Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 57

Search results for: legged locomotion

57 Bio-Mimetic Foot Design for Legged Locomotion over Unstructured Terrain

Authors: Hannah Kolano, Paul Nadan, Jeremy Ryan, Sophia Nielsen

Abstract:

The hooves of goats and other ruminants, or the family Ruminantia, are uniquely structured to adapt to rough terrain. Their hooves possess a hard outer shell and a soft interior that allow them to both conform to uneven surfaces and hook onto prominent features. In an effort to apply this unique mechanism to a robotics context, artificial feet for a hexapedal robot have been designed based on the hooves of ruminants to improve the robot’s ability to traverse unstructured environments such as those found on a rocky planet or asteroid, as well as in earth-based environments such as rubble, caves, and mountainous regions. The feet were manufactured using a combination of 3D printing and polyurethane casting techniques and attached to a commercially available hexapedal robot. The robot was programmed with a terrain-adaptive gait and proved capable of traversing a variety of uneven surfaces and inclines. This development of more adaptable robotic feet allows legged robots to operate in a wider range of environments and expands their possible applications.

Keywords: biomimicry, legged locomotion, robotic foot design, ruminant feet, unstructured terrain navigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
56 Modeling and Simulation of the Tripod Gait of a Hexapod Robot

Authors: El Hansali Hasnaa, Bennani Mohammed

Abstract:

Hexapod legged robot’s missions, particularly in irregular and dangerous areas, require high stability and high precision. In this paper, we consider the rectangular architecture body of legged robots with six legs distributed symmetrically along two sides, each leg contains three degrees of freedom for greater mobility. The aim of this work is planning tripod gait trajectory, based on the computing of the kinematic model to determine the joint variables in the lifting and the propelling phases. For this, appropriate coordinate frames are attached to the body and legs in order to obtain clear representation and efficient generation of the system equations. A simulation in MATLAB software platform is developed to confirm the kinematic model and various trajectories to the tripod gait adopted by the hexapod robot in its locomotion.

Keywords: hexapod legged robot, inverse kinematic model, simulation in MATLAB, tripod gait

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
55 Black-Legged Tick (Ixodes Scapularis) Impacts on Hematology and Ectoparasite Communities of Peromyscus Mice

Authors: Erica Fellin, Albrecht Schulte-Hostedde

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As the climate warms, the black-legged tick’s (Ixodes scapularis) range expands further north in Ontario, Canada, reaching new host populations that have not previously interacted with this blood-feeding parasite. Peromyscus mice in these northern areas are unfamiliar and inexperienced to the effects of these ticks compared to their southern counterparts that have adapted to living with these organisms. The purpose of this study was to see if there is a difference in physiology between these two groups – deer mice living in areas where tick populations have established and deer mice living in black-legged tick-free environments – looking specifically to see if there is significant variation in hemoglobin levels, which can negatively impact how these mice function in their environment. Along with this, a comparison of the parasite community structure on these mice hosts was analyzed to see if ticks change the composition of these micro-environments. Blood samples were collected from individual mice from populations where black-legged ticks were either present or absent to assess haemoglobin levels. At the same time, ectoparasites were collected from these same mice to determine parasite loads and species diversity. Haemoglobin levels were found to be lower when tick loads were high, and parasite diversity appeared to be higher when ticks were absent. Since black-legged ticks are carriers of many pathogens that can be passed on to humans, including Lyme’s disease, it is important to understand their movement and distribution across Ontario as well as their interactions with their hosts (and co-occurring parasites) in their environments.

Keywords: community ecology, hematology, hosts, parasites

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
54 Development of a Three-Dimensional-Flywheel Robotic System

Authors: Chung-Chun Hsiao, Yu-Kai, Ting, Kai-Yuan Liu, Pang-Wei Yen, Jia-Ying Tu

Abstract:

In this paper, a new design of spherical robotic system based on the concepts of gimbal structure and gyro dynamics is presented. Robots equipped with multiple wheels and complex steering mechanics may increase the weight and degrade the energy transmission efficiency. In addition, the wheeled and legged robots are relatively vulnerable to lateral impact and lack of lateral mobility. Therefore, the proposed robotic design uses a spherical shell as the main body for ground locomotion, instead of using wheel devices. Three spherical shells are structured in a similar way to a gimbal device and rotate like a gyro system. The design and mechanism of the proposed robotic system is introduced. In addition, preliminary results of the dynamic model based on the principles of planar rigid body kinematics and Lagrangian equation are included. Simulation results and rig construction are presented to verify the concepts.

Keywords: gyro, gimbal, lagrange equation, spherical robots

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
53 Improved Acoustic Source Sensing and Localization Based On Robot Locomotion

Authors: V. Ramu Reddy, Parijat Deshpande, Ranjan Dasgupta

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This paper presents different methodology for an acoustic source sensing and localization in an unknown environment. The developed methodology includes an acoustic based sensing and localization system, a converging target localization based on the recursive direction of arrival (DOA) error minimization, and a regressive obstacle avoidance function. Our method is able to augment the existing proven localization techniques and improve results incrementally by utilizing robot locomotion and is capable of converging to a position estimate with greater accuracy using fewer measurements. The results also evinced the DOA error minimization at each iteration, improvement in time for reaching the destination and the efficiency of this target localization method as gradually converging to the real target position. Initially, the system is tested using Kinect mounted on turntable with DOA markings which serve as a ground truth and then our approach is validated using a FireBird VI (FBVI) mobile robot on which Kinect is used to obtain bearing information.

