Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 77

Search results for: job advertisements

77 Sexualization of Women in Nigerian Magazine Advertisements

Authors: Kehinde Augustina Odukoya

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This study examines the portrayal of women in Nigerian magazine advertisements, with the aim to investigate whether there is sexualization of women in the advertisements. To achieve this aim, content analyses of 61 magazine advertisements from 5 different categories of magazines; a general interest magazine (Genevieve), fashion magazine (Hints Complete Fashion), men’s magazine (Mode), women’s magazine (Totally Whole) and a relationship magazine (Forever) were carried out. Erving Goffman’s 1979 frame analysis and Kang’s two additional coding categories were used to investigate the sexualization of women. Findings show that women are used for decorative purposes and objectified in over 70 per cent of the advertisements analyzed. Also, there is sexualization of women in magazine advertisements because women are nude 57.4 percent of the magazine advertisements.

Keywords: advertisements, magazine, sexualization, women

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76 Gender and Advertisements: A Content Analysis of Pakistani Prime Time Advertisements

Authors: Aaminah Hassan

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Advertisements carry a great potential to influence our lives because they are crafted to meet particular ends. Stereotypical representation in advertisements is capable of forming unconscious attitudes among people towards any gender and their abilities. This study focuses on gender representation in Pakistani prime time advertisements. For this purpose, 13 advertisements were selected from three different categories of foods and beverages, cosmetics, cell phones and cellular networks from the prime time slots of one of the leading Pakistani entertainment channel, ‘Urdu 1’. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses are carried out for range of variables like gender, age, roles, activities, setting, appearance and voice overs. The results revealed that gender representation in advertisements is stereotypical. Moreover, in few instances, the portrayal of women is not only culturally inappropriate but is demeaning to the image of women as well. Their bodily charm is used to promote products. Comparing different entertainment channels for their prime time advertisements and broadening the scope of this research will yield greater implications for the researchers who want to carry out the similar research. It is hoped that the current study would help in the promotion of media literacy among the viewers and media authorities in Pakistan.

Keywords: Advertisements, Content Analysis, Gender, Prime time

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75 The Use of Caricatures as a Means of Advertising: The Case of Sütaş

Authors: Güldane Zengin

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Advertisers often make use of humorous elements in advertisements they create. Advertisements that contain such elements play a great role in creating awareness and attaining positive attitudes. Caricature, which is an element of humour, is interesting, eye catching, entertaining and memorable by its very nature. Because of these characteristics of caricatures, they are being used for advertising purposes. Advertisements with caricatures are spreading rapidly and embraced by consumers easily. Especially in the last ten years, companies in different sectors use advertisements with caricatures to publicize their products and services. These companies have different target audiences with different characteristics. They all have differences in opinions, attitudes, perceptions and buying behaviours. Target audiences’ brand choices depend on many different factors. Advertising is an important factor in brand choice. Using attention grabbing methods like advertising with caricatures affects their buying behaviours. This study examines the use of caricatures in Sütaş advertisements. Target audiences’ opinions, perceptions and attitudes about advertisements with caricatures are examined in this descriptive study.

Keywords: advertising, advertisements with caricatures, caricature, communication, humour, Sütaş caricatures

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74 Are Values Reflected in Online Skincare Advertisements from the Philippines and Taiwan the Same?

Authors: Chih-Ping Chen

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In recent years, some scholars established the reflection of cultural values in advertisements. However, despite the Internet’s rapid development, few studies have focused on observing cross-cultural differences of values reflected in online advertisements. As mirrors of culture, advertisements are believed to reflect values relevant to consumers. Therefore, this research aims to examine the cultural values reflected on online skincare advertisements between countries with different cultural influences. We argue that culture affects the values presented in the slogans, endorsers, brand prominence, and product prominence of online advertisements; a concept that challenges the standardized manner of communication utilized by most multinational brands. Results highlight that the Philippines and Taiwan are neither located on extreme low-context nor extreme high-context cultures. Moreover, although advertisements reflect culture, it may be affected by potential value shifting caused by globalization, standardized communication, and the advertisers’ marketing priorities.

Keywords: cross-culture, cultural values, online advertising, prominence, beauty

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73 Creativity in the Use of Sinhala and English in Advertisements in Sri Lanka: A Morphological Analysis

Authors: Chamindi Dilkushi Senaratne

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Sri Lanka has lived with the English language for more than 200 years. Although officially considered a link language, the phenomenal usage of English by the Sinhala-English bilingual has given rise to a mixed code with identifiable structural characteristics. The extensive use of the mixed language by the average Sri Lankan bilingual has resulted in it being used as a medium of communication by creative writers of bilingual advertisements in Sri Lanka. This study analyses the way in which English is used in bilingual advertisements in both print and electronic media in Sri Lanka. The theoretical framework for the study is based on Kachru’s analysis of the use of English by the bilingual, Muysken’s typology on code mixing theories in colonial settings and Myers-Scotton’s theory on the Matrix Language Framework Model. The study will look at a selection of Sinhala-English advertisements published in newspapers from 2015 to 2016. Only advertisements using both Sinhala and English are used for the analysis. To substantiate data collected from the newspapers, the study will select bilingual advertisements from television advertisements. The objective of the study is to analyze the mixed patterns used for creative purposes by advertisers. The results of the study will reveal the creativity used by the Sinhala –English bilingual and the morphological processes used by the creators of Sinhala-English bilingual advertisements to attract the masses.

