Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1470

Search results for: irrigation rice farmers

1470 Productivity Effect of Urea Deep Placement Technology: An Empirical Analysis from Irrigation Rice Farmers in the Northern Region of Ghana

Authors: Shaibu Baanni Azumah, Ignatius Tindjina, Stella Obanyi, Tara N. Wood


This study examined the effect of Urea Deep Placement (UDP) technology on the output of irrigated rice farmers in the northern region of Ghana. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 142 rice farmers from the Golinga and Bontanga irrigation schemes, around Tamale. A treatment effect model was estimated at two stages; firstly, to determine the factors that influenced farmers’ decision to adopt the UDP technology and secondly, to determine the effect of the adoption of the UDP technology on the output of rice farmers. The significant variables that influenced rice farmers’ adoption of the UPD technology were sex of the farmer, land ownership, off-farm activity, extension service, farmer group participation and training. The results also revealed that farm size and the adoption of UDP technology significantly influenced the output of rice farmers in the northern region of Ghana. In addition to the potential of the technology to improve yields, it also presents an employment opportunity for women and youth, who are engaged in the deep placement of Urea Super Granules (USG), as well as in the transplantation of rice. It is recommended that the government of Ghana work closely with the IFDC to embed the UDP technology in the national agricultural programmes and policies. The study also recommends an effective collaboration between the government, through the Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MoFA) and the International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC) to train agricultural extension agents on UDP technology in the rice producing areas of the country.

Keywords: Northern Ghana, output , irrigation rice farmers, treatment effect model, urea deep placement

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
1469 Dry Season Rice Production along Hadejia Valley Irrigation Scheme in Auyo Local Government Area in Jigawa State

Authors: Saifullahi Umar, Baba Mamman Yarima, Mohammed Bello Usman, Hassan Mohammed


This study was conducted along with the Hadejia valley project irrigation under the Hadejia-Jama’are River Basin Development Authority (HRBDA) in Jigawa State. The multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 72 rice farmers operating along with the Hadejia Valley Irrigation Project. Data for the study were collected using a structured questionnaire. The analytical tools employed for the study were descriptive statistics and Farm budget technique. The result shows that 55% of the farmers were between 31-40 years of age, 66.01% were male, and the result also revealed that the total cost of cultivation of an acre of land for rice production during the dry season was N73,900 with input cost accounting for 63.59% of the total cost of production. The gross return was N332,500, with a net return of N258,600 per acre. The estimated benefit-cost ratio of 3.449 indicates the strong performance of the dry season rice production. The leading constraints to dry season rice production were low access to quality extension services, low access to finance, poor quality fertilizers, and poor prices. The study, therefore, concludes that dry season rice production is a profitable enterprise in the study area hence, to productivity the farmers should be linked to effective extension service delivery institutions, expanding their access to productive sources of finances, the government should strengthen fertilizer quality control measures and comprehensive market linkages for the farmers.

Keywords: Auyo, dry season, Hadejia Valley, rice

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
1468 Cost Benefit Analysis of Adoption of Climate Change Adaptation Options among Rural Rice Farmers in Nepal

Authors: Niranjan Devkota , Ram Kumar Phuya, Durga Lal Shreshta


This paper estimates cost and benefit of adoption of climate change adaptation options available to the rural rice farmers of Nepal. Adoption of adaptation strategies, intensity of use of adaptation options, identification of labor and non-labor cost and finally per unit cost and benefit analysis of climate change adaptation were made. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to source respondents for the study and used structured questionnaire techniques to collect data from 773 households from seven districts; 3 from Terai and 4 from Hilly region of Nepal. The result revealed that there are 13 major adaptation options rice farmers practice in order to protect themselves from climatic risk. Among the given adaptation options, the first three popular adaptation options practiced by rice farmers are (i) increasing use of chemical fertilizer (60.93%) (ii) use of climate smart verities (49.29%) and (iii) change in nursery date (32.08%). Adaptation cost is obvious, based on that, the first three costly adaptation options are the alternative irrigation practice which incurred average cost of US $69.95 (US$ 1 = 102.84 Nepalese Rupees) followed by a denser plantation of local seeds ($ 20.69) and using climate smart varieties ($ 18.06). 88% farmers practiced more than one adaptation strategies on the same farm with the aim of reducing the effect of extreme climatic conditions. Total cost and revenue revealed that per unit total cost ranges from $28.34 to $32.79 whereas per unit total revenue ranges $33.4 to $49.02. Surprisingly, it is observed that farmers who do not adopt any adaptation options are able to receive highest income from per unit production. As Net Present Value (NPV) is positive and Benefit Cost Ration (BCR) is greater than one for every adaptation options that indicates the available adaptation options are profitable to the rice farmers.

Keywords: climate change, adaptation options, cost benefit analysis, rural rice farmers, Nepal

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
1467 Accounting for Rice Productivity Heterogeneity in Ghana: The Two-Step Stochastic Metafrontier Approach

Authors: Franklin Nantui Mabe, Samuel A. Donkoh, Seidu Al-Hassan


Rice yields among agro-ecological zones are heterogeneous. Farmers, researchers and policy makers are making frantic efforts to bridge rice yield gaps between agro-ecological zones through the promotion of improved agricultural technologies (IATs). Farmers are also modifying these IATs and blending them with indigenous farming practices (IFPs) to form farmer innovation systems (FISs). Also, different metafrontier models have been used in estimating productivity performances and their drivers. This study used the two-step stochastic metafrontier model to estimate the productivity performances of rice farmers and their determining factors in GSZ, FSTZ and CSZ. The study used both primary and secondary data. Farmers in CSZ are the most technically efficient. Technical inefficiencies of farmers are negatively influenced by age, sex, household size, education years, extension visits, contract farming, access to improved seeds, access to irrigation, high rainfall amount, less lodging of rice, and well-coordinated and synergized adoption of technologies. Albeit farmers in CSZ are doing well in terms of rice yield, they still have the highest potential of increasing rice yield since they had the lowest TGR. It is recommended that government through the ministry of food and agriculture, development partners and individual private companies promote the adoption of IATs as well as educate farmers on how to coordinate and synergize the adoption of the whole package. Contract farming concept and agricultural extension intensification should be vigorously pursued to the latter.

