Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 13025

Search results for: lake water surface variation

13025 Lake Water Surface Variations and Its Influencing Factors in Tibetan Plateau in Recent 10 Years

Authors: Shanlong Lu, Jiming Jin, Xiaochun Wang


The Tibetan Plateau has the largest number of inland lakes with the highest elevation on the planet. These massive and large lakes are mostly in natural state and are less affected by human activities. Their shrinking or expansion can truly reflect regional climate and environmental changes and are sensitive indicators of global climate change. However, due to the sparsely populated nature of the plateau and the poor natural conditions, it is difficult to effectively obtain the change data of the lake, which has affected people's understanding of the temporal and spatial processes of lake water changes and their influencing factors. By using the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) MOD09Q1 surface reflectance images as basic data, this study produced the 8-day lake water surface data set of the Tibetan Plateau from 2000 to 2012 at 250 m spatial resolution, with a lake water surface extraction method of combined with lake water surface boundary buffer analyzing and lake by lake segmentation threshold determining. Then based on the dataset, the lake water surface variations and their influencing factors were analyzed, by using 4 typical natural geographical zones of Eastern Qinghai and Qilian, Southern Qinghai, Qiangtang, and Southern Tibet, and the watersheds of the top 10 lakes of Qinghai, Siling Co, Namco, Zhari NamCo, Tangra Yumco, Ngoring, UlanUla, Yamdrok Tso, Har and Gyaring as the analysis units. The accuracy analysis indicate that compared with water surface data of the 134 sample lakes extracted from the 30 m Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper ) images, the average overall accuracy of the lake water surface data set is 91.81% with average commission and omission error of 3.26% and 5.38%; the results also show strong linear (R2=0.9991) correlation with the global MODIS water mask dataset with overall accuracy of 86.30%; and the lake area difference between the Second National Lake Survey and this study is only 4.74%, respectively. This study provides reliable dataset for the lake change research of the plateau in the recent decade. The change trends and influencing factors analysis indicate that the total water surface area of lakes in the plateau showed overall increases, but only lakes with areas larger than 10 km2 had statistically significant increases. Furthermore, lakes with area larger than 100 km2 experienced an abrupt change in 2005. In addition, the annual average precipitation of Southern Tibet and Southern Qinghai experienced significant increasing and decreasing trends, and corresponding abrupt changes in 2004 and 2006, respectively. The annual average temperature of Southern Tibet and Qiangtang showed a significant increasing trend with an abrupt change in 2004. The major reason for the lake water surface variation in Eastern Qinghai and Qilian, Southern Qinghai and Southern Tibet is the changes of precipitation, and that for Qiangtang is the temperature variations.

Keywords: lake water surface variation, MODIS MOD09Q1, remote sensing, Tibetan Plateau

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13024 Dynamic Evaluation of Shallow Lake Habitat Quality Based on InVEST Model: A Case in Baiyangdian Lake

Authors: Shengjun Yan, Xuan Wang


Water level changes in a shallow lake always introduce dramatic land pattern changes. To achieve sustainable ecosystem service, it is necessary to evaluate habitat quality dynamic and its spatio-temporal variation resulted from water level changes, which can provide a scientific basis for protection of biodiversity and planning of wetland ecological system. Landsat data in the spring was chosen to obtain landscape data at different times based on the high, moderate and low water level of Baiyangdian Shallow Lake. We used the InVEST to evaluate the habitat quality, habitat degradation, and habitat scarcity. The result showed that: 1) the water level of shallow lake changes from high to low lead to an obvious landscape pattern changes and habitat degradation, 2) the most change area occurred in northwestward and southwest of Baiyangdian Shallow Lake, which there was a 21 percent of suitable habitat and 42 percent of moderately suitable habitat lost. Our findings show that the changes of water level in the shallow lake would have a strong relationship with the habitat quality.

Keywords: habitat quality, habitat degradation, water level changes, shallow lake

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
13023 Monitoring and Evaluation of the Water Quality of Taal Lake, Talisay, Batangas, Philippines

Authors: Felipe B. Martinez, Imelda C. Galera


This paper presents an update on the physico-chemical properties of the Taal Lake for local government officials and representatives of non-government organizations by monitoring and evaluating a total of nine (9) water quality parameters. The study further shows that the Taal Lakes surface temperature, pH, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, color, and dissolved oxygen content conform to the standards set by the Department of Environment and Natural resources (DENR); while phosphate, chlorine, and 5-Day 20°C BOD are below the standard. Likewise, the T-test result shows no significant difference in the overall average of the two sites at the Taal Lake (P > 0.05). Based on the data, the Lake is safe for primary contact recreation such as bathing, swimming and skin diving, and can be used for aqua culture purposes.

Keywords: cool dry season, hot dry season, rainy season, Taal Lake, water quality

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13022 The Effect of Urmia-Lake Water on Tensional Strength Concrete with Various Admixtures

Authors: Hadi Barghlame, M. A. Lotfollahi-Yaghin, Mehdi Mohammad Rezaei


In this paper, the effect of admixtures on the tensional strength of concrete in Urmia-lake water have been investigated. We made different types of concretes with the ratio of w/c and replaced different percentages of micro-silica, air-entraining, super plasticizer, corrosion-inhibiting, and caulk with two types of cement I and II as well as investigating in both ordinary water and Urmia-lake water. The tensional strength was investigated on these samples.

