 802.11g standard as compared to 802.11 a/b standard using both DCF and PCF access methods.

Keywords: DCF, IEEE, PCF, WLAN

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13440 Monitoring of Water Quality Using Wireless Sensor Network: Case Study of Benue State of Nigeria

Authors: Desmond Okorie, Emmanuel Prince

Abstract:

Availability of portable water has been a global challenge especially to the developing continents/nations such as Africa/Nigeria. The World Health Organization WHO has produced the guideline for drinking water quality GDWQ which aims at ensuring water safety from source to consumer. Portable water parameters test include physical (colour, odour, temperature, turbidity), chemical (PH, dissolved solids) biological (algae, plytoplankton). This paper discusses the use of wireless sensor networks to monitor water quality using efficient and effective sensors that have the ability to sense, process and transmit sensed data. The integration of wireless sensor network to a portable sensing device offers the feasibility of sensing distribution capability, on site data measurements and remote sensing abilities. The current water quality tests that are performed in government water quality institutions in Benue State Nigeria are carried out in problematic locations that require taking manual water samples to the institution laboratory for examination, to automate the entire process based on wireless sensor network, a system was designed. The system consists of sensor node containing one PH sensor, one temperature sensor, a microcontroller, a zigbee radio and a base station composed by a zigbee radio and a PC. Due to the advancement of wireless sensor network technology, unexpected contamination events in water environments can be observed continuously. local area network (LAN) wireless local area network (WLAN) and internet web-based also commonly used as a gateway unit for data communication via local base computer using standard global system for mobile communication (GSM). The improvement made on this development show a water quality monitoring system and prospect for more robust and reliable system in the future.

Keywords: local area network, Ph measurement, wireless sensor network, zigbee

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13439 Air Cargo Network Structure Characteristics and Robustness Analysis under the Belt and Road Area

Authors: Feng-jie Xie, Jian-hong Yan

Abstract:

Based on the complex network theory, we construct the air cargo network of the Belt and Road area, analyze its regional distribution and structural characteristics, measure the robustness of the network. The regional distribution results show that Southeast Asia and China have the most prominent development in the air cargo network of the Belt and Road area, Central Asia is the least developed. The structure characteristics found that the air cargo network has obvious small-world characteristics; the degree distribution has single-scale property; it shows a significant rich-club phenomenon simultaneously. The network robustness is measured by two attack strategies of degree and betweenness, but the betweenness of network nodes has a greater impact on network connectivity. And identified 24 key cities that have a large impact on the robustness of the network under the two attack strategies. Based on these results, recommendations are given to maintain the air cargo network connectivity in the Belt and Road area.

Keywords: air cargo, complex network, robustness, structure properties, The Belt and Road

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13438 Design of Local Interconnect Network Controller for Automotive Applications

Authors: Jong-Bae Lee, Seongsoo Lee

Abstract:

Local interconnect network (LIN) is a communication protocol that combines sensors, actuators, and processors to a functional module in automotive applications. In this paper, a LIN ver. 2.2A controller was designed in Verilog hardware description language (Verilog HDL) and implemented in field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Its operation was verified by making full-scale LIN network with the presented FPGA-implemented LIN controller, commercial LIN transceivers, and commercial processors. When described in Verilog HDL and synthesized in 0.18 μm technology, its gate size was about 2,300 gates.

Keywords: local interconnect network, controller, transceiver, processor

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13437 Design of Compact Dual-Band Planar Antenna for WLAN Systems

Authors: Anil Kumar Pandey

Abstract:

A compact planar monopole antenna with dual-band operation suitable for wireless local area network (WLAN) application is presented in this paper. The antenna occupies an overall area of 18 ×12 mm2. The antenna is fed by a coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission line and it combines two folded strips, which radiates at 2.4 and 5.2 GHz. In the proposed antenna, by optimally selecting the antenna dimensions, dual-band resonant modes with a much wider impedance matching at the higher band can be produced. Prototypes of the obtained optimized design have been simulated using EM solver. The simulated results explore good dual-band operation with -10 dB impedance bandwidths of 50 MHz and 2400 MHz at bands of 2.4 and 5.2 GHz, respectively, which cover the 2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz WLAN operating bands. Good antenna performances such as radiation patterns and antenna gains over the operating bands have also been observed. The antenna with a compact size of 18×12×1.6 mm3 is designed on an FR4 substrate with a dielectric constant of 4.4.