Keywords: efficiency, farmer innovation systems, improved agricultural technologies, two-step stochastic metafrontier approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
1466 Effect of Urea Deep Placement Technology Adoption on the Production Frontier: Evidence from Irrigation Rice Farmers in the Northern Region of Ghana

Authors: Shaibu Baanni Azumah, William Adzawla


Rice is an important staple crop, with current demand higher than the domestic supply in Ghana. This has led to a high and unfavourable import bill. Therefore, recent policies and interventions in the agricultural sub-sector aim at promoting various improved agricultural technologies in order to improve domestic production and reduce the importation of rice. In this study, we examined the effect of the adoption of Urea Deep Placement (UDP) technology by rice farmers on the position of the production frontier. This involved 200 farmers selected through a multi stage sampling technique in the Northern region of Ghana. A Cobb-Douglas stochastic frontier model was fitted. The result showed that the adoption of UDP technology shifts the output frontier outward and also move the farmers closer to the frontier. Farmers were also operating under diminishing returns to scale which calls for redress. Other factors that significantly influenced rice production were farm size, labour, use of certified seeds and NPK fertilizer. Although there was an opportunity for improvement, the farmers were highly efficient (92%), compared to previous studies. Farmers’ efficiency was improved through increased education, household size, experience, access to credit, and lack of extension service provision by MoFA. The study recommends the revision of Ghana’s agricultural policy to include the UDP technology. Agricultural Extension officers of the Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MoFA) should be trained on the UDP technology to support IFDC’s drive to improve adoption by rice farmers. Rice farmers are also encouraged to expand their farm lands, improve plant population, and also increase the usage of fertilizer to improve yields. Mechanisms through which credit can be made easily accessible and effectively utilised should be identified and promoted.

Keywords: efficiency, rice farmers, stochastic frontier, UDP technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
1465 Cyanobacterial Biofertilizer Technology for Rice Producing Farmers at Nashik District

Authors: Krishna N. Gaikwad, V. R. Kakulte


Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the main cereal crop of tribal people of western part of Nasik district. There is a wide fluctuation in yield due to the factors like uncertain rains, pest diseases, socio-economic status of farmers, lack of awareness and traditional knowledge of farmers about agro-practices. In order to achieve more yield, it is a need to adopt low cost, eco-friendly blue green algal biofertilizer technology. Communication of useful information to needy people is basic need in present situation. The paper reports different communication modes of paddy technologies, adoption about BGA technology, attitudinal changes of farmers and yield of rice production during year 2011 and 2012. The results indicate that there is significant effect of communication modes of improved BGA technology on rice yield.

Keywords: rice, BGA, biofertilizer, Oryza sativa L.

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
1464 Water Management in Rice Plants of Dry Season in the Rainfed Lowland

Authors: Zainal Arifin, Mohammad Saeri


The purpose of this study is to determine the efficiency of irrigation use on the growth and yield of two varieties of rice. Water management research on rainfed lowland rice was carried out in dry season (DS I) 2016 in an area of 10,000 m2 in Bunbarat Village, Rubaru Subdistrict, Sumenep Regency. The research was randomized block design factorial with 8 treatments and repeated 3 times, ie Factor I (varieties): (a) Inpago 9, and (b) Sidenuk; factor II (irrigation): (a) Alternate Wetting and Drying, (b) intermittent, (c) submerged, and (d) inundated. The results showed that dominant weed species such as purslane (Portulaca oleraceae L.) and barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli) were mostly found in rice cultivation with Alternate Wetting and Drying, intermittent and submerged irrigation treatment, while the lowest was inundated irrigation. The use of Sidenuk variety with Alternate Wetting and Drying irrigation yielded 5.7 t/ha dry grain harvest (dgh) and was not significantly different from the inundated watering using the Sidenuk variety (6.2 t/ha dgh). With Alternate Wetting and Drying irrigation technique, water use is more efficient as much as 1,503 m3/ha so as to produce 1 kg of grain, it needs 459 liters of water compared to inundated irrigation (665 liters/kg of grain). Results of analysis of rice farming Sidenuk variety with Alternate Wetting and Drying irrigation has the highest B/C ratio (2.56) so that economically feasible.

Keywords: water management, varieties, rice, dry season, rainfed lowland

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
1463 Pros and Cons of Different Types of Irrigation Systems for Date Palm Production in Sebha, Libya

Authors: Ahmad Aridah, Maria Fay Rola-Rubzen, Zora Singh


This study investigated the effectiveness of various types of irrigation systems in regards to the impact that these have on the productivity of date palms in the semi-arid and arid region of Sebha, Southwest Libya. The date palm is an economically important crop in Libya and contributes to the agriculture industry, foreign exchange earnings, farmers’ income, and employment in the country. The date palm industry relies on large amounts of water for growing the crop. Farmers in Southwest Libya use a variety of irrigation systems, but the quality and quantity of water varies between systems and this affects the productivity and income of farmers. Using survey data from 210 farmers, this study estimated and assessed the pros and cons of different types of irrigation systems for date palm production under various irrigation systems currently used in Sebha, Libya. The number of years farmers have used irrigation, the area, irrigation water consumption, time of irrigation, number of farm workers (including family labour) and inputs used were measured for surface, sprinkler and drip irrigation methods. Findings from this research provide new insights into the advantages and disadvantages of the various irrigation systems, problems encountered by farmers and the factors that affect the quality and quantity of the irrigation system. The paper discussed proposed solutions to deal with the problems including timing of irrigation, canal maintenance, repair of wells and water control.

