Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 534

Search results for: loan suitability

534 Malaysian Challenges and Experiences with National Higher Education Fund Corporation’s Educational Loan Default

Authors: Anjali Dewi Krishnan

Abstract:

This paper attempts to explore the factors causing student loan defaults among NHEFC borrower besides measuring the enforcement actions that have been took by NHEFC to improve repayment rate. It starts by reviewing the causes of student loan default from the perspective of the loan borrowers besides finding out about the effectiveness of approaches taken by NHEFC (National Higher Education Fund Corporation) until now in order to increase the repayment rate and recover student loan default. The results gathered from the research used to investigate or identify the relationship between job statuses, gender, and ethnicity of the borrowers with repayment status, enforcement from the NHEFC side in the sense of student loan repayment; and respondent's opinion about enforcement in encouraging repayment of student loan and recover loan default. A combination of unemployment, financial constraint, inefficient repayment method and some other reasons of student loan defaults were discovered through this research. It finishes by presenting the reality whereby a student loan default is a result of inability to pay back and not about willingness to pay back.

Keywords: loan default, loan recovery, loan repayment, national higher education fund corporation

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533 Determination of the Bank's Customer Risk Profile: Data Mining Applications

Authors: Taner Ersoz, Filiz Ersoz, Seyma Ozbilge

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In this study, the clients who applied to a bank branch for loan were analyzed through data mining. The study was composed of the information such as amounts of loans received by personal and SME clients working with the bank branch, installment numbers, number of delays in loan installments, payments available in other banks and number of banks to which they are in debt between 2010 and 2013. The client risk profile was examined through Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis, one of the decision tree classification methods. At the end of the study, 5 different types of customers have been determined on the decision tree. The classification of these types of customers has been created with the rating of those posing a risk for the bank branch and the customers have been classified according to the risk ratings.

Keywords: client classification, loan suitability, risk rating, CART analysis

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532 The Accuracy of Small Firms at Predicting Their Employment

Authors: Javad Nosratabadi

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This paper investigates the difference between firms' actual and expected employment along with the amount of loans invested by them. In addition, it examines the relationship between the amount of loans received by firms and wages. Empirically, using a causal effect estimation and firm-level data from a province in Iran between 2004 and 2011, the results show that there is a range of the loan amount for which firms' expected employment meets their actual one. In contrast, there is a gap between firms' actual and expected employment for any other loan amount. Furthermore, the result shows that there is a positive and significant relationship between the amount of loan invested by firms and wages.

Keywords: expected employment, actual employment, wage, loan

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531 Loan Portfolio Quality and the Bank Soundness in the Eccas: An Empirical Evaluation of Cameroonians Banks

Authors: Andre Kadandji, Mouhamadou Fall, Francois Koum Ekalle

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This paper aims to analyze the sound banking through the effects of the damage of the loan portfolio in the Cameroonian banking sector through the Z-score. The approach is to test the effect of other CAMEL indicators and macroeconomics indicators on the relationship between the non-performing loan and the soundness of Cameroonian banks. We use a dynamic panel data, made by 13 banks for the period 2010-2013. The analysis provides a model equations embedded in panel data. For the estimation, we use the generalized method of moments to understand the effects of macroeconomic and CAMEL type variables on the ability of Cameroonian banks to face a shock. We find that the management quality and macroeconomic variables neutralize the effects of the non-performing loan on the banks soundness.

Keywords: loan portfolio, sound banking, Z-score, dynamic panel

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530 Attaining Financial Efficiency through Funds Utilization

Authors: Muhammad Shujaat Saleem, Imamuddin

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In reply to the argument made by the non-believers of Makkah “Sale is similar to riba”, Almighty Allah ordered “Sale is permissible while riba is impermissible”. The main intent of the study was to clarify the fallacy prevailing among the Muslims that in practical terms the product of Murabaha which is being offered by the Islamic banks is similar to that of conventional interest based business loan. However, specific objective was to ascertain the degree of financial efficiency on the basis of fund/loan utilization for intended purpose of Murabaha financing vis-à-vis conventional interest based business loan. The study employed survey strategy to collect primary data through structured close ended questionnaires from the sample of 98 Murabaha officers and 178 loan officers out of the whole population of 5 Islamic and 10 conventional banks respectively. Quantitative and qualitative techniques were used to analyze the data and the same is tabulated by use of frequency tables. The study found that the financial efficiency of Murabaha financing is more than that of conventional interest based business loan by 28% as Murabaha funds of Islamic banks are utilized for its intended purpose to the extent of 97% on average, compared to 69% of business loan offered by conventional banks.