Keywords: CPW antenna, dual-band, electromagnetic simulation, wireless local area network (WLAN)

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13436 On the Performance Analysis of Coexistence between IEEE 802.11g and IEEE 802.15.4 Networks

Authors: Chompunut Jantarasorn, Chutima Prommak

Abstract:

This paper presents an intensive measurement studying of the network performance analysis when IEEE 802.11g Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) coexisting with IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN). The measurement results show that the coexistence between both networks could increase the Frame Error Rate (FER) of the IEEE 802.15.4 networks up to 60% and it could decrease the throughputs of the IEEE 802.11g networks up to 55%.

Keywords: wireless performance analysis, coexistence analysis, IEEE 802.11g, IEEE 802.15.4

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13435 Cellular Mobile Telecommunication GSM Radio Base Station Network Planning

Authors: Saeed Alzahrani, Yaser Miaji

Abstract:

The project involves the design and simulation of a Mobile Cellular Telecommunication Network using the software tool CelPlanner. The design is mainly concerned with Global System for Mobile Communications . The design and simulation of the network is done for a small part of the area allocated for us in the terrain area of Shreveport city .The project is concerned with designing a network that is cost effective and which also efficiently meets the required Grade of Service (GOS) AND Quality of Service (QOS).The expected outcome of this project is the design of a network that gives a good coverage for the area allocated to us with minimum co-channel interference and adjacent channel interference. The Handover and Traffic Handling Capacity should also be taken into consideration and should be good for the given area . The Traffic Handling Capacity of the network in a way decides whether the designed network is good or bad . The design also takes into consideration the topographical and morphological information.

Keywords: mobile communication, GSM, radio base station, network planning

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13434 Optimization of Interface Radio of Universal Mobile Telecommunication System Network

Authors: O. Mohamed Amine, A. Khireddine

Abstract:

Telecoms operators are always looking to meet their share of the other customers, they try to gain optimum utilization of the deployed equipment and network optimization has become essential. This project consists of optimizing UMTS network, and the study area is an urban area situated in the center of Algiers. It was initially questions to become familiar with the different communication systems (3G) and the optimization technique, its main components, and its fundamental characteristics radios were introduced.

Keywords: UMTS, UTRAN, WCDMA, optimization

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13433 An Assessment of the Impact of Safe Motherhood Initiative on Maternal Health of Women in Gumel Local Government Area of Jigawa State, Nigeria

Authors: Ahmed Mudi, Bala Zakar

Abstract:

The paper assesses the impact of safe motherhood initiative on maternal health of women in Gumel Local Government Area of Jigawa State. The work will specifically concentrate on the background on safe motherhood scheme and maternal health of women. The objective of this paper is to assess the level of safe motherhood scheme in Gumel local government area, to find out the level of maternal health in Gumel local government as well as to determine the impact of safe motherhood scheme on maternal health on women in Gumel Local Government Area Jigawa State. Various literature on the topic are reviewed, the paper adopts survey design and use questionnaire to collect data from the respondent. The study comprises 350 women selected from six rural communities in Gumel using random sampling techniques, and the data was analysed by simple frequency and percentage. The research concluded that safe motherhood initiative has a significant impact on the maternal health of women in Gumel Local Government Area of Jigawa State. Finally, suitable recommendations were given on how to improve the scheme to ensure better maternal health in the region.

Keywords: action, assessment, maternal health, safe motherhood, surgery

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13432 Examples of Techniques and Algorithms Used in Wlan Security

Authors: Vahid Bairami Rad

Abstract:

Wireless communications offer organizations and users many benefits such as portability and flexibility, increased productivity, and lower installation costs. Wireless networks serve as the transport mechanism between devices and among devices and the traditional wired networks (enterprise networks and the internet). Wireless networks are many and diverse but are frequently categorized into three groups based on their coverage range: WWAN, WLAN, and WPAN. WWAN, representing wireless wide area networks, includes wide coverage area technologies such as 2G cellular, Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD), Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), and Mobitex. WLAN, representing wireless local area networks, includes 802.11, Hyper lan, and several others. WPAN, represents wireless personal area network technologies such as Bluetooth and Infrared. The security services are provided largely by the WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) protocol to protect link-level data during wireless transmission between clients and access points. That is, WEP does not provide end-to-end security but only for the wireless portion of the connection.