Keywords: Libya, factors, irrigation method, date palm

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
1462 Impact of Emerging Nano-Agrichemicals on the Simultaneous Control of Arsenic and Cadmium in Rice Paddies

Authors: Xingmao Ma, Wenjie Sun


Rice paddies are frequently co-contaminated by arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd), both of which demonstrate a high propensity for accumulation in rice grains and cause global food safety and public health concern. Even though different agricultural management strategies have been explored for their simultaneous control in rice grains, a viable solution is yet to be developed. Interestingly, several nanoagrichemicals, such as the zinc nanofertilizer and copper nanopesticide have displayed strong potential to reduce As or Cd accumulation in rice tissues. In order to determine whether these nanoagrichemicals can lower the accumulation of both As and Cd in rice, a series of bench studies were performed. Our results show that zinc oxide nanoparticles at 100 mg/Kg significantly lowered both As, and Cd in rice roots and shoots in flood irrigated rice seedlings, while equivalent amount of zinc ions only reduced As concentration in rice shoots. Zinc ions significantly increased Cd concentration in rice shoots by almost 30%. The results demonstrate a unique 'nano-effect' of zinc oxide nanoparticles, which is ascribed to the slow releasing of zinc ions from nanoparticles and the formation of different transformation products in these two treatments. We also evaluated the effect of nanoscale soil amendment, silicon oxide nanoparticles (SiO₂NPs) on the simultaneous reduction in both flooding and alternate wet and dry irrigation scheme. The effect of SiO₂NPs on As and Cd accumulation in rice tissues was strongly affected by the irrigation scheme. While 2000 mg/kg of SiO₂NPs significantly reduced As in rice roots and insignificantly reduced As in rice shoots in flooded rice, it increased As concentration in rice shoots in alternate wet and dry irrigation. In both irrigation scenarios, SiO₂NPs significantly reduced Cd concentration in rice roots, but only reduced Cd concentration in rice shoots in alternate wet and dry irrigation. Our results demonstrate a marked effect of nanoagrichemicals on the accumulation of As and Cd in rice and can be a potential solution to simultaneously control both in certain conditions.

Keywords: arsenic, cadmium, rice, nanoagrichemicals

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
1461 Farmers' Perception of the Effects of Climate Change on Rice Production in Nasarawa State, Nigeria

Authors: P. O. Fatoki, R. S. Olaleye, B. O. Adeniji


The study investigated farmers’ perception of the effects of climate change on rice production in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used in selecting a total of 248 rice farmers from the study area. Data for the study were collected through the use of interview schedule. The data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Results showed that majority (71.8%) of the respondents were married and the mean age of the respondents was 44.54 years. The results also showed that most adapted strategies for mitigating the effects of climate change on rice production were change of planting and harvesting date (67.7%), movement to another site (63.7%) and increased or reduced land size (58.5%). Relationship between the roles of extension agents in mitigating climate change effects on rice production and farmers’ perception were significant as revealed Chi-Square analysis from the study ; Dissemination of information ( = 2.16, P < 0.05) and use of demonstration methods ( = 2.15, P < 0.05). Poisson regression analysis revealed that educational status, farm size, experience and yield had significant relationship with the perception of the effects of climate change at 0.01 significance level while household size was as well significant at 0.05. It is recommended that some of the adaptive strategies and practices for mitigating the effects of climate change in rice production should be improved, while the extension outfits should be strengthened to ensure adequate dissemination of relevant information on climate change with a view to mitigate its effects on rice production.

Keywords: perception, rice farmers, climate change, mitigation, adaptive strategies

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
1460 Farmers Perception and Awareness to Climate Change in Some Selected Local Government Areas in Jigawa State, Nigeria

Authors: M. M. Ubayo, U. S. Babuga, A. Garba


The study examined the level of climate change awareness and perception by rice farmers in Jigawa State, Nigeria. A multi-stage and purposive sampling technique was used to select respondents. The state is divided into four agricultural zones namely Birninkudu zone, Gumel zone, Hadejia zone, and Kazaure zone. Two agricultural zones (Gumel zone and Hadejia zones) were purposively selected. Six Local Government Areas (LGAs) were randomly selected from the two zones. Also, twenty rice farmers were purposively selected from each of the LGAS. Data were analyzed using frequency and percentages. The result shows that 83.3% of the respondents are aware of the climate change impact on their rice output. Personal experience is the main sources of climate change information in the study area, another 45.6% adopted use of irrigation as the most effective measure to combating climate change, 25.5% use of early maturing variety. Further studies are needed on how to combat the threat and menace of the climate change in the study area.

Keywords: awareness, perception, climate, change, Jigawa

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
1459 Payment Subsidies for Environmentally-Friendly Agriculture on Rice Production in Japan

Authors: Danielle Katrina Santos, Koji Shimada


Environmentally-friendly agriculture has been promoted for over two decades as a response to the environmental challenges brought by climate change and biological loss. Located above the equator, it is possible that Japan may benefit from future climate change, yet Japan is also a rarely developed country located in the Asian Monsoon climate region, making it vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. In this regard, the Japanese government has initiated policies to adapt to the adverse effects of climate change through the promotion and popularization of environmentally-friendly farming practices. This study aims to determine profit efficiency among environmentally-friendly rice farmers in Shiga Prefecture using the Stochastic Frontier Approach. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 66 farmers from top rice-producing cities through a structured questionnaire. Results showed that the gross farm income of environmentally-friendly rice farmers was higher by JPY 316,223.00/ha. Production costs were also found to be higher among environmentally-friendly rice farmers, especially on labor costs, which accounted for 32% of the total rice production cost. The resulting net farm income of environmentally-friendly rice farmers was only higher by JPY 18,044/ha. Results from the stochastic frontier analysis further showed that the profit efficiency of conventional farmers was only 69% as compared to environmentally-friendly rice farmers who had a profit efficiency of 76%. Furthermore, environmentally-friendly agriculture participation, other types of subsidy, educational level, and farm size were significant factors positively influencing profit efficiency. The study concluded that substitution of environmentally-friendly agriculture for conventional rice farming would result in an increased profit efficiency due to the direct payment subsidy and price premium received. The direct government policies that would strengthen the popularization of environmentally-friendly agriculture to increase the production of environmentally-friendly products and reduce pollution load to the Lake Biwa ecosystem.

