Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 799

Search results for: lipid lowering

799 Demographic Assessment and Evaluation of Degree of Lipid Control in High Risk Indian Dyslipidemia Patients

Authors: Abhijit Trailokya

Abstract:

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD’s) are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Many clinical trials have demonstrated that low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering, reduces the incidence of coronary and cerebrovascular events across a broad spectrum of patients at risk. Guidelines for the management of patients at risk have been established in Europe and North America. The guidelines have advocated progressively lower LDL-C targets and more aggressive use of statin therapy. In Indian patients, comprehensive data on dyslipidemia management and its treatment outcomes are inadequate. There is lack of information on existing treatment patterns, the patient’s profile being treated, and factors that determine treatment success or failure in achieving desired goals. Purpose: The present study was planned to determine the lipid control status in high-risk dyslipidemic patients treated with lipid-lowering therapy in India. Methods: This cross-sectional, non-interventional, single visit program was conducted across 483 sites in India where male and female patients with high-risk dyslipidemia aged 18 to 65 years who had visited for a routine health check-up to their respective physician at hospital or a healthcare center. Percentage of high-risk dyslipidemic patients achieving adequate LDL-C level (< 70 mg/dL) on lipid-lowering therapy and the association of lipid parameters with patient characteristics, comorbid conditions, and lipid lowering drugs were analysed. Results: 3089 patients were enrolled in the study; of which 64% were males. LDL-C data was available for 95.2% of the patients; only 7.7% of these patients achieved LDL-C levels < 70 mg/dL on lipid-lowering therapy, which may be due to inability to follow therapeutic plans, poor compliance, or inadequate counselling by physician. The physician’s lack of awareness about recent treatment guidelines also might contribute to patients’ poor adherence, not explaining adequately the benefit and risks of a medication, not giving consideration to the patient’s life style and the cost of medication. Statin was the most commonly used anti-dyslipidemic drug across population. The higher proportion of patients had the comorbid condition of CVD and diabetes mellitus across all dyslipidemic patients. Conclusion: As per the European Society of Cardiology guidelines the ideal LDL-C levels in high risk dyslipidemic patients should be less than 70%. In the present study, 7.7% of the patients achieved LDL-C levels < 70 mg/dL on lipid lowering therapy which is very less. Most of high risk dyslipidemic patients in India are on suboptimal dosage of statin. So more aggressive and high dosage statin therapy may be required to achieve target LDLC levels in high risk Indian dyslipidemic patients.

Keywords: cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, LDL-C, lipid lowering drug, statins

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798 Spinach Lipid Extract as an Alternative Flow Aid for Fat Suspensions

Authors: Nizaha Juhaida Mohamad, David Gray, Bettina Wolf

Abstract:

Chocolate is a material composite with a high fraction of solid particles dispersed in a fat phase largely composed of cocoa butter. Viscosity properties of chocolate can be manipulated by the amount of fat - increased levels of fat lead to lower viscosity. However, a high content of cocoa butter can increase the cost of the chocolate and instead surfactants are used to manipulate viscosity behaviour. Most commonly, lecithin and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) are used. Lecithin is a natural lipid emulsifier which is based on phospholipids while PGPR is a chemically produced emulsifier which based on the long continuous chain of ricinoleic acid. Lecithin and PGPR act to lower the viscosity and yield stress, respectively. Recently, natural lipid emulsifiers based on galactolipid as the functional ingredient have become of interest. Spinach lipid is found to have a high amount of galactolipid, specifically MGDG and DGDG. The aim of this research is to explore the influence of spinach lipid in comparison with PGPR and lecithin on the rheological properties of sugar/oil suspensions which serve as chocolate model system. For that purpose, icing sugar was dispersed from 40%, 45% and 50% (w/w) in oil which has spinach lipid at concentrations from 0.1 – 0.7% (w/w). Based on viscosity at 40 s-1 and yield value reported as shear stress measured at 5 s-1, it was found that spinach lipid shows viscosity reducing and yield stress lowering effects comparable to lecithin and PGPR, respectively. This characteristic of spinach lipid demonstrates great potential for it to act as single natural lipid emulsifier in chocolate.

Keywords: chocolate viscosity, lecithin, polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR), spinach lipid

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797 The Effects of Eriocitrin on Obesity and Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese C57BL/6 Mice

Authors: So Young Kim, Eun-Young Kwon, Bora Choi, Mi Kyeong Yu, Seon Jeong Lee, Myung-Sook Choi

Abstract:

Lemon (Citrus limon) has various beneficial effect. Eriocitrin (eriodictyol 7-rutinoside) is the main ingredient of lemon fruit and is known to have antioxidative effects. However, there has been little research about the effects of eriocitrin on obesity and regulation of lipid profiles levels. In the present study, we investigated the anti-obesity and lipid-lowering effects of eriocitrin in mice fed high-fat diet (HFD). The 4 week-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups and were fed HFD (20% fat, w/w) and HFD supplemented with eriocitrin (0.005%, w/w, EC) for 16 weeks. Food intake, body weight and white adipose tissue weight (WAT) were measured and plasma free fatty acid (FFA), apolipoprotein (Apo) B100 level and hepatic enzyme activity were analyzed. No differences were shown between the HFD and EC groups in body weight and food intake. However EC supplementation significantly reduced the weights of epididymal, subcutaneous and total WAT. In addition, the levels of plasma FFA and Apo B100 were significantly decreased in the EC group compared with the HFD group. Moreover, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and malic enzyme (ME) related to fatty acids synthesis were significantly lower in the EC group than in the HFD group in liver. Therefore, this study indicates that eriocitrin has beneficial effects on adiposity and nonalcholic fatty liver diseases by modulating hepatic lipid-regulating enzyme activities and plasma lipid profile.