Keywords: Urmia-lake water, tensional strength, concrete, admixtures

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13021 Power Generation through Water Vapour: An Approach of Using Sea/River/Lake Water as Renewable Energy Source

Authors: Riad


As present world needs more and more energy in a low cost way, it needs to find out the optimal way of power generation. In the sense of low cost, renewable energy is one of the greatest sources of power generation. Water vapour of sea/river/lake can be used for power generation by using the greenhouse effect in a large flat type water chamber floating on the water surface. The water chamber will always be kept half filled. When water evaporates by sunlight, the high pressured gaseous water will be stored in the chamber. By passing through a pipe and by using aerodynamics it can be used for power generation. The water level of the chamber is controlled by some means. As a large amount of water evaporates, an estimation can be highlighted, approximately 3 to 4 thousand gallons of water evaporates from per acre of surface (this amount will be more by greenhouse effect). This large amount of gaseous water can be utilized for power generation by passing through a pipe. This method can be a source of power generation.

Keywords: renewable energy, greenhouse effect, water chamber, water vapour

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
13020 Occurrence of Pharmaceutical Compounds in an Urban Lake

Authors: J. D. Villanueva, N. Peyraube, I. Allan, G. D. Salvosa, M. Reid, C. Harman, K. D. Salvosa, J. M. V. Castro, M. V. O. Espaldon, J. B. Sevilla-Nastor, P. Le Coustumer


The main objectives of this research are to (1) assess the occurrence of the pharmaceutical compounds and (2) present the environmental challenges posed by the existence of these pharmaceutical compounds in the surface water. These pharmaceuticals were measured in Napindan Lake, Philippines. This lake is not only a major tributary of the Pasig River (an estuary) and Laguna Lake (freshwater). It also joins these two important surface waters of the National Capital Region. Pharmaceutical compounds such as Atenolol, Carbamazepine, and two other over the counter medicines: Cetirizine, and Ibuprofen were measured in Napindan Lake. Atenolol is a beta blocker that helps in lowering hypertensions. Carbamazepine is an anticonvulsant used as treatment for epilepsy and neuropathic pain. Cetirizine is an antihistamine that can relieve allergies. Ibuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug normally used to relieve pains. Three different climatological conditions with corresponding hydro physico chemical characteristics were considered. First, was during a dry season with a simultaneous dredging. Second was during a transition period from dry to wet season. Finally, the third was during a continuous wet event. Based from the results of the study, most of these pharmaceuticals can be found in Napindan Lake. This is a proof that these pharmaceutical compounds are being released to a natural surface water. Even though climatological conditions were different, concentrations of these pharmaceuticals can still be detected. This implies that there is an incessant supply of these pharmaceutical compounds in Napindan Lake. Chronic exposure to these compounds even at low concentrations can lead to possible environmental and health risks. Given this information and since consistent occurrence of these compounds can be expected, the main challenge, at present, is on how to control the sources of these pharmaceutical compounds. Primarily, there is a need to manage the disposal of the pharmaceutical compounds. Yet, the main question is how to? This study would like to present the challenges and institutional roles in helping manage the pharmaceutical disposals in a developing country like the Philippines.

Keywords: atenolol, carbamazepine, cetirizine, ibuprofen, institutional roles, Napindan lake, pharmaceutical compound disposal management, surface water, urban lake

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13019 Phyto Diversity and Conservation of Pulicat Lake-Andhra Pradesh

Authors: S. K. M. Basha


Pulicat Lake is the second largest brackish water lagoon after Chilika Lake of Orissa along the east coast of India. Estuaries and lagoons have brackish water which shows high biological productivity than fresh or sea water. Hence it has wide range of aquatic, terrestrial flora and fauna. The World Wide Fund for Nature declared that it is a protected area. Present study aims to explore the flora and fauna of the lagoon along with the various threats for its eco-degradation which helps to plan necessary conservation methods.

Keywords: phytodiversity, Pulicat Lake, threats, conservation

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13018 Forecasting Lake Malawi Water Level Fluctuations Using Stochastic Models

Authors: M. Mulumpwa, W. W. L. Jere, M. Lazaro, A. H. N. Mtethiwa


The study considered Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) processes to select an appropriate stochastic model to forecast the monthly data from the Lake Malawi water levels for the period 1986 through 2015. The appropriate model was chosen based on SARIMA (p, d, q) (P, D, Q)S. The Autocorrelation function (ACF), Partial autocorrelation (PACF), Akaike Information Criteria (AIC), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), Box–Ljung statistics, correlogram and distribution of residual errors were estimated. The SARIMA (1, 1, 0) (1, 1, 1)12 was selected to forecast the monthly data of the Lake Malawi water levels from August, 2015 to December, 2021. The plotted time series showed that the Lake Malawi water levels are decreasing since 2010 to date but not as much as was the case in 1995 through 1997. The future forecast of the Lake Malawi water levels until 2021 showed a mean of 474.47 m ranging from 473.93 to 475.02 meters with a confidence interval of 80% and 90% against registered mean of 473.398 m in 1997 and 475.475 m in 1989 which was the lowest and highest water levels in the lake respectively since 1986. The forecast also showed that the water levels of Lake Malawi will drop by 0.57 meters as compared to the mean water levels recorded in the previous years. These results suggest that the Lake Malawi water level may not likely go lower than that recorded in 1997. Therefore, utilisation and management of water-related activities and programs among others on the lake should provide room for such scenarios. The findings suggest a need to manage the Lake Malawi jointly and prudently with other stakeholders starting from the catchment area. This will reduce impacts of anthropogenic activities on the lake’s water quality, water level, aquatic and adjacent terrestrial ecosystems thereby ensuring its resilience to climate change impacts.