Keywords: profit efficiency, environmentally-friendly agriculture, rice farmers, direct payment subsidies

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
1458 Physical Properties of Rice Field Receiving Irrigation Polluted by Gold Mine Tailing: Case Study in Dharmasraya, West Sumatra, Indonesia

Authors: Yulna Yulnafatmawita, Syafrimen Yasin, Lusi Maira


Irrigation source is one of the factors affecting physical properties of rice field. This research was aimed to determine the impact of polluted irrigation wáter on soil physical properties of rice field. The study site was located in Koto Nan IV, Dharmasraya Regency, West Sumatra, Indonesia. The rice field was irrigated with wáter from Momongan river in which people do gold mining. The soil was sampled vertically from the top to 100 cm depth with 20 cm increment of soil profile from 2 year-fallowed rice field, as well as from the top 20 cm of cultivated rice field from the terrace-1 (the highest terrace) to terrace-5 (the lowest terrace) position. Soil samples were analysed in laboratory. For comparison, rice field receiving irrigation wáter from non-polluted source was also sampled at the top 20 cm and anaysed for the physical properties. The result showed that there was a change in soil physical properties of rice field after 9 years of getting irrigation from the river. Based on laboratory analyses, the total suspended solid (TSS) in the tailing reached 10,736 mg/L. The texture of rice field at polluted rice field (PRF) was dominated (>55%) by sand particles at the top 100 cm soil depth, and it tended to linearly decrease (R2=0.65) from the top 20 cm to 100 cm depth. Likewise, the sand particles also linearly decreased (R2=0.83), but clay particles linearly increased (R2=0.74) horizontally as the distance from the wáter input (terrace-1) was fartherst. Compared to nonpolluted rice field (NPRF), percentage of sand was higher, and clay was lower at PRF. This sandy texture of soil in PRF increased soil hydraulic conductivity (up to 19.1 times), soil bulk density (by 38%), and sharply decreased SOM (by 88.5 %), as well as soil total pore (by 22.1%) compared to the NPRF at the top 20 cm soil. The rice field was suggested to be reclaimed before reusing it. Otherwise the soil characteristics requirement, especially soil wáter retention, for rice field could not be fulfilled.

Keywords: gold mine tailing, polluted irrigation, rice field, soil physical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
1457 Institutional Design for Managing Irrigation Problems: A Case Study of Farmers'- and Agency-Managed Irrigation Systems of Nepal

Authors: Tirtha Raj Dhakal, Brian Davidson, Bob Farquharson


Institutional design is an important aspect in efficient water resource management. In Nepal, the water supply in both farmers’- and agency-managed irrigation systems has become sub-standard because of the weak institutional framework. This study characterizes both forms of the schemes and links existing institution and governance of the schemes with its performance with reference to cost recovery, maintenance of the schemes and water distribution throughout the schemes. For this, two types of surveys were conducted. A management survey of ten farmers’-managed and five agency-managed schemes of Chitwan valley and its periphery was done. Also, a farm survey comprising 25 farmers from each of head, middle and tail regions of both schemes; Narayani Lift Irrigation Project (agency-managed) and Khageri Irrigation System (farmers’-managed) of Chitwan Valley as a case study was conducted. The results showed that cost recovery of agency-managed schemes in 2015 was less than two percent whereas service fee collection rate in farmers’-managed schemes was nearly 2/3rd that triggered poor maintenance of the schemes and unequal distribution of water throughout the schemes. Also, the institution on practice is unable to create any incentives for farmers for economical use of water as well as willingness to pay for its use. This, thus, compels the need of refined institutional framework which has been suggested in this paper aiming to improve the cost recovery and better water distribution throughout the irrigation schemes.

Keywords: cost recovery, governance, institution, schemes' performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
1456 Strategy in Controlling Rice-Field Conversion in Pangkep Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

Authors: Nurliani, Ida Rosada


The national rice consumption keeps increasing along with raising income of the households and the rapid growth of population. However, food availability, particularly rice, is limited. Impacts of rice-field conversion have run cumulatively, as we can see on potential losses of rice and crops production, as well as work opportunity that keeps increasing year-by-year. Therefore, it requires policy recommendation to control rice-field conversion through economic, social, and ecological approaches. The research was a survey method intended to: (1) Identify internal factors; quality and productivity of the land as the cause of land conversion, (2) Identify external factors of land conversion, value of the rice-field and the competitor’s land, workforce absorption, and regulation, as well as (3) Formulate strategies in controlling rice-field conversion. Population of the research was farmers who applied land conversion at Pangkep Regency, South Sulawesi. Samples were determined using the incidental sampling method. Data analysis used productivity analysis, land quality analysis, total economic value analysis, and SWOT analysis. Results of the research showed that the quality of rice-field was low as well as productivity of the grains (unhulled-rice). So that, average productivity of the grains and quality of rice-field were low as well. Total economic value of rice-field was lower than the economic value of the embankment. Workforce absorption value on rice-field was higher than on the embankment. Strategies in controlling such rice-field conversion can be done by increasing rice-field productivity, improving land quality, applying cultivation technique of specific location, improving the irrigation lines, and socializing regulation and sanction about the transfer of land use.

Keywords: land conversion, quality of rice-field, productivity, land economic value.

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
1455 Integrated Farming Barns as a Strategy for National Food Security

Authors: Ilma Ulfatul Janah, Ibnu Rizky Briwantara, Muhammad Afif


The agricultural sector is one of the sectors that contribute to national development. The benefit of the agricultural sector can be felt directly by the majority of Indonesian people. Indonesia is one of the agricultural countries and most of the people working in the agricultural sector. Hence, the agricultural sector’s become the second sector which has contributed greatly to the growth of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) after the manufacture sector. Based on the National Medium Term Development Plan (RPJMN) from 2015 to 2019, one of the targets to be achieved by the Indonesian government is rice’s self-sufficient. Rice is the main food commodities which as most people in Indonesia, and it is making Indonesian government attempt self-sufficient in rice. Indonesia as an agricultural country becomes one of the countries that have a lower percentage of food security than other ASEAN countries. Rice self-sufficiency can be created through agricultural productivity and the availability of a market for the output. There are some problems still to be faced by the farmers such as farmer exchange rate is low. The low exchange rate of farmers showed that the level of the welfare’s Indonesian farmers is still low. The aims of this paper are to resolve problems related to food security and improve the welfare of the national rice farmers. The method by using materials obtained from the analysis of secondary data with the descriptive approach and conceptual framework. Integrated Farmers barn raising rice production is integrated and managed by the government coupled with the implementation of technology in the form of systems connected and accessible to farmers, namely 'SIBUNGTAN'.

