Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6489

Search results for: knowledge in requirement elicitation

6489 Knowledge Audit Model for Requirement Elicitation Process

Authors: Laleh Taheri, Noraini C. Pa, Rusli Abdullah, Salfarina Abdullah

Abstract:

Knowledge plays an important role to the success of any organization. Software development organizations are highly knowledge-intensive organizations especially in their Requirement Elicitation Process (REP). There are several problems regarding communicating and using the knowledge in REP such as misunderstanding, being out of scope, conflicting information and changes of requirements. All of these problems occurred in transmitting the requirements knowledge during REP. Several researches have been done in REP in order to solve the problem towards requirements. Knowledge Audit (KA) approaches were proposed in order to solve managing knowledge in human resources, financial, and manufacturing. There is lack of study applying the KA in requirements elicitation process. Therefore, this paper proposes a KA model for REP in supporting to acquire good requirements.

Keywords: knowledge audit, requirement elicitation process, KA model, knowledge in requirement elicitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
6488 Using Photo-Elicitation to Explore the Cosmology of Personal Training

Authors: John Gray, Andy Smith, Hazel James

Abstract:

With the introduction of projects such as GP referral and other medical exercise schemes, there has been a shift in the cosmology underpinning exercise leadership. That is, the knowledge base of exercise leaders, specifically personal trainers, has moved from a cosmology based on aesthetic and physical fitness demands to one requiring interaction with the dominant biomedical model underpinning contemporary medicine. In line with this shift research has demonstrated that personal trainer education has aligned itself to a biotechnological model. However, whilst there is a need to examine exercise as medicine, and consider the role of personal trainers as prescribers of these interventions, the possible issues surrounding the growing medicalization of the exercise cosmology have not been explored. Using a phenomenological methodology, and the novel approach of photo-elicitation, this research examined the practices of successful personal trainers. The findings highlight that a growing focus on an iatro-biological based scientific process of exercise prescription may prove problematical. Through the development of a model of practitioner-based knowledge, it is argued there is a possible growing disconnection between the theoretical basis of exercise science and the working cosmology of exercise practitioners.

Keywords: biomedicine, cosmology, personal training, photo-elicitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
6487 Requirement Engineering Within Open Source Software Development: A Case Study

Authors: Kars Beek, Remco Groeneveld, Sjaak Brinkkemper

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Although there is much literature available on requirement documentation in traditional software development, few studies have been conducted about this topic in open source software development. While open-source software development is becoming more important, the software development processes are often not as structured as corporate software development processes. Papers show that communities, creating open-source software, often lack structure and documentation. However, most recent studies about this topic are often ten or more years old. Therefore, this research has been conducted to determine if the lack of structure and documentation in requirement engineering is currently still the situation in these communities. Three open-source products have been chosen as subjects for conducting this research. The data for this research was gathered based on interviews, observations, and analyses of feature proposals and issue tracking tools. In this paper, we present a comparison and an analysis of the different methods used for requirements documentation to understand the current practices of requirements documentation in open source software development.

Keywords: case study, open source software, open source software development, requirement elicitation, requirement engineering

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6486 FreGsd: A Framework for Golbal Software Requirement Engineering

Authors: Alsahli Abdulaziz Abdullah, Hameed Ullah Khan

Abstract:

Software development nowadays is more and more using global ways of development instead of normal development enviroment where development occur in one location. This paper is a aimed to propose a Requirement Engineering framework to support Global Software Development environment with regards to all requirment engineering activities from elicitation to fially magning requirment change. Global software enviroment is more and more gaining better reputation in software developmet with better quality is resulting from developing in this eviroment yet with lower cost.However, failure rate developing in this enviroment is high due to inapproprate requirment development and managment.This paper will add to the software engineering development envrioments discipline and many developers in GSD will benefit from it.