Keywords: antiobesity, eriocitrin, high fat diet, lipid lowering

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796 Role of Oxidative Stress and Nitric Oxide in the Protective Effects of Simvastatine against Isoniazid-Rifampicin-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Mabroka Omar Sherehe

Abstract:

Despite the great efficacy of isoniazid (INH) and rifampicine (RIF) combination in the treatment of tuberculosis, hepatotoxicity is the most common serious complication. The potential protective effect of simvastatin (sim) against combination-induced hepatotoxicity was investigated in the present study. The administration of INH-RIF combination (50mg/kg each for 14 days) resulted in a significant increased activities of serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, such effects were further supported by histopathological studies. INH-RIF combination produced a significant increase in liver lipid, decreased SOD and CAT, and a significant depletion of GSH level. Additionally, treatment with INH-RIF combination resulted in a significant increase in liver MPO activity. The lipid-lowering drug, Sim demonstrated in the current study an evident antioxidant action, such effect was mediated via decreasing the elevated MDA, MPO, and restoring liver CAT activity. Additionally, Sim restored liver NO level to near basal value Furthermore, one cannot rule out the lipid-lowering effect of Sim that would probably add to its beneficial hepatoprotective antioxidant activity, where Sim decreased the elevated cholesterol, TGs and LDL cholesterol level and increased the serum HDL cholesterol level.

Keywords: isoniazid, rifampicine, oxidative stress, nitric oxide

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795 Assessment of Lipid Lowering Effect of Shilajit in Adult Male Rats

Authors: U. P. Rathnakar, Sejpal Jaykumar, Shenoy K. Ashok

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The effect of Shilajit was investigated for lipid lowering activity and its effect on weight gain in Wistar albino rats. Shilajit, semi-hard brownish black resin formed through long-term humidification of several plant types, mainly bryophytes, can be obtained from steep rocks of the Himalayas at altitudes between 1000 to 5000 meters. Hyperlipidemia was produced by feeding the rats with the cholesterol-rich high-fat diet (HFD) for 2 months. This diet contained deoxycholic acid, cholesterol and warm coconut oil in powdered rat chow diet. At the end of study, Shilajit treated rats showed significant decrease in serum LDL, triglyceride and total cholesterol level as well as increase in serum HDL level, in comparison to rats fed on high-fat diet with no treatment. Also during study period, increase in weight in Shilajit treated group was significantly less than in the other group of rats fed on high-fat diet with no treatment. Thus, Shilajit has significantly controlled the development of hyperlipidemia and weight gain in high-fat diet fed rats in the present study.

Keywords: Shilajit, hyperlipidemia, weight control, cholesterol-rich high-fat diet

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794 Role of Lipid-Lowering Treatment in the Monocyte Phenotype and Chemokine Receptor Levels after Acute Myocardial Infarction

Authors: Carolina N. França, Jônatas B. do Amaral, Maria C.O. Izar, Ighor L. Teixeira, Francisco A. Fonseca

Abstract:

Introduction: Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease, characterized by lipid and fibrotic element deposition in large-caliber arteries. Conditions related to the development of atherosclerosis, as dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and smoking are associated with endothelial dysfunction. There is a frequent recurrence of cardiovascular outcomes after acute myocardial infarction and, at this sense, cycles of mobilization of monocyte subtypes (classical, intermediate and nonclassical) secondary to myocardial infarction may determine the colonization of atherosclerotic plaques in different stages of the development, contributing to early recurrence of ischemic events. The recruitment of different monocyte subsets during inflammatory process requires the expression of chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR5, and CX3CR1, to promote the migration of monocytes to the inflammatory site. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lipid-lowering treatment by six months in the monocyte phenotype and chemokine receptor levels of patients after Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI). Methods: This is a PROBE (prospective, randomized, open-label trial with blinded endpoints) study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02428374). Adult patients (n=147) of both genders, ageing 18-75 years, were randomized in a 2x2 factorial design for treatment with rosuvastatin 20 mg/day or simvastatin 40 mg/day plus ezetimibe 10 mg/day as well as ticagrelor 90 mg 2x/day and clopidogrel 75 mg, in addition to conventional AMI therapy. Blood samples were collected at baseline, after one month and six months of treatment. Monocyte subtypes (classical - inflammatory, intermediate - phagocytic and nonclassical – anti-inflammatory) were identified, quantified and characterized by flow cytometry, as well as the expressions of the chemokine receptors (CCR2, CCR5 and CX3CR1) were also evaluated in the mononuclear cells. Results: After six months of treatment, there was an increase in the percentage of classical monocytes and reduction in the nonclassical monocytes (p=0.038 and p < 0.0001 Friedman Test), without differences for intermediate monocytes. Besides, classical monocytes had higher expressions of CCR5 and CX3CR1 after treatment, without differences related to CCR2 (p < 0.0001 for CCR5 and CX3CR1; p=0.175 for CCR2). Intermediate monocytes had higher expressions of CCR5 and CX3CR1 and lower expression of CCR2 (p = 0.003; p < 0.0001 and p = 0.011, respectively). Nonclassical monocytes had lower expressions of CCR2 and CCR5, without differences for CX3CR1 (p < 0.0001; p = 0.009 and p = 0.138, respectively). There were no differences after the comparison between the four treatment arms. Conclusion: The data suggest a time-dependent modulation of classical and nonclassical monocytes and chemokine receptor levels. The higher percentage of classical monocytes (inflammatory cells) suggest a residual inflammatory risk, even under preconized treatments to AMI. Indeed, these changes do not seem to be affected by choice of the lipid-lowering strategy.

Keywords: acute myocardial infarction, chemokine receptors, lipid-lowering treatment, monocyte subtypes

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793 The Effectiveness of Herbal Capsules Ethanol Extract of Celery (Apium graveolens L.) and Bulb of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) in Lowering Total Cholesterol Levels in Patients with Hypercholesterolemia

Authors: Anton Bahtiar, Lukas Tjandra Leksana, Fransiscus D. Suyatna

Abstract:

Hypercholesterolemia is one of the major risk factors that can trigger the development of cardiovascular disease, especially coronary heart disease. One of the traditional drugs used for hypercholesterolemia is a combination of herbs celery (Apium graveolens) and garlic (Allium sativum). This study aimed to investigate the effects of the extract on lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Subjects consisted of patients with traditional medicine clinic in Jakarta. Each subject received treatment capsules containing herbal extract and placebo capsules. On the 44 subjects, the lipid profile was examined blood levels of total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides. Paired two-tailed t-test was used for the difference between lipid profile of the therapy group and the placebo group. The changes in the lipid profile between the treatment groups and the placebo group for total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides was 14,82 ± 6,946;1.45 ± 2,945;6,98 ± 8,105;2,48 ± 6,504 mg/dL. The herbal extract decrease blood cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (P <0.05).