Keywords: bilingual, code mixing, morphological processes, mixed code

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72 Portrayal of Women in Television Advertisement

Authors: Priya Sarah Vijoy

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The aim of this study is to analyze the Portrayal of women in Television Advertisements. This research study is conducted to analyze how women are portrayed in Television Advertisements. Advertising dates back to several hundreds of years. Right from the beginning, the seller wanted his goods to be sold and he used various techniques for achieving his objective. Advertisements have consistently confined women to traditional mother, home, or beauty/sex-oriented roles that are not representative of women’s diversity. Currently, in our society the television stereotyping of woman is the dominating forces in the media that degrade women and limit their representation. Thus the study analyzes how women are portrayed in Television advertisements and find whether roles of women in Television Advertisement are related to the product or not.

Keywords: advertising, stereotyping, television, women

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71 Discovering the Effects of Guerrilla Advertisements on Perceiver's Ad Attitude, Ad Likability and Purchase Intention

Authors: S. Y. Ozkan, S. Taftaf

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This study aims to investigate the possible effects of guerrilla advertising on consumers' attitudes as well as purchase intentions in comparison with traditional advertising. Participants who were over 18 years of age were recruited and completed an online questionnaire. Each participant was randomly assigned to one of the four well-known brand conditions. The study had a within-subjects design where each participant evaluated two advertisements, one guerrilla advertisement, and one traditional advertisement od one respective brand. Participants rated both traditional advertisement and guerrilla advertisement on ad attitude, ad likability, and purchase intention scales. Ad attitude was measured by using both positive and negative adjectives. The hypotheses were tested by paired samples t-test analysis. The results indicated that perceivers were able to differentiate advertisements that include guerrilla techniques and advertisements that include traditional methods from one another. Regardless of the brand manipulation, guerrilla advertisements lead significantly higher positive ad attitude, negative ad attitude, ad likability, and purchase intention compared to traditional advertisements. Therefore, the results showed that while using guerrilla advertising, companies should be aware of any ethical concerns that may emerge in consumers' minds. Present study is one of the rare studies that measures the perceptions of guerrilla and traditional advertisements in an empirical manner in Turkish context, showing that guerrilla advertisements may stimulate negative ad attitudes together with positive ad attitudes, increasing ad likability and purchase intention.

Keywords: ad attitude, guerrilla advertisement, purchase intention, traditional advertisement

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
70 The Use of Appeals in Green Printed Advertisements: A Case of Product Orientation and Organizational Image Orientation Ads

Authors: Chutima Ruanguttamanun

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Despite the relatively large number of studies that have examined the use of appeals in advertisements, research on the use of appeals in green advertisements is still underdeveloped and needs to be investigated further, as it is definitely a tool for marketers to create illustrious ads. In this study, content analysis was employed to examine the nature of green advertising appeals and to match the appeals with the green advertisements. Two different types of green print advertisings, product orientation and organizational image orientation were used. Thirty highly educated participants with different backgrounds were asked individually to ascertain three appeals out of thirty-four given appeals found among forty real green advertisements. To analyze participant responses and to group them based on common appeals, two-step K-mean clustering is used. The clustering solution indicates that eye-catching graphics and imaginative appeals are highly notable in both types of green ads. Depressed, meaningful and sad appeals are found to be highly used in organizational image orientation ads, whereas, corporate image, informative and natural appeals are found to be essential for product orientation ads.

Keywords: advertising appeals, green marketing, green advertisement, printed advertisement

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69 The Sociolinguistics of Visual Culture: An Analogous Appraisal of the Language of Trado-Medical and Church Adverts in Nigeria

Authors: Grace Temiloluwa Agbede, Rodwell Makombe, Gift Mheta

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The study adopts a sociolinguistic framework to analyse trado-medical and church advertisements in Nigeria. The study employs a qualitative case-study approach to examine the language of trado-medical and church adverts in Nigeria. Obviously, language serves as an instrument of thought. Thus, it is safe to say that language is at the centre of every human activity and experience because it differentiates human beings from all other animals. The study analyses the appropriateness of language and visual elements in trado-medical and church advertisements in relation to their meaning. It focuses on billboard advertisements as well as selected Newspapers in Nigeria. It then became clearer that society influences language and vice versa. Thus, the justification for this study is predicated on the fact that more work still needs to be done to unpack the intertwined relationship among sociolinguistics, visual culture and advertisement. Given that this research focuses on visual advertisements by traditional medical practitioners and churches in Nigeria, it is therefore necessary to investigate the interplay between language and visuality in advertisements by traditional medical practitioners and churches.