Keywords: global software development environment, GSD, requirement engineering, FreGsd, computer engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
6485 Adaptation of Requirement Engineering Practices in Pakistan

Authors: Waqas Ali, Nadeem Majeed

Abstract:

Requirement engineering is an essence of software development life cycle. The more time we spend on requirement engineering, higher the probability of success. Effective requirement engineering ensures and predicts successful software product. This paper presents the adaptation of requirement engineering practices in small and medium size companies of Pakistan. The study is conducted by questionnaires to show how much of requirement engineering models and practices are followed in Pakistan.

Keywords: requirement engineering, Pakistan, models, practices, organizations

Procedia PDF Downloads 612
6484 Eliciting and Confirming Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom in a Specialist Health Care Setting - The Wicked Method

Authors: Sinead Impey, Damon Berry, Selma Furtado, Miriam Galvin, Loretto Grogan, Orla Hardiman, Lucy Hederman, Mark Heverin, Vincent Wade, Linda Douris, Declan O'Sullivan, Gaye Stephens

Abstract:

Healthcare is a knowledge-rich environment. This knowledge, while valuable, is not always accessible outside the borders of individual clinics. This research aims to address part of this problem (at a study site) by constructing a maximal data set (knowledge artefact) for motor neurone disease (MND). This data set is proposed as an initial knowledge base for a concurrent project to develop an MND patient data platform. It represents the domain knowledge at the study site for the duration of the research (12 months). A knowledge elicitation method was also developed from the lessons learned during this process - the WICKED method. WICKED is an anagram of the words: eliciting and confirming data, information, knowledge, wisdom. But it is also a reference to the concept of wicked problems, which are complex and challenging, as is eliciting expert knowledge. The method was evaluated at a second site, and benefits and limitations were noted. Benefits include that the method provided a systematic way to manage data, information, knowledge and wisdom (DIKW) from various sources, including healthcare specialists and existing data sets. Limitations surrounded the time required and how the data set produced only represents DIKW known during the research period. Future work is underway to address these limitations.

Keywords: healthcare, knowledge acquisition, maximal data sets, action design science

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
6483 Types of Feedback and Their Effectiveness in an EFL Context in Iran

Authors: Adel Ebrahimpourtaher, Saeede Eisaie

Abstract:

This study was an attempt to investigate the types of feedback most frequently provided to the students and their effectiveness based on the students’ preferences established through the interview conducted after the treatment. For this purpose, some class sessions of the students of the institute who were studying general English (pre-intermediate level) were recorded by the teacher for the analysis of the feed backs. The results of the analysis and transcriptions indicated that recast is the most frequent feedback type used by the teacher. In addition, the interview indicated that most of the students prefer recast as well as elicitation and explicit correction to some extent.

Keywords: EFL, elicitation, explicit, recast, feedback

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
6482 Feedback in the Language Class: An Action Research Process

Authors: Arash Golzari Koloor

Abstract:

Feedback seems to be an inseparable part of teaching a second/foreign language. One type of feedback is corrective feedback which is one type of error treatment in second language classrooms. This study is a report on the types of corrective feedback employed in an IELTS preparation course. The types of feedback, their frequencies, and their effectiveness are enlisted, enumerated, and interpreted. The results showed that explicit correction and recast were the most frequent types of feedback while repetition and elicitation were the least. The results also revealed that metalinguistic feedback, elicitation, and explicit correction were the most effective types of feedback and affected learners performance greatly.

Keywords: classroom interaction, corrective feedback, error treatment, oral performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
6481 Ontology as Knowledge Capture Tool in Organizations: A Literature Review

Authors: Maria Margaretha, Dana Indra Sensuse, Lukman

Abstract:

Knowledge capture is a step in knowledge life cycle to get knowledge in the organization. Tacit and explicit knowledge are needed to organize in a path, so the organization will be easy to choose which knowledge will be use. There are many challenges to capture knowledge in the organization, such as researcher must know which knowledge has been validated by an expert, how to get tacit knowledge from experts and make it explicit knowledge, and so on. Besides that, the technology will be a reliable tool to help the researcher to capture knowledge. Some paper wrote how ontology in knowledge management can be used for proposed framework to capture and reuse knowledge. Organization has to manage their knowledge, process capture and share will decide their position in the business area. This paper will describe further from literature review about the tool of ontology that will help the organization to capture its knowledge.