Keywords: agriculture, self-sufficiency, technology, productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
1454 Comparing Performance of Irrigation System in Nepal by Collective Action and Decision-Making Capacity of the Farmers

Authors: Manita Ale, Ganesh P. Shivakoti, Ram C. Bastakoti


Irrigation system, a system for enhancing agricultural productivity, requires regular maintenance in order to avoid irregular allocation of water. For maintenance of the system in long run, farmers’ participation plays a key role increasing the performance of system. The performance of any irrigation system mainly relies on various factors which affect collective action plus decision making, as well as their shared impacts. The paper consists of system level information that were collected from 12 Irrigation Systems (IS) from three-sampled districts of Nepal and the household information that were collected from 160 irrigation water users. The results reveal that, out of 12 sampled irrigation systems, only 4 systems shows high performance levels. The high performance level of those systems was characterized on the basis of adequate availability of water, good maintenance of system infrastructure, and conformance to existing rules followed. In addition, the paper compares different irrigation systems based on trust, reciprocity, cropping intensity, command area and yield as tools to indicate the importance of collective action in performance of irrigation system.

Keywords: collective action, decision-making, farmers’ participation, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
1453 A Comparative Analysis of the Private and Social Benefit-Cost Ratios of Organic and Inorganic Rice Farming: Case Study of Smallholder Farmers in the Aveyime Community, Ghana

Authors: Jerome E. Abiemo, Takeshi Mizunoya


The Aveyime community in the Volta region of Ghana is one of the major hubs for rice production. In the past, rice farmers applied organic pesticides to control pests, and compost as a soil amendment to improve fertility and productivity. However, the introduction of chemical pesticides and fertilizers have led many farmers to convert to inorganic system of rice production, without considering the social costs (e.g. groundwater contamination and health costs) related to the use of pesticides. The study estimates and compares the private and social BCRs of organic and inorganic systems of rice production. Both stratified and simple random sampling techniques were employed to select 300 organic and inorganic rice farmers and 50 pesticide applicators. The respondents were interviewed with pre-tested questionnaires. The Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) which elucidates organic farmers` Willingness-to-Pay (WTP) was employed to estimate the cost of groundwater contamination. The Cost of Illness (COI) analysis was used to estimate the health cost of pesticide-induced poisoning of applicators. The data collated, was analyzed with the aid of Microsoft excel. The study found that high private benefit (e.g. increase in farm yield and income) was the most influential factor for the rapid adoption of pesticides among rice farmers. The study also shows that the social costs of inorganic rice production were high. As such the social BCR of inorganic farming (0.2) was low as compared to organic farming (0.7). Based on the results, it was recommended that government should impose pesticide environmental tax, review current agricultural policies to favour organic farming and promote extension education to farmers on pesticide risk, to ensure agricultural and environmental sustainability.

Keywords: benefit-cost-ratio (BCR), inorganic farming, pesticides, social cost

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
1452 Beyond Adoption: Econometric Analysis of Impacts of Farmer Innovation Systems and Improved Agricultural Technologies on Rice Yield in Ghana

Authors: Franklin N. Mabe, Samuel A. Donkoh, Seidu Al-Hassan


In order to increase and bridge the differences in rice yield, many farmers have resorted to adopting Farmer Innovation Systems (FISs) and Improved Agricultural Technologies (IATs). This study econometrically analysed the impacts of adoption of FISs and IATs on rice yield using multinomial endogenous switching regression (MESR). Nine-hundred and seven (907) rice farmers from Guinea Savannah Zone (GSZ), Forest Savannah Transition Zone (FSTZ) and Coastal Savannah Zone (CSZ) were used for the study. The study used both primary and secondary data. FBO advice, rice farming experience and distance from farming communities to input markets increase farmers’ adoption of only FISs. Factors that increase farmers’ probability of adopting only IATs are access to extension advice, credit, improved seeds and contract farming. Farmers located in CSZ have higher probability of adopting only IATs than their counterparts living in other agro-ecological zones. Age and access to input subsidy increase the probability of jointly adopting FISs and IATs. FISs and IATs have heterogeneous impact on rice yield with adoption of only IATs having the highest impact followed by joint adoption of FISs and IATs. It is important for stakeholders in rice subsector to champion the provision of improved rice seeds, the intensification of agricultural extension services and contract farming concept. Researchers should endeavour to researched into FISs.

Keywords: farmer innovation systems, improved agricultural technologies, multinomial endogenous switching regression, treatment effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
1451 The Effects of an Exercise Program Integrated with the Transtheoretical Model on Pain and Trunk Muscle Endurance of Rice Farmers with Chronic Low Back Pain

Authors: Thanakorn Thanawat, Nomjit Nualnetr


Background and Purpose: In Thailand, rice farmers have the most prevalence of low back pain when compared with other manual workers. Exercises have been suggested to be a principal part of treatment programs for low back pain. However, the programs should be tailored to an individual’s readiness to change categorized by a behavioral approach. This study aimed to evaluate a difference between the responses of rice farmers with chronic low back pain who received an exercise program integrated with the transtheoretical model of behavior change (TTM) and those of the comparison group regarding severity of pain and trunk muscle endurance. Materials and Methods: An 8-week exercise program was conducted to rice farmers with chronic low back pain who were randomized to either the TTM (n=62, 52 woman and 10 men, mean age ± SD 45.0±5.4 years) or non-TTM (n=64, 53 woman and 11 men, mean age ± SD 44.7±5.4 years) groups. All participants were tested for their severity of pain and trunk (abdominal and back) muscle endurance at baseline (week 0) and immediately after termination of the program (week 8). Data were analysed by using descriptive statistics and student’s t-tests. The results revealed that both TTM and non-TTM groups could decrease their severity of pain and improve trunk muscle endurance after participating in the 8-week exercise program. When compared with the non-TTM group, however, the TTM showed a significantly greater increase in abdominal muscle endurance than did the non-TTM (P=0.004, 95% CI -12.4 to -2.3). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: An exercise program integrated with the TTM could provide benefits to rice farmers with chronic low back pain. Future studies with a longitudinal design and more outcome measures such as physical performance and quality of life are suggested to reveal further benefits of the program.