Keywords: Allium sativum, Apium graveolens, hypercholesterolemia, cholesterol, HDL, LDL

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792 Effect of Nitrogen and Carbon Sources on Growth and Lipid Production from Mixotrophic Growth of Chlorella sp. KKU-S2

Authors: Ratanaporn Leesing, Thidarat Papone, Mutiyaporn Puangbut

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Mixotrophic cultivation of the isolated freshwater microalgae Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 in batch shake flask for biomass and lipid productions, different concentration of glucose as carbon substrate, different nitrogen source and concentrations were investigated. Using 1.0g/L of NaNO3 as nitrogen source, the maximum biomass yield of 10.04g/L with biomass productivity of 1.673g/L d was obtained using 40g/L glucose, while a biomass of 7.09, 8.55 and 9.45g/L with biomass productivity of 1.182, 1.425 and 1.575g/L d were found at 20, 30 and 50g/L glucose, respectively. The maximum lipid yield of 3.99g/L with lipid productivity of 0.665g/L d was obtained when 40g/L glucose was used. Lipid yield of 1.50, 3.34 and 3.66g/L with lipid productivity of 0.250, 0.557 and 0.610g/L d were found when using the initial concentration of glucose at 20, 30 and 50g/L, respectively. Process product yield (YP/S) of 0.078, 0.119, 0.158 and 0.094 were observed when glucose concentration was 20, 30, 40 and 50 g/L, respectively. The results obtained from the study shows that mixotrophic culture of Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 is a desirable cultivation process for microbial lipid and biomass production.

Keywords: mixotrophic cultivation, microalgal lipid, Chlorella sp. KKU-S2

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791 Total Lipid of Mutant Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

Authors: Azlin S Azmi, Mus’ab Zainal, Sarina Sulaiman, Azura Amid, Zaki Zainudin

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Microalgae lipid is a promising feedstock for biodiesel production. The objective of this work was to study growth factors affecting marine mutant Synechococcus sp. (PCC 7002) for high lipid production. Four growth factors were investigated; nitrogen-phosporus-potassium (NPK) concentration, light intensity, temperature and NaNO3 concentration on mutant strain growth and lipid production were studied. Design Expert v8.0 was used to design the experimental and analyze the data. The experimental design selected was Min-Run Res IV which consists of 12 runs and the response surfaces measured were specific growth rate and lipid concentration. The extraction of lipid was conducted by chloroform/methanol solvents system. Based on the study, mutant Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 gave the highest specific growth rate of 0.0014 h-1 at 0% NPK, 2500 lux, 40oC and 0% NaNO3. On the other hand, the highest lipid concentration was obtained at 0% NPK, 3500 lux, 30°C and 1% NaNO3.

Keywords: Cyanobacteria, lipid, mutant, marine Synechococcus sp. (PCC 7002), specific growth rate

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790 Protein and Lipid Extraction from Microalgae with Ultrasound Assisted Osmotic Shock Method

Authors: Nais Pinta Adetya, H. Hadiyanto

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Microalgae has a potential to be utilized as food and natural colorant. The microalgae components consists of three main parts, these are lipid, protein, and carbohydrate. Crucial step in producing lipid and protein from microalgae is extraction. Microalgae has high water level (70-90%), it causes drying process of biomass needs much more energy and also has potential to distract lipid and protein from microalgae. Extraction of lipid from wet biomass is able to take place efficiently with cell disruption of microalgae by osmotic shock method. In this study, osmotic shock method was going to be integrated with ultrasound to maximalize the extraction yield of lipid and protein from wet biomass Spirulina sp. with osmotic shock method assisted ultrasound. This study consisted of two steps, these were osmotic shock process toward wet biomass and ultrasound extraction assisted. NaCl solution was used as osmotic agent, with the variation of concentrations were 10%, 20%, and 30%. Extraction was conducted in 40°C for 20 minutes with frequency of ultrasound wave was 40kHz. The optimal yield of protein (2.7%) and (lipid 38%) were achieved at 20% osmotic agent concentration.

Keywords: extraction, lipid, osmotic shock, protein, ultrasound

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789 Rosuvastatin Improves Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Authors: Ashit Syngle, Nidhi Garg, Pawan Krishan

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Background: Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs) are depleted and contribute to increased cardiovascular (CV) risk in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Statins exert a protective effect in CAD partly by promoting EPC mobilization. This vasculoprotective effect of statin has not yet been investigated in RA. We aimed to investigate the effect of rosuvastatin on EPCs in RA. Methods: 50 RA patients were randomized to receive 6 months of treatment with rosuvastatin (10 mg/day, n=25) and placebo (n=25) as an adjunct to existing stable antirheumatic drugs. EPCs (CD34+/CD133+) were quantified by Flow Cytometry. Inflammatory measures included DAS28, CRP and ESR were measured at baseline and after treatment. Lipids and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1) were estimated at baseline and after treatment. Results: At baseline, inflammatory measures and pro-inflammatory cytokines were elevated and EPCs depleted among both groups. At baseline, EPCs inversely correlated with DAS28 and TNF-α in both groups. EPCs increased significantly (p < 0.01) after treatment with rosuvastatin but did not show significant change with placebo. Rosuvastatin exerted positive effect on lipid spectrum: lowering total cholesterol, LDL, non HDL and elevation of HDL as compared with placebo. At 6 months, DAS28, ESR, CRP, TNF-α and IL-6 improved significantly in rosuvastatin group. Significant negative correlation was observed between EPCs and DAS28, CRP, TNF-α, and IL-6 after treatment with rosuvastatin. Conclusion: First study to show that rosuvastatin improves inflammation and EPC biology in RA possibly through its anti-inflammatory and lipid lowering effect. This beneficial effect of rosuvastatin may provide a novel strategy to prevent cardiovascular events in RA.