Keywords: acoustic source localization, acoustic sensing, recursive direction of arrival, robot locomotion

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
52 Design of Cylindrical Crawler Robot Inspired by Amoeba Locomotion

Authors: Jun-ya Nagase

Abstract:

Recently, the need of colonoscopy is increasing because of the rise of colonic disorder including cancer of the colon. However, current colonoscopy depends on doctor's skill strongly. Therefore, a large intestine endoscope that does not depend on the techniques of a doctor with high safety is required. In this research, we aim at development a novel large intestine endoscope that can realize safe insertion without specific techniques. A wheel movement type robot, a snake-like robot and an earthworm-like robot are all described in the relevant literature as endoscope robots that are currently studied. Among them, the tracked crawler robot can travel by traversing uneven ground flexibly with a crawler belt attached firmly to the ground surface. Although conventional crawler robots have high efficiency and/or high ground-covering ability, they require a comparatively large space to move. In this study, a small cylindrical crawler robot inspired by amoeba locomotion, which does not need large space to move and which has high ground-covering ability, is proposed. In addition, we developed a prototype of the large intestine endoscope using the proposed crawler mechanism. Experiments have demonstrated smooth operation and a forward movement of the robot by application of voltage to the motor. This paper reports the structure, drive mechanism, prototype, and experimental evaluation.

Keywords: tracked-crawler, endoscopic robot, narrow path, amoeba locomotion.

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51 The Study of Ecological Seabirds in Algeria

Authors: A. Baaloudj, F. Samraoui, B. Samraoui

Abstract:

We have been studied the reproductive ecology and dispersal of Yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis for three years 2009-2011. The study of the breeding ecology of the species was undertaken at the Srigina Island (Skikda). The mean clutch size was 2.64±0.62, 2.49±0.72 and 2.37±0.77eggsin the three study years 2009-2011 respectively. Hatching success was similar for the first two years of study (53% in 2009and 54% in 2010) but significantly lower in the third year (27% in 2011). The same trend was found for the fledging success, it was 33% and 32% in 2009and 2010respectivelyandonly 14% in 2011. Cannibalism and predation by cats were the two likely causes of low reproductive success in the third year. Regarding the species dispersal, we started a banding program of the yellow-legged gulls Larus michahellis michahellis in 2009, the first scheme of its kind in North Africa. Banding of chicks was initiated at Skikda and extended, a year later, to four other colonies located along the Algerian coast. Preliminary analysis of ringed yellow-legged gulls from Algerian colonies indicates that juveniles dispersed in a north-westerly direction to the Balearic Sea, the Bay of Biscay, the Alboran Sea and the western Atlantic coast from the Bay of Cadiz to the Galician shores. Preliminary data suggested two distinct routes: gulls from the eastern North African colonies moved N/NW to eastern Spain and overland to the Bay of Biscay, a pattern of dispersal previously reported for birds from Spanish and French western Mediterranean colonies. Juveniles from western colonies seemed also to move N/NW to the Alboran Sea and the Bay of Cadiz. In Spain, where most of the dispersal took place, data suggested that Algerian gulls occupied coastal areas which are used as aestivating refuges before returning to North Africa in late autumn and winter.

Keywords: breeding ecology, population dynamic, dispersal, yellow-legged gull larus michahellis, sea bird, banding scheme, Srigina, Algeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
50 Task Kicking Performance with Biomechanical Instrumentation

Authors: T. Hirata, M. G. Silva, L. M. Rosa

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The balance ability during task kick in soccer is a determining factor in the execution of functional movements that require a high-performance motor coordination. The current experiment explored it during an instep soccer kick and functional task kicking. Their kicking performance was measured in terms of the sway characteristics using lateral and antero-posterior balance of the center of pressure (COP) for the supporting leg and the kinematic data, the supporting leg’s knee angle. The motion was realized with one-legged stance of five male indoor soccer players and using the trigger device ball controller. The results showed large balance in antero-posterior direction than in lateral direction. However, each player adopts a different way to kick the ball, and the media-lateral displacement of the COP showed no correlation with the balance skill.