Keywords: financial efficiency, murabaha funds, loan amount, intended purpose

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529 Improve Decision Support System for Personal Loans Eligibility and Interest Rate Proposal Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Bashayer Alfawaz

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The loan decision is a risky task. When the borrower decides to apply for any type of credit, be it a loan, credit card, or mortgage, the creditor (loan officer) will perform a very thorough analysis to determine the creditworthiness. This study aims to develop a system to help the financial institutions in the loan (approving/declining) decision process to minimize non-performing loans, financial losses. Furthermore, it helps the borrowers to know the risks that they may encounter if they choose to take a loan. A classification model has been built using a neural network to classify the eligibility of loan borrowers based on selected features that have the most substantial impact on the decision provided about the borrower. Then, an interpreting model has been built to explain the reason behind the outputs using the Local Interpretable Model-Agnostic Explanations (LIME) method. Moreover, once the borrower has been approved for the loan, A prediction model has been created using a neural network also to predict the appropriate interest rate to better fit the borrower’s financial status. The accuracy has been achieved for the classification model is around 65% while, Precision is around 0.53, Recall 0.92 and F1-score is 0.66. Mean Absolute Error has been used to evaluate the performance of the interest rate model and the result that has been achieved is 0.047. Finally, an interactive user interface has been generated to present the model's results.

Keywords: personal loans, interpreting model, classification model, neural network, predicting model

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528 Family Succession and Cost of Bank Loans: Evidence from China

Authors: Tzu-Ching Weng, Hsin-Yi Chi, Wei-Ren Yao

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The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of family succession on the cost of bank loan and non-price contractual terms. Using a unique dataset from China, we find that lending banks are more likely to charge higher interest rates and impose tighter contractual terms, such as maturity of loans and collateral requirement for second-generation family firms. This finding indicates that information risk and default risk may arise after subsequent family succession. However, we find that second-generation family firms can reduce their cost of bank loan by hiring top-tier auditors or establishing political connections to enhance the credibility of financial reporting or possible future bailouts from the Chinese government.

Keywords: family succession, cost of bank loan, loan contract terms, family firm

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527 How to Reconcile Financial Incentives and Pro-Social Motivations of Loan Officers in Microfinance?

Authors: Julie De Pril, Cécile Godfroid

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Nowadays, achieving double bottom line has become a widely recognized objective for microfinance institutions (MFIs). They would like to be financially sustainable or even profitable while continuing to focus on their social mission. In order to rise their financial performance, MFIs tend to grant financial bonuses to loan officers so that they increase their performance and efficiency. However, as argued by motivation crowding theory, monetary rewards may not have only positive effects but can also erode intrinsic motivation. Since MFIs pursue social objectives in addition to their financial ones, their employees’ intrinsic motivations may include the willingness to help others, like in many non-profit organizations. This is called pro-social motivation in the psychology literature. Particularly, this type of motivation should be highly reflected among microfinance loan officers as a part of their role consists in improving clients’ welfare. Therefore, it seems to be crucial for MFIs to find an equilibrium between the efficiency benefits obtained thanks to the granting of financial incentives and the deterioration of social performance that may result from the reduction of the loan officers’ pro-social motivation. This paper attempts to suggest, with a mathematical model, an optimal incentive scheme MFIs could rely on.

Keywords: loan officers, microfinance, prosocial motivation, rewards

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526 Information on Financial Statements for Loan Decision-Making of Commercial Banks in Vietnam

Authors: Mai Hoang Minh

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Financial statements (FS) are tools which provide information to users for making business decisions. This article is going to present the survey which clarifies the role of financial statement to Commercial Banks’ loan decisions in Vietnam. Moreover, this also discusses about financial statement’s quality currently, thereby making suggestions for enterprises to enhance the usefulness of accounting information in borrowing activities.

Keywords: usefulness of financial statement, accounting information quality, loan decisions

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525 Student Loan Debt among Students with Disabilities

Authors: Kaycee Bills

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This study will determine if students with disabilities have higher student loan debt payments than other student populations. The hypothesis was that students with disabilities would have significantly higher student loan debt payments than other students due to the length of time they spend in school. Using the Bachelorette and Beyond Study Wave 2015/017 dataset, quantitative methods were employed. These data analysis methods included linear regression and a correlation matrix. Due to the exploratory nature of the study, the significance levels for the overall model and each variable were set at .05. The correlation matrix demonstrated that students with certain types of disabilities are more likely to fall under higher student loan payment brackets than students without disabilities. These results also varied among the different types of disabilities. The result of the overall linear regression model was statistically significant (p = .04). Despite the overall model being statistically significant, the majority of the significance values for the different types of disabilities were null. However, several other variables had statistically significant results, such as veterans, people of minority races, and people who attended private schools. Implications for how this impacts the economy, capitalism, and financial wellbeing of various students are discussed.