Keywords: RA, Endothelial Progenitor Cells, rosuvastatin, cytokines

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788 Cell Biomass and Lipid Productivities of Meyerella planktonica under Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Growth Conditions

Authors: Rory Anthony Hutagalung, Leonardus Widjaja

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Microalgae Meyerella planktonica is a potential biofuel source because it can grow in bulk in either autotrophic or heterotrophic condition. However, the quantitative growth of this algal type is still low as it tends to precipitates on the bottom. Beside, the lipid concentration is still low when grown in autotrophic condition. In contrast, heterotrophic condition can enhance the lipid concentration. The combination of autotrophic condition and agitation treatment was conducted to increase the density of the culture. On the other hand, a heterotrophic condition was set up to raise the lipid production. A two-stage experiment was applied to increase the density at the first step and to increase the lipid concentration in the next step. The autotrophic condition resulted higher density but lower lipid concentration compared to heterotrophic one. The agitation treatment produced higher density in both autotrophic and heterotrophic conditions. The two-stage experiment managed to enhance the density during the autotrophic stage and the lipid concentration during the heterotrophic stage. The highest yield was performed by using 0.4% v/v glycerol as a carbon source (2.9±0.016 x 106 cells w/w) attained 7 days after the heterotrophic stage began. The lipid concentration was stable starting from day 7.

Keywords: agitation, glycerol, heterotrophic, lipid productivity, Meyerella planktonica

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787 Cholesterol-Lowering Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum Isolated from Northeastern Thai Fermented Vegetable Brassica juncea (L.)

Authors: T. Warinpramote, J. Sanguanjeen, P. Pholphakwaen, S. Kittisorayut, J. Kerdtubtim, S. Palachote, M. Taweechotipatr

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Cholesterol is a type of lipid molecule which is the significant risk factor for coronary heart disease. Currently, there are many cholesterol-lowering alternative treatments especially bile salt hydrolase positive lactobacilli. BSH can cleave the peptide linkage of bile salt, which results in removal of the amino acid group from the steroid core and increases production of the new bile acid by using more cholesterol. The purpose of this study was to isolate, and screen probiotic characteristics of lactobacilli from fermented Thai foods and further investigated for their comparative BSH activity. The result showed that 2 of 81 Lactobacillus strains, JPK2-2 and JPK3-2, isolated from Brassica juncea (L.) had significantly exhibited high BSH activity. In addition, these Lactobacillus strains showed their results that the ability to tolerate acid and bile salt. Furthermore, the using of 16S rDNA sequencing for definitive microbial identifications showed that these 2 strains belong to Lactobacillus plantarum. In the future, the L. plantarum with BSH activity strains JPK2-2 and JPK3-2 may be the candidate probiotics for application in functional foods and dairy products to improve in the patient with cardiovascular diseases.

Keywords: Lactobacillus plantarum, probiotics, bile salt hydrolase, cholesterol-lowering, fermented Thai food

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786 Lipid Nanoparticles for Spironolactone Delivery: Physicochemical Characteristics, Stability and Invitro Release

Authors: H. R. Kelidari, M. Saeedi, J. Akbari, K. Morteza-Semnani, H. Valizadeh

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Spironolactoe (SP) a synthetic steroid diuretic is a poorly water-soluble drug with a low and variable oral bioavailability. Regarding to the good solubility of SP in lipid materials, SP loaded Solid lipid nanoparticles (SP-SLNs) and nanostructured lipid carrier (SP-SLNs) were thus prepared in this work for accelerating dissolution of this drug. The SP loaded NLC with stearic acid (SA) as solid lipid and different Oleic Acid (OA) as liquid lipid content and SLN without OA were prepared by probe ultrasonication method. With increasing the percentage of OA from 0 to 30 wt% in SLN/NLC, the average size and zeta potential of nanoparticles felled down and entrapment efficiency (EE %) rose dramatically. The obtained micrograph particles showed pronounced spherical shape. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) measurements indicated that the presence of OA reduced the melting temperature and melting enthalpy of solid lipid in NLC structure. The results reflected good long-term stability of the nanoparticles and the measurements show that the particle size remains lower in NLC compare to SLN formulations, 6 months after production. Dissolution of SP-SLN and SP-NLC was about 5.1 and 7.2 times faster than raw drugs in 120 min respectively. These results indicated that the SP loaded NLC containing 70:30 solid lipid to liquid lipid ratio is a suitable carrier of SP with improved drug EE and steady drug release properties.

Keywords: drug release, lipid nanoparticles, spironolactone, stability

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785 Time-Course Lipid Accumulation and Transcript Analyses of Lipid Biosynthesis Gene of Chlorella sp.3 under Nitrogen Limited Condition

Authors: Jyoti Singh, Swati Dubey, Mukta Singh, R. P. Singh

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The freshwater microalgae Chlorella sp. is alluring considerable interest as a source for biofuel production due to its fast growth rate and high lipid content. Under nitrogen limited conditions, they can accumulate significant amounts of lipids. Thus, it is important to gain insight into the molecular mechanism of their lipid metabolism. In this study under nitrogen limited conditions, regular pattern of growth characteristics lipid accumulation and gene expression analysis of key regulatory genes of lipid biosynthetic pathway were carried out in microalgae Chlorella sp 3. Our results indicated that under nitrogen limited conditions there is a significant increase in the lipid content and lipid productivity, achieving 44.21±2.64 % and 39.34±0.66 mg/l/d at the end of the cultivation, respectively. Time-course transcript patterns of lipid biosynthesis genes i.e. acetyl coA carboxylase (accD) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (dgat) showed that during late log phase of microalgae Chlorella sp.3 both the genes were significantly up regulated as compared to early log phase. Moreover, the transcript level of the dgat gene is two-fold higher than the accD gene. The results suggested that both the genes responded sensitively to the nitrogen limited conditions during the late log stage, which proposed their close relevance to lipid biosynthesis. Further, this transcriptome data will be useful for engineering microalgae species by targeting these genes for genetic modification to improve microalgal biofuel quality and production.

