Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 560

Search results for: intrinsic nonlinearity

560 Characterization of Ultrasonic Nonlinearity in Concrete under Cyclic Change of Prestressing Force

Authors: Gyu-Jin Kim, Hyo-Gyoung Kwak


In this research, the effect of prestressing force on the nonlinearity of concrete was investigated by an experimental study. For the measurement of ultrasonic nonlinearity, a prestressed concrete beam was prepared and a nonlinear resonant ultrasound method was adopted. When the prestressing force changes, the stress state of the concrete inside the beam is affected, which leads to the occurrence of micro-cracks and changes in mechanical properties. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce nonlinear ultrasonic technology which sensitively reflects microstructural changes. Repetitive prestressing load history, including maximum levels of 45%, 60% and 75%, depending on the compressive strength, is designed to evaluate the impact of loading levels on the nonlinearity. With the experimental results, the possibility of ultrasonic nonlinearity as a trial indicator of stress was evaluated.

Keywords: micro crack, nonlinear ultrasonic resonant spectroscopy, prestressed concrete beam, prestressing force, ultrasonic nonlinearity

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559 Quantification of Site Nonlinearity Based on HHT Analysis of Seismic Recordings

Authors: Ruichong Zhang


This study proposes a recording-based approach to characterize and quantify earthquake-induced site nonlinearity, exemplified as soil nonlinearity and/or liquefaction. Alternative to Fourier spectral analysis (FSA), the paper introduces time-frequency analysis of earthquake ground motion recordings with the aid of so-called Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), and offers justification for the HHT in addressing the nonlinear features shown in the recordings. With the use of the 2001 Nisqually earthquake recordings, this study shows that the proposed approach is effective in characterizing site nonlinearity and quantifying the influences in seismic ground responses.

Keywords: site nonlinearity, site amplification, site damping, Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT), liquefaction, 2001 Nisqually Earthquake

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558 Comparative Performance Analysis of Nonlinearity Cancellation Techniques for MOS-C Realization in Integrator Circuits

Authors: Hasan Çiçekli, Ahmet Gökçen, Uğur Çam


In this paper, a comparative performance analysis of mostly used four nonlinearity cancellation techniques used to realize the passive resistor by MOS transistors is presented. The comparison is done by using an integrator circuit which is employing sequentially Op-amp, OTRA and ICCII as active element. All of the circuits are implemented by MOS-C realization and simulated by PSPICE program using 0.35 µm process TSMC MOSIS model parameters. With MOS-C realization, the circuits became electronically tunable and fully integrable which is very important in IC design. The output waveforms, frequency responses, THD analysis results and features of the nonlinearity cancellation techniques are also given.

Keywords: integrator circuits, MOS-C realization, nonlinearity cancellation, tuneable resistors

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557 Numerical Study of Blackness Factor Effect on Dark Solitons

Authors: Khelil Khadidja


In this paper, blackness of dark solitons is considered. The exact combination between nonlinearity and dispersion is responsible of solitons stability. Dark solitons get born when dispersion is abnormal and balanced by nonlinearity, at the opposite of brillant solitons which is born by normal dispersion and nonlinearity together. Thanks to their stability, dark solitons are suitable for transmission by optical fibers. Dark solitons which are a solution of Nonlinear Schrodinger equation are simulated with Matlab to discuss the influence of coefficient of blackness. Results show that there is a direct proportion between the coefficient of blackness and the intensity of dark soliton. Those gray solitons are stable and convenient for transmission.

Keywords: abnormal dispersion, nonlinearity, optical fiber, soliton

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556 Resilience Grit and Intrinsic Motivation Are Predictors of Better Studying Results among First-year Cadets in the Cadet Basic Training Course

Authors: Rosita Kanapeckaite


Every year, some candidates who enroll in Generolas Jonas Zemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania do not complete a basic seven weeks cadet course and leave the Academy. Experience in other countries shows that psychological resilience grit and intrinsic motivation can lead to better course completion results. We examined the psychological resilience grit and intrinsic motivation as predictors of better results among newcomers who participate in the Cadet Basic Training (CBT) course. Based on past research and theory of other countries' military academies, we expected that resilience grit, and intrinsic motivation would predict performance in the Cadet Basic Training course. Results of regression analyses revealed that resilience and grit can predict better course results, but intrinsic motivation can not predict retention. These findings suggest that resilience and grit assessment and training may prove valuable in enhancing performance and retention within military training environments.

