Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9241

Search results for: lateral control

9241 Lateral Control of Electric Vehicle Based on Fuzzy Logic Control

Authors: Hartani Kada, Merah Abdelkader

Abstract:

Aiming at the high nonlinearities and unmatched uncertainties of the intelligent electric vehicles’ dynamic system, this paper presents a lateral motion control algorithm for intelligent electric vehicles with four in-wheel motors. A fuzzy logic procedure is presented and formulated to realize lateral control in lane change. The vehicle dynamics model and a desired target tracking model were established in this paper. A fuzzy logic controller was designed for integrated active front steering (AFS) and direct yaw moment control (DYC) in order to improve vehicle handling performance and stability, and a fuzzy controller for the automatic steering problem. The simulation results demonstrate the strong robustness and excellent tracking performance of the control algorithm that is proposed.

Keywords: fuzzy logic, lateral control, AFS, DYC, electric car technology, longitudinal control, lateral motion

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9240 RAFU Functions in Robotics and Automation

Authors: Alicia C. Sanchez

Abstract:

This paper investigates the implementation of RAFU functions (radical functions) in robotics and automation. Specifically, the main goal is to show how these functions may be useful in lane-keeping control and the lateral control of autonomous machines, vehicles, robots or the like. From the knowledge of several points of a certain route, the RAFU functions are used to achieve the lateral control purpose and maintain the lane-keeping errors within the fixed limits. The stability that these functions provide, their ease of approaching any continuous trajectory and the control of the possible error made on the approximation may be useful in practice.

Keywords: automatic navigation control, lateral control, lane-keeping control, RAFU approximation

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
9239 Hybrid Lateral-Directional Robust Flight Control with Propulsive Systems

Authors: Alexandra Monteiro, K. Bousson, Fernando J. O. Moreira, Ricardo Reis

Abstract:

Fixed-wing flying vehicles are usually controlled by means of control surfaces such as elevators, ailerons, and rudders. The failure of these systems may lead to severe or even fatal crashes. These failures resulted in increased popularity for research activities on propulsion control in the last decades. The present work deals with a hybrid control architecture in which the propulsion-controlled vehicle maintains its traditional control surfaces, addressing the issue of robust lateral-directional dynamics control. The challenges stem from the parameter uncertainties in the stability and control derivatives and some unknown terms in the flight dynamics model. Two approaches are implemented and tested: linear quadratic regulation with robustness characteristics and H∞ control. The problem is centered on roll-yaw controller design with full state-feedback, which is able to deal with a standalone propulsion control mode as well as a hybrid mode combining both propulsion control and conventional control surface concepts while maintaining the original flight maneuverability characteristics. The results for both controllers emphasized very good control performances; however, the H∞ controller showed higher stabilization rates and robustness albeit with a slightly higher control magnitude than using the linear quadratic regulator.

Keywords: robust propulsion control, h-infinity control, lateral-directional flight dynamics, parameter uncertainties

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
9238 Non-Linear Control Based on State Estimation for the Convoy of Autonomous Vehicles

Authors: M-M. Mohamed Ahmed, Nacer K. M’Sirdi, Aziz Naamane

Abstract:

In this paper, a longitudinal and lateral control approach based on a nonlinear observer is proposed for a convoy of autonomous vehicles to follow a desired trajectory. To authors best knowledge, this topic has not yet been sufficiently addressed in the literature for the control of multi vehicles. The modeling of the convoy of the vehicles is revisited using a robotic method for simulation purposes and control design. With these models, a sliding mode observer is proposed to estimate the states of each vehicle in the convoy from the available sensors, then a sliding mode control based on this observer is used to control the longitudinal and lateral movement. The validation and performance evaluation are done using the well-known driving simulator Scanner-Studio. The results are presented for different maneuvers of 5 vehicles.