Keywords: biofuel, gene, lipid, microalgae

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784 Papaya Leaf in Broiler Chicken Feed Reducing Lipid Peroxidation of Meat

Authors: M. Ebrahimi, E. Maroufyan, M. Shakeri, E. Oskoueian, A. F Soleimani, Y. M. Goh

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Lipid peroxidation is a main reason of low quality in meat and meat products. The free radical chain reaction is the major process of lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydroxyl radical and hydroperoxyl radical are the main starter of the chain reaction. Papaya leaf contains several secondary metabolites which can be used as a potential antioxidant in broiler feed. Hence, this research was carried out to evaluate the potential of papaya leaf to prevent lipid peroxidation and enhance the antioxidant activity of breast meat of broiler chicken. The results showed that supplementation of papaya leaf at 5%, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the lipid peroxidation compared to control group. The supplementation of papaya leaf prevented from lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antioxidant activity of the broiler breast meat significantly (p < 0.05) after different storage periods. Papaya leaf reduced the lipid oxidation of meat during storage with strong free radical-scavenging ability. In conclusion, supplementation of papaya leaf in broiler diet to have high quality meat is recommended.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, papaya leaf, breast meat, lipid peroxidation

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783 Effect of Ginger (Zingiber Officinal) Root Extract on Blood Glucose Level and Lipid Profile in Normal and Alloxan-Diabetic Rabbits

Authors: Khalil Abdullah Ahmed Khalil, Elsadig Mohamed Ahmed

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Ginger is one of the most important medicinal plants, which is widely used in folk medicine. This study was designed to go further step and evaluate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidaemic effects of the aqueous ginger root extract in normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits. Results revealed that the aqueous ginger has a significant hypoglycemic effect (P<0.05) in diabetic rabbits but a non-significant hypoglycemic effect (P>0.05) in normal rabbits. There were also significant decreases in the concentrations (P<0.05) in serum cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL – cholesterol in both normal and diabetic rabbits. Although there was an elevation in serum HDL- cholesterol in both normal and diabetic rabbits, these elevations were non-significant (P>0.05). Our data suggest the aqueous ginger has a hypoglycemic effect in diabetic rabbits and lipid-lowering properties in both normal and diabetic rabbits.

Keywords: aqueous extract of ginger root (AEGR), hypoglycemic, cholesterol, triglyceride

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782 Topical Delivery of Griseofulvin via Lipid Nanoparticles

Authors: Yann Jean Tan, Hui Meng Er, Choy Sin Lee, Shew Fung Wong, Wen Huei Lim

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Griseofulvin is a long standing fungistatic agent against dermatophytosis. Nevertheless, it has several drawbacks such as poor and highly variable bio availability, long duration of treatment, systemic side effects and drug interactions. Targeted treatment for the superficial skin infection, dermatophytosis via topical route could be beneficial. Nevertheless, griseofulvin is only available in the form of oral preparation. Hence, it generates interest in developing a topical formulation for griseofulvin, by using lipid nano particle as the vehicle. Lipid nanoparticle is a submicron colloidal carrier with a core that is solid in nature (lipid). It has combined advantages of various traditional carriers and is a promising vehicle for topical delivery. The griseofulvin loaded lipid nano particles produced using high pressure homogenization method were characterized and investigated for its skin targeting effect in vitro. It has a mean particle size of 179.8±4.9 nm with polydispersity index of 0.306±0.011. Besides, it showed higher skin permeation and better skin targeting effect compared to the griseofulvin suspension.

Keywords: lipid nanoparticles, griseofulvin, topical, dermatophytosis

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781 An Analytical Study on the Effect of Chronic Liver Disease Severity and Etiology on Lipid Profiles

Authors: Thinakar Mani Balusamy, Venkateswaran A. R., Bharat Narasimhan, Ratnakar Kini S., Kani Sheikh M., Prem Kumar K., Pugazhendi Thangavelu, Arun Murugan, Sibi Thooran Karmegam, Radhakrishnan N., Mohammed Noufal, Amit Soni

Abstract:

Background and Aims: The liver is integral to lipid metabolism, and a compromise in its function leads to perturbations in these pathways. In this study, we hope to determine the correlation between CLD severity and its effect on lipid parameters. We also look at the etiology-specific effects on lipid levels. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of 250 patients with cirrhosis compared to 250 healthy age and sex-matched controls. Severity assessment of CLD using MELD and Child-Pugh scores was performed and etiological details collected. A questionnaire was used to obtain patient demographic details and lastly, a fasting lipid profile (Total, LDL, HDL cholesterol, Triglycerides and VLDL) was obtained. Results: All components of the lipid profile declined linearly with increasing severity of CLD as determined by MELD and Child-Pugh scores. Lipid levels were clearly lower in CLD patients as compared to healthy controls. Interestingly, preliminary analysis indicated that CLD of different etiologies had differential effects on Lipid profiles. This aspect is under further analysis. Conclusion: All components of the lipid profile were definitely lower in CLD patients as compared to controls and demonstrated an inverse correlation with increasing severity. The utilization of this parameter as a prognosticating aid requires further study. Additionally, preliminary analysis indicates that various CLD etiologies appear to have specific effects on the lipid profile – a finding under further analysis.

Keywords: CLD, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, lipid profile, triglycerides, VLDL

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780 Epicatechin Metabolites and Its Effect on ROS Production in Bovine Aortic Endothelial Cells

Authors: Nasiruddin Khan

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The action of (-)-epicatechin, a cocoa (Theobroma cacao) flavanol that modulates redox/oxidative stress are contributed mainly to their antioxidant properties. The present study investigates the concentration and time dependent effect of (-)-epicatechin metabolites 3MeEc, 4MeEc, and 4SulEc on the production of ROS on BAEC using L-012, Lucigenin as chemiluminescence dye and XO/HX system. Our result demonstrates that 3MeEc shows significant (P <0.05) lowering effect of ROS production in BAEC with increasing concentration of metabolite while L-012 was used as chemiluminescence dye but not in the case of Lucigenin. In XO/HX system, using L-012 as chemiluminescence dye, 3MeEc and 4MeEc showed significant lowering effect on ROS production with increasing concentration from 100-500nM as compared to the positive control (SOD). When Lucigenin was used as chemiluminescence dye, 3MeEc exerted significant lowering effect with increasing concentration when compared to the positive control (SOD) whereas 4MeEc showed significant lowering effect in ROS production from 250 nM on as compared to positive control. For 4SulEc, a significant lowering effect of ROS production was only observed at 100 and 250 nM. Overall, although each metabolite shows considerable effect, 3MeEc exhibited more pronounced effect on decreasing the production of ROS as compared to other two metabolites.