Keywords: military, intrinsic motivation, grit, resilience

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555 Mapping Method to Solve a Nonlinear Schrodinger Type Equation

Authors: Edamana Vasudevan Krishnan


This paper studies solitons in optical materials with the help of Mapping Method. Two types of nonlinear media have been investigated, namely, the cubic nonlinearity and the quintic nonlinearity. The soliton solutions, shock wave solutions and singular solutions have been derives with certain constraint conditions.

Keywords: solitons, integrability, metamaterials, mapping method

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554 Emerging Dimensions of Intrinsic Motivation for Effective Performance

Authors: Prachi Bhatt


Motivated workforce is an important asset of an organisation. Intrinsic motivation is one of the key aspects of people operations and performance. Researches have emphasized the significance of internal factors in individuals’ motivation. In the changing business scenario, it is a challenge for the organizations’ leaders to inspire and motivate their workforce. The present study deals with the intrinsic motivation potential of an individual which govern the innate capability of an individual driving him or her to behave or perform in the changing work environment, tasks, teams. Differences at individual level significantly influence differences in levels of motivation. In the above context, the present research attempts to explore behavioral trait dimensions which influence motivational potential of an individual. The present research emphasizes the significance of intrinsic motivational potential and the significance of exploring the differences in the intrinsic motivational potential levels of individuals at work places. Thus, this paper empirically tests the framework of behavioral traits which affects motivational potential of an individual. With the help of two studies i.e., Study 1 and Study 2, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, respectively, indicated a reliable measure assessing intrinsic motivational potential of an individual. Given the variety of challenges of motivating contemporary workforce, and with increasing importance of intrinsic motivation, the paper discusses the relevance of the findings and of the measure assessing intrinsic motivational potential. Assessment of such behavioral traits would assist in the effective realization of intrinsic motivational potential of individuals. Additionally, the paper discusses the practical implications and furnishes scope for future research.

Keywords: behavioral traits, individual differences, intrinsic motivational potential, intrinsic motivation, motivation, workplace motivation

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553 Studying the Effect of Silicon Substrate Intrinsic Carrier Concentration on Performance of ZnO/Si Solar Cells

Authors: Syed Sadique Anwer Askari, Mukul Kumar Das


Zinc Oxide (ZnO) solar cells have drawn great attention due to the enhanced efficiency and low-cost fabrication process. In this study, ZnO thin film is used as the active layer, hole blocking layer, antireflection coating (ARC) as well as transparent conductive oxide. To improve the conductivity of ZnO, top layer of ZnO is doped with aluminum, for top contact. Intrinsic carrier concentration of silicon substrate plays an important role in enhancing the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of ZnO/Si solar cell. With the increase of intrinsic carrier concentration PCE decreased due to increase in dark current in solar cell. At 80nm ZnO and 160µm Silicon substrate thickness, power conversion efficiency of 26.45% and 21.64% is achieved with intrinsic carrier concentration of 1x109/cm3, 1.4x1010/cm3 respectively.

Keywords: hetero-junction solar cell, solar cell, substrate intrinsic carrier concentration, ZnO/Si

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552 The Influence of Intrinsic Motivation on the Second Language Learners’ Writing Skill: The Case of Third Year Students of English at Constantine 1 University