Keywords: knowledge capture, ontology, technology, organization

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6480 Students’ Level of Knowledge Construction and Pattern of Social Interaction in an Online Forum

Authors: K. Durairaj, I. N. Umar

Abstract:

The asynchronous discussion forum is one of the most widely used activities in learning management system environment. Online forum allows participants to interact, construct knowledge, and can be used to complement face to face sessions in blended learning courses. However, to what extent do the students perceive the benefits or advantages of forum remain to be seen. Through content and social network analyses, instructors will be able to gauge the students’ engagement and knowledge construction level. Thus, this study aims to analyze the students’ level of knowledge construction and their participation level that occur through online discussion. It also attempts to investigate the relationship between the level of knowledge construction and their social interaction patterns. The sample involves 23 students undertaking a master course in one public university in Malaysia. The asynchronous discussion forum was conducted for three weeks as part of the course requirement. The finding indicates that the level of knowledge construction is quite low. Also, the density value of 0.11 indicating that the overall communication among the participants in the forum is low. This study reveals that strong and significant correlations between SNA measures (in-degree centrality, out-degree centrality) and level of knowledge construction. Thus, allocating these active students in a different groups aids the interactive discussion takes place. Finally, based upon the findings, some recommendations to increase students’ level of knowledge construction and also for further research are proposed.

Keywords: asynchronous discussion forums, content analysis, knowledge construction, social network analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
6479 Case-Based Reasoning for Build Order in Real-Time Strategy Games

Authors: Ben G. Weber, Michael Mateas

Abstract:

We present a case-based reasoning technique for selecting build orders in a real-time strategy game. The case retrieval process generalizes features of the game state and selects cases using domain-specific recall methods, which perform exact matching on a subset of the case features. We demonstrate the performance of the technique by implementing it as a component of the integrated agent framework of McCoy and Mateas. Our results demonstrate that the technique outperforms nearest-neighbor retrieval when imperfect information is enforced in a real-time strategy game.

Keywords: case based reasoning, real time strategy systems, requirements elicitation, requirement analyst, artificial intelligence

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
6478 Determination of Optimum Water Consumptive Using Deficit Irrigation Model for Barely: A Case Study in Arak, Iran

Authors: Mohsen Najarchi

Abstract:

This research was carried out in five fields (5-15 hectares) in Arak located in center of Iran, to determine optimum level of water consumed for Barely in four stages growth (vegetative, yield formation, flowering, and ripening). Actual evapotranspiration was calculated using measured water requirement in the fields. Five levels of water requirement equal to 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 percents formed the treatments. To determine the optimum level of water requirement linear programming was used. The study showed 60 percent water requirement (40 percent deficit irrigation) has been the optimum level of irrigation for winter wheat in four stages of growth. Comparison between all of the treatments indicated above with normal condition (100% water requirement) shows increasing in water use efficiency. Although 40% deficit irrigation treatment lead to decrease of 38% in yield, net benefit was increasing in 11.37%. Furthermore, in comparison with normal condition, 70% of water requirement increased water use efficiency as 30%.

Keywords: optimum, deficit irrigation, water use efficiency, evapotranspiration

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
6477 Implementing a Database from a Requirement Specification

Authors: M. Omer, D. Wilson

Abstract:

Creating a database scheme is essentially a manual process. From a requirement specification, the information contained within has to be analyzed and reduced into a set of tables, attributes and relationships. This is a time-consuming process that has to go through several stages before an acceptable database schema is achieved. The purpose of this paper is to implement a Natural Language Processing (NLP) based tool to produce a from a requirement specification. The Stanford CoreNLP version 3.3.1 and the Java programming were used to implement the proposed model. The outcome of this study indicates that the first draft of a relational database schema can be extracted from a requirement specification by using NLP tools and techniques with minimum user intervention. Therefore, this method is a step forward in finding a solution that requires little or no user intervention.