Keywords: autonomous vehicles, convoy, non-linear control, non-linear observer, sliding mode

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9237 Field Investigating the Effects of Lateral Support Elements on Lateral Resistance of Ballasted Tracks with Sharp Curves

Authors: Milad Alizadeh Galdiani, Jabbar Ali Zakeri

Abstract:

Lateral movement of CWR ballasted track occurs in sharp curves because of the lack of adequate lateral resistance. Several strategies have been proposed and used for increase the lateral resistance of ballasted tracks, but still there are some problems in tracks with small radius curves. In this paper, a new method has been presented for increase the lateral resistance. This method is using the lateral supports as numerical and field studies. In this paper, the field and laboratory tests have been conducted by using the single tie pressure test (STPT) and track panel loading test (LTPT). Then, their results were compared with the numerical results. The results of numerical and field tests showed that the lateral stiffness of ballasted tracks significantly increased when there were lateral supports in ballasted tracks. Also, the track structure had a bilinear behavior.

Keywords: ballasted railway, Lateral resistance, railway buckling, field and numerical studies

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9236 Disturbance Observer for Lateral Trajectory Tracking Control for Autonomous and Cooperative Driving

Authors: Christian Rathgeber, Franz Winkler, Dirk Odenthal, Steffen Müller

Abstract:

In this contribution a structure for high level lateral vehicle tracking control based on the disturbance observer is presented. The structure is characterized by stationary compensating side forces disturbances and guaranteeing a cooperative behavior at the same time. Driver inputs are not compensated by the disturbance observer. Moreover the structure is especially useful as it robustly stabilizes the vehicle. Therefore the parameters are selected using the Parameter Space Approach. The implemented algorithms are tested in real world scenarios.

Keywords: disturbance observer, trajectory tracking, robust control, autonomous driving, cooperative driving

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9235 Simplified Equations for Rigidity and Lateral Deflection for Reinforced Concrete Cantilever Shear Walls

Authors: Anas M. Fares

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete shear walls are the most frequently used forms of lateral resisting structural elements. These walls may take many forms due to their functions and locations in the building. In Palestine, the most lateral resisting forces construction forms is the cantilever shear walls system. It is thus of prime importance to study the rigidity of these walls. The virtual work theorem is used to derive the total lateral deflection of cantilever shear walls due to flexural and shear deformation. The case of neglecting the shear deformation in the walls is also studied, and it is found that the wall height to length aspect ratio (H/B) plays a major role in calculating the lateral deflection and the rigidity of such walls. When the H/B is more than or equal to 3.7, the shear deformation may be neglected from the calculation of the lateral deflection. Moreover, the walls with the same material properties, same lateral load value, and same aspect ratio, shall have the same of both the lateral deflection and the rigidity. Finally, an equation to calculate the total rigidity and total deflection of such walls is derived by using the virtual work theorem for a cantilever beam.

Keywords: cantilever shear walls, flexural deformation, lateral deflection, lateral loads, reinforced concrete shear walls, rigidity, shear deformation, virtual work theorem

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9234 Linearization of Y-Force Equation of Rigid Body Equation of Motion and Behavior of Fighter Aircraft under Imbalance Weight on Wings during Combat

Authors: Jawad Zakir, Syed Irtiza Ali Shah, Rana Shaharyar, Sidra Mahmood

Abstract:

Y-force equation comprises aerodynamic forces, drag and side force with side slip angle β and weight component along with the coupled roll (φ) and pitch angles (θ). This research deals with the linearization of Y-force equation using Small Disturbance theory assuming equilibrium flight conditions for different state variables of aircraft. By using assumptions of Small Disturbance theory in non-linear Y-force equation, finally reached at linearized lateral rigid body equation of motion; which says that in linearized Y-force equation, the lateral acceleration is dependent on the other different aerodynamic and propulsive forces like vertical tail, change in roll rate (Δp) from equilibrium, change in yaw rate (Δr) from equilibrium, change in lateral velocity due to side force, drag and side force components due to side slip, and the lateral equation from coupled rotating frame to decoupled rotating frame. This paper describes implementation of this lateral linearized equation for aircraft control systems. Another significant parameter considered on which y-force equation depends is ‘c’ which shows that any change bought in the weight of aircrafts wing will cause Δφ and cause lateral force i.e. Y_c. This simplification also leads to lateral static and dynamic stability. The linearization of equations is required because much of mathematics control system design for aircraft is based on linear equations. This technique is simple and eases the linearization of the rigid body equations of motion without using any high-speed computers.