Keywords: disability, student loan debt, higher education, social work

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524 Range Suitability Model for Livestock Grazing in Taleghan Rangelands

Authors: Hossein Arzani, Masoud Jafari Shalamzari, Z. Arzani

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This paper follows FAO model of suitability analysis. Influential factors affecting extensive grazing were determined and converted into a model. Taleghan rangelands were examined for common types of grazing animals as an example. Advantages and limitations were elicited. All range ecosystems’ components affect range suitability but due to the time and money restrictions, the most important and feasible elements were investigated. From which three sub-models including water accessibility, forage production and erosion sensitivity were considered. Suitable areas in four levels of suitability were calculated using GIS. This suitability modeling approach was adopted due to its simplicity and the minimal time that is required for transforming and analyzing the data sets. Managers could be benefited from the model to devise the measures more wisely to cope with the limitations and enhance the rangelands health and condition.

Keywords: range suitability, land-use, extensive grazing, modeling, land evaluation

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523 The Impact of Financial Literacy, Perception of Debt, and Perception of Risk Toward Student Willingness to Use Online Student Loan

Authors: Irni Rahmayani Johan, Ira Kamelia

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One of the impacts of the rapid advancement of technology is the rise of digital finance, including peer-to-peer lending (P2P). P2P lending has been widely marketed, including an online student loan that used the P2P platform. This study aims to analyze the effect of financial literacy, perception of debt, and perception of risk toward student willingness to use the online student loan (P2P lending). Using a cross-sectional study design, in collecting the data this study employed an online survey method, with a total sample of 280 undergraduate students of IPB university, Indonesia. This study found that financial literacy, perception of debt, perception of risk, and interest in using online student loans are categorized as low level. While the level of knowledge is found to be the lowest, the first-year students showed a higher level in terms of willingness to use the online student loan. In addition, the second year students recorded a positive perception toward debt. This study showed that level of study, attendance in personal finance course, and student’ GPA is positively related to financial knowledge. While debt perception is negatively related to financial attitudes. Similarly, the negative relationship is found between risk perception and the willingness to use the online student loan. The determinant factor of the willingness to use online student loans is the level of study, debt perception, financial risk perception, and time risk perception. Students with a higher level of study are more likely to have a lower interest in using online student loans. Moreover, students who perceived debt as a financial stimulator, as well as those with higher level of financial risk perceptions and time risk perceptions, tend to show more interest to use the loan.

Keywords: financial literacy, willingness to use, online student loan, perception of risk, perception of debt

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522 Hardships Faced by Entrepreneurs in Marketing Projects for Acquiring Business Loans

Authors: Sudipto Sarkar

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Capital is the primary fuel for starting and running a business. Since capital is crucial for every business, entrepreneurs must successfully acquire adequate capital for executing their projects. Sources for the necessary capital for entrepreneurs include their own personal funds from existing bank accounts, or lines of credit or loans from banks or financial institutions, or equity funding from investors. The most commonly selected source of capital is a bank loan. However, acquiring a loan by any entrepreneur requires adhering to strict guidelines, conditions and norms. Because not only they have to show evidence for viability of the project, but also the means to return the acquired loan. On the bank’s part, it requires that every loan officer performs a thorough credit appraisal of the prospective borrowers and makes decisions about whether or not to lend money, how much to lend, and what conditions should be attached to it. Moreover, these credit decisions in general were often based on biases, analytical techniques, or prior experience. A loan can either turn out to be good or poor, irrespective of what type of credit decisions were followed. However, based on prior experience, the loan officers seem to differentiate between a good and a bad loan by examining the borrower’s credit history, pattern of borrowing, volume of borrowing, frequency of borrowing, and reasons for borrowing. As per an article written by Maureen Wallenfang on postcrescent.com dated May 10, 2010, it is observed that borrowers with good credit, solid business plans and adequate collateral security were able to procure loans very easily in the Fox Valley region. Since loans are required to run businesses, and also with the propensity of loans to become bad, loan officers tend to be very critical and cautious before approving and disbursing the loans. The pressure to be critical and cautious, at least partly, is a result of increased scrutiny by the Securities and Exchange Commission. As per Wall Street Journal (Sidel & Eaglesham, March, 3 2011, online), the Securities and Exchange Commission scrutinized banks that have restructured troubled loans in order to make them appear healthier than they really are. Therefore, loan officers’ loan criteria are of immense importance for entrepreneurs and banks alike.