Authors: Chadia Nasri


Researches in the field of foreign language learning have indicated the importance of the mastery of the four language skills; speaking, listening, writing and reading. As far as writing is concerned, recent studies have shown that this skill is unavoidable for learning a second language successfully. Writing is characterized as a complex system not easy to achieve. Writing has been proved to be affected by a variety of factors, particularly psychological ones; anxiety, intrinsic motivation, aptitude, etc. Intrinsic motivation is said to be the most influential factors in the foreign language learning process and is considered as the key factor for success. To investigate these two aspects; writing and intrinsic motivation, and the positive correlation between them, our hypothesis is designed on the basis that the degree of learners’ intrinsic motivation helps in facilitating their engagement in the writing tasks. Two questionnaires, one for teachers and the other for students, have been carried out to check the validity of the research hypothesis. As for the teachers’ questionnaire, the results have indicated their awareness of the importance of intrinsic motivation in the learning process and the role it plays in the mastery of their students’ writing skill. In addition, teachers have mentioned various procedures aiming at raising their students’ intrinsic motivation to write. The students’ questionnaire, on the other hand, has investigated students’ reasons for learning a foreign language with regard to their attitudes towards writing as an important skill that they need to master. Their answers to the questionnaire together with the marks they got in the second term test they have had in the writing module have been compared to see whether students’ writing proficiency can be determined by the degree of their intrinsic motivation. The comparison of the collected data has shown the positive correlation between both aspects.

Keywords: foreign language learning, intrinsic motivation, motivation, writing proficiency

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551 Simulation of Piezoelectric Laminated Smart Structure under Strong Electric Field

Authors: Shun-Qi Zhang, Shu-Yang Zhang, Min Chen


Applying strong electric field on piezoelectric actuators, on one hand very significant electroelastic material nonlinear effects will occur, on the other hand piezo plates and shells may undergo large displacements and rotations. In order to give a precise prediction of piezolaminated smart structures under large electric field, this paper develops a finite element (FE) model accounting for both electroelastic material nonlinearity and geometric nonlinearity with large rotations based on the first order shear deformation (FSOD) hypothesis. The proposed FE model is applied to analyze a piezolaminated semicircular shell structure.

Keywords: smart structures, piezolamintes, material nonlinearity, strong electric field

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550 Analysis of Evolution of Higher Order Solitons by Numerical Simulation

Authors: K. Khadidja


Solitons are stable solution of nonlinear Schrodinger equation. Their stability is due to the exact combination between nonlinearity and dispersion which causes pulse broadening. Higher order solitons are born when nonlinear length is N multiple of dispersive length. Soliton order is determined by the number N itself. In this paper, evolution of higher order solitons is illustrated by simulation using Matlab. Results show that higher order solitons change their shape periodically, the reason why they are bad for transmission comparing to fundamental solitons which are constant. Partial analysis of a soliton of higher order explains that the periodic shape is due to the interplay between nonlinearity and dispersion which are not equal during a period. This class of solitons has many applications such as generation of supercontinuum and the impulse compression on the Femtosecond scale. As a conclusion, the periodicity which is harmful to transmission can be beneficial in other applications.

Keywords: dispersion, nonlinearity, optical fiber, soliton

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549 Spectral Broadening in an InGaAsP Optical Waveguide with χ(3) Nonlinearity Including Two Photon Absorption

Authors: Keigo Matsuura, Isao Tomita


We have studied a method to widen the spectrum of optical pulses that pass through an InGaAsP waveguide for application to broadband optical communication. In particular, we have investigated the competitive effect between spectral broadening arising from nonlinear refraction (optical Kerr effect) and shrinking due to two photon absorption in the InGaAsP waveguide with chi^(3) nonlinearity. The shrunk spectrum recovers broadening by the enhancement effect of the nonlinear refractive index near the bandgap of InGaAsP with a bandgap wavelength of 1490 nm. The broadened spectral width at around 1525 nm (196.7 THz) becomes 10.7 times wider than that at around 1560 nm (192.3 THz) without the enhancement effect, where amplified optical pulses with a pulse width of 2 ps and a peak power of 10 W propagate through a 1-cm-long InGaAsP waveguide with a cross-section of 4 um^2.