Keywords: forecasting, Lake Malawi, water levels, water level fluctuation, climate change, anthropogenic activities

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13017 Assessing the Eutrophication Risk in the Suat Uğurlu Dam Lake by Evaluation of Trophic Variables

Authors: Bilge Aydın Er, Yuksel Ardalı


In Ayvacık village, 80-90% of the population is engaged in agriculture. The pollution was adversely affecting the properties of agricultural origin of the lake. This study is to determine pollution caused by unwanted changes in the Suat Ugurlu Dam Lake has been launched to monitor. Yesilirmak basin is located in the proximal part of the Black Sea. Therefore it was exposed to impact many pollution. In this study, sediment samples from selected points along the lake was made on the analysis. This work was supported by the results of water analyzes. It is clear that urgent measures should be taken to the area of water management

Keywords: eutrophication, Black sea, lake, pollution

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13016 Spatial REE Geochemical Modeling at Lake Acıgöl, Denizli, Turkey: Analytical Approaches on Spatial Interpolation and Spatial Correlation

Authors: M. Budakoglu, M. Karaman, A. Abdelnasser, M. Kumral


The spatial interpolation and spatial correlation of the rare earth elements (REE) of lake surface sediments of Lake Acıgöl and its surrounding lithological units is carried out by using GIS techniques like Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) techniques. IDW technique which makes the spatial interpolation shows that the lithological units like Hayrettin Formation at north of Lake Acigol have high REE contents than lake sediments as well as ∑LREE and ∑HREE contents. However, Eu/Eu* values (based on chondrite-normalized REE pattern) show high value in some lake surface sediments than in lithological units and that refers to negative Eu-anomaly. Also, the spatial interpolation of the V/Cr ratio indicated that Acıgöl lithological units and lake sediments deposited in in oxic and dysoxic conditions. But, the spatial correlation is carried out by GWR technique. This technique shows high spatial correlation coefficient between ∑LREE and ∑HREE which is higher in the lithological units (Hayrettin Formation and Cameli Formation) than in the other lithological units and lake surface sediments. Also, the matching between REEs and Sc and Al refers to REE abundances of Lake Acıgöl sediments weathered from local bedrock around the lake.

Keywords: spatial geochemical modeling, IDW, GWR techniques, REE, lake sediments, Lake Acıgöl, Turkey

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13015 Reservoir-Triggered Seismicity of Water Level Variation in the Lake Aswan

Authors: Abdel-Monem Sayed Mohamed


Lake Aswan is one of the largest man-made reservoirs in the world. The reservoir began to fill in 1964 and the level rose gradually, with annual irrigation cycles, until it reached a maximum water level of 181.5 m in November 1999, with a capacity of 160 km3. The filling of such large reservoir changes the stress system either through increasing vertical compressional stress by loading and/or increased pore pressure through the decrease of the effective normal stress. The resulted effect on fault zones changes stability depending strongly on the orientation of pre-existing stress and geometry of the reservoir/fault system. The main earthquake occurred on November 14, 1981, with magnitude 5.5. This event occurred after 17 years of the reservoir began to fill, along the active part of the Kalabsha fault and located not far from the High Dam. Numerous of small earthquakes follow this earthquake and continue till now. For this reason, 13 seismograph stations (radio-telemetry network short-period seismometers) were installed around the northern part of Lake Aswan. The main purpose of the network is to monitor the earthquake activity continuously within Aswan region. The data described here are obtained from the continuous record of earthquake activity and lake-water level variation through the period from 1982 to 2015. The seismicity is concentrated in the Kalabsha area, where there is an intersection of the easterly trending Kalabsha fault with the northerly trending faults. The earthquake foci are distributed in two seismic zones, shallow and deep in the crust. Shallow events have focal depths of less than 12 km while deep events extend from 12 to 28 km. Correlation between the seismicity and the water level variation in the lake provides great suggestion to distinguish the micro-earthquakes, particularly, those in shallow seismic zone in the reservoir–triggered seismicity category. The water loading is one factor from several factors, as an activating medium in triggering earthquakes. The common factors for all cases of induced seismicity seem to be the presence of specific geological conditions, the tectonic setting and water loading. The role of the water loading is as a supplementary source of earthquake events. So, the earthquake activity in the area originated tectonically (ML ≥ 4) and the water factor works as an activating medium in triggering small earthquakes (ML ≤ 3). Study of the inducing seismicity from the water level variation in Aswan Lake is of great importance and play great roles necessity for the safety of the High Dam body and its economic resources.

Keywords: Aswan lake, Aswan seismic network, seismicity, water level variation

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13014 Improvement of Water Quality of Al Asfar Lake Using Constructed Wetland System

Authors: Jamal Radaideh


Al-Asfar Lake is located about 14 km east of Al-Ahsa and is one of the most important wetland lakes in the Al Ahsa/Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Al-Ahsa is may be the largest oasis in the world, having an area of 20,000 hectares, in addition, it is of the largest and oldest agricultural centers in the region. The surplus farm irrigation water beside additional water supplied by treated wastewater from Al-Hofuf sewage station is collected by a drainage network and discharged into Al-Asfar Lake. The lake has good wetlands, sand dunes as well as large expanses of open and shallow water. Salt tolerant vegetation is present in some of the shallow areas around the lake, and huge stands of Phragmites reeds occur around the lake. The lake presents an important habitat for wildlife and birds, something not expected to find in a large desert. Although high evaporation rates in the range of 3250 mm are common, the water remains in the evaporation lakes during all seasons of the year is used to supply cattle with drinking water and for aquifer recharge. Investigations showed that high concentrations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and salinity discharge to Al Asfar Lake from the D2 drain exist. It is expected that the majority of BOD, COD and N originates from wastewater discharge and leachate from surplus irrigation water which also contribute to the majority of P and salinity. The significant content of nutrients and biological oxygen demand reduces available oxygen in the water. The present project aimed to improve the water quality of the lake using constructed wetland trains which will be built around the lake. Phragmites reeds, which already occur around the lake, will be used.