Keywords: wireless lan, wired equivalent privacy, wireless network security, wlan security

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13431 Measurement and Analysis of Building Penetration Loss for Mobile Networks in Tripoli Area

Authors: Tammam A. Benmusa, Mohamed A. Shlibek, Rawad M. Swesi

Abstract:

The investigation of Buildings Penetration Loss (BPL) of radio signal is getting more and more important. It plays an important role in calculating the indoor coverage for wireless communication networks. In this paper, the theory behind BPL and its mechanisms have been reviewed. The operating frequency, coverage area type, climate condition, time of measurement, and other factors affecting the values of BPL have been discussed. The practical part of this work was conducting 4000 measurements of BPL in different areas in the Libyan capital, Tripoli, to get empirical model for this loss. The measurements were taken for 2 different types of wireless communication networks; mobile telephone network (for Almadar company), which operates at 900 MHz and WiMAX network (LTT company) which operates at 2500 MHz. The results for each network were summarized and presented in several graphs. The graphs are showing how the BPL affected by: time of measurement, morphology (type of area), and climatic environment.

Keywords: building penetration loss, wireless network, mobile network, link budget, indoor network performance

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13430 Community-Based Destination Sustainable Development: Case of Cicada Walking Street, Hua Hin, Thailand

Authors: Kingkan Pongsiri

Abstract:

This paper aims to study the role and activities of the participants and the impact of activities created in the local area in order to sustainably develop the local areas. This study applied both qualitative and quantitative approaches presented in descriptive style; the data was collected via survey, observation and in-depth interviews with samples. The results illustrated five sorts of roles of participants of the Cicada Walking-street and four types of creative activities; recreation based, art based, cultural based, and live events. Integration of local characteristics, arts and cultures were presented creatively and interestingly. Participants are various. The roles of the participants found in the Cicada Market are group of the property and area management, entrepreneurs, leisure (entertaining persons), local people, and tourists. The good impacts on local communities are those in terms of economy, environmental friendly and local arts and cultures promoting. On the other hand, the traffic congestion, waste and the increasing of energy consumption are negative impacts from area development.

Keywords: creative tourism activity, destination development, sustainable development, walking street

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13429 Enhanced Constraint-Based Optical Network (ECON) for Enhancing OSNR

Authors: G. R. Kavitha, T. S. Indumathi

Abstract:

With the constantly rising demands of the multimedia services, the requirements of long haul transport network are constantly changing in the area of optical network. Maximum data transmission using optimization of the communication channel poses the biggest challenge. Although there has been a constant focus on this area from the past decade, there was no evidence of a significant result that has been accomplished. Hence, after reviewing some potential design of optical network from literatures, it was understood that optical signal to noise ratio was one of the elementary attributes that can define the performance of the optical network. In this paper, we propose a framework termed as ECON (Enhanced Constraint-based Optical Network) that primarily optimize the optical signal to noise ratio using ROADM. The simulation is performed in Matlab and optical signal to noise ratio is extracted considering the system matrix. The outcome of the proposed study shows that optimized OSNR as compared to the existing studies.

Keywords: component, optical network, reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer, optical signal-to-noise ratio

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13428 Performance Evaluation of Vertical Handover on Silom Line BTS

Authors: Silumpa Suboonsan, Suwat Pattaramalai

Abstract:

In this paper, the performance of internet usage by using Vertical Handover (VHO) between cellular network and wireless local area network (WLAN) on Silom line Bangkok Mass Transit System (BTS) is evaluated. In the evaluation model, there is the WLAN on every BTS station and there are cellular base stations along the BTS path. The maximum data rates for cellular network are 7.2, 14.4, 42, and 100Mbps and for WLAN are 54, 150, and 300Mbps. The simulation are based on users using internet, watching VDOs and browsing web pages, on the BTS train from first station to the last station (full time usage) and on the BTS train for traveling some number of stations (random time). The results shows that VHO system has throughput a lot more than using only cellular network when the data rate of WLAN is more than one of cellular network. Lastly, the number of watching HD VDO and Full HD VDO is higher on VHO system on both regular time and rush hour of BTS travelling.