Keywords: Y-force linearization, small disturbance theory, side slip, aerodynamic force drag, lateral rigid body equation of motion

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9233 Adhesion Performance According to Lateral Reinforcement Method of Textile

Authors: Jungbhin You, Taekyun Kim, Jongho Park, Sungnam Hong, Sun-Kyu Park

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete has been mainly used in construction field because of excellent durability. However, it may lead to reduction of durability and safety due to corrosion of reinforcement steels according to damage of concrete surface. Recently, research of textile is ongoing to complement weakness of reinforced concrete. In previous research, only experiment of longitudinal length were performed. Therefore, in order to investigate the adhesion performance according to the lattice shape and the embedded length, the pull-out test was performed on the roving with parameter of the number of lateral reinforcement, the lateral reinforcement length and the lateral reinforcement spacing. As a result, the number of lateral reinforcement and the lateral reinforcement length did not significantly affect the load variation depending on the adhesion performance, and only the load analysis results according to the reinforcement spacing are affected.

Keywords: adhesion performance, lateral reinforcement, pull-out test, textile

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9232 Investigation for the Mechanism of Lateral-Torsional Coupled Vibration of the Propulsion Shaft in a Ship

Authors: Hyungsuk Han, Soohong Jeon, Chungwon Lee, YongHoon Kim

Abstract:

When a rubber mount and flexible coupling are installed on the main engine, high torsional vibration can occur. The root cause of this high torsional vibration can be attributed to the lateral-torsional coupled vibration of the shaft system. Therefore, the lateral-torsional coupled vibration is investigated numerically after approximating the shaft system to a three-degrees-of-freedom Jeffcott rotor. To verify that the high torsional vibration is caused by the lateral-torsional coupled vibration, a test unit that can simulate this lateral-torsional coupled vibration occurring in the propulsion shaft is developed. Performing a vibration test with the test unit, it can be experimentally verified that the high torsional vibration occurring in the propulsion shaft of the particular ship was caused by the lateral-torsional coupled vibration.

Keywords: Jeffcott rotor, lateral-torsional coupled vibration, propulsion shaft, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
9231 Lateral Cephalometric Radiograph to Determine Sex in Forensic Investigations

Authors: Paulus Maulana

Abstract:

Forensic identification is to help investigators determine a person's identity. Personal identification is often a problem in civil and criminal cases. Orthodontists like all other dental professionals can play a major role by maintaining lateral cephalogram and thus providing important or vital information or can clues to the legal authorities in order to help them in their search. Radiographic lateral cephalometry is a measurement method which focused on the anatomical points of human lateral skull. Sex determination is one of the most important aspects of the personal identification in forensic. Lateral cephalogram is a valuable tool in identification of sex as reveal morphological details of the skull on single radiograph. This present study evaluates the role of lateral cephalogram in identification of sex that parameters of lateral cephalogram are linear measurement and angle measurement. The linear measurements are N-S ( Anterior cranial length), Sna-Snp (Palatal plane length), Me-Go (menton-gonion), N-Sna ( Midfacial anterior height ), Sna-Me (Lower anterior face height), Co-Gn (total mandibular length). The angle measurements are SNA, SNB, ANB, Gonial, Interincical, and facial.

Keywords: lateral cephalometry, cephalogram, sex, forensic, parameter

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
9230 Numerical Analysis of Jet Grouting Strengthened Pile under Lateral Loading

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Naeem Gholampoor

Abstract:

Jet grouting strengthened pile (JPP) is one of composite piles used in soft ground improvement. It may improve the vertical and lateral bearing capacity effectively and it has been practically used in a considerable scale. In order to make a further research on load transfer mechanism of single JPP with and without cap under lateral loads, JPP is analyzed by means of FEM analysis. It is resulted that the JPP pile could improve lateral bearing capacity by compared with bored concrete pile which is higher for shorter pile and the biggest bending moment of JPP pile is located in the depth of around 48% of embedded length of the pile. Meanwhile, increase of JPP pile length causes to increase of peak mobilized bending moment. Also, by cap addition, JPP piles will have a much higher lateral bearing capacity and increasing in cohesion of soil layer resulted to increase of lateral bearing capacity of JPP pile. In addition, the numerical results basically coincide with the experimental results presented by other researchers.