Keywords: InGaAsP waveguide, Chi^(3) nonlinearity, spectral broadening, photon absorption

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548 Differentiation of the Functional in an Optimization Problem for Coefficients of Elliptic Equations with Unbounded Nonlinearity

Authors: Aigul Manapova


We consider an optimal control problem in the higher coefficient of nonlinear equations with a divergent elliptic operator and unbounded nonlinearity, and the Dirichlet boundary condition. The conditions imposed on the coefficients of the state equation are assumed to hold only in a small neighborhood of the exact solution to the original problem. This assumption suggests that the state equation involves nonlinearities of unlimited growth and considerably expands the class of admissible functions as solutions of the state equation. We obtain formulas for the first partial derivatives of the objective functional with respect to the control functions. To calculate the gradients the numerical solutions of the state and adjoint problems are used. We also prove that the gradient of the cost function is Lipchitz continuous.

Keywords: cost functional, differentiability, divergent elliptic operator, optimal control, unbounded nonlinearity

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547 Influence of Nonlinearity of Concrete and Reinforcement Using Micropiles on the Seismic Interaction of Soil-Piles-Bridge

Authors: Mohanad Alfach, Amjad Al Helwani


Post-seismic observations of recent devastating earthquakes have shown that the behavior of the soil-pile-structure shows strong nonlinearity of soil and concrete under intensive seismic loading. Many of pile ruptures recently observed after the strong earthquake due to structural reasons (development of plastic hinges in the piles). The most likely reason for this rupture is the exceeding of maximum bending moment supported by the pile at several points. An analysis of these problems is necessary to take into account the nonlinearity of concrete, the strategy of strengthening the damaged piles and the interaction of these piles with the proposed strengthening by using micropiles. This study aims to investigate the interaction aspects for soil-piles- micropiles-structure using a global approach with a three dimensional finite difference code Flac 3D (Fast lagrangian analysis of continua in 3 dimensions).

Keywords: interaction, piles, micropiles, concrete, seismic, nonlinear, three-dimensional

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546 Desire as Psychological Case against Nihilism and a Clear Mechanism as Evidence for Moral Realism

Authors: Paul Pistone


Nihilism claims that there are no actual intrinsic goods. Desire, however, directly contradicts this claim. To desire, something is more than to be motivated to bring about the desired ends. It is more than to take pleasure in it, seeming that one has obtained her desired end. Desire is, further, more than believing that something is good. Desire is the perception that something is good for the self. In this paper, it is argued that desire is an agent-relative value seeming. This implies that there are intrinsic values. It will be argued that: (1) there are intrinsic values related to life and flourishing, (2) that it is metaphysically impossible that there are no intrinsic values, (3) that desire is our psychological mechanism which enables us to perceive a state of affairs or event as an agent-relative good, and (4) while we can be wrong about the large scale object of desire (i.e., the instrumental desire) we cannot be wrong about what is at the root of our desire (i.e., the intrinsic desire). The method of this paper will be to examine the claims of nihilism and moral realism in recent literature, present a case for moral realism, discuss a few theories of desire, connect moral realism to an evaluative perceptual model of desire, and conclude that not only is this the best theory of desire but that this psychological faculty offers a clear counterexample to nihilism.

Keywords: desire, moral realism, nihilism, perception

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545 Teacher-Student Relationship and Achievement in Chinese: Potential Mediating Effects of Motivation

Authors: Yuan Liu, Hongyun Liu


Teacher-student relationship plays an important role on facilitating students’ learning behavior, school engagement, and academic outcomes. It is believed that good relationship will enhance the human agency—the intrinsic motivation—mainly through the strengthening of autonomic support, feeling of relatedness, and the individual’s competence to increase the academic outcomes. This is in line with self-determination theory (SDT), which generally views that the intrinsic motivation imbedded with human basic needs is one of the most important factors that would lead to better school engagement, academic outcomes, and well-being. Based on SDT, the present study explored the relation of among teacher-student relationship (teacher’s encouragement, respect), students’ motivation (extrinsic and intrinsic), and achievement outcomes. The study was based on a large scale academic assessment and questionnaire survey conducted by the Center for Assessment and Improvement of Basic Education Quality in Mainland China (2013) on Grade 8 students. The results indicated that intrinsic motivation mediated the relation between teacher-student relationship and academic achievement outcomes.