Keywords: Al Asfar lake, constructed wetland, water quality, water treatment

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13013 Development of Vertically Integrated 2D Lake Victoria Flow Models in COMSOL Multiphysics

Authors: Seema Paul, Jesper Oppelstrup, Roger Thunvik, Vladimir Cvetkovic


Lake Victoria is the second largest fresh water body in the world, located in East Africa with a catchment area of 250,000 km², of which 68,800 km² is the actual lake surface. The hydrodynamic processes of the shallow (40–80 m deep) water system are unique due to its location at the equator, which makes Coriolis effects weak. The paper describes a St.Venant shallow water model of Lake Victoria developed in COMSOL Multiphysics software, a general purpose finite element tool for solving partial differential equations. Depth soundings taken in smaller parts of the lake were combined with recent more extensive data to resolve the discrepancies of the lake shore coordinates. The topography model must have continuous gradients, and Delaunay triangulation with Gaussian smoothing was used to produce the lake depth model. The model shows large-scale flow patterns, passive tracer concentration and water level variations in response to river and tracer inflow, rain and evaporation, and wind stress. Actual data of precipitation, evaporation, in- and outflows were applied in a fifty-year simulation model. It should be noted that the water balance is dominated by rain and evaporation and model simulations are validated by Matlab and COMSOL. The model conserves water volume, the celerity gradients are very small, and the volume flow is very slow and irrotational except at river mouths. Numerical experiments show that the single outflow can be modelled by a simple linear control law responding only to mean water level, except for a few instances. Experiments with tracer input in rivers show very slow dispersion of the tracer, a result of the slow mean velocities, in turn, caused by the near-balance of rain with evaporation. The numerical and hydrodynamical model can evaluate the effects of wind stress which is exerted by the wind on the lake surface that will impact on lake water level. Also, model can evaluate the effects of the expected climate change, as manifest in changes to rainfall over the catchment area of Lake Victoria in the future.

Keywords: bathymetry, lake flow and steady state analysis, water level validation and concentration, wind stress

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13012 Gravity and Geodetic Control of Geodynamic Activity near Aswan Lake, Egypt

Authors: Anwar H. Radwan, Jan Mrlina, El-Sayed A. Issawy, Ali Rayan, Salah M. Mahmoud


Geodynamic investigations in the Aswan Lake region were started after the M=5.5 earthquake in 1981, triggered by the lake water fluctuations. Besides establishing the seismological networks, also the geodetic observations focused on the Kalabsha and Sayal fault zones were started. It was found that the Kalabsha fault is an active dextral strike-slip with normal component indicating uplift on its southern side. However, the annual velocity rates in both components do not exceed 2 mm/y, and do not therefore represent extremely active faulting. We also launched gravity monitoring in 1997, and performed another two campaigns in 2000 and 2002. The observed non- tidal temporal gravity changes indicate rather the flood water infiltration into the porous Nubian sandstone, than tectonic stress effect. The station nearest to the lake exhibited about 60 μGal positive gravity change within the 1997-2002 period.

Keywords: gravity monitoring, surface movements, Lake Aswan, groundwater change

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13011 Annual Water Level Simulation Using Support Vector Machine

Authors: Maryam Khalilzadeh Poshtegal, Seyed Ahmad Mirbagheri, Mojtaba Noury


In this paper, by application of the input yearly data of rainfall, temperature and flow to the Urmia Lake, the simulation of water level fluctuation were applied by means of three models. According to the climate change investigation the fluctuation of lakes water level are of high interest. This study investigate data-driven models, support vector machines (SVM), SVM method which is a new regression procedure in water resources are applied to the yearly level data of Lake Urmia that is the biggest and the hyper saline lake in Iran. The evaluated lake levels are found to be in good correlation with the observed values. The results of SVM simulation show better accuracy and implementation. The mean square errors, mean absolute relative errors and determination coefficient statistics are used as comparison criteria.

Keywords: simulation, water level fluctuation, urmia lake, support vector machine

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13010 Lake Bardawil Water Quality

Authors: Mohamed Elkashouty, Mohamed Elkammar, Mohamed Gomma, Menal Elminiami


Lake Bardawil is considered as one of the major morphological features of northern Sinai. It represents the largest fish production lake for export in Egypt. Nineteen and thirty one samples were collected from lake water during winter and summer (2005). TDS, cations, anions, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Co and Pb concentrations were measured within winter and summer seasons. During summer, in the eastern sector of the lake, TDS concentration is decreased due northeastern part (38000 ppm), it is attributed to dilution from seawater through Boughaz II. The TDS concentration increased generally in the central and southern parts of the lake (44000 and 42000 ppm, respectively). It is caused by they are far from dilution from seawater, disconnected water body, shallow depth (mean 2 m), and high evaporation rate. In the western sector, the TDS content ranged from low (38000 ppm) in the northeastern part to high (50000 ppm) in the western part. Generally, the TDS concentration in the western sector is higher than those in the eastern. It is attributed to low volume of water body for the former, high evaporation rate, and therefore increase in TDS content in the lake water.During winter season, in the eastern sector, the wind velocity is high which enhance the water current to inflow into the lake through Boughaz I and II. The resultant water lake is diluted by seawater and rainfall in the winter season. The TDS concentration increased due southern part of the lake (42000 ppm) and declined in the northern part (36000 ppm). The concentration of Co, Ni, Pb, Fe, Cd, Zn, Cu, Mn and Pb within winter and summery seasons, in lake water are low, which considered as background concentrations with respect to seawater. Therefore, there are no industrial, agricultural and sanitary wastewaters dump into the lake. This confirms the statement that has been written at the entrance of Lake Bardawil at El-Telool area "Lake Bardawil, one of the purest lakes in the world". It indicate that the Lake Bardawil is excellent area for fish production for export (current state) and is the second main fish source in Egypt after the Mediterranean Sea after the illness of Lake Manzala.