Keywords: commercials, culture, language, visuality

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68 The Factors that Affect to the Overall Attitude toward SMS Advertising of Thai Mobile Phone Users

Authors: Panprae Bunyapukkna

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The aim of this study is to: (1) measure the overall attitudes of Thai mobile phone users toward SMS advertisements, and (2) identify demographic factors that affect the overall attitudes toward SMS advertisements of Thai mobile phone users. The sample in this study consists of 100 individuals who possess at least one mobile phone and who either live, work or study in Bangkok. Thirty-three respondents are male, while the other 67 respondents are female. The respondents are aged between 21 years and 45 years old. Convenient sampling technique was used in this study. The results of this study indicate that Thai mobile phone users in general hold negative attitudes toward SMS advertisements, and that negative attitudes prevailed in nearly all different demographic groups. The results also suggest that Thai mobile phone users find SMS advertisements irritating, but are indifferent as to whether SMS ads are informative, credible and entertaining as well.

Keywords: consumer attitudes, credibility, SMS advertising, Thai mobile phone users

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67 Nonverbal Signs in Television Advertisements: A Semiotics Perspective

Authors: Yemi Mahmud

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Semiotics is the study of signs and symbols as significations in a communication process. Television advertisement combines verbal and nonverbal signs to apprise consumers of products’ deliverables. This makes the language of television advertisement an important area of semiotic research. This paper focuses on nonverbal signs in television advertisement in purposively selected advertisements of two Nivea beauty products television advertisements: New Nivea Natural Fairness and Nivea Natural Fairness Lotion in Nigeria to investigate signs in meaning construction. It studies the interpretative realities of the signification of the nonverbal signs in television advertisements in Nigeria; examining signs in relation to the embedded and contextual meanings they are capable of exhuming vis-a-vis, viewers’ social and cultural senses extrapolated to draw inferences. The paper anchors its research on visual rhetorics and concludes that signs, as nonverbal elements in television advertisements, form part of the entire linguistic system of meaning transmission, noting that interpretations do not rely, solely, on the intrinsic properties of signs as signifiers, but on the imbued sociocultural elements that suggest meaning to viewers.

Keywords: Nivea, nonverbal signs, semiotics, signification, signifiers, television advertisement

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66 Exploring the Role of Humorous Dialogues in Advertisements of Pakistani Network Companies: Analysis of Discourses through Multi-Modal Critical Approach

Authors: Jane E. Alam Solangi

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The contribution of the study is to explore the important part of humorous dialogues in cellular network advertisements. This promotes the message of valuable construction and promotion of network companies in Pakistan that employ different and broad techniques to give promotion to selling products. It merely instigates the consumers to buy it. The results of the study after analysis of its collected data gives a vision that advertisers of network advertisements use humorous dialogues as a significant device to the greater level. The source of entertainment in the advertisement is accompanied by the texts and humorous discourses to influence buying decisions of the consumers. Therefore, it tends to neutralize personal and social based values. The earlier contribution of scholars presented that the technical employment of humorous devices leads to the successful market of the relevant products. In order to analyze the humorous discourse devices, the approach of multi-modality of Fairclough (1989) is used. It is accompanied by the framework of Kress and van Leeuwen’s (1996). It analyzes the visual graph of the grammar. The overall findings in the study verified the role of humorous devices in the captivation of consumers’ decision to buy the product that interests them. Therefore, the role of humor acts as a breaker of the monotonous rhythm of advertisements.

Keywords: advertisements, devices, humorous, multi-modality, networks, Pakistan

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65 Analyzing the Influence of Gender onto Advertisement

Authors: Tamara Storozhenko

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In the paper, we want to highlight the influence of the advertising field on gender and vice versa. We will show what it was like before and the way it has changed until nowadays. We will also analyze when and how advertisements are used to create gender stereotypes and at which moment gender became a shaping advertisement. In this paper, we work not only with pure advertisements (e.g., videos and printed materials) but also with films that contain ads. Special attention is placed on the separation of goods for the ‘male ones’ and ‘female ones’, specifically if they can be used independently of gender and sex (food items and some kinds of personal supplies). Also, in this paper, we represent the history of several advertising campaigns, including the following reaction of the society that demonstrated that some of the gender stereotypes were finding resonance while some of them were not heard. Moreover, advertisements could be used as a tool for creating new ones or developing stereotypes that had already existed, and it wasn’t always successful. In the final part of the paper, we would like to analyze the current situation in this area and show how the change of understanding gender made advertisement change.

Keywords: advertisement, gender studies, psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
64 Impact of Television Advertisement on Children Behaviour : A Qualitative Research in India

Authors: Sarbjit Singh, Amit Kumar Lal

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In India there is no governing body to control advertisement apart from ASCI due to which most of the companies are targeting children in their advertisements that have a negative impact on their behaviour. The main purpose of this research paper is to find out the impact of the television advertisement on the behaviour of the children as observed and reported by parents. The exploratory research design is adopted by using in-depth interviews with 20 parents in various cities of Punjab on the basis semi-structured interviews a self-administered structured Questionnaire was developed for data collection. Exploratory factor analysis using varimax rotation is used to analyse the data from 100 parents from the conjoint cities of Punjab. (Jalandhar, Amritsar and Ludhiana) The finding suggests that children demand those products which are more advertised. Parents believe that television advertisements are affecting the study of their children. Moreover, the children are becoming more violent, stubborn and rebellious. They try to start copying from the advertisements and indulge in bad habits. Children demand, nag and pester their parents to purchase the advertised product. This research paper would help advertisers to understand children behaviour towards advertisements and more over what should be done to control the negative impact of advertisement on children. Advertisers can also understand the parental perception towards advertisement.