Keywords: information extraction, natural language processing, relation extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
6476 Knowledge Sharing and Organizational Performance: A System Dynamics Approach

Authors: Shachi Pathak

Abstract:

We are living in knowledge based economy where firms can gain competitive advantage with the help of managing knowledge within the organization. The purpose the study is to develop a conceptual model to explain the relationship between factors affecting knowledge sharing, called as knowledge enablers, in an organization, knowledge sharing activities and organizational performance, using system dynamics approach. This research is important since it will provide better understandings on what are the key knowledge enablers to support knowledge sharing activities, and how knowledge sharing activities will affect the capability of an organization to enhance the performance of the organization.

Keywords: knowledge management, knowledge sharing, organizational performance, system dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
6475 Conflicts Identification Approach among Stakeholders in Goal-Oriented Requirements Analysis

Authors: Muhammad Suhaib

Abstract:

Requirements Analysis are the most important part of software Engineering for both system application development, and project requirements. Conflicts often arise during the requirements gathering and analysis phase. This research aims to identify conflicts during the requirements gathering phase in software development life cycle, Research, Development, and Technology converted the world into a global village. During requirements elicitation/gathering phase it’s very difficult to understand the main objective of stakeholders, after completion of requirements elicitation task final results are used for Software Requirements Specification (SRS), SRS is the highly important outcome of the requirements analysis phase. this is the foundation between the developers and stakeholders or customers, proposed methodology will be helpful to identify those conflicts in a very easy manner during the initial phase of the project.

Keywords: goal oriented requirements analysis, conflicts identification model, requirements analysis, requirements engineering

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6474 Early Requirement Engineering for Design of Learner Centric Dynamic LMS

Authors: Kausik Halder, Nabendu Chaki, Ranjan Dasgupta

Abstract:

We present a modelling framework that supports the engineering of early requirements specifications for design of learner centric dynamic Learning Management System. The framework is based on i* modelling tool and Means End Analysis, that adopts primitive concepts for modelling early requirements (such as actor, goal, and strategic dependency). We show how pedagogical and computational requirements for designing a learner centric Learning Management system can be adapted for the automatic early requirement engineering specifications. Finally, we presented a model on a Learner Quanta based adaptive Courseware. Our early requirement analysis shows that how means end analysis reveals gaps and inconsistencies in early requirements specifications that are by no means trivial to discover without the help of formal analysis tool.

Keywords: adaptive courseware, early requirement engineering, means end analysis, organizational modelling, requirement modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
6473 Requirement Analysis for Emergency Management Software

Authors: Tomáš Ludík, Jiří Barta, Sabina Chytilová, Josef Navrátil

Abstract:

Emergency management is a discipline of dealing with and avoiding risks. Appropriate emergency management software allows better management of these risks and has a direct influence on reducing potential negative impacts. Although there are several emergency management software products in the Czech Republic, they cover user requirements from the emergency management field only partially. Therefore, the paper focuses on the issues of requirement analysis within development of emergency management software. Analysis of the current state describes the basic features and properties of user requirements for software development as well as basic methods and approaches for gathering these requirements. Then, the paper presents more specific mechanisms for requirement analysis based on chosen software development approach: structured, object-oriented or agile. Based on these experiences it is designed new methodology for requirement analysis. Methodology describes how to map user requirements comprehensively in the field of emergency management and thus reduce misunderstanding between software analyst and emergency manager. Proposed methodology was consulted with department of fire brigade and also has been applied in the requirements analysis for their current emergency management software. The proposed methodology has general character and can be used also in other specific areas during requirement analysis.

Keywords: emergency software, methodology, requirement analysis, stakeholders, use case diagram, user stories

Procedia PDF Downloads 446
6472 Data Mining As A Tool For Knowledge Management: A Review

Authors: Maram Saleh

Abstract:

Knowledge has become an essential resource in today’s economy and become the most important asset of maintaining competition advantage in organizations. The importance of knowledge has made organizations to manage their knowledge assets and resources through all multiple knowledge management stages such as: Knowledge Creation, knowledge storage, knowledge sharing and knowledge use. Researches on data mining are continues growing over recent years on both business and educational fields. Data mining is one of the most important steps of the knowledge discovery in databases process aiming to extract implicit, unknown but useful knowledge and it is considered as significant subfield in knowledge management. Data miming have the great potential to help organizations to focus on extracting the most important information on their data warehouses. Data mining tools and techniques can predict future trends and behaviors, allowing businesses to make proactive, knowledge-driven decisions. This review paper explores the applications of data mining techniques in supporting knowledge management process as an effective knowledge discovery technique. In this paper, we identify the relationship between data mining and knowledge management, and then focus on introducing some application of date mining techniques in knowledge management for some real life domains.