Keywords: kicking performance, center of pressure, one-legged stance, balance ability

Procedia PDF Downloads 528
49 [Keynote Talk]: sEMG Interface Design for Locomotion Identification

Authors: Rohit Gupta, Ravinder Agarwal

Abstract:

Surface electromyographic (sEMG) signal has the potential to identify the human activities and intention. This potential is further exploited to control the artificial limbs using the sEMG signal from residual limbs of amputees. The paper deals with the development of multichannel cost efficient sEMG signal interface for research application, along with evaluation of proposed class dependent statistical approach of the feature selection method. The sEMG signal acquisition interface was developed using ADS1298 of Texas Instruments, which is a front-end interface integrated circuit for ECG application. Further, the sEMG signal is recorded from two lower limb muscles for three locomotions namely: Plane Walk (PW), Stair Ascending (SA), Stair Descending (SD). A class dependent statistical approach is proposed for feature selection and also its performance is compared with 12 preexisting feature vectors. To make the study more extensive, performance of five different types of classifiers are compared. The outcome of the current piece of work proves the suitability of the proposed feature selection algorithm for locomotion recognition, as compared to other existing feature vectors. The SVM Classifier is found as the outperformed classifier among compared classifiers with an average recognition accuracy of 97.40%. Feature vector selection emerges as the most dominant factor affecting the classification performance as it holds 51.51% of the total variance in classification accuracy. The results demonstrate the potentials of the developed sEMG signal acquisition interface along with the proposed feature selection algorithm.

Keywords: classifiers, feature selection, locomotion, sEMG

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
48 Modular Robotics and Terrain Detection Using Inertial Measurement Unit Sensor

Authors: Shubhakar Gupta, Dhruv Prakash, Apoorv Mehta

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In this project, we design a modular robot capable of using and switching between multiple methods of propulsion and classifying terrain, based on an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) input. We wanted to make a robot that is not only intelligent in its functioning but also versatile in its physical design. The advantage of a modular robot is that it can be designed to hold several movement-apparatuses, such as wheels, legs for a hexapod or a quadpod setup, propellers for underwater locomotion, and any other solution that may be needed. The robot takes roughness input from a gyroscope and an accelerometer in the IMU, and based on the terrain classification from an artificial neural network; it decides which method of propulsion would best optimize its movement. This provides the bot with adaptability over a set of terrains, which means it can optimize its locomotion on a terrain based on its roughness. A feature like this would be a great asset to have in autonomous exploration or research drones.

Keywords: modular robotics, terrain detection, terrain classification, neural network

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
47 Locomotion, Object Exploration, Social Communicative Skills, and Improve in Language Abilities

Authors: Wanqing He

Abstract:

The current study explores aspects of exploratory behaviors and social capacities in urban Chinese infants to examine whether these factors mediate the link between infant walking and receptive and productive vocabularies. The linkage between the onset of walking and language attainment proves solid, but little is known about the factors that drive such link. This study examined whether joint attention, gesture use, and object activities mediate the association between locomotion and language development. Results showed that both the frequency (p = .05) and duration (p = .03) of carrying an object are strong mediators that afford opportunities for word comprehension. Also, accessing distal objects may be beneficial to infants’ language expression. Further studies on why object carrying may account for word comprehension and why infants with autism could not benefit from walking onset in terms of language development may yield valuable clinical implications.

Keywords: exploratory behaviors, infancy, language acquisition, motor development, social communicative skills

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
46 Veering Pattern in Human Walking in Sighted and Blindfolded Conditions

Authors: Triloki Prasad, Subhankar Ghosh, Asis Goswami

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The information received from visual organ plays an important role in human locomotion and human beings generally veer from the straight line in the absence of visual cue. Since in case of visually impaired persons this support is unavailable they are expected to have a different type of locomotion behaviour than the sighted persons. Higher degree of veering can result in accident or injury during indoor and outdoor activities. Hence, it is important to know the degree of veering that may happen in case of a sighted individual loosing the visual input. The present study was conducted on fifty three volunteers who walked with open and closed eyes, at their comfortable pace, in a grid marked area of 17m by 10m space. The volunteers had to walk in a straight line from a central starting point during three trials and their walking path was marked with a pair of sponge absorbed with three different colours. All volunteers had walked expectedly in straight line during open eye condition but had varied degree of veering during closed eye state. The correlation between the first step side and the side of deviation was not significant in closed eye condition. The number of steps taken in open eye and closed eye condition were significantly different while travelling similar distances. This study reveals that sighted persons become cautious during walking if the visual cue is not available and they reduce the step length so there is increase in step number.

Keywords: Closed eye, Open eye, Footprint, Veering

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
45 Adjustment of the Whole-Body Center of Mass during Trunk-Flexed Walking across Uneven Ground