Keywords: chronic low back pain, transtheoretical model, rice farmers, exercise program

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
1450 Analysis of the Savings Behaviour of Rice Farmers in Tiaong, Quezon, Philippines

Authors: Angelika Kris D. Dalangin, Cesar B. Quicoy


Rice farming is a major source of livelihood and employment in the Philippines, but it requires a substantial amount of capital. Capital may come from income (farm, non-farm, and off-farm), savings and credit. However, rice farmers suffer from lack of capital due to high costs of inputs and low productivity. Capital insufficiency, coupled with low productivity, hindered them to meet their basic household and production needs. Hence, they resorted to borrowing money, mostly from informal lenders who charge very high interest rates. As another source of capital, savings can help rice farmers meet their basic needs for both the household and the farm. However, information is inadequate whether the farmers save or not, as well as, why they do not depend on savings to augment their lack of capital. Thus, it is worth analyzing how rice farmers saved. The study revealed, using the actual savings which is the difference between the household income and expenditure, that about three-fourths (72%) of the total number of farmers interviewed are savers. However, when they were asked whether they are savers or not, more than half of them considered themselves as non-savers. This gap shows that there are many farmers who think that they do not have savings at all; hence they continue to borrow money and do not depend on savings to augment their lack of capital. The study also identified the forms of savings, saving motives, and savings utilization among rice farmers. Results revealed that, for the past 12 months, most of the farmers saved cash at home for liquidity purposes while others deposited cash in banks and/or saved their money in the form of livestock. Among the most important reasons of farmers for saving are for daily household expenses, for building a house, for emergency purposes, for retirement, and for their next production. Furthermore, the study assessed the factors affecting the rice farmers’ savings behaviour using logistic regression. Results showed that the factors found to be significant were presence of non-farm income, per capita net farm income, and per capita household expense. The presence of non-farm income and per capita net farm income positively affects the farmers’ savings behaviour. On the other hand, per capita household expenses have negative effect. The effect, however, of per capita net farm income and household expenses is very negligible because of the very small chance that the farmer is a saver. Generally, income and expenditure were proved to be significant factors that affect the savings behaviour of the rice farmers. However, most farmers could not save regularly due to low farm income and high household and farm expenditures. Thus, it is highly recommended that government should develop programs or implement policies that will create more jobs for the farmers and their family members. In addition, programs and policies should be implemented to increase farm productivity and income.

Keywords: agricultural economics, agricultural finance, binary logistic regression, logit, Philippines, Quezon, rice farmers, savings, savings behaviour

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
1449 Effect of Tillage Techniques on the Performance of Kharif Rice Varieties

Authors: Mahua Banerjee, Debtanu Maiti


Zero-tillage cultivation is a farming practice that reduces costs while maintaining harvests and protecting the environment. Innovative partnerships among researchers, farmers, and other actors in the agricultural value chain have enabled the adoption of zero-tillage to sow rice in the Indo-Gangetic Plains, increasing farmers' incomes, fostering more sustainable use of soil and water, and providing a platform for cropping diversification and the introduction of other resource-conserving practices. A field experiment was conducted in the farmer’s field of Ausgram I Block, Burdwan, West Bengal, India under sandy loam soil with soil pH of 5.2, which is low in Nitrogen, medium in Phosphorus and Potassium. There were three techniques of tillage-T1: Zero tillage in Rice, T2: conventional tillage in Rice, T3: Rice grown with Drum seeder and three varieties namely V1: MTU 7029 V2-MTU 1010, V3: Pratikha thus making nine treatment combinations which were replicated thrice and the experiment was laid out in Factorial Randomised Block Design. Among the three varieties, rice variety MTU 7029 gave higher yield in all the tillage techniques. The highest yield was obtained under Zero tillage followed by conventional tillage. From economic analysis it was revealed that the benefit:cost ratio was higher in Zero tillage and rice cultivation by drum seeder. Zero-till is increasingly being adopted because it gives more yield at less cost, saves labour and farmer time. Farmers will be interested in this technology once they overcome their tillage biases.

Keywords: economics, Indo-Gangetic plain, rice, zero tillage, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
1448 The Effects of Subsidised Irrigation Service Fees on Irrigation Performance in Vietnam

Authors: Trang Pham


Approximately 70% of the Vietnamese population lives in rural areas where the main livelihood is farming. For many years, the Vietnamese Government has been working towards improving farmers’ quality of life. In 2008, the Government issued the decree 115/2008/ND-CP to subsidize farmers’ water fees. The subsidy covers operation and management costs of major water infrastructure. Water users have only to pay for the operation and management of minor or tertiary canal systems. But the “subsidized water fee” has become contentious; there are two opposing schools of thought. One view is that the subsidy lessens the burden on farmers in terms of reducing their production costs, at the same time generating a sufficient budget for Irrigation Management Companies (IMCs) and Water User Association (WUAs). The alternate point of view is that the subsidy negatively effects irrigation performance, especially in tertiary canals. The aim of this study was to gain clear awareness of the perceptions of farmers, WUA members, and IMC staffs in regard to irrigation performance and management since the introduction of subsidies and local water fees. In order to find out how the government intervention has affected local farming communities, a series of questionnaires and interviews were administered in 2013. Four case studies were chosen which represent four different agricultural areas and four different irrigation systems in Vietnam. Interviews were conducted with IMC staffs and WUA members and questionnaires were used to gather information from farmers. The study compares the difference in operation and management costs across the four case studies both before and after the implementation of the decree. The results disclose factors behind the subsidized water fee that either allow or hinder improved irrigation performance and better irrigation management.