Keywords: advertisement, consumer behaviour, children perception, teen marketing

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63 An Open Source Advertisement System

Authors: Pushkar Umaranikar, Chris Pollett

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An online advertisement system and its implementation for the Yioop open source search engine are presented. This system supports both selling advertisements and displaying them within search results. The selling of advertisements is done using a system to auction off daily impressions for keyword searches. This is an open, ascending price auction system in which all accepted bids will receive a fraction of the auctioned day’s impressions. New bids in our system are required to be at least one half of the sum of all previous bids ensuring the number of accepted bids is logarithmic in the total ad spend on a keyword for a day. The mechanics of creating an advertisement, attaching keywords to it, and adding it to an advertisement inventory are described. The algorithm used to go from accepted bids for a keyword to which ads are displayed at search time is also presented. We discuss properties of our system and compare it to existing auction systems and systems for selling online advertisements.

Keywords: online markets, online ad system, online auctions, search engines

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62 Understanding the Strategies Underpinning the Marketing of E-Cigarettes: A Content Analysis of Video Advertisements

Authors: Laura Struik, Sarah Dow-Fleisner, Robert Janke

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Introduction: The use of e-cigarettes, also known as vaping, has risen exponentially among North American youth and young adults (YYA) in recent years and has become a critical public health concern. The marketing strategies used by e-cigarette companies have been associated with the uptick in use among YYA, with video advertisements on TV and other electronic platforms being the most pervasive strategy. It is unknown if or how these advertisements capitalize on the recently documented multi-faceted influences that contribute to the initiation of vaping among this demographic (e.g., stress, anxiety, gender, peers, etc.), which is examined in this study. Methods: This content analysis is phase one of a two-phased research project that aims to inform meaningful approaches to anti-vaping messaging and campaigns. As part of this first phase, a scoping review has been conducted to identify various influences (environmental, cognitive, contextual, social, and emotional) on e-cigarette uptake among YYA. The results of this scoping review will inform the development of a coding framework to analyze the multiple influences present in vaping advertisements, as seen on two popular television channels (Discovery and AMC). In addition, advertisement characteristics will be incorporated into the coding framework (e.g., the number of people present, demographic details, context, and setting, etc.), and analyzed. Findings: Findings will reveal the types of influences being leveraged in vaping advertisements, and identify the underlying messages that may be particularly attractive to YYA. This will contribute to a more nuanced understanding of how e-cigarette companies market their products and to whom. The results will also inform the next phase of this research project, which will encompass an analysis of anti-vaping advertisements and how the underpinning strategies align with those of the pro-vaping advertisements. Conclusions: Findings of this will study bring forward important implications for developing effective anti-vaping messages, and assist public health professionals in providing more comprehensive prevention and cessation support as it relates to e-cigarette use. Understanding which marketing strategies e-cigarette companies use is vital to our understanding of how to combat them. Findings will inform recommendations for public health efforts aimed at curbing e-cigarette use among YYA, and ultimately contribute to the health and well-being of YYA.

Keywords: e-cigarettes, youth and young adults, advertisements, public health

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61 Television, Internet, and Internet Social Media Direct-To-Consumer Prescription Medication Advertisements: Intention and Behavior to Seek Additional Prescription Medication Information

Authors: Joshua Fogel, Rivka Herzog

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Although direct-to-consumer prescription medication advertisements (DTCA) are viewed or heard in many venues, there does not appear to be any research for internet social media DTCA. We study the association of traditional media DTCA and digital media DTCA including internet social media of YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter with three different outcomes. There was one intentions outcome and two different behavior outcomes. The intentions outcome was the agreement level for seeking additional information about a prescription medication after seeing a DTCA. One behavior outcome was the agreement level for obtaining additional information about a prescription medication after seeing a DTCA. The other behavior outcome was the frequency level for obtaining additional information about a prescription medication after seeing a DTCA. Surveys were completed by 635 college students. Predictors included demographic variables, theory of planned behavior variables, health variables, and advertisements seen or heard. Also, in the behavior analyses, additional predictors of intentions and sources for seeking additional prescription drug information were included. Multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted. We found that increased age was associated with increased behavior, women were associated with increased intentions, and Hispanic race/ethnicity was associated with decreased behavior. For the theory of planned behavior variables, increased attitudes were associated with increased intentions, increased social norms were associated with increased intentions and behavior, and increased intentions were associated with increased behavior. Very good perceived health was associated with increased intentions. Advertisements seen in spam mail were associated with decreased intentions. Advertisements seen on traditional or cable television were associated with decreased behavior. Advertisements seen on television watched on the internet were associated with increased behavior. The source of seeking additional information of reading internet print content was associated with increased behavior. No internet social media advertisements were associated with either intentions or behavior. In conclusion, pharmaceutical brand managers and marketers should consider these findings when tailoring their DTCA advertising campaigns and directing their DTCA advertising budget towards young adults such as college students. They need to reconsider the current approach for traditional television DTCA and also consider dedicating a larger advertising budget toward internet television DTCA. Although internet social media is a popular place to advertise, the financial expenditures do not appear worthwhile for DTCA when targeting young adults such as college students.