Authors: Soran Aminiaghdam, Christian Rode, Reinhard Blickhan, Astrid Zech

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Despite considerable studies on the impact of imposed trunk posture on human walking, less is known about such locomotion while negotiating changes in ground level. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of the VBCOM in response to a two-fold expected perturbation, namely alterations in body posture and in ground level. To this end, the kinematic data and ground reaction forces of twelve able participants were collected. We analyzed the vertical position of the body center of mass (VBCOM) from the ground determined by the body segmental analysis method relative to the laboratory coordinate system at touchdown and toe-off instants during walking across uneven ground — characterized by perturbation contact (a 10-cm visible drop) and pre- and post-perturbation contacts — in comparison to unperturbed level contact while maintaining three postures (regular erect, ~30° and ~50° of trunk flexion from the vertical). The VBCOM was normalized to the distance between the greater trochanter marker and the lateral malleoli marker at the instant of TD. Moreover, we calculated the backward rotation during step-down as the difference of the maximum of the trunk angle in the pre-perturbation contact and the minimal trunk angle in the perturbation contact. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs revealed contact-specific effects of posture on the VBCOM at touchdown (F = 5.96, p = 0.00). As indicated by the analysis of simple main effects, during unperturbed level and pre-perturbation contacts, no between-posture differences for the VBCOM at touchdown were found. In the perturbation contact, trunk-flexed gaits showed a significant increase of VBCOM as compared to the pre-perturbation contact. In the post-perturbation contact, the VBCOM demonstrated a significant decrease in all gait postures relative to the preceding corresponding contacts with no between-posture differences. Main effects of posture revealed that the VBCOM at toe-off significantly decreased in trunk-flexed gaits relative to the regular erect gait. For the main effect of contact, the VBCOM at toe-off demonstrated changes across perturbation and post-perturbation contacts as compared to the unperturbed level contact. Furthermore, participants exhibited a backward trunk rotation during step-down possibly to control the angular momentum of their whole body. A more pronounced backward trunk rotation (2- to 3-fold compared with level contacts) in trunk-flexed walking contributed to the observed elevated VBCOM during the step-down which may have facilitated drop negotiation. These results may shed light on the interaction between posture and locomotion in able gait, and specifically on the behavior of the body center of mass during perturbed locomotion.

Keywords: center of mass, perturbation, posture, uneven ground, walking

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
44 Analytical Model of Locomotion of a Thin-Film Piezoelectric 2D Soft Robot Including Gravity Effects

Authors: Zhiwu Zheng, Prakhar Kumar, Sigurd Wagner, Naveen Verma, James C. Sturm

Abstract:

Soft robots have drawn great interest recently due to a rich range of possible shapes and motions they can take on to address new applications, compared to traditional rigid robots. Large-area electronics (LAE) provides a unique platform for creating soft robots by leveraging thin-film technology to enable the integration of a large number of actuators, sensors, and control circuits on flexible sheets. However, the rich shapes and motions possible, especially when interacting with complex environments, pose significant challenges to forming well-generalized and robust models necessary for robot design and control. In this work, we describe an analytical model for predicting the shape and locomotion of a flexible (steel-foil-based) piezoelectric-actuated 2D robot based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. It is nominally (unpowered) lying flat on the ground, and when powered, its shape is controlled by an array of piezoelectric thin-film actuators. Key features of the models are its ability to incorporate the significant effects of gravity on the shape and to precisely predict the spatial distribution of friction against the contacting surfaces, necessary for determining inchworm-type motion. We verified the model by developing a distributed discrete element representation of a continuous piezoelectric actuator and by comparing its analytical predictions to discrete-element robot simulations using PyBullet. Without gravity, predicting the shape of a sheet with a linear array of piezoelectric actuators at arbitrary voltages is straightforward. However, gravity significantly distorts the shape of the sheet, causing some segments to flatten against the ground. Our work includes the following contributions: (i) A self-consistent approach was developed to exactly determine which parts of the soft robot are lifted off the ground, and the exact shape of these sections, for an arbitrary array of piezoelectric voltages and configurations. (ii) Inchworm-type motion relies on controlling the relative friction with the ground surface in different sections of the robot. By adding torque-balance to our model and analyzing shear forces, the model can then determine the exact spatial distribution of the vertical force that the ground is exerting on the soft robot. Through this, the spatial distribution of friction forces between ground and robot can be determined. (iii) By combining this spatial friction distribution with the shape of the soft robot, in the function of time as piezoelectric actuator voltages are changed, the inchworm-type locomotion of the robot can be determined. As a practical example, we calculated the performance of a 5-actuator system on a 50-µm thick steel foil. Piezoelectric properties of commercially available thin-film piezoelectric actuators were assumed. The model predicted inchworm motion of up to 200 µm per step. For independent verification, we also modelled the system using PyBullet, a discrete-element robot simulator. To model a continuous thin-film piezoelectric actuator, we broke each actuator into multiple segments, each of which consisted of two rigid arms with appropriate mass connected with a 'motor' whose torque was set by the applied actuator voltage. Excellent agreement between our analytical model and the discrete-element simulator was shown for both for the full deformation shape and motion of the robot.

Keywords: analytical modeling, piezoelectric actuators, soft robot locomotion, thin-film technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
43 The Effect of Core Training on Physical Fitness Characteristics in Male Volleyball Players

