Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1667

# Search results for: lateral motion

##### 1667 Lateral Control of Electric Vehicle Based on Fuzzy Logic Control

Abstract:

Aiming at the high nonlinearities and unmatched uncertainties of the intelligent electric vehicles’ dynamic system, this paper presents a lateral motion control algorithm for intelligent electric vehicles with four in-wheel motors. A fuzzy logic procedure is presented and formulated to realize lateral control in lane change. The vehicle dynamics model and a desired target tracking model were established in this paper. A fuzzy logic controller was designed for integrated active front steering (AFS) and direct yaw moment control (DYC) in order to improve vehicle handling performance and stability, and a fuzzy controller for the automatic steering problem. The simulation results demonstrate the strong robustness and excellent tracking performance of the control algorithm that is proposed. Downloads 472
##### 1666 Linearization of Y-Force Equation of Rigid Body Equation of Motion and Behavior of Fighter Aircraft under Imbalance Weight on Wings during Combat

Abstract:

Y-force equation comprises aerodynamic forces, drag and side force with side slip angle β and weight component along with the coupled roll (φ) and pitch angles (θ). This research deals with the linearization of Y-force equation using Small Disturbance theory assuming equilibrium flight conditions for different state variables of aircraft. By using assumptions of Small Disturbance theory in non-linear Y-force equation, finally reached at linearized lateral rigid body equation of motion; which says that in linearized Y-force equation, the lateral acceleration is dependent on the other different aerodynamic and propulsive forces like vertical tail, change in roll rate (Δp) from equilibrium, change in yaw rate (Δr) from equilibrium, change in lateral velocity due to side force, drag and side force components due to side slip, and the lateral equation from coupled rotating frame to decoupled rotating frame. This paper describes implementation of this lateral linearized equation for aircraft control systems. Another significant parameter considered on which y-force equation depends is ‘c’ which shows that any change bought in the weight of aircrafts wing will cause Δφ and cause lateral force i.e. Y_c. This simplification also leads to lateral static and dynamic stability. The linearization of equations is required because much of mathematics control system design for aircraft is based on linear equations. This technique is simple and eases the linearization of the rigid body equations of motion without using any high-speed computers. Downloads 368
##### 1665 Field Investigating the Effects of Lateral Support Elements on Lateral Resistance of Ballasted Tracks with Sharp Curves

Abstract:

Lateral movement of CWR ballasted track occurs in sharp curves because of the lack of adequate lateral resistance. Several strategies have been proposed and used for increase the lateral resistance of ballasted tracks, but still there are some problems in tracks with small radius curves. In this paper, a new method has been presented for increase the lateral resistance. This method is using the lateral supports as numerical and field studies. In this paper, the field and laboratory tests have been conducted by using the single tie pressure test (STPT) and track panel loading test (LTPT). Then, their results were compared with the numerical results. The results of numerical and field tests showed that the lateral stiffness of ballasted tracks significantly increased when there were lateral supports in ballasted tracks. Also, the track structure had a bilinear behavior. Downloads 243
##### 1664 The Effect of Different Parameters on a Single Invariant Lateral Displacement Distribution to Consider the Higher Modes Effect in a Displacement-Based Pushover Procedure

Authors: Mohamad Amin Amini, Mehdi Poursha

Abstract:

Nonlinear response history analysis (NL-RHA) is a robust analytical tool for estimating the seismic demands of structures responding in the inelastic range. However, because of its conceptual and numerical complications, the nonlinear static procedure (NSP) is being increasingly used as a suitable tool for seismic performance evaluation of structures. The conventional pushover analysis methods presented in various codes (FEMA 356; Eurocode-8; ATC-40), are limited to the first-mode-dominated structures, and cannot take higher modes effect into consideration. Therefore, since more than a decade ago, researchers developed enhanced pushover analysis procedures to take higher modes effect into account. The main objective of this study is to propose an enhanced invariant lateral displacement distribution to take higher modes effect into consideration in performing a displacement-based pushover analysis, whereby a set of laterally applied displacements, rather than forces, is monotonically applied to the structure. For this purpose, the effect of different parameters such as the spectral displacement of ground motion, the modal participation factor, and the effective modal participating mass ratio on the lateral displacement distribution is investigated to find the best distribution. The major simplification of this procedure is that the effect of higher modes is concentrated into a single invariant lateral load distribution. Therefore, only one pushover analysis is sufficient without any need to utilize a modal combination rule for combining the responses. The invariant lateral displacement distribution for pushover analysis is then calculated by combining the modal story displacements using the modal combination rules. The seismic demands resulting from the different procedures are compared to those from the more accurate nonlinear response history analysis (NL-RHA) as a benchmark solution. Two structures of different heights including 10 and 20-story special steel moment resisting frames (MRFs) were selected and evaluated. Twenty ground motion records were used to conduct the NL-RHA. The results show that more accurate responses can be obtained in comparison with the conventional lateral loads when the enhanced modal lateral displacement distributions are used. Downloads 218
##### 1663 Relation between Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain and Hip Rotation

Abstract:

Background: Chronic mechanical low back pain (CMLBP) is the most common complaint of the working-age population. Mechanical low back pain is often a chronic, dull, aching pain of varying intensity that affects the lower spine. In the current proposal the hip rotation-CMLBP relationship is based on that limited hip motion will be compensated by motion in the lumbopelvic region and this increase force translates to the lumbar spine. The purpose of this study was to investigate if there a relationship between chronic mechanical low back pain (CMLBP) and hip medial and lateral rotation (peak torque and Range of motion (ROM) in patients with CMLBP. Methods: Sixty patients with CMLBP diagnosed by an orthopedist participated in the current study after signing a consent form. Their mean of age was (23.76±2.39) years, mean of weight (71.8±12.7) (Kg), mean of height (169.65±7.49) (Cm) and mean of BMI (25.5±3.86) (Kg/m2). Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to assess pain. Fluid Filled Inclinometer was used to measure Hip rotation ROM (medial and lateral). Isokinetic Dynamometer was used to measure peak torque of hip rotators muscles (medial and lateral), concentric peak torque with tow Isokinetic speeds (60ᵒ/sec and 180ᵒ/sec) was selected to measure peak torque. Results: The results of this study demonstrated that there is poor relationship between pain and hip external rotation ROM, also there is poor relation between pain and hip internal rotation ROM. There is poor relation between pain and hip internal rotators peak torque and hip external rotators peak torque in both speeds. Conclusion: Depending on the current study it is not recommended to give an importance to hip rotation in treating Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain. Downloads 232
##### 1662 Vertical and Lateral Vibration Analysis of Conventional Elevator

Abstract:

This paper presents an analytical study of vibration moving elevator and shows the elevator 2D dynamic model to evaluate the vertical and lateral motion. Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counterweight. The elasticity of these ropes and springs of sets that connect cabin to ropes make the elevator car to vibrate. A two-dimensional model is derived to calculate vibrations and displacements. The simulation results were validated by the results of similar works. Downloads 226
##### 1661 ISME: Integrated Style Motion Editor for 3D Humanoid Character

Abstract:

The motion of a realistic 3D humanoid character is very important especially for the industries developing computer animations and games. However, this type of motion is seen with a very complex dimensional data as well as body position, orientation, and joint rotation. Integrated Style Motion Editor (ISME), on the other hand, is a method used to alter the 3D humanoid motion capture data utilised in computer animation and games development. Therefore, this study was carried out with the purpose of demonstrating a method that is able to manipulate and deform different motion styles by integrating Key Pose Deformation Technique and Trajectory Control Technique. This motion editing method allows the user to generate new motions from the original motion capture data using a simple interface control. Unlike the previous method, our method produces a realistic humanoid motion style in real time. Downloads 276
##### 1660 Simplified Equations for Rigidity and Lateral Deflection for Reinforced Concrete Cantilever Shear Walls