Keywords: epicatechin metabolites, HO-1, Nrf2, ROS

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779 Impact of Two Herbal Seeds Supplementation on Growth Performance and Some Biochemical Blood and Tissue Parameters of Broiler Chickens

Authors: Hamada A. Ahmed, Kadry M. Sadek, Ayman E. Taha

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The effects of basil and/or chamomile seed supplementation on the growth of Hubbard broiler chicks were evaluated. The antioxidant effects of these supplements were also assessed. One hundred and twenty 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four equal groups. The control group (group 1) was fed a basal diet (BD) without supplementation. Groups 2, 3, and 4 were fed the BD supplemented with 10g basil, 10g chamomile, and 5g basil plus 5g chamomile per kg of food, respectively. Basil supplementation alone or in combination with chamomile non-significantly (P≥0.05) increased final body weight (3.2% and 0.3%, respectively) and weight gain (3.5% and 3.6%, respectively) over the experimental period. Chamomile supplementation alone non-significantly (P≥0.05) reduced final body weight and weight gain over the experimental period by 1.7% and 1.7%, respectively. In comparison to the control group, herbal seed supplementation reduced feed intake and improved the feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios. In general, basil seed supplementation stimulated chicken growth and improved the feed efficiency more effectively than chamomile seed supplementation. The antioxidant activities of basil and/or chamomile supplementation were examined in the thymus, bursa, and spleen. In chickens that received supplements, the level of malondialdehyde was significantly decreased, whereas the activities of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were significantly increased (P<0.05). Supplementation of basil and/or chamomile did not affect blood protein levels, but had lipid-lowering effects as evidenced by reduced serum levels of total lipids, triglycerides, and cholesterol. In conclusion, supplementation of basil and/or chamomile improved growth parameters in broiler chicks and had antioxidant and blood lipid-lowering effects. These beneficial effects of basil and/or chamomile supplementation resulted in economically viable production of high-quality white meat containing no harmful residues.

Keywords: herbal additives, basil, chamomile, broiler, growth performance, antioxidant

Procedia PDF Downloads 474
778 The Effect of Head Posture on the Kinematics of the Spine During Lifting and Lowering Tasks

Authors: Mehdi Nematimoez

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Head posture is paramount to retaining gaze and balance in many activities; its control is thus important in many activities. However, little information is available about the effects of head movement restriction on other spine segment kinematics and movement patterns during lifting and lowering tasks. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of head movement restriction on relative angles and their derivatives using the stepwise segmentation approach during lifting and lowering tasks. Ten healthy men lifted and lowered a box using two styles (stoop and squat), with two loads (i.e., 10 and 20% of body weight); they performed these tasks with two instructed head postures (1. Flexing the neck to keep contact between chin and chest over the task cycle; 2. No instruction, free head posture). The spine was divided into five segments, tracked by six cluster markers (C7, T3, T6, T9, T12, and L5). Relative angles between spine segments and their derivatives (first and second) were analyzed by a stepwise segmentation approach to consider the effect of each segment on the whole spine. Accordingly, head posture significantly affected the derivatives of the relative angles and manifested latency in spine segments movement, i.e., cephalad-to-caudad or caudad-to-cephalad patterns. The relative angles for C7-T3 and T3-T6 increased over the cycle of all lifting and lowering tasks; nevertheless, in lower segments increased significantly when the spine moved into upright standing. However, these effects were clearer during lifting than lowering. Conclusively, the neck flexion can unevenly increase the flexion angles of spine segments from cervical to lumbar over lifting and lowering tasks; furthermore, stepwise segmentation reveals potential for assessing the segmental contribution in spine ROM and movement patterns.

Keywords: head movement restriction, spine kinematics, lifting, lowering, stepwise segmentation

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777 Critical Role of Lipid Rafts in Influenza a Virus Binding to Host Cell

Authors: Dileep Kumar Verma, Sunil Kumar Lal

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Influenza still remains one of the most challenging diseases posing significant threat to public health causing seasonal epidemics and pandemics. Influenza A Virus (IAV) surface protein hemagglutinin is known to play an important role in viral attachment to the host sialic acid receptors and concentrate in lipid rafts for efficient viral fusion. Selective nature of Influenza A virus to utilize rafts micro-domain for efficient virus assembly and budding has been explored in depth. However, the detailed mechanism of IAV binding to host cell membrane and entry into the host remains elusive. In the present study we investigated the role of lipid rafts in early life cycle events of IAV. Role of host lipid rafts was studied using raft disruption method by extraction of cholesterol by Methyl-β-Cyclodextrin. Using GM1, a well-known lipid raft marker, we were able to observe co-localization of IAV on lipid rafts on the host cell membrane. This experiment suggests a direct involvement of lipid rafts in the initiation of the IAV life cycle. Upon disruption of lipid rafts by Methyl-b-cyclodextrin, we observed a significant reduction in IAV binding on the host cell surface indicating a significant decrease in virus attachment to coherent membrane rafts. Our results provide proof that host lipid rafts and their constituents play an important role in the adsorption of IAV. This study opens a new avenues in IAV virus-host interactions to combat infection at a very early steps of the viral lifecycle.

Keywords: lipid raft, adsorption, cholesterol, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, GM1

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776 Blood Lipid Profile and Liver Lipid Peroxidation in Normal Rat Fed with Different Concentrations of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal

Authors: Eqbal M. A. Dauqan, A. Aminah

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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the blood lipid profile and liver lipid peroxidation in normal rat fed with different concentrations of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal. Thirty six Sprague Dawley male rats each weighing between 180-200g were randomly divided into two groups. Each group contains eighteen rats and were divided into three groups of 6 rats per group. The rats were fed ad libitum with commercial rat’s feed and tap water containing different concentrations of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal (3% and 6%) for 4 weeks. The results at 4 weeks showed that there was no significant difference (p≤0.05) in the total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) between the control group and treated groups while the results for the high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) showed a significant decrease (P≥0.05) at the 3% and 6% of gum arabic treated groups compared to control group. There was a significant increase (P≥0.05) in low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) with 3% and 6% of gum Arabic (GA) groups compared to the control group. The study indicated that there was no significant (p≤0.05) effect on TC and TG but there was significant effect (P≥0.05) on HDL-C and LDL-C in blood lipid profile of normal rat. The results showed that after 4 weeks of treatment the malondialdehyde (MDA) value in rat fed with 6% of A. seyal group was significantly higher (P≥0.05) than control or other treated groups of A. seyal and A. senegal studied. Thus, the two species of gum arabic did not have beneficial effect on blood lipid profile and lipid peroxidation.