Keywords: lake Bardawil, water quality, major ions, toxic metals

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13009 Assessment of Water Quality Based on Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Parameters in Batllava Lake, Case Study Kosovo

Authors: Albana Kashtanjeva-Bytyçi, Idriz Vehapi, Rifat Morina, Osman Fetoshi


The purpose of this study is to determine the water quality in Batllava Leka through which a part of the population of the Prishtina region is supplied with drinking water. Batllava Leka is a lake built in the 70s. This lake is located in the village of Btlava in the municipality of Podujeva, with coordinates 42 ° 49′33 ″ V 21 ° 18′25 ″ L, with an area of 3.07 km2. Water supply is from the river Brvenica- Batllavë. In order to take preventive measures and improve water quality, we have conducted periodic/monthly monitoring of water quality in Lake Batllava, through microbiological and physico-chemical indicators. The monitoring was carried out during the period December 2020 - December 2021. Samples were taken at three sampling sites: at the entrance of the lake, in the middle and at the overflow, on two levels, water surface and at a depth of 30 cm. The microbiological parameters analyzed are: total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, aerobic mesophilic bacteria and actinomycetes. Within the physico-chemical parameters: Dissolved Oxygen, Saturation with O2, water temperature, pH value, electrical conductivity, total soluble matter, total suspended matter, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, nitrate, total hardness, hardness of calcium, calcium, magnesium, ammonium ion, chloride, sulfates, flourine, M-alkalines, bicarbonates and heavy metals, such as: Fe, Pb, Mn, Cu, Cd. The results showed that most of the physico-chemical and microbiological parameters are within the limit allowed by the WHO, except in the case of the rainiest season that exceeded some parameters.

Keywords: batllava lake, monitoring of water, physico-chemical, microbiological, heavy metals

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13008 Impacts of Hydrologic and Topographic Changes on Water Regime Evolution of Poyang Lake, China

Authors: Feng Huang, Carlos G. Ochoa, Haitao Zhao


Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China, is located at the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin. It has great value in socioeconomic development and is internationally recognized as an important lacustrine and wetland ecosystem with abundant biodiversity. Impacted by ongoing climate change and anthropogenic activities, especially the regulation of the Three Gorges Reservoir since 2003, Poyang Lake has experienced significant water regime evolution, resulting in challenges for the management of water resources and the environment. Quantifying the contribution of hydrologic and topographic changes to water regime alteration is necessary for policymakers to design effective adaption strategies. Long term hydrologic data were collected and the back-propagation neural networks were constructed to simulate the lake water level. The impacts of hydrologic and topographic changes were differentiated through scenario analysis that considered pre-impact and post-impact hydrologic and topographic scenarios. The lake water regime was characterized by hydrologic indicators that describe monthly water level fluctuations, hydrologic features during flood and drought seasons, and frequency and rate of hydrologic variations. The results revealed different contributions of hydrologic and topographic changes to different features of the lake water regime.Noticeable changes were that the water level declined dramatically during the period of reservoir impoundment, and the drought was enhanced during the dry season. The hydrologic and topographic changes exerted a synergistic effect or antagonistic effect on different lake water regime features. The findings provide scientific reference for lacustrine and wetland ecological protection associated with water regime alterations.

Keywords: back-propagation neural network, scenario analysis, water regime, Poyang Lake

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13007 Level Set Based Extraction and Update of Lake Contours Using Multi-Temporal Satellite Images

Authors: Yindi Zhao, Yun Zhang, Silu Xia, Lixin Wu


The contours and areas of water surfaces, especially lakes, often change due to natural disasters and construction activities. It is an effective way to extract and update water contours from satellite images using image processing algorithms. However, to produce optimal water surface contours that are close to true boundaries is still a challenging task. This paper compares the performances of three different level set models, including the Chan-Vese (CV) model, the signed pressure force (SPF) model, and the region-scalable fitting (RSF) energy model for extracting lake contours. After experiment testing, it is indicated that the RSF model, in which a region-scalable fitting (RSF) energy functional is defined and incorporated into a variational level set formulation, is superior to CV and SPF, and it can get desirable contour lines when there are “holes” in the regions of waters, such as the islands in the lake. Therefore, the RSF model is applied to extracting lake contours from Landsat satellite images. Four temporal Landsat satellite images of the years of 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2014 are used in our study. All of them were acquired in May, with the same path/row (121/036) covering Xuzhou City, Jiangsu Province, China. Firstly, the near infrared (NIR) band is selected for water extraction. Image registration is conducted on NIR bands of different temporal images for information update, and linear stretching is also done in order to distinguish water from other land cover types. Then for the first temporal image acquired in 2000, lake contours are extracted via the RSF model with initialization of user-defined rectangles. Afterwards, using the lake contours extracted the previous temporal image as the initialized values, lake contours are updated for the current temporal image by means of the RSF model. Meanwhile, the changed and unchanged lakes are also detected. The results show that great changes have taken place in two lakes, i.e. Dalong Lake and Panan Lake, and RSF can actually extract and effectively update lake contours using multi-temporal satellite image.

Keywords: level set model, multi-temporal image, lake contour extraction, contour update

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13006 Assessment of the Surface Water Quality Using the Water Quality Index and Discriminant Analysis Method

Authors: Lazhar Belkhiri, Ammar Tiri, Mammeri Asma, Hichem Salhi, Lotfi Mouni


Water resources present to the public order of the world a very important problem for the protection and management of water quality, given the complexity of water quality data sets. In this study, the water quality index (WQI) and irrigation water quality index (IWQI) were calculated in order to evaluate the surface water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes based on nine hydrochemical parameters. In order to separate the variables that are the most responsible for the spatial differentiation, the discriminant analysis (DA) was applied. The results show that the surface water quality for drinking is poor quality and very poor quality based on WQI values, however, the values of IWQI reflect that this water is acceptable for irrigation with a restriction for sensitive plants. Consequently, the discriminant analysis DA method has shown that the following parameters pH, potassium, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate are significant discrimination between the different stations with the spatial variation of the surface water quality; therefore, the results obtained in this study provide very useful information to decision-makers.