Authors: Anas M. Fares

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete shear walls are the most frequently used forms of lateral resisting structural elements. These walls may take many forms due to their functions and locations in the building. In Palestine, the most lateral resisting forces construction forms is the cantilever shear walls system. It is thus of prime importance to study the rigidity of these walls. The virtual work theorem is used to derive the total lateral deflection of cantilever shear walls due to flexural and shear deformation. The case of neglecting the shear deformation in the walls is also studied, and it is found that the wall height to length aspect ratio (H/B) plays a major role in calculating the lateral deflection and the rigidity of such walls. When the H/B is more than or equal to 3.7, the shear deformation may be neglected from the calculation of the lateral deflection. Moreover, the walls with the same material properties, same lateral load value, and same aspect ratio, shall have the same of both the lateral deflection and the rigidity. Finally, an equation to calculate the total rigidity and total deflection of such walls is derived by using the virtual work theorem for a cantilever beam. Downloads 120
##### 1659 Femoropatellar Groove: An Anatomical Study

Abstract:

Introduction: The lower extremity of the femur is characterized by an anterior groove in which patella is held during motion. This groove separates the two lips of the trochlea (medial and lateral), prolongation of the two condyles. In humans, the lateral trochlear lip is more developed than the medial one, creating an asymmetric groove that is also specific to the human body. Because of femoral obliquity, contraction of quadriceps leads to a lateral dislocation stress on the patella, and the more elevated lateral side of the patellar groove helps the patella stays in its correct place, acting as a wall against lateral dislocation. This specific shape fits an oblique femur. It is known that femoral obliquity is not genetically determined but comes with orthostatism and biped walking. Material and Methodology: To measure the various dimensions of the Femoropatellar groove (FPG) and femoral condyle using digital image analyser. 37 dried adult femora (22 right,15 left) were used for the study. End on images of the lower end of the femur was taken. Various dimensions of the Femoropatellar groove and FP angle were measured using image J software. Results were analyzed statistically. Results: Maximum of the altitude of medial condyle of the right femur is 4.98± 0.35 cm and of the left femur is 5.20±.16 cm. Maximum altitude of lateral condyle is 5.44±0.4 and 5.50±0.14 on the right and left side respectively. Medial length of the groove is 1.30±0.38 cm on the right side and on the left side is 1.88±0.16 cm. The lateral length of the groove on the right side is 1.900±.16 cm and left side is 1.88±0.16 cm. Femoropatellar angle is 136.38◦±2.59 on the right side and on the left side it is 142.38◦±7.0 Angle and dimensions of the femoropatellar groove on the medial and lateral sides were measured. Asymmetry in the patellar groove was observed. The lateral lip was found to be wider and bigger which correlated with the previous studies. An asymmetrical patellar groove with a protruding lateral side associated with an oblique femur is a specific mark of bipedal locomotion. Conclusion: Dimensions of FPG are important in maintaining the stability of patella and also in knee replacement surgeries. The implants used in to replace the patellofemoral compartment consist of a metal groove to fit on the femoral end and a plastic disc that attaches to the undersurface of the patella. The location and configuration of the patellofemoral groove of the distal femur are clinically significant in the mechanics and pathomechanics of the patellofemoral articulation. Downloads 282
##### 1658 Adhesion Performance According to Lateral Reinforcement Method of Textile

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete has been mainly used in construction field because of excellent durability. However, it may lead to reduction of durability and safety due to corrosion of reinforcement steels according to damage of concrete surface. Recently, research of textile is ongoing to complement weakness of reinforced concrete. In previous research, only experiment of longitudinal length were performed. Therefore, in order to investigate the adhesion performance according to the lattice shape and the embedded length, the pull-out test was performed on the roving with parameter of the number of lateral reinforcement, the lateral reinforcement length and the lateral reinforcement spacing. As a result, the number of lateral reinforcement and the lateral reinforcement length did not significantly affect the load variation depending on the adhesion performance, and only the load analysis results according to the reinforcement spacing are affected. Downloads 258
##### 1657 Task Kicking Performance with Biomechanical Instrumentation