Authors: Sibel Karacaoglu, Fatma Ç. Kayapinar

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of the core training program on physical fitness characteristics and body composition in male volleyball players. 26 male university volleyball team players aged between 19 to 24 years who had no health problems and injury participated in the study. Subjects were divided into training (TG) and control groups (CG) as randomly. Data from twenty-one players who completed all training sessions were used for statistical analysis (TG,n=11; CG,n=10). A core training program was applied to the training group three days a week for 10 weeks. On the other hand, the control group did not receive any training. Before and after the 10-week training program, pre- and post-testing comprised of body composition measurements (weight, BMI, bioelectrical impedance analysis) and physical fitness measurements including flexibility (sit and reach test), muscle strength (back, leg and grip strength by dynamometer), muscle endurance (sit-ups and push-ups tests), power (one-legged jump and vertical jump tests), speed (20m sprint, 30m sprint) and balance tests (one-legged standing test) were performed. Changes of pre- and post- test values of the groups were determined by using dependent t test. According to the statistical analysis of data, no significant difference was found in terms of body composition in the both groups for pre- and post- test values. In the training group, all physical fitness measurements improved significantly after core training program (p<0.05) except 30m speed and handgrip strength (p>0.05). On the hand, only 20m speed test values improved after post-test period (p<0.05), but the other physical fitness tests values did not differ (p>0.05) between pre- and post- test measurement in the control group. The results of the study suggest that the core training program has positive effect on physical fitness characteristics in male volleyball players.

Keywords: body composition, core training, physical fitness, volleyball

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42 Snake Locomotion: From Sinusoidal Curves and Periodic Spiral Formations to the Design of a Polymorphic Surface

Authors: Ennios Eros Giogos, Nefeli Katsarou, Giota Mantziorou, Elena Panou, Nikolaos Kourniatis, Socratis Giannoudis

Abstract:

In the context of the postgraduate course Productive Design, Department of Interior Architecture of the University of West Attica in Athens, under the guidance of Professors Nikolaos Koyrniatis and Socratis Giannoudis, kinetic mechanisms with parametric models were examined for their further application in the design of objects. In the first phase, the students studied a motion mechanism that they chose from daily experience and then analyzed its geometric structure in relation to the geometric transformations that exist. In the second phase, the students tried to design it through a parametric model in Grasshopper3d for Rhino algorithmic processor and plan the design of its application in an everyday object. For the project presented, our team began by studying the movement of living beings, specifically the snake. By studying the snake and the role that the environment has in its movement, four basic typologies were recognized: serpentine, concertina, sidewinding and rectilinear locomotion, as well as its ability to perform spiral formations. Most typologies are characterized by ripples, a series of sinusoidal curves. For the application of the snake movement in a polymorphic space divider, the use of a coil-type joint was studied. In the Grasshopper program, the simulation of the desired motion for the polymorphic surface was tested by applying a coil on a sinusoidal curve and a spiral curve. It was important throughout the process that the points corresponding to the nodes of the real object remain constant in number, as well as the distances between them and the elasticity of the construction had to be achieved through a modular movement of the coil and not some elastic element (material) at the nodes. Using mesh (repeating coil), the whole construction is transformed into a supporting body and combines functionality with aesthetics. The set of elements functions as a vertical spatial network, where each element participates in its coherence and stability. Depending on the positions of the elements in terms of the level of support, different perspectives are created in terms of the visual perception of the adjacent space. For the implementation of the model on the scale (1:3), (0.50m.x2.00m.), the load-bearing structure that was studied has aluminum rods for the basic pillars Φ6mm and Φ 2.50 mm, for the secondary columns. Filling elements and nodes are of similar material and were made of MDF surfaces. During the design process, four trapezoidal patterns were picketed, which function as filling elements, while in order to support their assembly, a different engraving facet was done. The nodes have holes that can be pierced by the rods, while their connection point with the patterns has a half-carved recess. The patterns have a corresponding recess. The nodes are of two different types depending on the column that passes through them. The patterns and knots were designed to be cut and engraved using a Laser Cutter and attached to the knots using glue. The parameters participate in the design as mechanisms that generate complex forms and structures through the repetition of constantly changing versions of the parts that compose the object.

Keywords: polymorphic, locomotion, sinusoidal curves, parametric

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41 Reductive Control in the Management of Redundant Actuation

Authors: Mkhinini Maher, Knani Jilani

Abstract:

We present in this work the performances of a mobile omnidirectional robot through evaluating its management of the redundancy of actuation. Thus we come to the predictive control implemented. The distribution of the wringer on the robot actions, through the inverse pseudo of Moore-Penrose, corresponds to a -geometric- distribution of efforts. We will show that the load on vehicle wheels would not be equi-distributed in terms of wheels configuration and of robot movement. Thus, the threshold of sliding is not the same for the three wheels of the vehicle. We suggest exploiting the redundancy of actuation to reduce the risk of wheels sliding and to ameliorate, thereby, its accuracy of displacement. This kind of approach was the subject of study for the legged robots.

Keywords: mobile robot, actuation, redundancy, omnidirectional, inverse pseudo moore-penrose, reductive control

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40 The Effect of Impact on the Knee Joint Due to the Shocks during Double Impact Phase of Gait Cycle

Authors: Jobin Varghese, V. M. Akhil, P. K. Rajendrakumar, K. S. Sivanandan

Abstract:

The major contributor to the human locomotion is the knee flexion and extension. During heel strike, a huge amount of energy is transmitted through the leg towards knee joint, which in fact is damped at heel and leg muscles. During high shocks, although it is damped to a certain extent, the balance force transmits towards knee joint which could damage the knee. Due to the vital function of the knee joint, it should be protected against damage due to additional load acting on it. This work concentrates on the development of spring mass damper system which exactly replicates the stiffness at the heel and muscles and the objective function is optimized to minimize the force acting at the knee joint. Further, the data collected using force plate are put into the model to verify its integrity and are found to be in good agreement.