Keywords: brand managers, direct-to-consumer advertising, internet, social media

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60 A Phishing Email Detection Approach Using Machine Learning Techniques

Authors: Kenneth Fon Mbah, Arash Habibi Lashkari, Ali A. Ghorbani

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Phishing e-mails are a security issue that not only annoys online users, but has also resulted in significant financial losses for businesses. Phishing advertisements and pornographic e-mails are difficult to detect as attackers have been becoming increasingly intelligent and professional. Attackers track users and adjust their attacks based on users’ attractions and hot topics that can be extracted from community news and journals. This research focuses on deceptive Phishing attacks and their variants such as attacks through advertisements and pornographic e-mails. We propose a framework called Phishing Alerting System (PHAS) to accurately classify e-mails as Phishing, advertisements or as pornographic. PHAS has the ability to detect and alert users for all types of deceptive e-mails to help users in decision making. A well-known email dataset has been used for these experiments and based on previously extracted features, 93.11% detection accuracy is obtainable by using J48 and KNN machine learning techniques. Our proposed framework achieved approximately the same accuracy as the benchmark while using this dataset.

Keywords: phishing e-mail, phishing detection, anti phishing, alarm system, machine learning

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59 Authentic Visual Resources for the Foreign Language Classroom

Authors: O. Yeret

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Visual resources are all around us, especially in today's media-driven world, which gravitates, more and more, towards the visual. As a result, authentic resources, such as television advertisements, become testaments – authentic cultural materials – that reflect the landscape of certain groups and communities during a specific point in time. Engaging language students with popular advertisements can provide a great opportunity for developing cultural awareness, a component that is sometimes overlooked in the foreign language classroom. This paper will showcase practical examples of using Israeli Television Ads in various Modern Hebrew language courses. Several approaches for combining the study of language and culture, through the use of advertisements, will be included; for example, targeted assignments based on students' proficiency levels, such as: asking to recognize vocabulary words and answer basic information questions, as opposed to commenting on the significance of an ad and analyzing its particular cultural elements. The use of visual resources in the language classroom does not only enable students to learn more about the culture of the target language, but also to combine their language skills. Most often, interacting with an ad requires close listening and some reading (through captions or other data). As students analyze the ad, they employ their writing and speaking skills by answering questions in text or audio form. Hence, these interactions are able to elicit complex language use across the four domains: listening, speaking, writing, and reading. This paper will include examples of practical assignments that were developed for several Modern Hebrew language courses, together with the specific advertisements and questions related to them. Conclusions from the process and recent feedback notes received from students regarding the use of visual resources will be mentioned as well.

Keywords: authentic materials, cultural awareness, second language acquisition, visual resources

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58 A Short Study on the Effects of Public Service Advertisement on Gender Bias in Accessible and Non-Accessible Format

Authors: Amrin Moger, Sagar Bhalerao, Martin Mathew

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Advertisements play a vital role in dissemination of information regarding products and services. Advertisements as Mass Media tool is not only a source of entertainment, but also a source of information, education and entertainment. It provides information about the outside world and exposes us to other ways of life and culture. Public service advertisements (PSA) are generally aimed at public well-being. Aim of PSA is not to make profit, but rather to change public opinion and raise awareness in the Society about a social issue.’ Start with the boys’ is one such PSA aims to create awareness about issue of ‘gender bias’ that is taught prevalent in the society. Persons with disabilities (PWDs) are also consumers of PSA in the society. The population of persons with disability in the society also faces gender bias and discrimination. It is a double discrimination. The advertisement selected for the study gives out a strong message on gender bias and therefore must be accessible to everyone including PWDs in the society. Accessibility of PSA in the digital format can be done with the help of Universal Design (UD) in digital media application. Features of UD inclusive in nature, and it focus on eliminating established barriers through initial designs. It considers the needs of diverse people, whether they are persons with or without disability. In this research two aspects of UD in digital media: captioning and Indian sign language (ISL) is used. Hence a short survey study was under taken to know the effects of a multimedia on gender bias, in accessible format on persons with and without disability. The result demonstrated a significant difference in the opinion, on the usage accessible and non-accessible format for persons with and without disability and their understanding of message in the PSA selected for the study.