Keywords: bending moment, FEM analysis, JPP pile, lateral bearing capacity

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9229 Elastic Deformation of Multistory RC Frames under Lateral Loads

Authors: Hamdy Elgohary, Majid Assas

Abstract:

Estimation of lateral displacement and interstory drifts represent a major step in multistory frames design. In the preliminary design stage, it is essential to perform a fast check for the expected values of lateral deformations. This step will help to ensure the compliance of the expected values with the design code requirements. Also, in some cases during or after the detailed design stage, it may be required to carry fast check of lateral deformations by design reviewer. In the present paper, a parametric study is carried out on the factors affecting in the lateral displacements of multistory frame buildings. Based on the results of the parametric study, simplified empirical equations are recommended for the direct determination of the lateral deflection of multistory frames. The results obtained using the recommended equations have been compared with the results obtained by finite element analysis. The comparison shows that the proposed equations lead to good approximation for the estimation of lateral deflection of multistory RC frame buildings.

Keywords: lateral deflection, interstory drift, approximate analysis, multistory frames

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9228 Improvement of Ride Comfort of Turning Electric Vehicle Using Optimal Speed Control

Authors: Yingyi Zhou, Tohru Kawabe

Abstract:

With the spread of EVs (electric Vehicles), the ride comfort has been gaining a lot of attention. The influence of the lateral acceleration is important for the improvement of ride comfort of EVs as well as the longitudinal acceleration, especially upon turning of the vehicle. Therefore, this paper proposes a practical optimal speed control method to greatly improve the ride comfort in the vehicle turning situation. For consturcting this method, effective criteria that can appropriately evaluate deterioration of ride comfort is derived. The method can reduce the influence of both the longitudinal and the lateral speed changes for providing a confortable ride. From several simulation results, we can see the fact that the method can prevent aggravation of the ride comfort by suppressing the influence of longitudinal speed change in the turning situation. Hence, the effectiveness of the method is recognized.

Keywords: electric vehicle, speed control, ride comfort, optimal control theory, driving support system

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9227 On the Evaluation of Critical Lateral-Torsional Buckling Loads of Monosymmetric Beam-Columns

Authors: T. Yilmaz, N. Kirac

Abstract:

Beam-column elements are defined as structural members subjected to a combination of axial and bending forces. Lateral torsional buckling is one of the major failure modes in which beam-columns that are bent about its strong axis may buckle out of the plane by deflecting laterally and twisting. This study presents a compact closed-form equation that it can be used for calculating critical lateral torsional-buckling load of beam-columns with monosymmetric sections in the presence of a known axial load. Lateral-torsional buckling behavior of beam-columns subjected to constant axial force and various transverse load cases are investigated by using Ritz method in order to establish proposed equation. Lateral-torsional buckling loads calculated by presented formula are compared to finite element model results. ABAQUS software is utilized to generate finite element models of beam-columns. It is found out that lateral-torsional buckling load of beam-columns with monosymmetric sections can be determined by proposed equation and can be safely used in design.

Keywords: lateral-torsional buckling, stability, beam-column, monosymmetric section

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9226 An Approximate Lateral-Torsional Buckling Mode Function for Cantilever I-Beams

Authors: H. Ozbasaran

Abstract:

Lateral torsional buckling is a global stability loss which should be considered in the design of slender structural members under flexure about their strong axis. It is possible to compute the load which causes lateral torsional buckling of a beam by finite element analysis, however, closed form equations are needed in engineering practice. Such equations can be obtained by using energy method. Unfortunately, this method has a vital drawback. In lateral torsional buckling applications of energy method, a proper function for the critical lateral torsional buckling mode should be chosen which can be thought as the variation of twisting angle along the buckled beam. The accuracy of the results depends on how close is the chosen function to the exact mode. Since critical lateral torsional buckling mode of the cantilever I-beams varies due to material properties, section properties, and loading case, the hardest step is to determine a proper mode function. This paper presents an approximate function for critical lateral torsional buckling mode of doubly symmetric cantilever I-beams. Coefficient matrices are calculated for the concentrated load at the free end, uniformly distributed load and constant moment along the beam cases. Critical lateral torsional buckling modes obtained by presented function and exact solutions are compared. It is found that the modes obtained by presented function coincide with differential equation solutions for considered loading cases.