Keywords: surface water quality, drinking and irrigation purposes, water quality index, discriminant analysis

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13005 Understanding Hydrodynamic in Lake Victoria Basin in a Catchment Scale: A Literature Review

Authors: Seema Paul, John Mango Magero, Prosun Bhattacharya, Zahra Kalantari, Steve W. Lyon


The purpose of this review paper is to develop an understanding of lake hydrodynamics and the potential climate impact on the Lake Victoria (LV) catchment scale. This paper briefly discusses the main problems of lake hydrodynamics and its’ solutions that are related to quality assessment and climate effect. An empirical methodology in modeling and mapping have considered for understanding lake hydrodynamic and visualizing the long-term observational daily, monthly, and yearly mean dataset results by using geographical information system (GIS) and Comsol techniques. Data were obtained for the whole lake and five different meteorological stations, and several geoprocessing tools with spatial analysis are considered to produce results. The linear regression analyses were developed to build climate scenarios and a linear trend on lake rainfall data for a long period. A potential evapotranspiration rate has been described by the MODIS and the Thornthwaite method. The rainfall effect on lake water level observed by Partial Differential Equations (PDE), and water quality has manifested by a few nutrients parameters. The study revealed monthly and yearly rainfall varies with monthly and yearly maximum and minimum temperatures, and the rainfall is high during cool years and the temperature is high associated with below and average rainfall patterns. Rising temperatures are likely to accelerate evapotranspiration rates and more evapotranspiration is likely to lead to more rainfall, drought is more correlated with temperature and cloud is more correlated with rainfall. There is a trend in lake rainfall and long-time rainfall on the lake water surface has affected the lake level. The onshore and offshore have been concentrated by initial literature nutrients data. The study recommended that further studies should consider fully lake bathymetry development with flow analysis and its’ water balance, hydro-meteorological processes, solute transport, wind hydrodynamics, pollution and eutrophication these are crucial for lake water quality, climate impact assessment, and water sustainability.

Keywords: climograph, climate scenarios, evapotranspiration, linear trend flow, rainfall event on LV, concentration

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13004 Impact of Flood on Phytoplankton Biochemical Composition in Subtropical Reservoir, Lake Nasser

Authors: Shymaa S. Zaher, Howayda Abd El-Hady, Nehad Khalifa


Lake Nasser is vital to Egypt as it is the main Nile water reservoir. One of the major challenges in ecological flood is to establish how environmental enrichment in nutrients availability may affect both the biochemical composition of phytoplankton and the species communities. Samples were collected from twenty sites representing different lake sectors along the main channel of the lake during 2017. Generally, phytoplankton distribution during flood season in Lake Nasser indicates the predominance of Cyanophyceae at all lake sectors. Increases in NO₂ (9.31 µg/l) and PO₄ (7.11µg/l) at the Abu-Simble sector are associated with changes in community structure and biochemical composition of phytoplankton, where Cyanophyceae blooming occur associated with retardation in biopolymeric particulate organic carbon. The maximum total biochemical contents (91.29 mg/l) and biopolymeric particulate organic carbon (37.15 mg/l) was found at El-Madiq sector where there was optimum nutrients (NO₂ 0.479 µg/l and PO₄ 5.149µg/l), a highly positive correlation was found between Cyanophyceae and NO₂ in the lake (r = 0.956). A highly positive correlation was detected between carbohydrates and both transparency and pH in the lake (r = 0.974 and 0.787). Also carbohydrates had a positive relation with Bacillariophyceae (r = 0.610). Flood positively alter the water quality of the lake by increasing dissolved oxygen and nutrients enrichment to the aquatic ecosystem, affecting other aquatic organisms of higher trophic levels as economic fishes inhabiting the lake.

Keywords: aquatic microalgae, Aswan high dam lake, biochemical composition, fresh water

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13003 The Effects of Above-Average Precipitation after Extended Drought on Phytoplankton in Southern California Surface Water Reservoirs

Authors: Margaret K. Spoo-Chupka


The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California (MWDSC) manages surface water reservoirs that are a source of drinking water for more than 19 million people in Southern California. These reservoirs experience periodic planktonic cyanobacteria blooms that can impact water quality. MWDSC imports water from two sources – the Colorado River (CR) and the State Water Project (SWP). The SWP brings supplies from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta that are characterized as having higher nutrients than CR water. Above average precipitation in 2017 after five years of drought allowed the majority of the reservoirs to fill. Phytoplankton was analyzed during the drought and after the drought at three reservoirs: Diamond Valley Lake (DVL), which receives SWP water exclusively, Lake Skinner, which can receive a blend of SWP and CR water, and Lake Mathews, which generally receives only CR water. DVL experienced a significant increase in water elevation in 2017 due to large SWP inflows, and there were no significant changes to total phytoplankton biomass, Shannon-Wiener diversity of the phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria biomass in 2017 compared to previous drought years despite the higher nutrient loads. The biomass of cyanobacteria that could potentially impact DVL water quality (Microcystis spp., Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Dolichospermum spp., and Limnoraphis birgei) did not differ significantly between the heavy precipitation year and drought years. Compared to the other reservoirs, DVL generally has the highest concentration of cyanobacteria due to the water supply having greater nutrients. Lake Mathews’ water levels were similar in drought and wet years due to a reliable supply of CR water and there were no significant changes in the total phytoplankton biomass, phytoplankton diversity, or cyanobacteria biomass in 2017 compared to previous drought years. The biomass of cyanobacteria that could potentially impact water quality at Lake Mathews (L. birgei and Microcystis spp.) did not differ significantly between 2017 and previous drought years. Lake Mathews generally had the lowest cyanobacteria biomass due to the water supply having lower nutrients. The CR supplied most of the water to Lake Skinner during drought years, while the SWP was the primary source during 2017. This change in water source resulted in a significant increase in phytoplankton biomass in 2017, no significant change in diversity, and a significant increase in cyanobacteria biomass. Cyanobacteria that could potentially impact water quality at Skinner included: Microcystis spp., Dolichospermum spp., and A.flos-aquae. There was no significant difference in Microcystis spp. biomass in 2017 compared to previous drought years, but biomass of Dolichospermum spp. and A.flos-aquae were significantly greater in 2017 compared to previous drought years. Dolichospermum sp. and A. flos-aquae are two cyanobacteria that are more sensitive to nutrients than Microcystis spp., which are more sensitive to temperature. Patterns in problem cyanobacteria abundance among Southern California reservoirs as a result of above-average precipitation after more than five years of drought were most closely related to nutrient loading.