Keywords: spring, mass, damper, knee joint

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
39 Gimbal Structure for the Design of 3D Flywheel System

Authors: Cheng-En Tsai, Chung-Chun Hsiao, Fu-Yuan Chang, Liang-Lun Lan, Jia-Ying Tu

Abstract:

New design of three dimensional (3D) flywheel system based on gimbal and gyro mechanics is proposed. The 3D flywheel device utilizes the rotational motion of three spherical shells and the conservation of angular momentum to achieve planar locomotion. Actuators mounted to the ring-shape frames are installed within the system to drive the spherical shells to rotate, for the purpose of steering and stabilization. Similar to the design of 2D flywheel system, it is expected that the spherical shells may function like a “flyball” to store and supply mechanical energy; additionally, in comparison with typical single-wheel and spherical robots, the 3D flywheel can be used for developing omnidirectional robotic systems with better mobility. The Lagrangian method is applied to derive the equation of motion of the 3D flywheel system, and simulation studies are presented to verify the proposed design.

Keywords: Gimbal, spherical robot, gyroscope, Lagrangian formulation, flyball

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38 Reduction in the Metabolic Cost of Human Walking Gaits Using Quasi-Passive Upper Body Exoskeleton

Authors: Nafiseh Ebrahimi, Gautham Muthukumaran, Amir Jafari

Abstract:

Human walking gait is considered to be the most efficient biped walking gait. There are various types of gait human follows during locomotion and arm swing is one of the most important factors which controls and differentiates human gaits. Earlier studies declared a 7% reduction in the metabolic cost due to the arm swing. In this research, we compared different types of arm swings in terms of metabolic cost reduction and then suggested, designed, fabricated and tested a quasi-passive upper body exoskeleton to study the metabolic cost reduction in the folded arm walking gate scenarios. Our experimental results validate a 10% reduction in the metabolic cost of walking aided by the application of the proposed exoskeleton.

Keywords: arm swing, MET (metabolic equivalent of a task), calorimeter, oxygen consumption, upper body quasi-passive exoskeleton

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37 Performance Evaluation of Al Jame’s Roundabout Using SIDRA

Authors: D. Muley, H. S. Al-Mandhari

Abstract:

This paper evaluates the performance of a multi-lane four-legged modern roundabout operating in Muscat using SIDRA model. The performance measures include Degree of Saturation (DOS), average delay, and queue lengths. The geometric and traffic data were used for model preparation. Gap acceptance parameters, critical gap, and follow-up headway were used for calibration of SIDRA model. The results from the analysis showed that currently the roundabout is experiencing delays up to 610 seconds with DOS 1.67 during peak hour. Further, sensitivity analysis for general and roundabout parameters was performed, amongst lane width, cruise speed, inscribed diameter, entry radius, and entry angle showed that inscribed diameter is the most crucial factor affecting delay and DOS. Upgradation of the roundabout to the fully signalized junction was found as the suitable solution which will serve for future years with LOS C for design year having DOS of 0.9 with average control delay of 51.9 seconds per vehicle.

Keywords: performance analysis, roundabout, sensitivity analysis, SIDRA

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
36 Study of Gait Stability Evaluation Technique Based on Linear Inverted Pendulum Model

Authors: Kang Sungjae

Abstract:

This research proposes a gait stability evaluation technique based on the linear inverted pendulum model and moving support foot Zero Moment Point. With this, an improvement towards the gait analysis of the orthosis walk is validated. The application of Lagrangian mechanics approximation to the solutions of the dynamics equations for the linear inverted pendulum does not only simplify the solution, but it provides a smooth Zero Moment Point for the double feet support phase. The Zero Moment Point gait analysis techniques mentioned above validates reference trajectories for the center of mass of the gait orthosis, the timing of the steps and landing position references for the swing feet. The stability evaluation technique are tested with a 6 DOF powered gait orthosis. The results obtained are promising for implementations.

Keywords: locomotion, center of mass, gait stability, linear inverted pendulum model

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35 Orthosis and Finite Elements: A Study for Development of New Designs through Additive Manufacturing

Authors: M. Volpini, D. Alves, A. Horta, M. Borges, P. Reis

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The gait pattern in people that present motor limitations foment the demand for auxiliary locomotion devices. These artifacts for movement assistance vary according to its shape, size and functional features, following the clinical applications desired. Among the ortheses of lower limbs, the ankle-foot orthesis aims to improve the ability to walk in people with different neuromuscular limitations, although they do not always answer patients' expectations for their aesthetic and functional characteristics. The purpose of this study is to explore the possibility of using new design in additive manufacturer to reproduce the shape and functional features of a ankle-foot orthesis in an efficient and modern way. Therefore, this work presents a study about the performance of the mechanical forces through the analysis of finite elements in an ankle-foot orthesis. It will be demonstrated a study of distribution of the stress on the orthopedic device in orthostatism and during the movement in the course of patient's walk.