Keywords: teacher-student relationship, intrinsic motivation, academic achievement, mediation

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544 Nonlinear Finite Element Modeling of Deep Beam Resting on Linear and Nonlinear Random Soil

Authors: M. Seguini, D. Nedjar


An accuracy nonlinear analysis of a deep beam resting on elastic perfectly plastic soil is carried out in this study. In fact, a nonlinear finite element modeling for large deflection and moderate rotation of Euler-Bernoulli beam resting on linear and nonlinear random soil is investigated. The geometric nonlinear analysis of the beam is based on the theory of von Kàrmàn, where the Newton-Raphson incremental iteration method is implemented in a Matlab code to solve the nonlinear equation of the soil-beam interaction system. However, two analyses (deterministic and probabilistic) are proposed to verify the accuracy and the efficiency of the proposed model where the theory of the local average based on the Monte Carlo approach is used to analyze the effect of the spatial variability of the soil properties on the nonlinear beam response. The effect of six main parameters are investigated: the external load, the length of a beam, the coefficient of subgrade reaction of the soil, the Young’s modulus of the beam, the coefficient of variation and the correlation length of the soil’s coefficient of subgrade reaction. A comparison between the beam resting on linear and nonlinear soil models is presented for different beam’s length and external load. Numerical results have been obtained for the combination of the geometric nonlinearity of beam and material nonlinearity of random soil. This comparison highlighted the need of including the material nonlinearity and spatial variability of the soil in the geometric nonlinear analysis, when the beam undergoes large deflections.

Keywords: finite element method, geometric nonlinearity, material nonlinearity, soil-structure interaction, spatial variability

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543 Finite Element Analysis of Piezolaminated Structures with Both Geometric and Electroelastic Material Nonlinearities

Authors: Shun-Qi Zhang, Shu-Yang Zhang, Min Chen, , Jing Bai


Piezoelectric laminated smart structures can be subjected to the strong driving electric field, which may result in large displacements and rotations. In one hand, piezoelectric materials usually behave very significant material nonlinear effects under strong electric fields. On the other hand, thin-walled structures undergoing large displacements and rotations exist nonnegligible geometric nonlinearity. In order to give a precise prediction of piezo laminated smart structures under the large electric field, this paper develops a finite element (FE) model accounting for material nonlinearity (piezoelectric part) and geometric nonlinearity based on the first order shear deformation (FSOD) hypothesis. The proposed FE model is first validated by both experimental and numerical examples from the literature. Afterwards, it is applied to simulate for plate and shell structures with multiple piezoelectric patches under the strong applied electric field. From the simulation results, it shows that large discrepancies occur between linear and nonlinear predictions for piezoelectric laminated structures driving at the strong electric field. Therefore, both material and geometric nonlinearities should be taken into account for piezoelectric structures under strong electric.

Keywords: piezoelectric smart structures, finite element analysis, geometric nonlinearity, electroelastic material nonlinearities

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542 Active Learning Role on Strategic I-Map Thinking in Developing Reasoning Thinking and the Intrinsic-Motivation Orientation

Authors: Khaled Alotaibi


This paper deals with developing reasoning thinking and the intrinsic-extrinsic motivation for learning, and enhancing the academic achievement of a sample of students at Teachers' College in King Saud University. The study sample included 58 students who were divided randomly into two groups; one was an experimental group with 20 students and the other was a control group with 22 students. The following tools were used: e-courses by using I-map, Reasoning Thinking Tes, questionnaire to measure the intrinsic-extrinsic motivation for learning and an academic achievement test. Experimental group was taught using e-courses by using I-map, while the control group was taught by using traditional education. The results showed that: - There were no statistically significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in Reasoning thinking skills. - There were statistically significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in the intrinsic-extrinsic motivation for learning in favor of the experimental group. - There were statistically significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in academic achievement in favor of the experimental group.