Keywords: drought, reservoirs, cyanobacteria, and phytoplankton ecology

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13002 Evaluation of Surface Water Quality for Drinking and Irrigation by the Quality Index and the Discriminant Analysis Method

Authors: Lazhar Belkhiri, Ammar Tiri, Mammeri Asma, Hichem Salhi, Lotfi Mouni


Water resources present to the public order of the world a very important problem for the protection and management of water quality, given the complexity of water quality data sets. In this study, the water quality index (WQI) and irrigation water quality index (IWQI) were calculated in order to evaluate the surface water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes based on nine hydrochemical parameters. In order to separate the variables that are the most responsible for the spatial differentiation, the discriminant analysis (DA) was applied. The results show that the surface water quality for drinking is poor quality and very poor quality based on WQI values. However, the values of IWQI reflect that this water is acceptable for irrigation with a restriction for sensitive plants. Consequently, the discriminant analysis DA method has shown that the following parameters pH, potassium, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate are significant discrimination between the different stations with the spatial variation of the surface water quality, therefore, the results obtained in this study provide very useful information to decision-makers

Keywords: surface water quality, drinking and irrigation purposes, water quality index, discriminant analysis

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13001 Eco-Degradation and Phytodiversity of Pulicat Lagoon, Eastcoast of Southern India

Authors: Khasim Munir Bhasha Shaik


Pulicat Lake is the second largest brackish water lagoon after Chilika Lake of Orissa along the east coast of India. Estuaries and lagoons have brackish water which shows high biological productivity than fresh or sea water. Hence, it has a wide range of aquatic, terrestrial flora. The World Wide Fund for Nature declared it as a protected area. The present study aims to explore the flora of the lagoon along with the various threats for its eco-degradation which helps to plan necessary conservation methods.

Keywords: phytodiversity, pulicat lake, threats, conservation

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13000 Effect of Weathering on the Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Sediments of the Hyper Saline Urmia Salt Lake, Iran

Authors: Samad Alipour, Khadije Mosavi Onlaghi


Urmia Salt Lake (USL) is a hypersaline lake in the northwest of Iran. It contains halite as main dissolved and precipitated mineral and the major mineral mixed with lake bed sediments. Other detrital minerals such as calcite, aragonite, dolomite, quartz, feldspars, augite are forming lake sediments. This study examined the impact of weathering of this sediments collected from 1.5 meters depth and augite placers. The study indicated that weathering of tephritic and adakite rocks of the Islamic Island at the immediate boundary of the lake play a main control of lake bed sediments and has produced a large volume of augite placer along the lake bank. Weathering increases from south to toward north with increasing distance from Islamic Island. Geochemistry of lake sediments demonstrated the enrichment of MgO, CaO, Sr with an elevated anomaly of Eu, possibly due to surface absorbance of Mn and Fe associated Sr elevation originating from adakite volcanic rocks in the vicinity of the lake basin. The study shows the local geology is the major factor in origin of lake sediments than chemical and biochemical produced mineral during diagenetic processes.

Keywords: Urmia Lake, weathering, mineralogy, augite, Iran

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12999 Effect of Climate Changing Pattern on Aquatic Biodiversity of Bhimtal Lake at Kumaun Himalaya (India)

Authors: Davendra S. Malik


Bhimtal lake is located between 290 21’ N latitude and 790 24’ E longitude, at an elevation of 1332m above mean sea level in the Kumaun region of Uttarakhand of Indian subcontinent. The lake surface area is decreasing in water area, depth level in relation to ecological and biological characteristics due to climatic variations, invasive land use pattern, degraded forest zones and changed agriculture pattern in lake catchment basin. The present study is focused on long and short term effects of climate change on aquatic biodiversity and productivity of Bhimtal lake. The meteorological data of last fifteen years of Bhimtal lake catchment basin revealed that air temperature has been increased 1.5 to 2.1oC in summer, 0.2 to 0.8 C in winter, relative humidity increased 4 to 6% in summer and rainfall pattern changed erratically in rainy seasons. The surface water temperature of Bhimtal lake showed an increasing pattern as 0.8 to 2.6 C, pH value decreased 0.5 to 0.2 in winter and increased 0.4 to 0.6 in summer. Dissolved oxygen level in lake showed a decreasing trend as 0.7 to 0.4mg/l in winter months. The mesotrophic nature of Bhimtal lake is changing towards eutrophic conditions and contributed for decreasing biodiversity. The aquatic biodiversity of Bhimtal lake consisted mainly phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos and fish species. In the present study, a total of 5 groups of phytoplankton, 3 groups of zooplankton, 11 groups of benthos and 15 fish species were recorded from Bhimtal lake. The comparative data of biodiversity of Bhimtal lake since January, 2000 indicated the changing pattern of phytoplankton biomass were decreasing as 1.99 and 1.08% of Chlorophyceae and Bacilleriophyceae families respectively. The biomass of Cynophyceae was increasing as 0.45% and contributing the algal blooms during summer season in lake. The biomass of zooplankton and benthos were found decreasing in winter season and increasing during summer season. The endemic fish species (18 no.) were found in year 2000-05, as while the fish species (15 no.) were recorded in present study. The relative fecundity of major fish species were observed decreasing trends during their breeding periods in lake. The natural and anthropogenic factors were identified as ecological threats for existing aquatic biodiversity of Bhimtal lake. The present research paper emphasized on the effect of changing pattern of different climatic variables on species composition, biomass of phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos, and fishes in Bhimtal lake of Kumaun region. The present research data will be contributed significantly to assess the changing pattern of aquatic biodiversity and productivity of Bhimtal lake with different time scale.