Keywords: additive manufacture, new designs, orthoses, finite elements

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34 Rehabilitation of CP Using Pediatric Functional Independent Measure (WeeFIM) as Indicator Instruments Suitable for CP: Saudi's Perspective

Authors: Bara M. Yousef

Abstract:

Kingdome of Saudi Arabia (KSA). High numbers of traffic accidents with sever, moderate and mild level of impairments admits to Sultan bin Abdulaziz humanitarian city. Over a period of 4 months the city received 111 male and 79 female subjects with CP, who received 4-6 weeks of rehabilitation and using WeeFIM score to measure rehabilitation outcomes. WeeFIM measures and covers various domains, such as: self-care, mobility, locomotion, communication and other psycho-social aspects. Our findings shed the light on the fact that nearly 85% of people at admission got better after rehabilitation program services at individual sever moderate and mild and has arrange of (59 out of 128 WeeFIM score) and by the time of discharge they leave the city with better FIM score close to (72 out of 128 WeeFIM score) for the entire study sample. WeeFIM score is providing fair evidence to rehabilitation specialists to assess their outcomes. However there is a need to implement other instruments and compare it to WeeFIM in order to reach better outcomes at discharge level.

Keywords: Cerepral Palsy (CP), pediatric Functional Independent Measure (WeeFIM), rehabilitation, disability

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33 Assessment of Efficiency of Underwater Undulatory Swimming Strategies Using a Two-Dimensional CFD Method

Authors: Dorian Audot, Isobel Margaret Thompson, Dominic Hudson, Joseph Banks, Martin Warner

Abstract:

In competitive swimming, after dives and turns, athletes perform underwater undulatory swimming (UUS), copying marine mammals’ method of locomotion. The body, performing this wave-like motion, accelerates the fluid downstream in its vicinity, generating propulsion with minimal resistance. Through this technique, swimmers can maintain greater speeds than surface swimming and take advantage of the overspeed granted by the dive (or push-off). Almost all previous work has considered UUS when performed at maximum effort. Critical parameters to maximize UUS speed are frequently discussed; however, this does not apply to most races. In only 3 out of the 16 individual competitive swimming events are athletes likely to attempt to perform UUS with the greatest speed, without thinking of the cost of locomotion. In the other cases, athletes will want to control the speed of their underwater swimming, attempting to maximise speed whilst considering energy expenditure appropriate to the duration of the event. Hence, there is a need to understand how swimmers adapt their underwater strategies to optimize the speed within the allocated energetic cost. This paper develops a consistent methodology that enables different sets of UUS kinematics to be investigated. These may have different propulsive efficiencies and force generation mechanisms (e.g.: force distribution along with the body and force magnitude). The developed methodology, therefore, needs to: (i) provide an understanding of the UUS propulsive mechanisms at different speeds, (ii) investigate the key performance parameters when UUS is not performed solely for maximizing speed; (iii) consistently determine the propulsive efficiency of a UUS technique. The methodology is separated into two distinct parts: kinematic data acquisition and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. For the kinematic acquisition, the position of several joints along the body and their sequencing were either obtained by video digitization or by underwater motion capture (Qualisys system). During data acquisition, the swimmers were asked to perform UUS at a constant depth in a prone position (facing the bottom of the pool) at different speeds: maximum effort, 100m pace, 200m pace and 400m pace. The kinematic data were input to a CFD algorithm employing a two-dimensional Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The algorithm adopted was specifically developed in order to perform quick unsteady simulations of deforming bodies and is therefore suitable for swimmers performing UUS. Despite its approximations, the algorithm is applied such that simulations are performed with the inflow velocity updated at every time step. It also enables calculations of the resistive forces (total and applied to each segment) and the power input of the modeled swimmer. Validation of the methodology is achieved by comparing the data obtained from the computations with the original data (e.g.: sustained swimming speed). This method is applied to the different kinematic datasets and provides data on swimmers’ natural responses to pacing instructions. The results show how kinematics affect force generation mechanisms and hence how the propulsive efficiency of UUS varies for different race strategies.

Keywords: CFD, efficiency, human swimming, hydrodynamics, underwater undulatory swimming

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32 Mobile Wireless Investigation Platform

Authors: Dimitar Karastoyanov, Todor Penchev

Abstract:

The paper presents the research of a kind of autonomous mobile robots, intended for work and adaptive perception in unknown and unstructured environment. The objective are robots, dedicated for multi-sensory environment perception and exploration, like measurements and samples taking, discovering and putting a mark on the objects as well as environment interactions–transportation, carrying in and out of equipment and objects. At that ground classification of the different types mobile robots in accordance with the way of locomotion (wheel- or chain-driven, walking, etc.), used drive mechanisms, kind of sensors, end effectors, area of application, etc. is made. Modular system for the mechanical construction of the mobile robots is proposed. Special PLC on the base of AtMega128 processor for robot control is developed. Electronic modules for the wireless communication on the base of Jennic processor as well as the specific software are developed. The methods, means and algorithms for adaptive environment behaviour and tasks realization are examined. The methods of group control of mobile robots and for suspicious objects detecting and handling are discussed too.