Keywords: entrepreneur, loans, marketing, banks

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521 The Prospect of Income Contingent Loan in Malaysia Higher Education Financing Using Deterministic and Stochastic Methods in Modelling Income

Authors: Syaza Isma, Timothy Higgins

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In Malaysia, increased take-up rates of tertiary student borrowing, and reliance on retirement savings to fund children's education show the importance of public higher education financing schemes (PTPTN). PTPTN has been operating for 2 decades now; however, there are some critical issues and challenges that include low loan recovery and loan default that suggest a detailed consideration of student loan/financing scheme alternatives is crucial. In addition, the decline in funding level per student following introduction of the new PTPTN full and partial loan scheme has raised ongoing concerns over the sustainability of the scheme to provide continuous financial assistance to students in tertiary education. This research seeks to assess these issues that put greater efficiency in an effort to ensure equitable access to student funding for current and future generations. We explore the extent of repayment hardship under the current loan arrangements that presumably led to low recovery from the borrowers, particularly low-income graduates. The concept of manageable debt exists in the design of income-contingent repayment schemes, as practiced in Australia, New Zealand, UK, Hungary, USA (in limited form), the Netherlands, and South Korea. Can Income Contingent Loans (ICL) offer the best practice for an education financing scheme, and address the issue of repayment hardship and concurrently, can a properly designed ICL scheme provide a solution to the current issues and challenges facing Malaysia student financing? We examine the different potential ICL models using deterministic and stochastic approach to simulate income of graduates.

Keywords: deterministic, income contingent loan, repayment burden, simulation, stochastic

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520 Land Suitability Scaling and Modeling for Assessing Crop Suitability in Some New Reclaimed Areas, Egypt

Authors: W. A. M. Abdel Kawy, Kh. M. Darwish

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Adequate land use selection is an essential step towards achieving sustainable development. The main object of this study is to develop a new scale for land suitability system, which can be compatible with the local conditions. Furthermore, it aims to adapt the conventional land suitability systems to match the actual environmental status in term of soil types, climate and other conditions to evaluate land suitability for newly reclaimed areas. The new system suggests calculation of land suitability considering 20 factors affecting crop selection grouping into five categories; crop-agronomic, land management, development, environmental conditions and socio – economic status. Each factor is summed by each other to calculate the total points. The highest rating for each factor indicates the highest preference for the evaluated crop. The highest rated crops for each group are those with the highest points for the actual suitability. This study was conducted to assess the application efficiency of the new land suitability scale in recently reclaimed sites in Egypt. Moreover, 35 representative soil profiles were examined, and soil samples were subjected to some physical and chemical analysis. Actual and potential suitabilities were calculated by using the new land suitability scale. Finally, the obtained results confirmed the applicability of a new land suitability system to recommend the most promising crop rotation that can be applied in the study areas. The outputs of this research revealed that the integration of different aspects for modeling and adapting a proposed model provides an effective and flexible technique, which contribute to improve land suitability assessment for several crops to be more accurate and reliable.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, land suitability, multi-criteria analysis, new reclaimed areas, soil parameters

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519 Earnings Management and Firm’s Creditworthiness

Authors: Maria A. Murtiati, Ancella A. Hermawan

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The objective of this study is to examine whether the firm’s eligibility to get a bank loan is influenced by earnings management. The earnings management is distinguished between accruals and real earnings management. Hypothesis testing is carried out with logistic regression model using sample of 285 companies listed at Indonesian Stock Exchange in 2010. The result provides evidence that a greater magnitude in accruals earnings management increases the firm’s probability to be eligible to get bank loan. In contrast, real earnings management through abnormal cash flow and abnormal discretionary expenses decrease firm’s probability to be eligible to get bank loan, while real management through abnormal production cost increases such probability. The result of this study suggests that if the earnings management is assumed to be opportunistic purpose, the accruals based earnings management can distort the banks credit analysis using financial statements. Real earnings management has more impact on the cash flows, and banks are very concerned on the firm’s cash flow ability. Therefore, this study indicates that banks are more able to detect real earnings management, except abnormal production cost in real earning management.

Keywords: discretionary accruals, real earning management, bank loan, credit worthiness

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518 Student Debt Loans and Labor Market Outcomes: A Lesson in Unintended Consequences

Authors: Sun-Ki Choi

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The U.S. student loan policy was initiated to improve the equality of educational opportunity and help low-income families to provide higher education opportunities for their children. However, with the increase in the average student loan amount, college graduates with student loans experience problems and restrictions in their early-career choices. This study examines the early career labor market choices of college graduates who obtained student loans to finance their higher education. In this study, National Survey of College Graduates (NSCG) data for 2017 and 2019 was used to estimate the effects of student loans on the employment status and current job wages of graduates with student loans. In the analysis, two groups of workers, those with student loans and those without loans, were compared. Using basic models and Mahalanobis distance matching, it was found that graduates who rely on student loans to finance their education are more likely to participate in the labor market than those who do not. Moreover, in entry-level jobs, graduates with student loans receive lower salaries than those without student loans. College graduates make job-related decisions based on their current and future wages and fringe benefits. Graduates with student loans tend to demonstrate risk-averse behaviors due to their financial restrictions. Thus, student loan debt creates inequity in the early-career labor market for college graduates. Furthermore, this study has implications for policymakers and researchers in terms of the student loan policy.