Keywords: buckling mode, cantilever, lateral-torsional buckling, I-beam

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9225 A Parametric Study on Lateral Torsional Buckling of European IPN and IPE Cantilevers

Authors: H. Ozbasaran

Abstract:

IPN and IPE sections, which are commonly used European I shapes, are widely used in steel structures as cantilever beams to support overhangs. A considerable number of studies exist on calculating lateral torsional buckling load of I sections. However, most of them provide series solutions or complex closed-form equations. In this paper, a simple equation is presented to calculate lateral torsional buckling load of IPN and IPE section cantilever beams. First, differential equation of lateral torsional buckling is solved numerically for various loading cases. Then a parametric study is conducted on results to present an equation for lateral torsional buckling load of European IPN and IPE beams. Finally, results obtained by presented equation are compared to differential equation solutions and finite element model results. ABAQUS software is utilized to generate finite element models of beams. It is seen that the results obtained from presented equation coincide with differential equation solutions and ABAQUS software results. It can be suggested that presented formula can be safely used to calculate critical lateral torsional buckling load of European IPN and IPE section cantilevers.

Keywords: cantilever, IPN, IPE, lateral torsional buckling

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9224 Torsional Rigidities of Reinforced Concrete Beams Subjected to Elastic Lateral Torsional Buckling

Authors: Ilker Kalkan, Saruhan Kartal

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete (RC) beams rarely undergo lateral-torsional buckling (LTB), since these beams possess large lateral bending and torsional rigidities owing to their stocky cross-sections, unlike steel beams. However, the problem of LTB is becoming more and more pronounced in the last decades as the span lengths of concrete beams increase and the cross-sections become more slender with the use of pre-stressed concrete. The buckling moment of a beam mainly depends on its lateral bending rigidity and torsional rigidity. The nonhomogeneous and elastic-inelastic nature of RC complicates estimation of the buckling moments of concrete beams. Furthermore, the lateral bending and torsional rigidities of RC beams and the buckling moments are affected from different forms of concrete cracking, including flexural, torsional and restrained shrinkage cracking. The present study pertains to the effects of concrete cracking on the torsional rigidities of RC beams prone to elastic LTB. A series of tests on rather slender RC beams indicated that torsional cracking does not initiate until buckling in elastic LTB, while flexural cracking associated with lateral bending takes place even at the initial stages of loading. Hence, the present study clearly indicated that the un-cracked torsional rigidity needs to be used for estimating the buckling moments of RC beams liable to elastic LTB.

Keywords: lateral stability, post-cracking torsional rigidity, uncracked torsional rigidity, critical moment

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9223 Lateral Torsional Buckling of Steel Thin-Walled Beams with Lateral Restraints

Authors: Ivan Balázs, Jindřich Melcher

Abstract:

Metal thin-walled members have been widely used in building industry. Usually they are utilized as purlins, girts or ceiling beams. Due to slenderness of thin-walled cross-sections these structural members are prone to stability problems (e.g. flexural buckling, lateral torsional buckling). If buckling is not constructionally prevented their resistance is limited by buckling strength. In practice planar members of roof or wall cladding can be attached to thin-walled members. These elements reduce displacement of thin-walled members and therefore increase their buckling strength. If this effect is taken into static assessment more economical sections of thin-walled members might be utilized and certain savings of material might be achieved. This paper focuses on problem of determination of critical load of steel thin-walled beams with lateral continuous restraint which is crucial for lateral torsional buckling assessment.