Keywords: mobile robots, wireless communications, environment investigations, group control, suspicious objects

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
31 The Important of Nutritional Status in Rehabilitation of Children with CP: Saudi Perspective

Authors: Reem Al-Garni

Abstract:

Malnutrition is a global epidemic, but the under-weight or Failure-To-Thrive risk is increasing in rehabilitation setting and considered one of the contribution factor for developmental delay. Beside the consequences of malnutrition on children growth and development, there are other side-effects that might delay or hold the progress of rehabilitation. The awareness for malnutrition must be raised and discussed by the rehabilitation team, to promote the treatment and to optimize the client care. The solution can start from food supplements intake and / or Enteral Nutrition plan, depending on the malnutrition level and to reach the goal, the medical team should to work together in order to provide comprehensive treatment and to help the family to be able to manage their child condition. We have explore the outcomes of rehabilitation between the children with CP whose diagnosed with malnutrition and children with normal body Wight Over a period of 4 months who received 4-6 weeks of rehabilitation two hours daily by using WeeFIM score to measure rehabilitation outcomes. WeeFIM measures and covers various domains, such as: self-care, mobility, locomotion, communication and other psycho-social aspects. Our findings reported that children with normal body Wight has better outcomes and improvement comparing with children with malnutrition for the entire study sample.

Keywords: Cerebral Palsy (CP), pediatric Functional Independent Measure (WeeFIM), rehabilitation, malnutrition

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
30 IoT Based Approach to Healthcare System for a Quadriplegic Patient Using EEG

Authors: R. Gautam, P. Sastha Kanagasabai, G. N. Rathna

Abstract:

The proposed healthcare system enables quadriplegic patients, people with severe motor disabilities to send commands to electronic devices and monitor their vitals. The growth of Brain-Computer-Interface (BCI) has led to rapid development in 'assistive systems' for the disabled called 'assistive domotics'. Brain-Computer-Interface is capable of reading the brainwaves of an individual and analyse it to obtain some meaningful data. This processed data can be used to assist people having speech disorders and sometimes people with limited locomotion to communicate. In this Project, Emotiv EPOC Headset is used to obtain the electroencephalogram (EEG). The obtained data is processed to communicate pre-defined commands over the internet to the desired mobile phone user. Other Vital Information like the heartbeat, blood pressure, ECG and body temperature are monitored and uploaded to the server. Data analytics enables physicians to scan databases for a specific illness. The Data is processed in Intel Edison, system on chip (SoC). Patient metrics are displayed via Intel IoT Analytics cloud service.

Keywords: brain computer interface, Intel Edison, Emotiv EPOC, IoT analytics, electroencephalogram

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
29 Characteristics of Elastic Tracked-Crawler Based on Worm-Rack Mechanism

Authors: Jun-ya Nagase

Abstract:

There are many pipes such as a water pipe and a gas pipe in a chemical plant and house. It is possible to prevent accidents by these inspections. However, many pipes are very narrow and it is difficult for people to inspect directly. Therefore, development of a robot that can move in narrow pipe is necessary. A wheel movement type robot, a snake-like robot and a multi-leg robot are all described in the relevant literature as pipe inspection robots that are currently studied. Among them, the tracked crawler robot can travel by traversing uneven ground flexibly with a crawler belt attached firmly to the ground surface. Although conventional crawler robots have high efficiency and/or high ground-covering ability, they require a comparatively large space to move. In this study, a cylindrical crawler robot based on worm-rack mechanism, which does not need large space to move and which has high ground-covering ability, is proposed. Experiments have demonstrated smooth operation and a forward movement of the robot by application of voltage to the motor. In addition, performance tests show that it can propel itself in confined spaces. This paper reports the structure, drive mechanism, prototype, and experimental evaluation.

Keywords: tracked-crawler, pipe inspection robot, worm-rack mechanism, amoeba locomotion

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
28 ArUco Maker Based Localization and Node Graph Approach to Mapping

Authors: Abhijith Sampathkrishna, Arun Giriyapur

Abstract:

This paper explores a method of localization and navigation of indoor mobile robots using a node graph of landmarks that are based on fiducial markers. The use of ArUco markers and their 2-D orientation with respect to the camera of the robot and the distance to the markers from the camera is used to calculate the relative position of the robot as well as the relative positions of other markers. The proposed method combines aspects of beacon-based navigation, and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) based navigation. The implementation of this method uses a depth camera to obtain the distance to the marker. After calculating the required orientation of the marker, it relies on odometry calculations for tracking the robot’s position after localization with respect to the marker. Using the odometry and the relative position of one marker, the robot is then localized with respect to another marker. The relative positions and orientation of the two markers are then calculated. The markers are represented as nodes, the relative distances and orientations are represented as edges connecting the nodes, and a node graph can be generated that represents a map for the robot. The method was tested on a wheeled humanoid robot with the objective of having it autonomously navigate to a charging station inside a room. This objective was successfully achieved, and the limitations and future improvements are briefly discussed.

Keywords: ArUco, node graph, mapping, locomotion, localization, navigation

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