Keywords: Data Mining, Knowledge management, Knowledge discovery, Knowledge creation.

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6471 Problems in English into Thai Translation Normally Found in Thai University Students

Authors: Anochao Phetcharat

Abstract:

This research aims to study problems of translation basic knowledge, particularly from English into Thai. The researcher used 38 2nd-year non-English speaking students of Suratthani Rajabhat University as samples. The samples were required to translate an A4-sized article from English into Thai assigned as a part of BEN0202 Translation for Business, a requirement subject for Business English Department, which was also taught by the researcher. After completion of the translation, numerous problems were found and the research grouped them into 4 major types. The normally occurred problems in English-Thai translation works are the lack of knowledge in terms of parts of speech, word-by-word translation employment, misspellings as well as the poor knowledge in English language structure. However, this research is currently under the process of data analysis and shall be completed by the beginning of August. The researcher, nevertheless, predicts that all the above-mentioned problems, will support the researcher’s hypothesizes, that are; 1) the lack of knowledge in terms of parts of speech causes the mistranslation problem; 2) employing word-by-word translation technique hugely results in the mistranslation problem; 3) misspellings yields the mistranslation problem; and 4) the poor knowledge in English language structure also brings about translation errors. The research also predicts that, of all the aforementioned problems, the following ones are found the most, respectively: the poor knowledge in English language structure, word-by-word translation employment, the lack of knowledge in terms of parts of speech, and misspellings.

Keywords: problem, student, Thai, translation

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
6470 The Effectiveness of Exchange of Tacit and Explicit Knowledge Using Digital and Face to Face Sharing

Authors: Delio I. Castaneda, Paul Toulson

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge sharing effectiveness of two types of knowledge, tacit and explicit, depending on two channels: face to face or digital. Participants were 217 knowledge workers in New Zealand and researchers who attended a knowledge management conference in the United Kingdom. In the study, it was found that digital tools are effective to share explicit knowledge. In addition, digital tools that facilitated dialogue were effective to share tacit knowledge. It was also found that face to face communication was an effective way to share tacit and explicit knowledge. Results of this study contribute to clarify in what cases digital tools are effective to share tacit knowledge. Additionally, even though explicit knowledge can be easily shared using digital tools, this type of knowledge is also possible to be shared through dialogue. Result of this study may support practitioners to redesign programs and activities based on knowledge sharing to make strategies more effective.

Keywords: digital knowledge, explicit knowledge, knowledge sharing, tacit knowledge

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6469 A Photographic Look on the Socio-Educational Inclusion of Young Refugees and Asylum-Seekers

Authors: Mara Gabrielli, Jordi Pamies Rovira

Abstract:

From a theoretical and interdisciplinary approach to visual ethnography and visual anthropology, this small scale, in-depth study explores the potential of photography as a participatory ethnographic method for a deep-understanding of the socio-educational integration of young refugees and asylum-seekers in the host society as regards their daily experiences, their needs, desires, expectations, and future goals. Qualitative data is collected by the author by observing 12 young participants in the age group 12-24 years per week for 12 months. The data consists of field notes, participatory observation, in-depth interviews with professionals, and the use of visual participatory ethnographic methods. Therefore, the young participants build their stories through the implementation of two participatory photographic methods - the 'photo-diary' and the 'photo-elicitation' - that permit them to analyse and narrate their social and educational experiences from their perspectives, thus collaborating in the construction of knowledge during the different stages of the research. Preliminary findings show the high resilience and social adaptability of young refugees and asylum-seekers to achieve their goals and overcome structural and socio-cultural barriers. However, the uncertainty of their administrative situation during the asylum submission and the lack of specific resources might impact negatively on their educational pathways and the transition to the labour market. Finally, this study also highlights the benefits of participatory photographic methods in ethnographic research, which impacts positively the well-being of these young people, helps them to develop critical thinking, and it also allows them to access information more respectfully when narrating painful experiences.