Keywords: vertical handover, WLAN, cellular, silom line BTS

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13427 An Interactive Methodology to Demonstrate the Level of Effectiveness of the Synthesis of Local-Area Networks

Authors: W. Shin, Y. Kim

Abstract:

This study focuses on disconfirming that wide-area networks can be made mobile, highly-available, and wireless. This methodological test shows that IPv7 and context-free grammar are mismatched. In the cases of robots, a similar tendency is also revealed. Further, we also prove that public-private key pairs could be built embedded, adaptive, and wireless. Finally, we disconfirm that although hash tables can be made distributed, interposable, and autonomous, XML and DNS can interfere to realize this purpose. Our experiments soon proved that exokernelizing our replicated Knesis keyboards was more significant than interrupting them. Our experiments exhibited degraded average sampling rate.

Keywords: collaborative communication, DNS, local-area networks, XML

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13426 Action Research of Local Resident Empowerment in Prambanan Cultural Heritage Area in Yogyakarta

Authors: Destha Titi Raharjana

Abstract:

The finding of this research results from three action researches conducted in three rurals, namely Bokoharjo, Sambirejo, and Tirtomartani. Those rurals are close to Prambanan, a well-known cultural heritage site located in Sleman Regency, Indonesia. This action research is conducted using participative method through observation, interview, and focus group discussion with local residents as the subjects. This research aims to (a) present identifications of potencies, obstacles, and opportunities existed in development process, which is able to give more encouragement, involvement and empowerment for local residents in maintaining the cultural heritage area, (b) present participatory empowerment programs which adjust the needs of local residents and human resources, and (c) identify potential stakeholders that can support empowerment programs. Through action research method, this research is able to present (a) potential mapping; difficulties and opportunities in the development process in each rural, (b) empowerment program planning needed by local residents as a follow-up of this action research. Moreover, this research also presents identifications of potential stakeholders who are able to do an empowerment program follow-up. It is expected that, at the end of the programs, the local residents are able to maintain Prambanan, as one of cultural heritage sites that needs to be protected, in a more sustainable way.

Keywords: action research, local resident, empowerment, cultural heritage area, Prambanan, Sleman, Indonesia

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13425 Neural Network Based Path Loss Prediction for Global System for Mobile Communication in an Urban Environment

Authors: Danladi Ali

Abstract:

In this paper, we measured GSM signal strength in the Dnepropetrovsk city in order to predict path loss in study area using nonlinear autoregressive neural network prediction and we also, used neural network clustering to determine average GSM signal strength receive at the study area. The nonlinear auto-regressive neural network predicted that the GSM signal is attenuated with the mean square error (MSE) of 2.6748dB, this attenuation value is used to modify the COST 231 Hata and the Okumura-Hata models. The neural network clustering revealed that -75dB to -95dB is received more frequently. This means that the signal strength received at the study is mostly weak signal

Keywords: one-dimensional multilevel wavelets, path loss, GSM signal strength, propagation, urban environment and model

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13424 Energy Balance Routing to Enhance Network Performance in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: G. Baraneedaran, Deepak Singh, Kollipara Tejesh

Abstract:

The wireless sensors network has been an active research area over the y-ear passed. Due to the limited energy and communication ability of sensor nodes, it seems especially important to design a routing protocol for WSNs so that sensing data can be transmitted to the receiver effectively, an energy-balanced routing method based on forward-aware factor (FAF-EBRM) is proposed in this paper. In FAF-EBRM, the next-hop node is selected according to the awareness of link weight and forward energy density. A spontaneous reconstruction mechanism for Local topology is designed additionally. In this experiment, FAF-EBRM is compared with LEACH and EECU, experimental results show that FAF-EBRM outperforms LEACH and EECU, which balances the energy consumption, prolongs the function lifetime and guarantees high Qos of WSN.