Keywords: student loan, wage differential, unintended consequences, mahalanobis distance matching

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517 Geospatial Land Suitability Modeling for Biofuel Crop Using AHP

Authors: Naruemon Phongaksorn

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The biofuel consumption has increased significantly over the decade resulting in the increasing request on agricultural land for biofuel feedstocks. However, the biofuel feedstocks are already stressed of having low productivity owing to inappropriate agricultural practices without considering suitability of crop land. This research evaluates the land suitability using GIS-integrated Analytic Hierarchy Processing (AHP) of biofuel crops: cassava, at Chachoengsao province, in Thailand. AHP method that has been widely accepted for land use planning. The objective of this study is compared between AHP method and the most limiting group of land characteristics method (classical approach). The reliable results of the land evaluation were tested against the crop performance assessed by the field investigation in 2015. In addition to the socio-economic land suitability, the expected availability of raw materials for biofuel production to meet the local biofuel demand, are also estimated. The results showed that the AHP could classify and map the physical land suitability with 10% higher overall accuracy than the classical approach. The Chachoengsao province showed high and moderate socio-economic land suitability for cassava. Conditions in the Chachoengsao province were also favorable for cassava plantation, as the expected raw material needed to support ethanol production matched that of ethanol plant capacity of this province. The GIS integrated AHP for biofuel crops land suitability evaluation appears to be a practical way of sustainably meeting biofuel production demand.

Keywords: Analytic Hierarchy Processing (AHP), Cassava, Geographic Information Systems, Land suitability

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516 Evaluation of Groundwater Suitability for Irrigation Purposes: A Case Study for an Arid Region

Authors: Mustafa M. Bob, Norhan Rahman, Abdalla Elamin, Saud Taher

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The objective of this study was to assess the suitability of Madinah city groundwater for irrigation purposes. Of the twenty three wells that were drilled in different locations in the city for the purposes of this study, twenty wells were sampled for water quality analyses. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) classification of irrigation water that is based on Sodium hazard (SAR) and salinity hazard was used for suitability assessment. In addition, the residual sodium carbonate (RSC) was calculated for all samples and also used for irrigation suitability assessment. Results showed that all groundwater samples are in the acceptable quality range for irrigation based on RSC values. When SAR and salinity hazard were assessed, results showed that while all groundwater samples (except one) fell in the acceptable range of SAR, they were either in the high or very high salinity zone which indicates that care should be taken regarding the type of soil and crops in the study area.

Keywords: irrigation suitability, TDS, salinity, SAR

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515 Global Digital Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Lending Platform Empowering Rural India: Determinants of Funding

Authors: Ankur Mehra, M. V. Shivaani

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With increasing digitization, the world is coming closer, not only in terms of informational flow but also in terms of capital flows. And micro-finance institutions (MFIs) have perfectly leveraged this digital world by resorting to the innovative digital social peer-to-peer (P2P) lending platforms, such as, Kiva. These digital P2P platforms bring together micro-borrowers and lenders from across the world. The main objective of this study is to understand the funding preferences of social investors primarily from developed countries (such as US, UK, Australia), lending money to borrowers from rural India at zero interest rates through Kiva. Further, the objective of this study is to increase awareness about such a platform among various MFIs engaged in providing micro-loans to those in need. The sample comprises of India based micro-loan applications posted by various MFIs on Kiva lending platform over the period Sept 2012-March 2016. Out of 7,359 loans, 256 loans failed to get funded by social investors. On an average a micro-loan with 30 days to expiry gets fully funded in 7,593 minutes or 5.27 days. 62% of the loans raised on Kiva are related to livelihood, 32.5% of the loans are for funding basic necessities and balance 5.5% loans are for funding education. 47% of the loan applications have more than one borrower; while, currency exchange risk is on the social lenders for 45% of the loans. Controlling for the loan amount and loan tenure, the analyses suggest that those loan applications where the number of borrowers is more than one have a lower chance of getting funded as compared to the loan applications made by a sole borrower. Such group applications also take more time to get funded. Further, loan application by a solo woman not only has a higher chance of getting funded but as such get funded faster. The results also suggest that those loan applications which are supported by an MFI that has a religious affiliation, not only have a lower chance of getting funded, but also take longer to get funded as compared to the loan applications posted by secular MFIs. The results do not support cross-border currency risk to be a factor in explaining the determinants of loan funding. Finally, analyses suggest that loans raised for the purpose of earning livelihood and education have a higher chance of getting funded and such loans get funded faster as compared to the loans applied for purposes related to basic necessities such a clothing, housing, food, health, and personal use. The results are robust to controls for ‘MFI dummy’ and ‘year dummy’. The key implication from this study is that global social investors tend to develop an emotional connect with single woman borrowers and consequently they get funded faster Hence, MFIs should look for alternative ways for funding loans whose purpose is to meet basic needs; while, more loans related to livelihood and education should be raised via digital platforms.