Keywords: photo-diary, photo-elicitation, resilience, strategies, visual methodologies, young refugees and asylum seekers

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6468 A Framework for Customer Knowledge Management (CKM) as a Key Role in Relationship

Authors: Mehrnoosh Askarizadeh

Abstract:

The customer’s value has become obvious for the leading companies in today’s competitive environment. Therefore they are constantly trying to improve their relationship with customers. Customer Knowledge has been recognized as a strategic resource and a key to the success of any company. Talking about the Customer Knowledge Management is closely associated with Knowledge Management and Customer Relationship Management (CRM). Recent studies conducted in the fields of Knowledge Management (KM) and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) has explained that the two approaches can have great synergies. In this paper, our aim is to provide an understanding of Customer Knowledge Management (CKM) as an integrated management approach and competence it requires. We describe CKM as an ongoing process of generating, disseminating and using customer knowledge within an organization and between an organization and its customers. In addition, we propose a comprehensive framework of CKM, the ability to integrate customer knowledge into customer relationship management processes.

Keywords: e-commerce, knowledge management (KM), customer relationship management (CRM), customer knowledge management (CKM)

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6467 Critical Success Factors Quality Requirement Change Management

Authors: Jamshed Ahmad, Abdul Wahid Khan, Javed Ali Khan

Abstract:

Managing software quality requirements change management is a difficult task in the field of software engineering. Avoiding incoming changes result in user dissatisfaction while accommodating to many requirement changes may delay product delivery. Poor requirements management is solely considered the primary cause of the software failure. It becomes more challenging in global software outsourcing. Addressing success factors in quality requirement change management is desired today due to the frequent change requests from the end-users. In this research study, success factors are recognized and scrutinized with the help of a systematic literature review (SLR). In total, 16 success factors were identified, which significantly impacted software quality requirement change management. The findings show that Proper Requirement Change Management, Rapid Delivery, Quality Software Product, Access to Market, Project Management, Skills and Methodologies, Low Cost/Effort Estimation, Clear Plan and Road Map, Agile Processes, Low Labor Cost, User Satisfaction, Communication/Close Coordination, Proper Scheduling and Time Constraints, Frequent Technological Changes, Robust Model, Geographical distribution/Cultural differences are the key factors that influence software quality requirement change. The recognized success factors and validated with the help of various research methods, i.e., case studies, interviews, surveys and experiments. These factors are then scrutinized in continents, database, company size and period of time. Based on these findings, requirement change will be implemented in a better way.

Keywords: global software development, requirement engineering, systematic literature review, success factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
6466 Understanding Tacit Knowledge and Its Role in Military Organizations: Methods of Managing Tacit Knowledge

Authors: M. Erhan Orhan, Onur Ozdemir

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Expansion of area of operation and increasing diversity of threats forced the military organizations to change in many ways. However, tacit knowledge still is the most fundamental component of organizational knowledge. Since it is human oriented and in warfare human stands at the core of the organization. Therefore, military organizations should find effective ways of systematically utilizing tacit knowledge. In this context, this article suggest some methods for turning tacit knowledge into explicit in military organizations.

Keywords: tacit knowledge, military, knowledge management, warfare, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
6465 Effect of Incentives on Knowledge Sharing and Learning: Evidence from the Indian IT Sector

Authors: Asish O. Mathew, Lewlyn L. R. Rodrigues

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The organizations in the knowledge economy era have recognized the importance of building knowledge assets for sustainable growth and development. In comparison to other industries, Information Technology (IT) enterprises, holds an edge in developing an effective Knowledge Management (KM) program, thanks to their in-house technological abilities. This paper tries to study the various knowledge-based incentive programs and its effect on Knowledge Sharing and Learning in the context of the Indian IT sector. A conceptual model is developed linking KM incentives, knowledge sharing, and learning. A questionnaire study is conducted to collect primary data from the knowledge workers of the IT organizations located in India. The data was analysed using Structural Equation Modeling using Partial Least Square method. The results show a strong influence of knowledge management incentives on knowledge sharing and an indirect influence on learning.