Authors: T. Hirata, M. G. Silva, L. M. Rosa

Abstract:

The balance ability during task kick in soccer is a determining factor in the execution of functional movements that require a high-performance motor coordination. The current experiment explored it during an instep soccer kick and functional task kicking. Their kicking performance was measured in terms of the sway characteristics using lateral and antero-posterior balance of the center of pressure (COP) for the supporting leg and the kinematic data, the supporting leg’s knee angle. The motion was realized with one-legged stance of five male indoor soccer players and using the trigger device ball controller. The results showed large balance in antero-posterior direction than in lateral direction. However, each player adopts a different way to kick the ball, and the media-lateral displacement of the COP showed no correlation with the balance skill. Downloads 530
##### 1656 Investigation for the Mechanism of Lateral-Torsional Coupled Vibration of the Propulsion Shaft in a Ship

Abstract:

When a rubber mount and flexible coupling are installed on the main engine, high torsional vibration can occur. The root cause of this high torsional vibration can be attributed to the lateral-torsional coupled vibration of the shaft system. Therefore, the lateral-torsional coupled vibration is investigated numerically after approximating the shaft system to a three-degrees-of-freedom Jeffcott rotor. To verify that the high torsional vibration is caused by the lateral-torsional coupled vibration, a test unit that can simulate this lateral-torsional coupled vibration occurring in the propulsion shaft is developed. Performing a vibration test with the test unit, it can be experimentally verified that the high torsional vibration occurring in the propulsion shaft of the particular ship was caused by the lateral-torsional coupled vibration. Downloads 72
##### 1655 Classification of Equations of Motion

Abstract:

Up to now only five different equations of motion can be derived from velocity time graph without needing to know the normal and frictional forces acting at the point of contact. In this paper we obtained all possible requisite conditions to be considering an equation as an equation of motion. After that we classified equations of motion by considering two equations as fundamental kinematical equations of motion and other three as additional kinematical equations of motion. After deriving these five equations of motion, we examine the easiest way of solving a wide variety of useful numerical problems. At the end of the paper, we discussed the importance and educational benefits of classification of equations of motion. Downloads 508
##### 1654 Detection of Patient Roll-Over Using High-Sensitivity Pressure Sensors

Abstract:

Recent advances in medical technology have served to enhance average life expectancy. However, the total time for which the patients are prescribed complete bedrest has also increased. With patients being required to maintain a constant lying posture- also called bedsore- development of a system to detect patient roll-over becomes imperative. For this purpose, extant studies have proposed the use of cameras, and favorable results have been reported. Continuous on-camera monitoring, however, tends to violate patient privacy. We have proposed unconstrained bio-signal measurement system that could detect body-motion during sleep and does not violate patient’s privacy. Therefore, in this study, we propose a roll-over detection method by the date obtained from the bi-signal measurement system. Signals recorded by the sensor were assumed to comprise respiration, pulse, body motion, and noise components. Compared the body-motion and respiration, pulse component, the body-motion, during roll-over, generate large vibration. Thus, analysis of the body-motion component facilitates detection of the roll-over tendency. The large vibration associated with the roll-over motion has a great effect on the Root Mean Square (RMS) value of time series of the body motion component calculated during short 10 s segments. After calculation, the RMS value during each segment was compared to a threshold value set in advance. If RMS value in any segment exceeded the threshold, corresponding data were considered to indicate occurrence of a roll-over. In order to validate the proposed method, we conducted experiment. A bi-directional microphone was adopted as a high-sensitivity pressure sensor and was placed between the mattress and bedframe. Recorded signals passed through an analog Band-pass Filter (BPF) operating over the 0.16-16 Hz bandwidth. BPF allowed the respiration, pulse, and body-motion to pass whilst removing the noise component. Output from BPF was A/D converted with the sampling frequency 100Hz, and the measurement time was 480 seconds. The number of subjects and data corresponded to 5 and 10, respectively. Subjects laid on a mattress in the supine position. During data measurement, subjects—upon the investigator's instruction—were asked to roll over into four different positions—supine to left lateral, left lateral to prone, prone to right lateral, and right lateral to supine. Recorded data was divided into 48 segments with 10 s intervals, and the corresponding RMS value for each segment was calculated. The system was evaluated by the accuracy between the investigator’s instruction and the detected segment. As the result, an accuracy of 100% was achieved. While reviewing the time series of recorded data, segments indicating roll-over tendencies were observed to demonstrate a large amplitude. However, clear differences between decubitus and the roll-over motion could not be confirmed. Extant researches possessed a disadvantage in terms of patient privacy. The proposed study, however, demonstrates more precise detection of patient roll-over tendencies without violating their privacy. As a future prospect, decubitus estimation before and after roll-over could be attempted. Since in this paper, we could not confirm the clear differences between decubitus and the roll-over motion, future studies could be based on utilization of the respiration and pulse components. Downloads 56
##### 1653 Lateral Cephalometric Radiograph to Determine Sex in Forensic Investigations