Keywords: P2P lending, social investing, fintech, financial inclusion

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514 Analysis of Risks in Financing Agriculture a Case of Agricultural Cooperatives in Benue State, Nigeria

Authors: Odey Moses Ogah, Felix Terhemba Ikyereve

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The study was carried out to analyzed risks in financing agriculture by agricultural cooperatives in Benue State, Nigeria. The study made use of research questionnaires for data collection. A multistage sampling technique was used to select a sample of 210 respondents from 21 agricultural cooperatives. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were employed in data analysis. Loan defaulting (66.7%) and reduction in savings by members (51.4%) were the major causes of risks faced by agricultural cooperatives in financing agriculture in the study area. Other causes include adverse changes in commodity prices (48.6%), disaster (45.7%), among others. It was found that risks adversely influence the profitability and competition of agricultural cooperatives (82.9%). Multiple regression analysis results showed that the coefficient of multiple determinations was 0.67, implying that the explanatory variables included in the model accounted for 67% of the variation in the level of profitability of agricultural cooperatives. The number of loans, average amount of loan and the interest rate were significant and important determinants of profitability of the cooperatives. The majority of the respondents (88.6%) made use of loan guarantors as a strategy of managing loan default/no repayment. It was found that the majority (70%) of the respondents were faced with the challenge of lack of insurance cover. The study recommends that agricultural cooperative officials should be encouraged to undergo formal training and education to easily acquire administrative skills in the management of agricultural loans; Farmer's loan size should be increased and released on time to enable them to use it effectively. Policies that enhance insuring farm activities should be put in place to discourage farmers from risk aversion.

Keywords: agriculture, analysis, cooperative, finance, risks

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513 A Study on Al-Riba Al-Hukmi and Its Instances from View of Islam

Authors: Abolfazl Alishahi Ghalehjoughi, Bi Bi Zeinab Hoseni

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Islam is a comprehensive religion, and has rules for any thing. Islam attaches respect and importance to properties as well, and outlaws some types of transaction. A type of transaction that is strictly forbidden by the Islam is riba (usury), for which special punishments is considered in the Qur’an and hadiths. Usury is divided into (riba qarzi) loan usury and riba muamili (transaction usury); sometimes, in transaction and interest free loan contracts, ziyadah aini (interest in kind and of the same kind as that of the object of transaction) is not stipulated, but performance of work, provision of an advantage or a service, or a respite is stipulated, in which case although no ziyadah aini is in place, the transaction still constitutes usury and is outlaw. For instance, if a bank stipulates in an interest free loan contract that it pays a person the interest free loan only if he/she deposits a sum in the bank, this is an instance of riba hukmi. Or, for muamilah sarfi (transaction is which object of transaction and consideration is gold or silver) to be legitimate, it necessary that both the object of transaction and the consideration be handed over between the parties, because if a party takes delivery of the considered or object of transaction while the other party does not, the party who has taken delivery will accrue a benefit, as he/she wins time until he/she makes delivery to the other party, and this tantamount to usury in muamilah sarfi. Or, if a person lends a sum to another person, while the lender is indebted to the borrower, if the lender stipulates that he/she lends such amount only if the borrower postpones the maturity date of the lender’s debt to borrower, which is in one month, for a particular period of time, such loan will constitute usury. This research first provides views on riba hukmi, and then proceeds to analysis of views, trying to study fundamentals and proof regarding prohibition of riba hukmi, and to analyze instances of riba hukmi according to religious and hadith books.

Keywords: Islam, riba, prohibition, riba hukmi

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512 Impact of Sovereign Debt Risk and Corrective Austerity Measures on Private Sector Borrowing Cost in Euro Zone

Authors: Syed Noaman Shah

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The current paper evaluates the effect of external public debt risk on the borrowing cost of private non-financial firms in euro zone. Further, the study also treats the impact of austerity measures on syndicated-loan spreads of private firm followed by euro area member states to revive the economic growth in the region. To test these hypotheses, we follow multivariate ordinary least square estimation method to assess the effect of external public debt on the borrowing cost of private firms. By using foreign syndicated-loan issuance data of non-financial private firms from 2005 to 2011, we attempt to gauge how the private financing cost varies with high levels of sovereign external debt prevalent in the euro zone. Our results suggest significant effect of external public debt on the borrowing cost of private firm. In particular, an increase in external public debt by one standard deviation from its sample mean raises syndicated-loan spread by 89 bps. Furthermore, weak creditor rights protection prevalent in member states deepens this effect. However, we do not find any significant effect of domestic public debt on the private sector borrowing cost. In addition, the results show significant effect of austerity measures on private financing cost, both in normal and in crisis period in the euro zone. In particular, one standard deviation change in fiscal consolidation conditional mean reduces the syndicated-loan spread by 22 bps. In turn, it indicates strong presence of credibility channel due to austerity measures in euro area region.