Keywords: aquatic biodiversity, Bhimtal lake, climate change, lake ecology

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12998 Waste Water Treatment by Moringa oleifera Seed Powder in Historical Jalmahal Lake Located in Semi-Arid Monsoon Zone of India

Authors: Pomila Sharma


The rapid urbanization in India was not accompanied by the establishment of waste water treatment facility at similar and same pace. The inland fresh water ecosystem is increasingly subjected to great stress from various human activities. Jalmahal Lake is located in Jaipur city of Rajasthan state; the lake was constructed about 400 years ago and surrounded by hills. The lake was approximately 139 hectare in full spread and has catchment area of 23.5 sq. kilometer. Out of the total catchment area approximate 40% falls inside dense urban area of Jaipur city. During the showers, the treated and untreated waste waters and runoff waters get mixed and enter the lake through the various influx channels, and the lake water quality gets affected by the inflow of waste water. The main objective of this work was to use the Moringa oleifera seeds as a natural adsorbent for the treatment of wastewater in lake. Moringa oleifera is a tropical, multipurpose tree whose seeds contain high-quality edible oil 40% by weight and water soluble, non-toxic protein that act as an effective coagulant for the removal of organic matter in water and waste water treatment. Laboratory Jar test procedure had been used for coagulation studies; an experiment runs using lake water. Water extracts/powder of Moringa seed applied to treat polluted water of lake. In present study various doses of Moringa oleifera seed coagulant viz. 100 mg/L, 200 mg/L, and 400 mg/L were taken and checked for the efficiency dose on treated and untreated polluted water. Turbidity and color removal is one of the important steps in a waste water treatment processes. The results indicate significant reduction in turbidity and color. Standard plate count was significantly reduced fecal coliform levels too. All parameters were reduced with the increased dose of Moringa oleifera. It was clear from the study Moringa oleifera seed was shown to be a potential bio-coagulant, for treatment of sewage laden polluted water in the lake.

Keywords: coagulant, Moringa oleifera, plate count, turbidity, wastewater

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12997 Geochemical Approach of Rare Earth Element Distribution: A Case Study from Lake Acigol, Denizli, Turkey

Authors: M. Budakoglu, M. Karaman, A. Abdelnasser, D. Kiran, M. Kumral


About 50 mg lake sediment was digested in two steps. While first stage was completed with 6 ml 37% HCl, 2 ml 65% HNO3 and 1 ml 38-40% HF in an pressure and temperature controlled Teflon beaker using Berghoff Microwave™ at average 135°C, digestion procedure was completed with the addition of 6 ml 5% boric acid solution. REE contents of sediment samples were determined by Perkin Elmer DRC II ICP-MS in Geochemistry Research Laboratories (JAL/GRL) of Faculty of Mines, Istanbul Technical University. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of Lake Acıgöl sediments show generally high abundance of REE compared to chondritic concentrations, with particular enrichment in LREE [(La/Lu)N = 4.85-19.90], [(La/Lu)N = 7.09-15.14], [(La/Lu)N = 9.42-15.52] and [(La/Lu)N = 7.69-15.63] for the surface sediment and 0-10 cm-, 10-20 cm- and 20-30 cm-subsurface sediments respectively. Also these samples showed flat HREE normalized to chondrite as (La/Sm)N ranging from 2.98 to 4.8 for surface sediments and for subsurface sediments from 3.28 to 3.97 (0-10 cm), 3.57 to 3.94 (10-20 cm) and 3.36 to 3.94 (20-30 cm) while (Gd/Yb)N ranging from 2.14 to 2.93, from 2.03 to 2.76, from 2.26 to 2.79 and from 2.05 to 2.76 from the surface and subsurface sediments respectively. Moreover, their REE profiles are similar to profiles of the continental collision basin (CCB) with negative Eu anomalies. In addition, their REE patterns illustrate generally low abundance of REE compared to concentrations of NASC, PAAS and UCC with very slight enrichment of LREE and positive Eu* anomalies. Therefore there is no comparable between our samples of surface and subsurface sediments and these types of international sediments.

Keywords: chondrite-normalized REE patterns, hypersaline lake, surface sediments, subsurface sediments, Lake Acıgöl, Turkey

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12996 Assessment of the Ecological Tragedy on Lake Chad

Authors: Luke Onyekakeyah, Cynthia Onyekakeyah


The conflict in Northeastern Nigeria could mar local and international efforts to salvage the drying Lake Chad, which at present is merely 20 per cent of its original size. The conflict which began in 2009, assumed a monstrous dimension to the extent that any prospects of a redeeming action on the Lake is bleak. The concern of the authorities in the basin countries is how to bring the conflict to an end in the interest of the ecologically-dependent riparian population. Lake Chad is Africa’s fourth largest lake. From a previous 388,500 km2 some 600, 000 years ago, the Lake has shrunk to a maximum length of 25,000 km2. During the last four decades, the Lake has been susceptible to increasing variability and irregular rainfall. Dry spell, excessive evaporation and sandstorm have adversely affected the Lake, such that a 2001 estimate put the Lake to a meager 19,000 km2. Given the critical importance of the Lake as a source of livelihood for over 20 million people, there is mounting concern that an unprecedented human and ecological catastrophe is unfolding, should the Lake eventually dries up. The study evaluates the Lake Chad and how the conflict has adversely impacted it.

Keywords: lake chad, conflict, salvage, Nigeria

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