Keywords: energy balance, forward-aware factor (FAF), forward energy density, link weight, network performance

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13423 The Acceptance of Online Social Network Technology for Tourism Destination

Authors: Wanida Suwunniponth

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between the factors of using online social network for tourism destination in case of Bangkok area in Thailand, by extending the use of technology acceptance model (TAM). This study employed by quantitative research and the target population were entrepreneurs and local people in Bangkok who use social network-Facebook concerning tourist destinations in Bangkok. Questionnaire was used to collect data from 300 purposive samples. The multiple regression analysis and path analysis were used to analyze data. The results revealed that most people who used Facebook for promoting tourism destinations in Bangkok perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, perceived trust in using Facebook and influenced by social normative as well as having positive attitude towards using this application. Addition, the hypothesis results indicate that acceptance of online social network-Facebook was related to the positive attitude towards using of Facebook and related to their intention to use this application for tourism.

Keywords: Facebook, online social network, technology acceptance model, tourism destination

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13422 Node Optimization in Wireless Sensor Network: An Energy Approach

Authors: Y. B. Kirankumar, J. D. Mallapur

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is an emerging technology, which has great invention for various low cost applications both for mass public as well as for defence. The wireless sensor communication technology allows random participation of sensor nodes with particular applications to take part in the network, which results in most of the uncovered simulation area, where fewer nodes are located at far distances. The drawback of such network would be that the additional energy is spent by the nodes located in a pattern of dense location, using more number of nodes for a smaller distance of communication adversely in a region with less number of nodes and additional energy is again spent by the source node in order to transmit a packet to neighbours, thereby transmitting the packet to reach the destination. The proposed work is intended to develop Energy Efficient Node Placement Algorithm (EENPA) in order to place the sensor node efficiently in simulated area, where all the nodes are equally located on a radial path to cover maximum area at equidistance. The total energy consumed by each node compared to random placement of nodes is less by having equal burden on fewer nodes of far location, having distributed the nodes in whole of the simulation area. Calculating the network lifetime also proves to be efficient as compared to random placement of nodes, hence increasing the network lifetime, too. Simulation is been carried out in a qualnet simulator, results are obtained on par with random placement of nodes with EENP algorithm.

Keywords: energy, WSN, wireless sensor network, energy approach

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13421 Study on Energy Performance Comparison of Information Centric Network Based on Difference of Network Architecture

Authors: Takumi Shindo, Koji Okamura

Abstract:

The first generation of the wide area network was circuit centric network. How the optimal circuit can be signed was the most important issue to get the best performance. This architecture had succeeded for line based telephone system. The second generation was host centric network and Internet based on this architecture has very succeeded world widely. And Internet became as new social infrastructure. Currently the architecture of the network is based on the location of the information. This future network is called Information centric network (ICN). The information-centric network (ICN) has being researched by many projects and different architectures for implementation of ICN have been proposed. The goal of this study is to compare performances of those ICN architectures. In this paper, the authors propose general ICN model which can represent two typical ICN architectures and compare communication performances using request routing. Finally, simulation results are shown. Also, we assume that this network architecture should be adapt to energy on-demand routing.

Keywords: ICN, information centric network, CCN, energy

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13420 Seismicity and Source Parameter of Some Events in Abu Dabbab Area, Red Sea Coast

Authors: Hamed Mohamed Haggag

Abstract:

Prior to 12 November 1955, no earthquakes have been reported from the Abu Dabbab area in the International Seismological Center catalogue (ISC). The largest earthquake in Abu Dabbab area occurred on November 12, 1955 with magnitude Mb 6.0. The closest station from the epicenter was at Helwan (about 700 km to the north), so the depth of this event is not constrained and no foreshocks or aftershocks were recorded. Two other earthquakes of magnitude Mb 4.5 and 5.2 took place in the same area on March 02, 1982 and July 02, 1984, respectively. Since the installation of Aswan Seismic Network stations in 1982, (250-300 km to the south-west of Abu Dabbab area) then the Egyptian Natoinal Seismic Network stations, it was possible to record some activity from Abu Dabbab area. The recorded earthquakes at Abu Dabbab area as recorded from 1982 to 2014 shows that the earthquake epicenters are distributed in the same direction of the main trends of the faults in the area, which is parallel to the Red Sea coast. The spectral analysis was made for some earthquakes. The source parameters, seismic moment (Mo), source dimension (r), stress drop (Δδ), and apparent stress (δ) are determined for these events. The spectral analysis technique was completed using MAG software program.