Keywords: corporate debt, fiscal consolidation, sovereign debt, syndicated-loan spread

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511 Land Suitability Analysis for Maize Production in Egbeda Local Government Area of Oyo State Using GIS Techniques

Authors: Abegunde Linda, Adedeji Oluwatayo, Tope-Ajayi Opeyemi

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Maize constitutes a major agrarian production for use by the vast population but despite its economic importance, it has not been produced to meet the economic needs of the country. Achieving optimum yield in maize can meaningfully be supported by land suitability analysis in order to guarantee self-sufficiency for future production optimization. This study examines land suitability for maize production through the analysis of the physic-chemical variations in soil properties over space using a Geographic Information System (GIS) framework. Physic-chemical parameters of importance selected include slope, landuse, and physical and chemical properties of the soil. Landsat imagery was used to categorize the landuse, Shuttle Radar Topographic Mapping (SRTM) generated the slope and soil samples were analyzed for its physical and chemical components. Suitability was categorized into highly, moderately and marginally suitable based on Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) classification using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique of GIS. This result can be used by small scale farmers for efficient decision making in the allocation of land for maize production.

Keywords: AHP, GIS, MCE, suitability, Zea mays

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510 Japanese English in Travel Brochures

Authors: Premvadee Na Nakornpanom

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This study investigates the role and impact of English loan words on Japanese language in travel brochures. The issues arising from a potential switch to English as a tool to absorb the West’s advanced knowledge and technology in the modernization of Japan to a means of linking Japan with the rest of the world and enhancing the country’s international presence. Sociolinguistic contexts were used to analyze data collected from the Nippon Travel agency "HIS"’s brochures in Thailand, revealing that English plays the most important role as lexical gap fillers and special effect givers. An increasing mixer of English to Japanese affects how English is misused, the way the Japanese see the world and the present generation’s communication gap.

Keywords: English, Japanese, loan words, travel brochure

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509 Monitoring Prospective Sites for Water Harvesting Structures Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems-Based Modeling in Egypt

Authors: Shereif. H. Mahmoud

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Egypt has limited water resources, and it will be under water stress by the year 2030. Therefore, Egypt should consider natural and non-conventional water resources to overcome such a problem. Rain harvesting is one solution. This Paper presents a geographic information system (GIS) methodology - based on decision support system (DSS) that uses remote sensing data, filed survey, and GIS to identify potential RWH areas. The input into the DSS includes a map of rainfall surplus, slope, potential runoff coefficient (PRC), land cover/use, soil texture. In addition, the outputs are map showing potential sites for RWH. Identifying suitable RWH sites implemented in the ArcGIS model environment using the model builder of ArcGIS 10.1. Based on Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) analysis taking into account five layers, the spatial extents of RWH suitability areas identified using Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE). The suitability model generated a suitability map for RWH with four suitability classes, i.e. Excellent, Moderate, Poor, and unsuitable. The spatial distribution of the suitability map showed that the excellent suitable areas for RWH concentrated in the northern part of Egypt. According to their averages, 3.24% of the total area have excellent and good suitability for RWH, while 45.04 % and 51.48 % of the total area are moderate and unsuitable suitability, respectively. The majority of the areas with excellent suitability have slopes between 2 and 8% and with an intensively cultivated area. The major soil type in the excellent suitable area is loam and the rainfall range from 100 up to 200 mm. Validation of the used technique depends on comparing existing RWH structures locations with the generated suitability map using proximity analysis tool of ArcGIS 10.1. The result shows that most of exiting RWH structures categorized as successful.

Keywords: rainwater harvesting (RWH), geographic information system (GIS), analytical hierarchy process (AHP), multi-criteria evaluation (MCE), decision support system (DSS)

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508 Decision Support System Based On GIS and MCDM to Identify Land Suitability for Agriculture

Authors: Abdelkader Mendas

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The integration of MultiCriteria Decision Making (MCDM) approaches in a Geographical Information System (GIS) provides a powerful spatial decision support system which offers the opportunity to efficiently produce the land suitability maps for agriculture. Indeed, GIS is a powerful tool for analyzing spatial data and establishing a process for decision support. Because of their spatial aggregation functions, MCDM methods can facilitate decision making in situations where several solutions are available, various criteria have to be taken into account and decision-makers are in conflict. The parameters and the classification system used in this work are inspired from the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) approach dedicated to a sustainable agriculture. A spatial decision support system has been developed for establishing the land suitability map for agriculture. It incorporates the multicriteria analysis method ELECTRE Tri (ELimitation Et Choix Traduisant la REalité) in a GIS within the GIS program package environment. The main purpose of this research is to propose a conceptual and methodological framework for the combination of GIS and multicriteria methods in a single coherent system that takes into account the whole process from the acquisition of spatially referenced data to decision-making. In this context, a spatial decision support system for developing land suitability maps for agriculture has been developed. The algorithm of ELECTRE Tri is incorporated into a GIS environment and added to the other analysis functions of GIS. This approach has been tested on an area in Algeria. A land suitability map for durum wheat has been produced. Through the obtained results, it appears that ELECTRE Tri method, integrated into a GIS, is better suited to the problem of land suitability for agriculture. The coherence of the obtained maps confirms the system effectiveness.