Keywords: reasoning, thinking, intrinsic motivation, active learning

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541 Effects of Polydispersity on the Glass Transition Dynamics of Aqueous Suspensions of Soft Spherical Colloidal Particles

Authors: Sanjay K. Behera, Debasish Saha, Paramesh Gadige, Ranjini Bandyopadhyay


The zero shear viscosity (η₀) of a suspension of hard sphere colloids characterized by a significant polydispersity (≈10%) increases with increase in volume fraction (ϕ) and shows a dramatic increase at ϕ=ϕg with the system entering a colloidal glassy state. Fragility which is the measure of the rapidity of approach of these suspensions towards the glassy state is sensitive to its size polydispersity and stiffness of the particles. Soft poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) particles deform in the presence of neighboring particles at volume fraction above the random close packing volume fraction of undeformed monodisperse spheres. Softness, therefore, enhances the packing efficiency of these particles. In this study PNIPAM particles of a nearly constant swelling ratio and with polydispersities varying over a wide range (7.4%-48.9%) are synthesized to study the effects of polydispersity on the dynamics of suspensions of soft PNIPAM colloidal particles. The size and polydispersity of these particles are characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As these particles are deformable, their packing in aqueous suspensions is quantified in terms of effective volume fraction (ϕeff). The zero shear viscosity (η₀) data of these colloidal suspensions, estimated from rheometric experiments as a function of the effective volume fraction ϕeff of the suspensions, increases with increase in ϕeff and shows a dramatic increase at ϕeff = ϕ₀. The data for η₀ as a function of ϕeff fits well to the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation. It is observed that increasing polydispersity results in increasingly fragile supercooled liquid-like behavior, with the parameter ϕ₀, extracted from the fits to the VFT equation shifting towards higher ϕeff. The observed increase in fragility is attributed to the prevalence of dynamical heterogeneities (DHs) in these polydisperse suspensions, while the simultaneous shift in ϕ₀ is ascribed to the decoupling of the dynamics of the smallest and largest particles. Finally, it is observed that the intrinsic nonlinearity of these suspensions, estimated at the third harmonic near ϕ₀ in Fourier transform oscillatory rheological experiments, increases with increase in polydispersity. These results are in agreement with theoretical predictions and simulation results for polydisperse hard sphere colloidal glasses and clearly demonstrate that jammed suspensions of polydisperse colloidal particles can be effectively fluidized with increasing polydispersity. Suspensions of these particles are therefore excellent candidates for detailed experimental studies of the effects of polydispersity on the dynamics of glass formation.

Keywords: dynamical heterogeneity, effective volume fraction, fragility, intrinsic nonlinearity

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540 Postbuckling Analysis of End Supported Rods under Self-Weight Using Intrinsic Coordinate Finite Elements

Authors: C. Juntarasaid, T. Pulngern, S. Chucheepsakul


A formulation of postbuckling analysis of end supported rods under self-weight has been presented by the variational method. The variational formulation involving the strain energy due to bending and the potential energy of the self-weight, are expressed in terms of the intrinsic coordinates. The variational formulation is accomplished by introducing the Lagrange multiplier technique to impose the boundary conditions. The finite element method is used to derive a system of nonlinear equations resulting from the stationary of the total potential energy and then Newton-Raphson iterative procedure is applied to solve this system of equations. The numerical results demonstrate the postbluckled configurations of end supported rods under self-weight. This finite element method based on variational formulation expressed in term of intrinsic coordinate is highly recommended for postbuckling analysis of end-supported rods under self-weight.