Keywords: beam, buckling, numerical analysis, stability, steel

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9222 Cost-Optimized Extra-Lateral Transshipments

Authors: Dilupa Nakandala, Henry Lau

Abstract:

Ever increasing demand for cost efficiency and customer satisfaction through reliable delivery have been a mandate for logistics practitioners to continually improve inventory management processes. With the cost optimization objectives, this study considers an extended scenario where sourcing from the same echelon of the supply chain, known as lateral transshipment which is instantaneous but more expensive than purchasing from regular suppliers, is considered by warehouses not only to re-actively fulfill the urgent outstanding retailer demand that could not be fulfilled by stock on hand but also for preventively reduce back-order cost. Such extra lateral trans-shipments as preventive responses are intended to meet the expected demand during the supplier lead time in a periodic review ordering policy setting. We develop decision rules to assist logistics practitioners to make cost optimized selection between back-ordering and combined reactive and proactive lateral transshipment options. A method for determining the optimal quantity of extra lateral transshipment is developed considering the trade-off between purchasing, holding and backorder cost components.

Keywords: lateral transshipment, warehouse inventory management, cost optimization, preventive transshipment

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9221 Evaluation of Flange Effects on the Lateral In-Plane Response of Brick Masonry Walls

Authors: Hizb Ullah Sajid, Muhammad Ashraf, Naveed Ahmad Qaisar Ali, Sikandar Hayat Sajid

Abstract:

This research study investigates experimentally the effects of flanges (transverse walls) on the lateral in-plane response of brick masonry walls. The experimental work included lateral in-plane quasi-static cyclic tests on full-scale walls (both with & without flanges). The flanges were introduced at both ends of the in-plane wall. In particular the damage mechanism, lateral in-plane stiffness & strength, deformability and energy dissipation of the two classes of walls are compared and the differences are quantified to help understand the effects of flanges on the in-plane response of masonry walls. The available analytical models for the in-plane shear strength & deformation evaluation of masonry walls are critically analyzed. Recommendations are made for the lateral in-plane capacity assessment of brick masonry walls including the contribution of transverse walls.

Keywords: brick masonry, damage mechanism, flanges effects, in-plane response

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9220 Deflection Behaviour of Retaining Wall with Pile for Pipeline on Slope of Soft Soil

Authors: Mutadi

Abstract:

Pipes laying on an unstable slope of soft soil are prone to movement. Pipelines that are buried in unstable slope areas will move due to lateral loads from soil movement, which can cause damage to the pipeline. A small-scale laboratory model of the reinforcement system of piles supported by retaining walls was conducted to investigate the effect of lateral load on the reinforcement. In this experiment, the lateral forces of 0.3 kN, 0.35 kN, and 0.4 kN and vertical force of 0.05 kN, 0.1 kN, and 0.15 kN were used. Lateral load from the electric jack is equipped with load cell and vertical load using the cement-steel box. To validate the experimental result, a finite element program named 2-D Plaxis was used. The experimental results showed that with an increase in lateral loading, the displacement of the reinforcement system increased. For a Vertical Load, 0.1 kN and versus a lateral load of 0.3 kN causes a horizontal displacement of 0.35 mm and an increase of 2.94% for loading of 0.35 kN and an increase of 8.82% for loading 0.4 kN. The pattern is the same in the finite element method analysis, where there was a 6.52% increase for 0.35 kN loading and an increase to 23.91 % for 0.4 kN loading. In the same Load, the Reinforcement System is reliable, as shown in Safety Factor on dry conditions were 3.3, 2.824 and 2.474, and on wet conditions were 2.98, 2.522 and 2.235.

Keywords: soft soil, deflection, wall, pipeline

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9219 Seismic Evaluation with Shear Walls and Braces for Buildings

Authors: R. S. Malik, S. K. Madan, V. K. Sehgal

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete (RCC) buildings with dual system consisting of shear walls and moment resisting frames or braces and moment resisting frames have been widely used to resist lateral forces during earthquakes. The two dual systems are designed to resist the total design lateral force in proportion to their lateral stiffness. The response of the combination of braces and shear walls has not yet been studied therefore has practically no work to refer to. The combination may prove to be more effective in lateral load resistance by employing the peculiar advantages of shear walls and braces simultaneously and may also improve the architectural appearance of structures. This concept has been applied to regular RCC buildings provided with shear walls, braces, and their combinations.

