Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: jojoba oil

5 Transesterification of Jojoba Oil Wax Using Microwave Technique

Authors: Moataz Elsawy, Hala F. Naguib, Hilda A. Aziz, Eid A. Ismail, Labiba I. Hussein, Maher Z. Elsabee

Abstract:

Jojoba oil-wax is extracted from the seeds of the jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis Link Schneider), a perennial shrub that grows in semi-desert areas in Egypt and in some parts of the world. The main uses of jojoba oil wax are in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry, but new uses could arise related to the search of new energetic crops. This paper summarizes a process to convert the jojoba oil wax to biodiesel by transesterification with ethanol and a series of aliphatic alcohols using a more economic and energy saving method in a domestic microwave. The effect of time and power of the microwave on the extent of the transesterification using ethanol and other aliphatic alcohols has been studied. The separation of the alkyl esters from the fatty alcohols rich fraction has been done in a single crystallization step at low temperature (−18°C) from low boiling point petroleum ether. Gas chromatography has been used to follow up the transesterification process. All products have been characterized by spectral analysis.

Keywords: jojoba oil, transesterification, microwave, gas chromatography jojoba esters, jojoba alcohol

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4 Effect of Irrigation Interval on Jojoba Plants under Circumstance of Sinai

Authors: E. Khattab, S. Halla

Abstract:

Jojoba plants are characterized by a tolerance of water stress, but due to the conditions of the Sinai in which the water is less, an irrigation interval study was carried out the jojoba plant from water stress without affecting the yield of oil. The field experiment was carried out at Maghara Research Station at North Sinai, Desert Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt, to study the effect of irrigation interval on five clones of jojoba plants S-L, S-610, S- 700, S-B and S-G on growth and yield characters. Results showed that the clone S-700 has increase of all growth and yield characters under all interval irrigation compare with other clones. All variable of studied confirmed that clones of jojoba had significant effect with irrigation interval at one week but decrease value with three weeks. Jojoba plants tolerance to water stress but irrigation interval every week increased seed yield.

Keywords: interval irrigation, growth and yield characters, oil, jojoba, Sinai

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3 Propagation of Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider by Stem Cuttings

Authors: Ahmed M. Eed, Adam H. Burgoyne

Abstract:

Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider), is a desert shrub which tolerates saline, alkyle soils and drought. The seeds contain a characteristic liquid wax of economic importance in industry as a machine lubricant and cosmetics. A major problem in seed propagation is that jojoba is a dioecious plant whose sex is not easily determined prior to flowering (3-4 years from germination). To overcome this phenomenon, asexual propagation using vegetative methods such as cutting can be used. This research was conducted to find out the effect of different Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs) and rooting media on Jojoba rhizogenesis. An experiment was carried out in a Factorial Completely Randomized Design (FCRD) with three replications, each with sixty cuttings per replication in fiberglass house of Natural Jojoba Corporation at Yemen. The different rooting media used were peat moss + perlite + vermiculite (1:1:1), peat moss + perlite (1:1) and peat moss + sand (1:1). Plant materials used were semi-hard wood cuttings of jojoba plants with length of 15 cm. The cuttings were collected in the month of June during 2012 and 2013 from the sub-terminal growth of the mother plants of Amman farm and introduced to Yemen. They were wounded, treated with Indole butyric acid (IBA), α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) or Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) all @ 4000 ppm (part per million) and cultured on different rooting media under intermittent mist propagation conditions. IBA gave significantly higher percentage of rooting (66.23%) compared to NAA and IAA in all media used. However, the lowest percentage of rooting (5.33%) was recorded with IAA in the medium consisting of peat moss and sand (1:1). No significant difference was observed at all types of PGRs used with rooting media in respect of root length. Maximum number of roots was noticed in medium consisting of peat moss, perlite and vermiculite (1:1:1); peat moss and perlite (1:1) and peat moss and sand (1:1) using IBA, NAA and IBA, respectively. The interaction among rooting media was statistically significant with respect to rooting percentage character. Similarly, the interactions among PGRs were significant in terms of rooting percentage and also root length characters. The results demonstrated suitability of propagation of jojoba plants by semi-hard wood cuttings.

Keywords: cutting, IBA, Jojoba, propagation, rhizogenesis

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2 Comparative Assessment of ISSR and RAPD Markers among Egyptian Jojoba Shrubs

Authors: Abdelsabour G. A. Khaled, Galal A.R. El-Sherbeny, Ahmed M. Hassanein, Gameel M. G. Aly

Abstract:

Classical methods of identification, based on agronomical characterization, are not always the most accurate way due to the instability of these characteristics under the influence of the different environments. In order to estimate the genetic diversity, molecular markers provided excellent tools. In this study, Genetic variation of nine Egyptian jojoba shrubs was tested using ISSR (inter simple sequences repeats), RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) markers and based on the morphological characterization. The average of the percentage of polymorphism (%P) ranged between 58.17% and 74.07% for ISSR and RAPD markers, respectively. The range of genetic similarity percents among shrubs based on ISSR and RAPD markers were from 82.9 to 97.9% and from 85.5 to 97.8%, respectively. The average of PIC (polymorphism information content) values were 0.19 (ISSR) and 0.24 (RAPD). In the present study, RAPD markers were more efficient than the ISSR markers. Where the RAPD technique exhibited higher marker index (MI) average (1.26) compared to ISSR one (1.11). There was an insignificant correlation between the ISSR and RAPD data (0.076, P > 0.05). The dendrogram constructed by the combined RAPD and ISSR data gave a relatively different clustering pattern.

Keywords: correlation, molecular markers, polymorphism, marker index

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
1 Inhibition Effect of Natural Junipers Extract towards Steel Corrosion in HCl Solution

Authors: L. Bammou, M. Belkhaouda R. Salghi, L. Bazzi, B. Hammouti

Abstract:

Steel and steel-based alloys of different grades steel are extensively used in numerous applications where acid solutions are widely applied such as industrial acid pickling, industrial acid cleaning and oil-well acidizing. The use of chemical inhibitors is one of the most practical methods for the protection against corrosion in acidic media. Most of the excellent acid inhibitors are organic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulphur. The use of non-toxic inhibitors called green or eco-friendly environmental inhibitors is one of the solutions possible to prevent the corrosion of the material. These advantages have incited us to draw a large part of program of our laboratory to examine natural substances as corrosion inhibitors such as: prickly pear seed oil, Argan oil, Argan extract, Fennel oil, Rosemary oil, Thymus oil, Lavender oil, Jojoba oil, Pennyroyal Mint oil, and Artemisia. In the present work, we investigate the corrosion inhibition of steel in 1 M HCl by junipers extract using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. The result obtained of junipers extract (JE) shows excellent inhibition properties for the corrosion of C38 steel in 1M HCl at 298K, and the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing of the JE concentration. The inhibitor efficiencies determined by weight loss, Tafel polarisation and EIS methods are in reasonable agreement. Based on the polarisation results, the investigated junipers extract can be classified as mixed inhibitor. The calculated structural parameters show increase of the obtained Rct values and decrease of the capacitance, Cdl, with JE concentration increase. It is suggested to attribute this to the increase of the thickness of the adsorption layer at steel surface. The adsorption model obeys to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The adsorption process is a spontaneous and exothermic process.

Keywords: corrosion inhibition, steel, friendly inhibitors, Tafel polarisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 358