Keywords: Acacia senegal, acacia seyal, lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA)

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775 Investigation Of The Possible Beneficial And Protective Effects Of An Ethanolic Extract From Sarcopoterium spinosum Fruits

Authors: Hawraa Zbeeb, Hala Khalifeh, Mohamad Khalil, Francesca Storace, Francesca Baldini, Giulio Lupidi, Laura Vergani

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Sarcopoterium spinosum, a widely distributed spiny shrubbelonging to the Rosaceae family, isrich in essential and beneficial constituents. In fact, S. spinosum fruits and roots are traditionally used as herbal medicinein the eastern Mediterranean landscape, and this shrub is mentioned as a medicinal plant in a large number of ethnobotanical surveys. Aqueous root extracts from S. spinosum are used by traditional medicinal practitioners for weight loss, treatment of diabetes, and pain. Moreover, the anti-diabetic activity of S. spinosum root extract is reported in different studies, but the beneficial effects of aerial parts, especially fruits, has not been elucidated yet. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro antioxidant and lipid-lowering properties of an ethanolic extract from S. spinosum fruits using both hepatic (FaO) and endothelial (HECV) cells in the attempt to evaluate its possible employment as a nutraceutical supplement. First of all, in vitro spectrophotometric assays were employed to characterize the extract. The total phenol content (TPC) was evaluated by Folin–Ciocalteuspectrophotometric method, the radical scavenging activity was tested by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assays. After that, the beneficial effects of the extract were tested on cells. FaO cells treated for 3 hours with 0.75 mM oleate/palmitate mix (1:2 molar ratio) mimic in vitroa moderate hepato-steatosis. HECV cells exposed for 1 hour to 100 µM H2O2mimic, an oxidative insult leading to oxidative stress condition. After the metabolic and oxidative insult, both cell lines were treated with increasing concentrations of theS. spinosum extract (1, 10, 25 µg/mL) for 24 hours. The results showed the S. spinosumethanolic extract is rather rich in phenols (TPC of 18.6 mgGAE/g dry extract). Moreover, the extract showed a good scavenging abilityin vitro(IC50 15.9 µg/mland 10.9 µg/mlmeasured by DPPH and ABTS assays, respectively). When the extract was tested on cells, we observed that it could ameliorate some markers of cell dysfunction. The three concentrations of the extractled to a significant decrease in the intracellular triglyceride (TG) contentin steatoticFaO cells measured by spectrophotometric assay. On the other hand, HECV cells treated with increasing concentrations of the extract did not result in a significant decrease in both lipid peroxidation measured by the Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) assay and in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production measured by fluorometric analysis after DCF staining. Interestingly, the ethanolic extract was able to accelerate the wound repair of confluentHECV cells respect to H2O2-insulted cells as measured by T-scratch assay. Taken together, these results seem to indicate that the ethanol extract from S. spinosum fruits is rich in phenol compounds and plays considerable lipid lowering activity in vitroon steatotichepatocytes, and accelerates wound healing repair on endothelial cells. In light of that, the ethanolic extract from S. spinosumfruits could be a potential candidate for nutraceutical applications.

Keywords: sarcopoterium spinosum fruits, ethanolic extract, phenolic compounds, lipid-lowering activity, antioxidant activity

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774 Extracts of Ocimum gratissimum Leaves Inhibits Fe2+ and Sodium Nitroprusside Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Liver

Authors: Oluwafemi Ojo, Omotade Oloyede

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This study seeks to investigate the antioxidative properties and the ability of aqueous, ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts from Ocimum gratissimum (OG) leaves to inhibit some pro-oxidants (Fe2+ and sodium nitroprusside) induced lipid peroxidation in rat’s liver homogenates in vitro. The ability of the extracts to inhibit 25 µM FeSO4 and 7.0 µM sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in isolated rat’s liver was determined. The results of the study revealed that both pro-oxidants caused a significantly decrease in (p < 0.05) accumulation of lipid peroxides. However, aqueous extract of OG shows a high ability to inhibit lipid production in the liver induced with SNP than Fe2+. Ethanolic and ethyl acetate extract of OG which shows a high ability to inhibit lipid production more when induced with Fe2+ than SNP. However, ethyl acetate fraction of OG shows a higher inhibitory effect on both Fe2+ and SNP induced lipid peroxidation in rat’s liver. This applies to its significantly higher extractable phytochemicals. Therefore, Fe II and sodium nitroprusside induced oxidative stress could be managed by dietary intake of Ocimum gratissimum leaves.

Keywords: antioxidative, pro-oxidants, lipid peroxidation, Ocimum gratissimum

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
773 Effects of Dietary Protein and Lipid Levels on Growth and Body Composition of Juvenile Fancy Carp, Cyprinus carpio var. Koi

Authors: Jin Choi, Zahra Aminikhoei, Yi-Oh Kim, Sang-Min Lee

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A 4 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the optimum dietary protein and lipid levels for juvenile fancy carp, Cyprinus carpio var. koi. Eight experimental diets were formulated to contain four protein levels (200, 300, 400, and 500 g kg-1) with two lipid levels (70 and 140 g kg-1). Triplicate groups of fish (initial weight, 12.1±0.2 g fish-1) were hand-fed the diets to apparent satiation for 8 weeks. Weight gain, daily feed intake, feed efficiency ratio and protein efficiency ratio were significantly (P < 0.0001) affected by dietary protein level, but not by dietary lipid level (P > 0.05). Weight gain and feed efficiency ratio tended to increase as dietary protein level increased up to 400 and 500 g kg-1, respectively. Daily feed intake of fish decreased with increasing dietary protein level and that of fish fed diet contained 500 g kg-1 protein was significantly lower than other fish groups. The protein efficiency ratio of fish fed 400 and 500 g kg-1 protein was lower than that of fish fed 200 and 300 g kg-1 protein. Moisture, crude protein and crude lipid contents of muscle and liver were significantly affected by dietary protein, but not by dietary lipid level (P > 0.05). The increase in dietary lipid level resulted in an increase in linoleic acid in liver and muscle paralleled with a decrease in n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids content in muscle of fish. In considering these results, it was concluded that the diet containing 400 g kg-1 protein with 70 g kg-1 lipid level is optimal for growth and efficient feed utilization of juvenile fancy carp.