Keywords: knowledge management, knowledge management incentives, knowledge sharing, learning

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6464 Knowledge Management Barriers: A Statistical Study of Hardware Development Engineering Teams within Restricted Environments

Authors: Nicholas S. Norbert Jr., John E. Bischoff, Christopher J. Willy

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Knowledge Management (KM) is globally recognized as a crucial element in securing competitive advantage through building and maintaining organizational memory, codifying and protecting intellectual capital and business intelligence, and providing mechanisms for collaboration and innovation. KM frameworks and approaches have been developed and defined identifying critical success factors for conducting KM within numerous industries ranging from scientific to business, and for ranges of organization scales from small groups to large enterprises. However, engineering and technical teams operating within restricted environments are subject to unique barriers and KM challenges which cannot be directly treated using the approaches and tools prescribed for other industries. This research identifies barriers in conducting KM within Hardware Development Engineering (HDE) teams and statistically compares significance to barriers upholding the four KM pillars of organization, technology, leadership, and learning for HDE teams. HDE teams suffer from restrictions in knowledge sharing (KS) due to classification of information (national security risks), customer proprietary restrictions (non-disclosure agreement execution for designs), types of knowledge, complexity of knowledge to be shared, and knowledge seeker expertise. As KM evolved leveraging information technology (IT) and web-based tools and approaches from Web 1.0 to Enterprise 2.0, KM may also seek to leverage emergent tools and analytics including expert locators and hybrid recommender systems to enable KS across barriers of the technical teams. The research will test hypothesis statistically evaluating if KM barriers for HDE teams affect the general set of expected benefits of a KM System identified through previous research. If correlations may be identified, then generalizations of success factors and approaches may also be garnered for HDE teams. Expert elicitation will be conducted using a questionnaire hosted on the internet and delivered to a panel of experts including engineering managers, principal and lead engineers, senior systems engineers, and knowledge management experts. The feedback to the questionnaire will be processed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) to identify and rank statistically significant barriers of HDE teams within the four KM pillars. Subsequently, KM approaches will be recommended for upholding the KM pillars within restricted environments of HDE teams.

Keywords: engineering management, knowledge barriers, knowledge management, knowledge sharing

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
6463 The Work System Method for Designing Knowledge Mobilization Projects

Authors: Chihab Benmoussa

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Could the Work System Approach (WSA) function as a framework for designing high-impact knowledge mobilization systems? This paper put forward arguments in favor of the applicability of WSA for knowledge mobilization design based on evidences from a practical research. Normative approaches for practitioners are highly needed especially in the field of knowledge management (KM), given the abysmal rate of disappointment and failure of KM projects. The paper contrasts knowledge management and knowledge mobilization, presents the WSA and showed how the WSA’s concepts and ideas fit with the approach adopted by a multinational company in designing a successful knowledge mobilization initiative.

Keywords: knowledge management, knowledge mobilizations, work system method

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6462 Management of Indigenous Knowledge: Expectations of Library and Information Professionals in Developing Countries

Authors: Desmond Chinedu Oparaku, Pearl C. Akanwa, Oyemike Victor Benson

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This paper examines the challenges facing library and information centers (LICs) in managing indigenous knowledge in academic libraries in developing countries. The need for managing an indigenous knowledge in library and information centers in developing nations is becoming more critical. There is an ever increasing output of indigenous knowledge; effective management of indigenous knowledge becomes necessary to enable the next generation benefit from them. This paper thus explores the concept of indigenous knowledge (IK), nature of indigenous knowledge (IK), the various forms of indigenous knowledge (IK), sources of indigenous knowledge (IK), and relevance of indigenous knowledge (IK). The expectations of library and information professionals towards effective management of indigenous knowledge and the challenges to effective management of indigenous knowledge were highlighted. Recommendations were made based on the identified challenges.