Keywords: dynamic analysis, displacement, pushover analysis, dual structures, storey drift

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9218 Age Estimation Using Atlas Method with Orthopantomogram and Digital Tracing on Lateral Cephalogram

Authors: Astika Swastirani

Abstract:

Chronological age estimation can be done by looking at the stage of growth and development of teeth from orthopantomogram and mandibular remodeling from lateral cephalogram. Mandibular morphological changes associated with the size and remodeling during growth is a strong indicator of age estimation. These changes can be observed with lateral cephalogram. Objective: To prove the difference between chronological age and age estimation using orthopantomogram (dental age) and lateral cephalogram (skeletal age). Methods: Sample consisted of 100 medical records, 100 orthopantomograms digital and 100 lateral cephalograms digital belongs to 50 male and 50 female of Airlangga University hospital of dentistry. Orthopantomogram were matched with London atlas and lateral cephalograms were observed by digital tracing. The difference of dental age and skeletal age was analyzed by pair t –test. Result: Result of the pair t-test between chronological age and dental age in male (p-value 0.002, p<0.05), in female (p-value 0.605, p>0.05). Result of pair t-test between the chronological age and skeletal age (variable length Condylion-Gonion, Gonion-Gnathion, Condylion-Gnathion in male (p-value 0.000, p<0.05) in female (variable Condylion-Gonion length (p-value 0.000, Condylion-Gnathion length (p-value 0,040) and Gonion-Gnathion length (p-value 0.493). Conclusion: Orthopantomogram with London atlas and lateral cephalograms with Gonion- Gnathion variable can be used for age estimation in female. Orthopantomogram with London atlas and lateral cephalograms with Condylion-Gonion variable, Gonion-Gnathion variable and Condylion-Gnathion can not be used for age estimation in male.

Keywords: age estimation, chronological age, dental age, skeletal age

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9217 Lateral Buckling of Nanoparticle Additive Composite Beams

Authors: Gürkan Şakar, Akgün Alsaran, Emrah E. Özbaldan

Abstract:

In this study, lateral buckling analysis of composite beams with particle additive was carried out experimentally and numerically. The effects of particle type, particle addition ratio on buckling loads of composite beams were determined. The numerical studies were performed with ANSYS package. In the analyses, clamped-free boundary condition was assumed. The load carrying capabilities of composite beams were influenced by different particle types and particle addition ratios.

Keywords: lateral buckling, nanoparticle, composite beam, numeric analysis

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9216 Development of a Testing Rig for a Cold Formed-Hot Rolled Steel Hybrid Wall Panel System

Authors: Mina Mortazavi, Hamid Ronagh, Pezhman Sharafi

Abstract:

The new concept of a cold formed-hot rolled hybrid steel wall panel system is introduced to overcome the deficiency in lateral load resisting capacity of cold-formed steel structures. The hybrid system is composed of a cold-formed steel part laterally connected to hot rolled part. The hot rolled steel part is responsible for carrying the whole lateral load; while the cold formed steel part is only required to transfer the lateral load to the hot rolled part without any local failure. The vertical load is beared by both hot rolled, and cold formed steel part, proportionally. In order to investigate the lateral performance of the proposed system, it should be tested under simultaneous lateral and vertical load. The main concern is to deliver the loads to each part during the test to simulate the real load distribution in the structure. In this paper, a detailed description of the proposed wall panel system and the designed testing rig is provided.