Keywords: public service advertisements, gender, disability, accessibility

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57 The Influence of Advertising in the Respect of the Right to Adequate Food: Some Notes regarding the Portuguese Legal Framework

Authors: Susana Almeida

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The right to adequate food is a human right protected under several international human rights treaties of universal or regional application. In addition, this social right is – as we intend to demonstrate – guaranteed under the Portuguese Constitution. Therefore, in order to assure the protection of this right, the Portuguese State must not only abstain from interfering with this human right (negative obligation) but also take action to secure the human right to adequate food (positive obligation). In this context, the Portuguese State has developed several governmental policies, such as taxing sugary drinks, setting the maximum amount of salt in the bread or creating the National Program for the Promotion of Healthy Food. Nevertheless, we intend to demonstrate that special attention should be given to advertising, as advertisements have an extreme influence on the consumers' decisions and hence on the food decisions. In this paper, besides explaining the cross construction of the human right to adequate food, we aim to examine the Advertising Portuguese Code and to study the several provisions that could be held by the Portuguese consumer to challenge some advertisements due to the violation of the right to health and the right to adequate food. Moreover, having in mind the influence of advertising on the food decisions and the serious problems that unhealthy food may bring (e.g., child obesity), one should ask if this legal framework should not be reviewed in order to lay out some restrictions on advertising, namely setting advices like in alcohol advertisements.

Keywords: advertising code, consumer law, right to adequate food, social human right

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56 Analysis of Newspaper Advertisements of 2015 Presidential Election in Nigeria

Authors: Thanny Noeem Taiwo

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The study is an attempt to gauge the way political parties advertised their candidates and parties during the 2015 presidential election. It examined the prominence given to political advertisement by newspapers and their patrons. It also looked at the campaign issues that the candidates emphasized in their campaign and also the appeals used in the advertisements. This research work is examined against the backdrop of the Framing Theory. The agenda setting and framing effects theories are media effects theories that explain how the media affects the people, events and situations in the society. Samples comprising of three daily newspapers were selected to represent the newspapers in the Nigeria. The Punch Newspaper, the Nation and the Vanguard will be used for population of this study. These newspapers were chosen because they are widely read national dailies and also because of its affiliation with some political parties. The study revealed that low prominence was given to political messages because most of the advertisements were in the inside pages of the newspapers. The media or the print medium could be a partner in a political setting as the fourth estate of the realm. While the press was trying hard to be professional, its operations were considerably inhibited by the political adventures of the patrons of the media. There is the need for strict professionalism to the ethics of journalism in the commercialization of political messages that would eventually rub off positively on the way the media is perceived.

Keywords: aAdvertisement, election, framing, newspaper

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55 The Online Advertising Speech that Effect to the Thailand Internet User Decision Making

Authors: Panprae Bunyapukkna

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This study investigated figures of speech used in fragrance advertising captions on the Internet. The objectives of the study were to find out the frequencies of figures of speech in fragrance advertising captions and the types of figures of speech most commonly applied in captions. The relation between figures of speech and fragrance was also examined in order to analyze how figures of speech were used to represent fragrance. Thirty-five fragrance advertisements were randomly selected from the Internet. Content analysis was applied in order to consider the relation between figures of speech and fragrance. The results showed that figures of speech were found in almost every fragrance advertisement except one advertisement of Lancôme. Thirty-four fragrance advertising captions used at least one kind of figure of speech. Metaphor was most frequently found and also most frequently applied in fragrance advertising captions, followed by alliteration, rhyme, simile and personification, and hyperbole respectively.

Keywords: advertising speech, fragrance advertisements, figures of speech, metaphor

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54 Understanding the Impact of Consumers’ Perceptions and Attitudes toward Eco-Friendly Hotel Recommended Advertisements on Tourist Buying Behavior

Authors: Cherouk Amr Yassin

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This study aims to provide insight into consumer decision-making, which has become very complicated to understand and predict in the existing world of sustainable development. The deficiency of a good understanding of the tourist's perception and attitude toward sustainable development in the tourism industry may impede the ability of organizations to build a sustainable marketing orientation and may negatively influence predicted consumer response. Therefore, this research paper adds further insights into the attitude toward recommended eco-friendly hotel advertisements and their effect on the purchase intention of eco-friendly services. Structural equational modeling was completed to realize the effects of the variables under investigation. The findings revealed that consumer decision-making in choosing eco-friendly hotels is affected by the positive attitude toward sustainable development ads, influenced by informativeness and credibility as values perceived by eco-friendly hotels. This study provides practical implications for tourism, marketers, hotel managers, promoters, and consumers.

Keywords: attitude, consumer behavior, consumer decision making, eco-friendly hotels, perception, the tourism industry

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53 Celebrity Endorsement: How It Works When a Celebrity Fits the Brand and Advertisement

Authors: Göksel Şimşek

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Celebrities are admired, appreciated and imitated all over the world. As a natural result of this, today many brands choose to work with celebrities for their advertisements. It can be said that the more the brands include celebrities in their marketing communication strategies, the tougher the competition in this field becomes and they allocate a large portion of their marketing budget to this. Brands invest in celebrities who will represent them in order to build the image they want to create. This study aimed to bring under spotlight the perceptions of Turkish customers regarding the use of celebrities in advertisements and marketing communication and try to understand their possible effects on subsequent purchasing decisions. In addition, consumers’ reactions and perceptions were investigated in the context of the product-celebrity match, to what extent the celebrity conforms to the concept of the advertisement and the celebrity-target audience match. In order to achieve this purpose, a quantitative research was conducted as a case study concerning Mavi Jeans (textile company). Information was obtained through survey. The results from this case study are supported by relevant theories concerning the main subject. The most valuable result would be that instead of creating an advertisement around a celebrity in demand at the time, using a celebrity that fits the concept of the advertisement and feeds the concept rather than replaces it, that is celebrity endorsement, will lead to more striking and positive results.