Authors: Paulus Maulana

Abstract:

Forensic identification is to help investigators determine a person's identity. Personal identification is often a problem in civil and criminal cases. Orthodontists like all other dental professionals can play a major role by maintaining lateral cephalogram and thus providing important or vital information or can clues to the legal authorities in order to help them in their search. Radiographic lateral cephalometry is a measurement method which focused on the anatomical points of human lateral skull. Sex determination is one of the most important aspects of the personal identification in forensic. Lateral cephalogram is a valuable tool in identification of sex as reveal morphological details of the skull on single radiograph. This present study evaluates the role of lateral cephalogram in identification of sex that parameters of lateral cephalogram are linear measurement and angle measurement. The linear measurements are N-S ( Anterior cranial length), Sna-Snp (Palatal plane length), Me-Go (menton-gonion), N-Sna ( Midfacial anterior height ), Sna-Me (Lower anterior face height), Co-Gn (total mandibular length). The angle measurements are SNA, SNB, ANB, Gonial, Interincical, and facial.

Keywords: lateral cephalometry, cephalogram, sex, forensic, parameter

##### 1652 Numerical Analysis of Jet Grouting Strengthened Pile under Lateral Loading

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Naeem Gholampoor

Abstract:

Jet grouting strengthened pile (JPP) is one of composite piles used in soft ground improvement. It may improve the vertical and lateral bearing capacity effectively and it has been practically used in a considerable scale. In order to make a further research on load transfer mechanism of single JPP with and without cap under lateral loads, JPP is analyzed by means of FEM analysis. It is resulted that the JPP pile could improve lateral bearing capacity by compared with bored concrete pile which is higher for shorter pile and the biggest bending moment of JPP pile is located in the depth of around 48% of embedded length of the pile. Meanwhile, increase of JPP pile length causes to increase of peak mobilized bending moment. Also, by cap addition, JPP piles will have a much higher lateral bearing capacity and increasing in cohesion of soil layer resulted to increase of lateral bearing capacity of JPP pile. In addition, the numerical results basically coincide with the experimental results presented by other researchers. Downloads 229
##### 1651 Elastic Deformation of Multistory RC Frames under Lateral Loads

Authors: Hamdy Elgohary, Majid Assas

Abstract:

Estimation of lateral displacement and interstory drifts represent a major step in multistory frames design. In the preliminary design stage, it is essential to perform a fast check for the expected values of lateral deformations. This step will help to ensure the compliance of the expected values with the design code requirements. Also, in some cases during or after the detailed design stage, it may be required to carry fast check of lateral deformations by design reviewer. In the present paper, a parametric study is carried out on the factors affecting in the lateral displacements of multistory frame buildings. Based on the results of the parametric study, simplified empirical equations are recommended for the direct determination of the lateral deflection of multistory frames. The results obtained using the recommended equations have been compared with the results obtained by finite element analysis. The comparison shows that the proposed equations lead to good approximation for the estimation of lateral deflection of multistory RC frame buildings. Downloads 168
##### 1650 Biomechanics of Atalantoaxial Complex for Various Posterior Fixation Techniques

Abstract:

The study aims to analyze and understand the biomechanical stability of the atlantoaxial complex under different posterior fixation techniques using the finite element method in the Indian context. The conventional cadaveric studies performed show heterogeneity in biomechanical properties. The finite element method being a versatile numerical tool, is being wisely used for biomechanics analysis of atlantoaxial complex. However, the biomechanics of posterior fixation techniques for an Indian subject is missing in the literature. It is essential to study in this context as the bone density and geometry of vertebrae vary from region to region, thereby requiring different screw lengths and it can affect the range of motion(ROM), stresses generated. The current study uses CT images for developing a 3D finite element model with C1-C2 geometry without ligaments. Instrumentation is added to this geometry to develop four models for four fixation techniques, namely C1-C2 TA, C1LM-C2PS, C1LM-C2Pars, C1LM-C2TL. To simulate Flexion, extension, lateral bending, axial rotation, 1.5 Nm is applied to C1 while the bottom nodes of C2 are fixed. Then Range of Motion (ROM) is compared with the unstable model(without ligaments). All the fixation techniques showed more than 97 percent reduction in the Range of Motion. The von-mises stresses developed in the screw constructs are obtained. From the studies, it is observed that Transarticular technique is most stable in Lateral Bending, C1LM-C2 Translaminar is found most stable in Flexion/extension. The Von-Mises stresses developed minimum in Trasarticular technique in lateral bending and axial rotation, whereas stress developed in C2 pars construct minimum in Flexion/ Extension. On average, the TA technique is stable in all motions and also stresses in constructs are less in TA. Tarnsarticular technique is found to be the best fixation technique for Indian subjects among the 4 methods. Downloads 73
##### 1649 Clarifications on the Damping Mechanism Related to the Hunting Motion of the Wheel Axle of a High-Speed Railway Vehicle

Authors: Barenten Suciu

Abstract:

In order to explain the damping mechanism, related to the hunting motion of the wheel axle of a high-speed railway vehicle, a generalized dynamic model is proposed. Based on such model, analytic expressions for the damping coefficient and damped natural frequency are derived, without imposing restrictions on the ratio between the lateral and vertical creep coefficients. Influence of the travelling speed, wheel conicity, dimensionless mass of the wheel axle, ratio of the creep coefficients, ratio of the track span to the yawing diameter, etc. on the damping coefficient and damped natural frequency, is clarified. Downloads 214
##### 1648 Adaptive Motion Planning for 6-DOF Robots Based on Trigonometric Functions

Abstract:

Building an appropriate motion model is crucial for trajectory planning of robots and determines the operational quality directly. An adaptive acceleration and deceleration motion planning based on trigonometric functions for the end-effector of 6-DOF robots in Cartesian coordinate system is proposed in this paper. This method not only achieves the smooth translation motion and rotation motion by constructing a continuous jerk model, but also automatically adjusts the parameters of trigonometric functions according to the variable inputs and the kinematic constraints. The results of computer simulation show that this method is correct and effective to achieve the adaptive motion planning for linear trajectories. Downloads 183
##### 1647 Design of a Low Cost Motion Data Acquisition Setup for Mechatronic Systems

Authors: Baris Can Yalcin

Abstract:

Motion sensors have been commonly used as a valuable component in mechatronic systems, however, many mechatronic designs and applications that need motion sensors cost enormous amount of money, especially high-tech systems. Design of a software for communication protocol between data acquisition card and motion sensor is another issue that has to be solved. This study presents how to design a low cost motion data acquisition setup consisting of MPU 6050 motion sensor (gyro and accelerometer in 3 axes) and Arduino Mega2560 microcontroller. Design parameters are calibration of the sensor, identification and communication between sensor and data acquisition card, interpretation of data collected by the sensor.