Keywords: cold-formed steel, hybrid system, wall panel system, testing rig design

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
9215 Theoretical Stress-Strain Model for Confined Concrete by Rectangular Reinforcement

Authors: Mizam Dogan, Hande Gökdemir

Abstract:

In reinforced concrete elements, reinforcement steel bars are placed in concrete both longitudinal and lateral directions. The lateral reinforcement (called as confinement) which is used for confining circular RC elements is in a spiral shape. If the cross section of RC element is rectangular, stirrups should be rectangular too. At very high compressive stresses concrete will reach its limit strain value and therefore concrete outside the lateral reinforcement, which is not confined, will crush and start to spell. At this stage, concrete core of the RC element tries to expand laterally as a reason of high Poisson’s ratio value of concrete. Such a deformation is prevented by the lateral reinforcement which applies lateral passive pressure on concrete. At very high compressive stresses, the strength of reinforced column member rises to four times σ 2. This increase in strength of member is related to the properties of rectangular stirrups. In this paper, effect of stirrup step spacing to column behavior is calculated and presented confined concrete model is proved by numerical solutions.

Keywords: confined concrete, concrete column, stress-strain, stirrup, solid, frame

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9214 Experımental Study of Structural Insulated Panel under Lateral Load

Authors: H. Abbasi, K. Sennah

Abstract:

A Structural Insulated Panel (SIP) is a structural element contains of foam insulation core sandwiched between two oriented-strand boards (OSB), plywood boards, steel sheets or fibre cement boards. Superior insulation, exceptional strength and fast insulation are the specifications of a SIP-based structure. There are also many other benefits such as less total construction costs, speed of construction, less expensive HVAC equipment required, favourable energy-efficient mortgages comparing to wood-framed houses. This paper presents the experimental analysis on selected foam-timber SIPs to study their structural behaviour when used as walls in residential construction under lateral loading. The experimental program has also taken several stud panels in order to compare the performance of SIP with conventional wood-frame system. The results of lateral tests performed in this study established a database that can be used further to develop design tables of SIP wall subjected to lateral loading caused by wind or earthquake. A design table for walls subjected to lateral loading was developed. Experimental results proved that the tested SIPs are ‘as good as’ the conventional wood-frame system.

Keywords: structural insulated panel, experimental study, lateral load, design tables

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9213 Cantilever Secant Pile Constructed in Sand: Capping Beam Analysis and Deformation Limitations

Authors: Khaled R. Khater

Abstract:

This paper fits in soil-structure interaction division. Its theme is soil retaining structures. Hence, the cantilever secant-pile wall imposed itself, focusing on the capping beam. Four research questions are prompted and beg an answer. How to calculate the forces that control capping beam design? What is the statical system of ‘capping beam-secant pile’ as one unit? Is it possible to design it to satisfy pre-specific lateral deformation? Is it possible to suggest permissible lateral deformation limits? Briefly, pile head displacements induced by Plaxis-2D are converted to forces needed for STAAD-Pro 3D models. Those models are constructed based on the proposed structural system. This is the paper’s idea and methodology. Parametric study performed considered three sand densities, one pile rigidity, and two excavation depths, i.e., 3.0 m and 5.0 m. The research questions are satisfactorily answered. This paper could be a first step towards standardizing analysis, design, and lateral deformations checks.

Keywords: capping beam, secant pile, numerical, design aids, sandy soil

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9212 A New Lateral Load Pattern for Pushover Analysis of RC Frame Structures

Authors: Mohammad Reza Ameri, Ali Massumi, Mohammad Haghbin

Abstract:

Non-linear static analysis, commonly referred to as pushover analysis, is a powerful tool for assessing the seismic response of structures. A suitable lateral load pattern for pushover analysis can bring the results of this simple, quick and low-cost analysis close to the realistic results of nonlinear dynamic analyses. In this research, four samples of 10- and 15 story (two- and four-bay) reinforced concrete frames were studied. The lateral load distribution patterns recommended in FEMA 273/356 guidelines were applied to the sample models in order to perform pushover analyses. The results were then compared to the results obtained from several nonlinear incremental dynamic analyses for a range of earthquakes. Finally, a lateral load distribution pattern was proposed for pushover analysis of medium-rise reinforced concrete buildings based on the results of nonlinear static and dynamic analyses.

Keywords: lateral load pattern, nonlinear static analysis, incremental dynamic analysis, medium-rise reinforced concrete frames, performance based design

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