Keywords: multicriteria decision analysis, decision support system, geographical information system, land suitability for agriculture

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507 Regional Disparities in Microfinance Distribution: Evidence from Indian States

Authors: Sunil Sangwan, Narayan Chandra Nayak

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Over the last few decades, Indian banking system has achieved remarkable growth in its credit volume. However, one of the most disturbing facts about this growth is the uneven distribution of financial services across regions. Having witnessed limited success from all the earlier efforts towards financial inclusion targeting the rural poor and the underprivileged, provision of microfinance, of late, has emerged as a supplementary mechanism. There are two prominent modes of microfinance distribution in India namely Bank-SHG linkage (SBLP) and private Microfinance Institutions (MFIs). Ironically, such efforts also seem to have failed to achieve the desired targets as the microfinance services have witnessed skewed distribution across the states of the country. This study attempts to make a comparative analysis of the geographical skew of the SBLP and MFI in India and examine the factors influencing their regional distribution. The results indicate that microfinance services are largely concentrated in the southern region, accounting for about 50% of all microfinance clients and 49% of all microfinance loan portfolios. This is distantly followed by an eastern region where client outreach is close to 25% only. The north-eastern, northern, central, and western regions lag far behind in microfinance sectors, accounting for only 4%, 4%, 10%, and 7 % client outreach respectively. The penetration of SHGs is equally skewed, with the southern region accounting for 46% of client outreach and 70% of loan portfolios followed by an eastern region with 21% of client outreach and 13% of the loan portfolio. Contrarily, north-eastern, northern, central, western and eastern regions account for 5%, 5%, 10%, and 13% of client outreach and 3%, 3%, 7%, and 4% of loan portfolios respectively. The study examines the impact of literacy rate, rural poverty, population density, primary sector share, non-farm activities, loan default behavior and bank penetration on the microfinance penetration. The study is limited to 17 major states of the country over the period 2008-2014. The results of the GMM estimation indicate the significant positive impact of literacy rate, non-farm activities and population density on microfinance penetration across the states, while the rise in loan default seems to deter it. Rural poverty shows the significant negative impact on the spread of SBLP, while it has a positive impact on MFI penetration, hence indicating the policy of exclusion being adhered to by the formal financial system especially towards the poor. However, MFIs seem to be working as substitute mechanisms to banks to fill the gap. The findings of the study are a pointer towards enhancing financial literacy, non-farm activities, rural bank penetration and containing loan default for achieving greater microfinance prevalence.

Keywords: bank penetration, literacy rate, microfinance, primary sector share, rural non-farm activities, rural poverty

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506 The Effect of Family Controlling Ownership on Financing Policy

Authors: Vera Diyanty, Akhmad Syahroza

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This research aims to describe an empirical evidence of the influence of family control on the company’s financing policy. Additionally, this research also shows the effect of leadership from family member and the effectiveness of the board of commissioners on companies’ financing policy. The result of this study found that family control through direct and indirect ownership mechanism have a positive impact on the choice of bank loan compare to public debt. Nevertheless, this research also shows that companies’ founders who become CEO and the effectiveness of board of commissioners do not prove to increase the alignment effect nor decrease the negative impact of entrenchment effect on the bank loan preference.

Keywords: family controlling, family CEO, board effectiveness, financing policy

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505 The Impact of Access to Microcredit Programme on Women Empowerment: A Case Study of Cowries Microfinance Bank in Lagos State, Nigeria

Authors: Adijat Olubukola Olateju

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Women empowerment is an essential developmental tool in every economy especially in less developed countries; as it helps to enhance women's socio-economic well-being. Some empirical evidence has shown that microcredit has been an effective tool in enhancing women empowerment, especially in developing countries. This paper therefore, investigates the impact of microcredit programme on women empowerment in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study used Cowries Microfinance Bank (CMB) as a case study bank, and a total of 359 women entrepreneurs were selected by simple random sampling technique from the list of Cowries Microfinance Bank. Selection bias which could arise from non-random selection of participants or non-random placement of programme, was adjusted for by dividing the data into participant women entrepreneurs and non-participant women entrepreneurs. The data were analyzed with a Propensity Score Matching (PSM) technique. The result of the Average Treatment Effect on the Treated (ATT) obtained from the PSM indicates that the credit programme has a significant effect on the empowerment of women in the study area. It is therefore, recommended that microfinance banks should be encouraged to give loan to women and for more impact of the loan to be felt by the beneficiaries the loan programme should be complemented with other programmes such as training, grant, and periodic monitoring of programme should be encouraged.

Keywords: empowerment, microcredit, socio-economic wellbeing, development

Procedia PDF Downloads 222