Keywords: design, mechatronics, motion sensor, data acquisition

##### 1646 Motion Effects of Arabic Typography on Screen-Based Media

Authors: Ibrahim Hassan

Abstract:

Motion typography is one of the most important types of visual communication based on display. Through the digital display media, we can control the text properties (size, direction, thickness, color, etc.). The use of motion typography in visual communication made it have several images. We need to adjust the terminology and clarify the different differences between them, so relying on the word motion typography -considered a general term- is not enough to separate the different communicative functions of the moving text. In this paper, we discuss the different effects of motion typography on Arabic writing and how we can achieve harmony between the movement and the letterform, and we will, during our experiments, present a new type of text movement. Downloads 74
##### 1645 On the Evaluation of Critical Lateral-Torsional Buckling Loads of Monosymmetric Beam-Columns

Authors: T. Yilmaz, N. Kirac

Abstract:

Beam-column elements are defined as structural members subjected to a combination of axial and bending forces. Lateral torsional buckling is one of the major failure modes in which beam-columns that are bent about its strong axis may buckle out of the plane by deflecting laterally and twisting. This study presents a compact closed-form equation that it can be used for calculating critical lateral torsional-buckling load of beam-columns with monosymmetric sections in the presence of a known axial load. Lateral-torsional buckling behavior of beam-columns subjected to constant axial force and various transverse load cases are investigated by using Ritz method in order to establish proposed equation. Lateral-torsional buckling loads calculated by presented formula are compared to finite element model results. ABAQUS software is utilized to generate finite element models of beam-columns. It is found out that lateral-torsional buckling load of beam-columns with monosymmetric sections can be determined by proposed equation and can be safely used in design. Downloads 252
##### 1644 Modeling of a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Abstract:

Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are playing increasingly prominent roles in defense programs and defense strategies around the world. Technology advancements have enabled the development of it to do many excellent jobs as reconnaissance, surveillance, battle fighters, and communications relays. Simulating a small unmanned aerial vehicle (SUAV) dynamics and analyzing its behavior at the preflight stage is too important and more efficient. The first step in the UAV design is the mathematical modeling of the nonlinear equations of motion. In this paper, a survey with a standard method to obtain the full non-linear equations of motion is utilized,and then the linearization of the equations according to a steady state flight condition (trimming) is derived. This modeling technique is applied to an Ultrastick-25e fixed wing UAV to obtain the valued linear longitudinal and lateral models. At the end, the model is checked by matching between the behavior of the states of the non-linear UAV and the resulted linear model with doublet at the control surfaces.

Keywords: UAV, equations of motion, modeling, linearization

##### 1643 A New Center of Motion in Cabling Robots

Authors: Alireza Abbasi Moshaii, Farshid Najafi

Abstract:

In this paper a new model for centre of motion creating is proposed. This new method uses cables. So, it is very useful in robots because it is light and has easy assembling process. In the robots which need to be in touch with some things this method is very good. It will be described in the following. The accuracy of the idea is proved by an experiment. This system could be used in the robots which need a fixed point in the contact with some things and make a circular motion. Such as dancer, physician or repair robots. Downloads 338
##### 1642 Comparison of Dynamic Balance Ability and Flexibility in Different Sports

Abstract:

The aim of this research was to compare dynamic balance ability (bipedal, right, left foot) and plantar-dorsi flexion range of motion in fencers and swimmers. 43 fencers participated as volunteer with mean age 15.74±1.90year and mean training year 4.97±2.37year. 25 swimmers participated as volunteer with mean age 15.36±1.65 yr. and mean training year 5.98±2.35 yr. Dynamic balance measured while participants were standing in the anatomical position with prokin tecno body for bipedal, right, left foot. Plantar and dorsal flexion range of motion measured while participants in seated position on the examination table and goniometer placed on the lateral malleolus. For statistical analyses; independent samples t test was used. There were significant differences between bipedal (p < 0.05), right foot (p < 0.05), left foot (p < 0.05) dynamic balance ability in favor of fencers. Also there was significant difference between right and left foot dorsal flexion range of motion (p < 0.001) in favor of fencers. There was no significant difference in plantar flexion range of motion between fencers and swimmers. The difference observed in fencers may be due to the use of more dorsal flexion in action moves and that swimming does not impact loading sport and it is performed in pool.

Keywords: fencing, swimming, dynamic balance, flexibility

##### 1641 Limitation of Parallel Flow in Three-Dimensional Elongated Porous Domain Subjected to Cross Heat and Mass Flux

Abstract:

In the present work 2D and 3D numerical simulations of double diffusion natural convection in an elongated enclosure filled with a binary fluid saturating a porous medium are carried out. In the formulation of the problem, the Boussinesq approximation is considered and cross Neumann boundary conditions are specified for heat and mass walls conditions. The numerical method is based on the control volume approach with the third order QUICK scheme. Full approximation storage (FAS) with full multigrid (FMG) method is used to solve the problem. For the explored large range of the controlling parameters, we clearly evidenced that the increase in the depth of the cavity i.e. the lateral aspect ratio has an important effect on the flow patterns. The 2D perfect parallel flows obtained for a small lateral aspect ratio are drastically destabilized by increasing the cavity lateral dimension. This yields a 3D fluid motion with a much more complicated flow pattern and the classically studied 2D parallel flows are impossible. Downloads 224
##### 1640 An Approximate Lateral-Torsional Buckling Mode Function for Cantilever I-Beams

Authors: H. Ozbasaran

Abstract:

Lateral torsional buckling is a global stability loss which should be considered in the design of slender structural members under flexure about their strong axis. It is possible to compute the load which causes lateral torsional buckling of a beam by finite element analysis, however, closed form equations are needed in engineering practice. Such equations can be obtained by using energy method. Unfortunately, this method has a vital drawback. In lateral torsional buckling applications of energy method, a proper function for the critical lateral torsional buckling mode should be chosen which can be thought as the variation of twisting angle along the buckled beam. The accuracy of the results depends on how close is the chosen function to the exact mode. Since critical lateral torsional buckling mode of the cantilever I-beams varies due to material properties, section properties, and loading case, the hardest step is to determine a proper mode function. This paper presents an approximate function for critical lateral torsional buckling mode of doubly symmetric cantilever I-beams. Coefficient matrices are calculated for the concentrated load at the free end, uniformly distributed load and constant moment along the beam cases. Critical lateral torsional buckling modes obtained by presented function and exact solutions are compared. It is found that the modes obtained by presented function coincide with differential equation solutions for considered loading cases. Downloads 294
##### 1639 Comparing the Motion of Solar System with Water Droplet Motion to Predict the Future of Solar System

Authors: Areena Bhatti

Abstract:

The geometric arrangement of planet and moon is the result of a self-organizing system. In our solar system, the planets and moons are constantly orbiting around the sun. The aim of this theory is to compare the motion of a solar system with the motion of water droplet when poured into a water body. The basic methodology is to compare both motions to know how they are related to each other. The difference between both systems will be that one is extremely fast, and the other is extremely slow. The role of this theory is that by looking at the fast system we can conclude how slow the system will get to an end. Just like ripples are formed around water droplet that move away from the droplet and water droplet forming those ripples become small in size will tell us how solar system will behave in the same way. So it is concluded that large and small systems can work under the same process but with different motions of time, and motion of the solar system is the slowest form of water droplet motion.

Keywords: motion, water, sun, time