Keywords: celebrity endorsement, product-celebrity match, advertising, social sciences

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52 Cognitive Development Theories as Determinant of Children's Brand Recall and Ad Recognition: An Indian Perspective

Authors: Ruchika Sharma

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In the past decade, there has been an explosion of research that has examined children’s understanding of TV advertisements and its persuasive intent, socialization of child consumer and child psychology. However, it is evident from the literature review that no studies in this area have covered advertising messages and its impact on children’s brand recall and ad recognition. Copywriters use various creative devices to lure the consumers and very impressionable consumers such as children face far more drastic effects of these creative ways of persuasion. On the basis of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development as a theoretical basis for predicting/understanding children’s response and understanding, a quasi-experiment was carried out for the study, that manipulated measurement timing and advertising messages (familiar vs. unfamiliar) keeping gender and age group as two prominent factors. This study also examines children’s understanding of Advertisements and its elements, predominantly - Language, keeping in view Fishbein’s model. Study revealed significant associations between above mentioned factors and children’s brand recall and ad identification. Further, to test the reliability of the findings on larger sample, bootstrap simulation technique was used. The simulation results are in accordance with the findings of experiment, suggesting that the conclusions obtained from the study can be generalized for entire children’s (as consumers) market in India.

Keywords: advertising, brand recall, cognitive development, preferences

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51 The Impact of Online Advertising on Generation Y’s Purchase Decision in Malaysia

Authors: Mui Joo Tang, Eang Teng Chan

Abstract:

Advertising is commonly used to foster sales and reputation of an institution. It is at first the growth of print advertising that has increased the population and number of periodicals of newspaper and its circulation. The rise of Internet and online media has somehow blurred the role of media and advertising though the intention is still to reach out to audience and to increase sales. The relationship between advertising and audience on a product purchase through persuasion has been developing from print media to online media. From the changing media environment and audience, it is the concern of this research to study the impact of online advertising to such a relationship cycle. The content of online advertisements is much of text, multimedia, photo, audio and video. The messages of such content format may indeed bring impacts to its audience and its credibility. This study is therefore reflecting the effectiveness of online advertisement and its influences on generation Y in their purchasing behavior. This study uses Media Dependency Theory to analyze the relationship between the impact of online advertisement and media usage pattern of generation Y. Hierarchy of Effectiveness Model is used as a marketing communication model to study the effectiveness of advertising and further to determine the impact of online advertisement on generation Y in their purchasing decision making. This research uses online survey to reach out the sample of generation Y. The results have shown that online advertisements do not affect much on purchase decision making even though generation Y relies much on the media content including online advertisement for its information and believing in its credibility. There are few other external factors that may interrupt the effectiveness of online advertising. The very obvious influence of purchasing behavior is actually derived from the peers.

Keywords: generation Y, purchase decision, print media, online advertising, persuasion

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50 Advertising Disability Index: A Content Analysis of Disability in Television Commercial Advertising from 2018

Authors: Joshua Loebner

Abstract:

Tectonic shifts within the advertising industry regularly and repeatedly present a deluge of data to be intuited across a spectrum of key performance indicators with innumerable interpretations where live campaigns are vivisected to pivot towards coalescence amongst a digital diaspora. But within this amalgam of analytics, validation, and creative campaign manipulation, where do diversity and disability inclusion fit in? In 2018 several major brands were able to answer this question definitely and directly by incorporating people with disabilities into advertisements. Disability inclusion, representation, and portrayals are documented annually across a number of different media, from film to primetime television, but ongoing studies centering on advertising have not been conducted. Symbols and semiotics in advertising often focus on a brand’s features and benefits, but this analysis on advertising and disability shows, how in 2018, creative campaigns and the disability community came together with the goal to continue the momentum and spark conversations. More brands are welcoming inclusion and sharing positive portrayals of intersectional diversity and disability. Within the analysis and surrounding scholarship, a multipoint analysis of each advertisement and meta-interpretation of the research has been conducted to provide data, clarity, and contextualization of insights. This research presents an advertising disability index that can be monitored for trends and shifts in future studies and to provide further comparisons and contrasts of advertisements. An overview of the increasing buying power within the disability community and population changes among this group anchors the significance and size of the minority in the US. When possible, viewpoints from creative teams and advertisers that developed the ads are brought into the research to further establish understanding, meaning, and individuals’ purposeful approaches towards disability inclusion. Finally, the conclusion and discussion present key takeaways to learn from the research, build advocacy and action both within advertising scholarship and the profession. This study, developed into an advertising disability index, will answer questions of how people with disabilities are represented in each ad. In advertising that includes disability, there is a creative pendulum. At one extreme, among many other negative interpretations, people with disables are portrayed in a way that conveys pity, fosters ableism and discrimination, and shows that people with disabilities are less than normal from a societal and cultural perspective. At the other extreme, people with disabilities are portrayed with a type of undue inspiration, considered inspiration porn, or superhuman, otherwise known as supercrip, and in ways that most people with disabilities could never achieve, or don’t want to be seen for. While some ads reflect both extremes, others stood out for non-polarizing inclusion of people with disabilities. This content analysis explores television commercial advertisements to determine the presence of people with disabilities and any other associated disability themes and/or concepts. Content analysis will allow for measuring the presence and interpretation of disability portrayals in each ad.