Keywords: water fee, irrigation performance, local farming, tertiary canal systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
1447 Sunflower Irrigation with Two Different Types of Soil Moisture Sensors

Authors: C. D. Papanikolaou, V. A. Giouvanis, E. A. Karatasiou, D. S. Dimakas, M. A. Sakellariou-Makrantonaki


Irrigation is one of the most important cultivation practices for each crop, especially in areas where rainfall is enough to cover the crop water needs. In such areas, the farmers must irrigate in order to achieve high economical results. The precise irrigation scheduling contributes to irrigation water saving and thus a valuable natural resource is protected. Under this point of view, in the experimental field of the Laboratory of Agricultural Hydraulics of the University of Thessaly, a research was conducted during the growing season of 2012 in order to evaluate the growth, seed and oil production of sunflower as well as the water saving, by applying different methods of irrigation scheduling. Three treatments in four replications were organized. These were: a) surface drip irrigation where the irrigation scheduling based on the Penman-Monteith (PM) method (control); b) surface drip irrigation where the irrigation scheduling based on a soil moisture sensor (SMS); and c) surface drip irrigation, where the irrigation scheduling based on a soil potential sensor (WM).

Keywords: irrigation, energy production, soil moisture sensor, sunflower, water saving

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
1446 Using the Nerlovian Adjustment Model to Assess the Response of Farmers to Price and Other Related Factors: Evidence from Sierra Leone Rice Cultivation

Authors: Alhaji M. H. Conteh, Xiangbin Yan, Alfred V. Gborie


The goal of this study was to increase the awareness of the description and assessments of rice acreage response and to offer mechanisms for agricultural policy scrutiny. The Ordinary Least Square (OLS) technique was utilized to determine the coefficients of acreage response models for the rice varieties. The magnitudes of the coefficients (λ) of both the ROK lagged and NERICA lagged acreages were found positive and highly significant, which indicates that farmers’ adjustment rate was very low. Regarding lagged actual price for both the ROK and NERICE rice varieties, the short-run price elasticities were lower than long-run, which is suggesting a long-term adjustment of the acreage, is under the crop. However, the apparent recommendations for policy transformation are to open farm gate prices and to decrease government’s involvement in agricultural sector especially in the acquisition of agricultural inputs. Impending research have to be centred on how this might be better realized. Necessary conditions should be made available to the private sector by means of minimizing price volatility. In accordance with structural reforms, it is necessary to convey output prices to farmers with minimum distortion. There is a need to eradicate price subsidies and control, which generate distortion in the market in addition to huge financial costs.

Keywords: acreage response, rate of adjustment, rice varieties, Sierra Leone

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
1445 Potassium Fertilization Improves Rice Yield in Aerobic Production System by Decreasing Panicle Sterility

Authors: Abdul Wakeel, Hafeez Ur Rehman, Muhammad Umair Mubarak


Rice is the second most important staple food in Pakistan after wheat. It is not only a healthy food for the people of all age groups but also a source of foreign exchange for Pakistan. Instead of bright history for Basmati rice production, we are suffering from multiple problems reducing yield and quality as well. Rice lodging and water shortage for an-aerobic rice production system is among major glitches of it. Due to water shortage an-aerobic rice production system has to be supplemented or replaced by aerobic rice system. Aerobic rice system has been adopted for production of non-basmati rice in many parts of the world. Also for basmati rice, significant efforts have been made for aerobic rice production, however still has to be improved for effective recommendations. Among two major issues for aerobic rice, weed elimination has been solved to great extent by introducing suitable herbicides, however, low yield production due weak grains and panicle sterility is still elusive. It has been reported that potassium (K) has significant role to decrease panicle sterility in cereals. Potassium deficiency is obvious for rice under aerobic rice production system due to lack of K gradient coming with irrigation water and lowered indigenous K release from soils. Therefore it was hypothesized that K application under aerobic rice production system may improve the rice yield by decreasing panicle sterility. Results from pot and field experiments confirm that application of K fertilizer significantly increased the rice grain yield due to decreased panicle sterility and improving grain health. The quality of rice was also improved by K fertilization.

Keywords: DSR, Basmati rice, aerobic, potassium

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
1444 System Productivity Enhancement by Inclusion of Mungbean in Potato-Jute -T. Aman Rice Cropping Pattern

Authors: Apurba Kanti Chowdhury, Taslima Zahan


The inclusion of mungbean in a cropping pattern not only increases the cropping intensity but also enriches soil health as well as ensures nutrition for the fast-growing population of Bangladesh. A study was conducted in the farmers’ field during 2013-14 and 2014-15 to observe the performance of four-crop based improve cropping pattern Potato-Mungbean-Jute -t.aman rice against the existing cropping pattern Potato-Jute -t.aman rice at Domar, Nilphamari followed by randomized complete block design with three replications. Two years study revealed that inclusion of mungbean and better management practices in improved cropping pattern provided higher economic benefit over the existing pattern by 73.1%. Moreover, the average yield of potato increased in the improved pattern by 64.3% compared to the existing pattern; however yield of jute and t.aman rice in improved pattern declined by 5.6% and 10.7% than the existing pattern, respectively. Nevertheless, the additional yield of mungbean in the improved pattern helped to increase rice equivalent yield of the whole pattern by 38.7% over the existing pattern. Thus, the addition of mungbean in the existing pattern Potato-Jute -t.aman rice seems to be profitable for the farmers and also might be sustainable if the market channel of mungbean developed.