Keywords: library, indigenous knowledge, information centres, information professionals

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
6461 Humanitarian Storytelling through Photographs with and for Resettled Refugees in Wellington

Authors: Ehsan K. Hazaveh

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This research project explores creative methods of storytelling through photography to portray a vulnerable and marginalised community: former refugees living in Wellington, New Zealand. The project explores photographic representational techniques that can not only empower and give voice to those communities but also challenge dominant stereotypes about refugees and support humanitarian actions. The aims of this study are to develop insights surrounding issues associated with the photographic representation of refugees and to explore the collaborative construction of possible counter-narratives that might lead to the formulation of a practice framework for representing refugees using photography. In other words, the goal of this study is to explore representational and narrative strategies that frame refugees as active community members and as individuals with specific histories and expertise. These counter-narratives will bring the diversity of refugees to the surface by offering personal stories, contextualising their experience, raising awareness about the plight and human rights of the refugee community in New Zealand, evoking empathy and, therefore, facilitating the process of social change. The study has designed a photographic narrative framework by determining effective methods of photo storytelling, framing, and aesthetic techniques, focusing on different ways of taking, selecting, editing and curating photographs. Photo elicitation interviews have been used to ‘explore’, ‘produce’ and ‘co-curate’ the counter-narrative along with participants. Photo elicitation is a qualitative research method that employs images to evoke data in order to find out how other people experience their world - the researcher shows photographs to the participant and asks open-ended questions to get them to talk about their life experiences and the world around them. The qualitative data have been collected and produced through interactions with four former refugees living in Wellington, New Zealand. In this way, this project offers a unique account of their conditions and basic knowledge about their living experience and their stories. The participants of this study have engaged with PhotoVoice, a photo elicitation methodology that employs photography and storytelling, to share activities, emotions, hopes, and aspects of their lived experiences. PhotoVoice was designed to empower members of marginalised populations. It involves a series of meeting sessions, in which participants share photographs they have taken and discuss stories about the photographs to identify, represent, and enhance the issues important to their lives and communities. Finally, the data provide a basis for systematically producing visual counter-narratives that highlight the experiences of former- refugees. By employing these methods, refugees can represent their world as well as interpret it. The process of developing this research framing has enabled the development of powerful counter-narratives that challenge prevailing stereotypical depictions which in turn have the potential to shape improved humanitarian outcomes, shifts in public attitudes and political perspectives in New Zealand.

Keywords: media, photography, refugees, photo-elicitation, storytelling

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6460 Adopted Method of Information System Strategy for Knowledge Management System: A Literature Review

Authors: Elin Cahyaningsih, Dana Indra Sensuse, Wahyu Catur Wibowo, Sofiyanti Indriasari

Abstract:

Bureaucracy reform program drives Indonesian government to change their management and supporting unit in order to enhance their organization performance. Information technology as one of supporting unit became one of strategic plan that organization tried to improve, because IT can automate and speed up process, reduce business process life cycle become more effective and efficient. Knowledge management system is a technology application for supporting knowledge management implementation in government which is requirement based on problem and potential functionality of each knowledge management process. Define knowledge management that suitable for each organization it is difficult, that why we should make the knowledge management system strategy as an alignment of knowledge management process in the organization. Knowledge management system is one of information system development in people perspective, because this system has high dependency in human interaction and participation. Strategic plan for developing knowledge management system can be determine using some of information system strategic methods. This research conducted to define type of strategic method of information system, stage of activity each method, the strategic method strength and weakness. The author use literature review methods for identify and classify strategic methods of information system for differentiate method type, categorize common activities, strength and weakness. Result of this research are determine and compare six strategic information system methods, there are Balanced Scorecard, Five Force Porter, SWOT analysis, Value Chain Analysis, Risk Analysis and Gap Analysis. Balanced Scorecard and Risk Analysis believe as common strategic method that usually used and have the highest excellence strength.

Keywords: knowledge management system, balanced scorecard, five force, risk analysis, gap analysis, value chain analysis, SWOT analysis

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