Keywords: advertising, brand, disability, marketing

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49 Assessment of the Situation and the Cause of Junk Food Consumption in Iranians: A Qualitative Study

Authors: A. Rezazadeh, B Damari, S. Riazi-Esfahani, M. Hajian

Abstract:

The consumption of junk food in Iran is alarmingly increasing. This study aimed to investigate the influencing factors of junk food consumption and amendable interventions that are criticized and approved by stakeholders, in order to presented to health policy makers. The articles and documents related to the content of study were collected by using the appropriate key words such as junk food, carbonated beverage, chocolate, candy, sweets, industrial fruit juices, potato chips, French fries, puffed corn, cakes, biscuits, sandwiches, prepared foods and popsicles, ice cream, bar, chewing gum, pastilles and snack, in scholar.google.com, pubmed.com, eric.ed.gov, cochrane.org, magiran.com, medlib.ir, irandoc.ac.ir, who.int, iranmedex.com, sid.ir, pubmed.org and sciencedirect.com databases. The main key points were extracted and included in a checklist and qualitatively analyzed. Then a summarized abstract was prepared in a format of a questionnaire to be presented to stakeholders. The design of this was qualitative (Delphi). According to this method, a questionnaire was prepared based on reviewing the articles and documents and it was emailed to stakeholders, who were asked to prioritize and choose the main problems and effective interventions. After three rounds, consensus was obtained.            Studies revealed high consumption of junk foods in the Iranian population, especially in children and adolescents. The most important affecting factors include availability, low price, media advertisements, preference of fast foods taste, the variety of the packages and their attractiveness, low awareness and changing in lifestyle. Main interventions recommended by stakeholders include developing a protective environment, educational interventions, increasing healthy food access and controlling media advertisements and putting pressure from the Industry and Mining Ministry on producers to produce healthy snacks. According to the findings, the results of this study may be proposed to public health policymakers as an advocacy paper and to be integrated in the interventional programs of Health and Education ministries and the media. Also, implementation of supportive meetings with the producers of alternative healthy products is suggested.

Keywords: junk foods, situation, qualitative study, Iran

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48 Subjectivity in Miracle Aesthetic Clinic Ambient Media Advertisement

Authors: Wegig Muwonugroho

Abstract:

Subjectivity in advertisement is a ‘power’ possessed by advertisements to construct trend, concept, truth, and ideology through subconscious mind. Advertisements, in performing their functions as message conveyors, use such visual representation to inspire what’s ideal to the people. Ambient media is advertising medium making the best use of the environment where the advertisement is located. Miracle Aesthetic Clinic (Miracle) popularizes the visual representation of its ambient media advertisement through the omission of face-image of both female mannequins that function as its ambient media models. Usually, the face of a model in advertisement is an image commodity having selling values; however, the faces of ambient media models in Miracle advertisement campaign are suppressed over the table and wall. This face concealing aspect creates not only a paradox of subjectivity but also plurality of meaning. This research applies critical discourse analysis method to analyze subjectivity in obtaining the insight of ambient media’s meaning. First, in the stage of textual analysis, the embedding attributes upon female mannequins imply that the models are denoted as the representation of modern women, which are identical with the identities of their social milieus. The communication signs aimed to be constructed are the women who lose their subjectivities and ‘feel embarrassed’ to flaunt their faces to the public because of pimples on their faces. Second, in the stage of analysis of discourse practice, it points out that ambient media as communication media has been comprehensively responded by the targeted audiences. Ambient media has a role as an actor because of its eyes-catching setting, and taking space over the area where the public are wandering around. Indeed, when the public realize that the ambient media models are motionless -unlike human- stronger relation then appears, marked by several responses from targeted audiences. Third, in the stage of analysis of social practice, soap operas and celebrity gossip shows on the television become a dominant discourse influencing advertisement meaning. The subjectivity of Miracle Advertisement corners women by the absence of women participation in public space, the representation of women in isolation, and the portrayal of women as an anxious person in the social rank when their faces suffered from pimples. The Ambient media as the advertisement campaign of Miracle is quite success in constructing a new trend discourse of face beauty that is not limited on benchmarks of common beauty virtues, but the idea of beauty can be presented by ‘when woman doesn’t look good’ visualization.

Keywords: ambient media, advertisement, subjectivity, power

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