Keywords: Abu Dabbab, seismicity, seismic moment, source parameter

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13419 Proactive WPA/WPA2 Security Using DD-WRT Firmware

Authors: Mustafa Kamoona, Mohamed El-Sharkawy

Abstract:

Although the latest Wireless Local Area Network technology Wi-Fi 802.11i standard addresses many of the security weaknesses of the antecedent Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) protocol, there are still scenarios where the network security are still vulnerable. The first security model that 802.11i offers is the Personal model which is very cheap and simple to install and maintain, yet it uses a Pre Shared Key (PSK) and thus has a low to medium security level. The second model that 802.11i provide is the Enterprise model which is highly secured but much more expensive and difficult to install/maintain and requires the installation and maintenance of an authentication server that will handle the authentication and key management for the wireless network. A central issue with the personal model is that the PSK needs to be shared with all the devices that are connected to the specific Wi-Fi network. This pre-shared key, unless changed regularly, can be cracked using offline dictionary attacks within a matter of hours. The key is burdensome to change in all the connected devices manually unless there is some kind of algorithm that coordinate this PSK update. The key idea of this paper is to propose a new algorithm that proactively and effectively coordinates the pre-shared key generation, management, and distribution in the cheap WPA/WPA2 personal security model using only a DD-WRT router.

Keywords: Wi-Fi, WPS, TLS, DD-WRT

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13418 A Literature Review on the Role of Local Potential for Creative Industries

Authors: Maya Irjayanti

Abstract:

Local creativity utilization has been a strategic investment to be expanded as a creative industry due to its significant contribution to the national gross domestic product. Many developed and developing countries look toward creative industries as an agenda for the economic growth. This study aims to identify the role of local potential for creative industries from various empirical studies. The method performed in this study will involve a peer-reviewed journal articles and conference papers review addressing local potential and creative industries. The literature review analysis will include several steps: material collection, descriptive analysis, category selection, and material evaluation. Finally, the outcome expected provides a creative industries clustering based on the local potential of various nations. In addition, the finding of this study will be used as future research reference to explore a particular area with well-known aspects of local potential for creative industry products.

Keywords: business, creativity, local potential, local wisdom

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13417 A Linearly Scalable Family of Swapped Networks

Authors: Richard Draper

Abstract:

A supercomputer can be constructed from identical building blocks which are small parallel processors connected by a network referred to as the local network. The routers have unused ports which are used to interconnect the building blocks. These connections are referred to as the global network. The address space has a global and a local component (g, l). The conventional way to connect the building blocks is to connect (g, l) to (g’,l). If there are K blocks, this requires K global ports in each router. If a block is of size M, the result is a machine with KM routers having diameter two. To increase the size of the machine to 2K blocks, each router connects to only half of the other blocks. The result is a larger machine but also one with greater diameter. This is a crude description of how the network of the CRAY XC® is designed. In this paper, a family of interconnection networks using routers with K global and M local ports is defined. Coordinates are (c,d, p) and the global connections are (c,d,p)↔(c’,p,d) which swaps p and d. The network is denoted D3(K,M) and is called a Swapped Dragonfly. D3(K,M) has KM2 routers and has diameter three, regardless of the size of K. To produce a network of size KM2 conventionally, diameter would be an increasing function of K. The family of Swapped Dragonflies has other desirable properties: 1) D3(K,M) scales linearly in K and quadratically in M. 2) If L < K, D3(K,M) contains many copies of D3(L,M). 3) If L < M, D3(K,M) contains many copies of D3(K,L). 4) D3(K,M) can perform an all-to-all exchange in KM2+KM time which is only slightly more than the time to do a one-to-all. This paper makes several contributions. It is the first time that a swap has been used to define a linearly scalable family of networks. Structural properties of this new family of networks are thoroughly examined. A synchronizing packet header is introduced. It specifies the path to be followed and it makes it possible to define highly parallel communication algorithm on the network. Among these is an all-to-all exchange in time KM2+KM. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the swap properties of the network of the CRAY XC® and D3(K,16) are compared.