Keywords: crop diversity, food nutrition, production efficiency, yield improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
1443 The Issues of Irrigation and Drainage in Kebbi State and Their Effective Solution for a Sustainable Agriculture in Kebbi State, Nigeria

Authors: Mumtaz Ahmed Sohag, Ishaq Ahmed Sohag


Kebbi State, located in the Nort-West of Nigeria, is rich in water resources as the major rivers viz. Niger and Rima irrigate a vast majority of land. Besides, there is significant amount of groundwater, which farmers use for agriculture purpose. The groundwater is also a major source of agricultural and domestic water as wells are installed in almost all parts of the region. Although Kebbi State is rich in water, however, there are some pertinent issues which are hampering its agricultural productivity. The low lands (locally called Fadama), has spread out to a vast area. It is inundated every year during the rainy season which lasts from June to September every year. The farmers grow rice during the rainy season when water is standing. They cannot do further agricultural activity for almost two months due to high standing water. This has resulted in widespread waterlogging problem. Besides, the impact of climate change is resulting in rapid variation in river/stream flows. The information about water bodies regarding the availability of water for agricultural and other uses and the behavior of rivers at different flows is seldom available. Furthermore, sediment load (suspended and bedload) is not measured due to which land erosion cannot be countered effectively. This study, carried out in seven different irrigation regions of Kebbi state, found that diversion structures need to be constructed at some strategic locations for the supply of surface water to the farmers. The water table needs to be lowered through an effective drainage system. The monitoring of water bodies is crucial for sound data to help efficient regulation and management of water. Construction of embankments is necessary to control frequent floods in the rivers of Niger and Rima. Furthermore, farmers need capacity and awareness for participatory irrigation management.

Keywords: water bodies, floods, agriculture, waterlogging

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
1442 Potential Benefits and Adaptation of Climate Smart Practices by Small Farmers Under Three-Crop Rice Production System in Vietnam

Authors: Azeem Tariq, Stephane De Tourdonnet, Lars Stoumann Jensen, Reiner Wassmann, Bjoern Ole Sander, Quynh Duong Vu, Trinh Van Mai, Andreas De Neergaard


Rice growing area is increasing to meet the food demand of increasing population. Mostly, rice is growing on lowland, small landholder fields in most part of the world, which is one of the major sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from agriculture fields. The strategies such as, altering water and residues (carbon) management practices are assumed to be essential to mitigate the GHG emissions from flooded rice system. The actual implementation and potential of these measures on small farmer fields is still challenging. A field study was conducted on red river delta in Northern Vietnam to identify the potential challenges and barriers to the small rice farmers for implementation of climate smart rice practices. The objective of this study was to develop and access the feasibility of climate smart rice prototypes under actual farmer conditions. Field and scientific oriented framework was used to meet our objective. The methodological framework composed of six steps: i) identification of stakeholders and possible options, ii) assessment of barrios, drawbacks/advantages of new technologies, iii) prototype design, iv) assessment of mitigation potential of each prototype, v) scenario building and vi) scenario assessment. A farm survey was conducted to identify the existing farm practices and major constraints of small rice farmers. We proposed the two water (pre transplant+midseason drainage and early+midseason drainage) and one straw (full residue incorporation) management option keeping in views the farmers constraints and barriers for implementation. To test new typologies with existing prototypes (midseason drainage, partial residue incorporation) at farmer local conditions, a participatory field experiment was conducted for two consecutive rice seasons at farmer fields. Following the results of each season a workshop was conducted with stakeholders (farmers, village leaders, cooperatives, irrigation staff, extensionists, agricultural officers) at local and district level to get feedbacks on new tested prototypes and to develop possible scenarios for climate smart rice production practices. The farm analysis survey showed that non-availability of cheap labor and lacks of alternatives for straw management influence the small farmers to burn the residues in the fields except to use for composting or other purposes. Our field results revealed that application of early season drainage significantly mitigates (40-60%) the methane emissions from residue incorporation. Early season drainage was more efficient and easy to control under cooperate manage system than individually managed water system, and it leads to both economic (9-11% high rice yield, low cost of production, reduced nutrient loses) and environmental (mitigate methane emissions) benefits. The participatory field study allows the assessment of adaptation potential and possible benefits of climate smart practices on small farmer fields. If farmers have no other residue management option, full residue incorporation with early plus midseason drainage is adaptable and beneficial (both environmentally and economically) management option for small rice farmers.

Keywords: adaptation, climate smart agriculture, constrainsts, smallholders

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
1441 Soil Matric Potential Based Irrigation in Rice: A Solution to Water Scarcity

Authors: S. N. C. M. Dias, Niels Schuetze, Franz Lennartz


The current focus in irrigated agriculture will move from maximizing crop production per unit area towards maximizing the crop production per unit amount of water (water productivity) used. At the same time, inadequate water supply or deficit irrigation will be the only solution to cope with water scarcity in the near future. Soil matric potential based irrigation plays an important role in such deficit irrigated agriculture to grow any crop including rice. Rice as the staple food for more than half of the world population, grows mainly under flooded conditions. It requires more water compared to other upland cereals. A major amount of this water is used in the land preparation and is lost at field level due to evaporation, deep percolation, and seepage. A field experimental study was conducted in the experimental premises of rice research and development institute of Sri Lanka in Kurunegala district to estimate the water productivity of rice under deficit irrigation. This paper presents the feasibility of improving current irrigation management in rice cultivation under water scarce conditions. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with four different irrigation treatments with three replicates. Irrigation treatments were based on soil matric potential threshold values. Treatment W0 was maintained between 60-80mbars. W1 was maintained between 80-100mbars. Other two dry treatments W2 and W3 were maintained at 100-120 mbar and 120 -140 mbar respectively. The sprinkler system was used to irrigate each plot individually upon reaching the maximum threshold value in respective treatment. Treatments were imposed two weeks after seed establishment and continued until two weeks before physiological maturity. Fertilizer applications, weed management, and other management practices were carried out per the local recommendations. Weekly plant growth measurements, daily climate parameters, soil parameters, soil tension values, and water content were measured throughout the growing period. Highest plant growth and grain yield (5.61t/ha) were observed in treatment W2 followed by W0, W1, and W3 in comparison to the reference yield (5.23t/ha) of flooded rice grown in the study area. Water productivity was highest in W3. Concerning the irrigation water savings, grain yield, and water productivity together, W2 showed the better performance. Rice grown under unsaturated conditions (W2) shows better performance compared to the continuously saturated conditions(W0). In conclusion, soil matric potential based irrigation is a promising practice in irrigation management in rice. Higher irrigation water savings can be achieved in this method. This strategy can be applied to a wide range of locations under different climates and soils. In future studies, higher soil matric potential values can be applied to evaluate the maximum possible values for rice to get higher water savings at minimum yield losses.

Keywords: irrigation, matric potential, rice, water scarcity

Procedia PDF Downloads 132