Keywords: fancy carp, dietary protein, dietary lipid, Cyprinus carpio, fatty acid

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772 Response Surface Methodology to Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Microalgal Lipids

Authors: Yen-Hui Chen, Terry Walker

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As the world experiences an energy crisis, investing in sustainable energy resources is a pressing mission for many countries. Microalgae-derived biodiesel has attracted intensive attention as an important biofuel, and microalgae Chlorella protothecoides lipid is recognized as a renewable source for microalgae-derived biodiesel production. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO₂) is a promising green solvent that may potentially substitute the use of organic solvents for lipid extraction; however, the efficiency of SC-CO₂ extraction may be affected by many variables, including temperature, pressure and extraction time individually or in combination. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the process parameters, including temperature, pressure and extraction time, on C. protothecoides lipid yield by SC-CO₂ extraction. A second order polynomial model provided a good fit (R-square value of 0.94) for the C. protothecoides lipid yield. The linear and quadratic terms of temperature, pressure and extraction time—as well as the interaction between temperature and pressure—showed significant effects on lipid yield during extraction. The optimal lipid yield from the model was predicted as the temperature of 59 °C, the pressure of 350.7 bar and the extraction time 2.8 hours. Under these conditions, the experimental lipid yield (25%) was close to the predicted value. The principal fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) of C. protothecoides lipid-derived biodiesel were oleic acid methyl ester (60.1%), linoleic acid methyl ester (18.6%) and palmitic acid methyl ester (11.4%), which made up more than 90% of the total FAMEs. In summary, this study indicated that RSM was useful to characterize the optimization the SC-CO₂ extraction process of C. protothecoides lipid yield, and the second-order polynomial model could be used for predicting and describing the lipid yield very well. In addition, C. protothecoides lipid, extracted by SC-CO₂, was suggested as a potential candidate for microalgae-derived biodiesel production.

Keywords: Chlorella protothecoides, microalgal lipids, response surface methodology, supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
771 Relation between Copper, Lipid Profile, and Cognition in Elderly Jordanians

Authors: Eman Al-khateeba, Ebaa Al-Zayadneha, Osama Al-Dalahmahb, Zeinab Alawadib, Faisal Khatiba, Randa Naffaa, Yanal Shafagoj

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The purpose of the current study was to examine the association of plasma copper and lipid concentrations with changes in cognitive function in elderly Jordanian individuals. The study population consisted of two groups; 52 subjects with dementia, and 50 controls. All individuals were screened with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Clock drawing test (CDT).Serum copper and lipid profile were assessed in all subjects, and the results were statistically evaluated at P < 0.05 level of significance. Dementia group had 10.1 % higher copper levels than controls however the difference was not statistically significant. No significant differences could be found between the two groups in lipid profile levels. There was no significant correlation between serum copper, lipid profile and cognitive decline in elderly Jordanians. Demographic variables indicate that educational level less than 12 years and illiterate demonstrated a 3.29 fold (p=0.026) and 6.29 fold (p=0.002) increase in risk of developing dementia, respectively. While coffee intake showed a protective effect against cognitive decline with 6.25 fold lower risk with increased coffee intake.

Keywords: copper, cholesterol, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, lipid profile, coffee

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
770 Using Optimal Cultivation Strategies for Enhanced Biomass and Lipid Production of an Indigenous Thraustochytrium sp. BM2

Authors: Hsin-Yueh Chang, Pin-Chen Liao, Jo-Shu Chang, Chun-Yen Chen

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Biofuel has drawn much attention as a potential substitute to fossil fuels. However, biodiesel from waste oil, oil crops or other oil sources can only satisfy partial existing demands for transportation. Due to the feature of being clean, green and viable for mass production, using microalgae as a feedstock for biodiesel is regarded as a possible solution for a low-carbon and sustainable society. In particular, Thraustochytrium sp. BM2, an indigenous heterotrophic microalga, possesses the potential for metabolizing glycerol to produce lipids. Hence, it is being considered as a promising microalgae-based oil source for biodiesel production and other applications. This study was to optimize the culture pH, scale up, assess the feasibility of producing microalgal lipid from crude glycerol and apply operation strategies following optimal results from shake flask system in a 5L stirred-tank fermenter for further enhancing lipid productivities. Cultivation of Thraustochytrium sp. BM2 without pH control resulted in the highest lipid production of 3944 mg/L and biomass production of 4.85 g/L. Next, when initial glycerol and corn steep liquor (CSL) concentration increased five times (50 g and 62.5 g, respectively), the overall lipid productivity could reach 124 mg/L/h. However, when using crude glycerol as a sole carbon source, direct addition of crude glycerol could inhibit culture growth. Therefore, acid and metal salt pretreatment methods were utilized to purify the crude glycerol. Crude glycerol pretreated with acid and CaCl₂ had the greatest overall lipid productivity 131 mg/L/h when used as a carbon source and proved to be a better substitute for pure glycerol as carbon source in Thraustochytrium sp. BM2 cultivation medium. Engineering operation strategies such as fed-batch and semi-batch operation were applied in the cultivation of Thraustochytrium sp. BM2 for the improvement of lipid production. In cultivation of fed-batch operation strategy, harvested biomass 132.60 g and lipid 69.15 g were obtained. Also, lipid yield 0.20 g/g glycerol was same as in batch cultivation, although with poor overall lipid productivity 107 mg/L/h. In cultivation of semi-batch operation strategy, overall lipid productivity could reach 158 mg/L/h due to the shorter cultivation time. Harvested biomass and lipid achieved 232.62 g and 126.61 g respectively. Lipid yield was improved from 0.20 to 0.24 g/g glycerol. Besides, product costs of three kinds of operation strategies were also calculated. The lowest product cost 12.42 $NTD/g lipid was obtained while employing semi-batch operation strategy and reduced 33% in comparison with batch operation strategy.

Keywords: heterotrophic microalga Thrasutochytrium sp. BM2, microalgal lipid, crude glycerol, fermentation strategy, biodiesel

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