Keywords: all-to-all exchange, CRAY XC®, Dragonfly, interconnection network, packet switching, swapped network, topology

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13416 Financial Administration of Urban Local Governance: A Comparative Study of Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) and Bhavnagar Municipal Corporation(BMC)

Authors: Aneri Mehta, Krunal Mehta

Abstract:

Financial administration is part of government which deals with collection, preservation and distribution of public funds, with the coordination of public revenue and expenditure, with the management of credit operation on behalf of the state and with the general control of the financial affairs of public households. The researcher has taken the prime body of the local self government viz. Municipal Corporation. However, the number of municipal corporations in India has rapidly increased in recent years. Countries 27% of the total population are living in urban area & in recent it increasing very fast. People are moving very fast from rural area to urban area. Their demand, awareness is increasing day by day. The Municipal Corporations render many services for the development of the urban area. Thus, researcher has taken a step to know the accounting practices of the municipal corporations of Gujarat state (AMC & BMC ). The research will try to show you the status of finance of municipal corporations. Article 243(w) of the constitution of India envisaged that the state government maybe, by law , endow the municipalities with such powers and authorities as may be necessary to enable them to function as institution of self government and such law may contain provision for devolution of powers and responsibilities upon municipalities subjects to such condition as may be specified there in with respect to (i) the peroration of plans for economic development and social justice and (ii) the performance of the function and the implementation of schemes as may be entrusted to them including those in relation to the matters listed in the twelfth schedule. The three tier structure of the Indian Government i.e. Union, State & Local Self Government is the scenario of the Indian constitution. Local Self Government performs or renders many services under the direct control of state government. They (local bodies) possess autonomy within its limited sphere, raise revenue through local taxation and spend its income on local services.

Keywords: financial administration, urban local bodies, local self government, constitution

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13415 A Topological Study of an Urban Street Network and Its Use in Heritage Areas

Authors: Jose L. Oliver, Taras Agryzkov, Leandro Tortosa, Jose F. Vicent, Javier Santacruz

Abstract:

This paper aims to demonstrate how a topological study of an urban street network can be used as a tool to be applied to some heritage conservation areas in a city. In the last decades, we find different kinds of approaches in the discipline of Architecture and Urbanism based in the so-called Sciences of Complexity. In this context, this paper uses mathematics from the Network Theory. Hence, it proposes a methodology based in obtaining information from a graph, which is created from a network of urban streets. Then, it is used an algorithm that establishes a ranking of importance of the nodes of that network, from its topological point of view. The results are applied to a heritage area in a particular city, confronting the data obtained from the mathematical model, with the ones from the field work in the case study. As a result of this process, we may conclude the necessity of implementing some actions in the area, and where those actions would be more effective for the whole heritage site.

Keywords: graphs, heritage cities, spatial analysis, urban networks

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13414 Relocation of the Air Quality Monitoring Stations Network for Aburrá Valley Based on Local Climatic Zones

Authors: Carmen E. Zapata, José F. Jiménez, Mauricio Ramiréz, Natalia A. Cano

Abstract:

The majority of the urban areas in Latin America face the challenges associated with city planning and development problems, attributed to human, technical, and economical factors; therefore, we cannot ignore the issues related to climate change because the city modifies the natural landscape in a significant way transforming the radiation balance and heat content in the urbanized areas. These modifications provoke changes in the temperature distribution known as “the heat island effect”. According to this phenomenon, we have the need to conceive the urban planning based on climatological patterns that will assure its sustainable functioning, including the particularities of the climate variability. In the present study, it is identified the Local Climate Zones (LCZ) in the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley (Colombia) with the objective of relocate the air quality monitoring stations as a partial solution to the problem of how to measure representative air quality levels in a city for a local scale, but with instruments that measure in the microscale.

Keywords: air quality, monitoring, local climatic zones, valley, monitoring stations

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