Keywords: postbuckling, finite element method, variational method, intrinsic coordinate

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539 Research of Intrinsic Emittance of Thermal Cathode with Emission Nonuniformity

Authors: Yufei Peng, Zhen Qin, Jianbe Li, Jidong Long


The thermal cathode is widely used in accelerators, FELs and kinds of vacuum electronics. However, emission nonuniformity exists due to surface profile, material distribution, temperature variation, crystal orientation, etc., which will cause intrinsic emittance growth, brightness decline, envelope size augment, device performance deterioration or even failure. To understand how emittance is manipulated by emission nonuniformity, an intrinsic emittance model consisting of contributions from macro and micro surface nonuniformity is developed analytically based on general thermal emission model at temperature limited regime according to a real 3mm cathode. The model shows relative emittance increased about 50% due to temperature variation, and less than 5% from several kinds of micro surface nonuniformity which is much smaller than other research. Otherwise, we also calculated emittance growth combining with Monte Carlo method and PIC simulation, experiments of emission uniformity and emittance measurement are going to be carried out separately.

Keywords: thermal cathode, electron emission fluctuation, intrinsic emittance, surface nonuniformity, cathode lifetime

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538 Numerical Study on Ultimate Capacity of Bi-Modulus Beam-Column

Authors: Zhiming Ye, Dejiang Wang, Huiling Zhao


Development of the technology demands a higher-level research on the mechanical behavior of materials. Structural members made of bi-modulus materials have different elastic modulus when they are under tension and compression. The stress and strain states of the point effect on the elastic modulus and Poisson ratio of every point in the bi-modulus material body. Accompanied by the uncertainty and nonlinearity of the elastic constitutive relation is the complicated nonlinear problem of the bi-modulus members. In this paper, the small displacement and large displacement finite element method for the bi-modulus members have been proposed. Displacement nonlinearity is considered in the elastic constitutive equation. Mechanical behavior of slender bi-modulus beam-column under different boundary conditions and loading patterns has been simulated by the proposed method. The influence factors on the ultimate bearing capacity of slender beam and columns have been studied. The results show that as the ratio of tensile modulus to compressive modulus increases, the error of the simulation employing the same elastic modulus theory exceeds the engineering permissible error.

Keywords: bi-modulus, ultimate capacity, beam-column, nonlinearity

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537 The Effect of Measurement Distribution on System Identification and Detection of Behavior of Nonlinearities of Data

Authors: Mohammad Javad Mollakazemi, Farhad Asadi, Aref Ghafouri


In this paper, we considered and applied parametric modeling for some experimental data of dynamical system. In this study, we investigated the different distribution of output measurement from some dynamical systems. Also, with variance processing in experimental data we obtained the region of nonlinearity in experimental data and then identification of output section is applied in different situation and data distribution. Finally, the effect of the spanning the measurement such as variance to identification and limitation of this approach is explained.

Keywords: Gaussian process, nonlinearity distribution, particle filter, system identification

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536 Directed-Wald Test for Distinguishing Long Memory and Nonlinearity Time Series: Power and Size Simulation

Authors: Heri Kuswanto, Philipp Sibbertsen, Irhamah


A Wald type test to distinguish between long memory and ESTAR nonlinearity has been developed. The test uses a directed-Wald statistic to overcome the problem of restricted parameters under the alternative. The test is derived from a model specification i.e. allows the transition parameter to appear as a nuisance parameter in the transition function. A simulation study has been conducted and it indicates that the approach leads a test with good size and power properties to distinguish between stationary long memory and ESTAR.

Keywords: directed-Wald test, ESTAR, long memory, distinguish

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535 Intrinsic Motivational Factor of Students in Learning Mathematics and Science Based on Electroencephalogram Signals

Authors: Norzaliza Md. Nor, Sh-Hussain Salleh, Mahyar Hamedi, Hadrina Hussain, Wahab Abdul Rahman


Motivational factor is mainly the students’ desire to involve in learning process. However, it also depends on the goal towards their involvement or non-involvement in academic activity. Even though, the students’ motivation might be in the same level, but the basis of their motivation may differ. In this study, it focuses on the intrinsic motivational factor which student enjoy learning or feeling of accomplishment the activity or study for its own sake. The intrinsic motivational factor of students in learning mathematics and science has found as difficult to be achieved because it depends on students’ interest. In the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) for mathematics and science, Malaysia is ranked as third lowest. The main problem in Malaysian educational system, students tend to have extrinsic motivation which they have to score in exam in order to achieve a good result and enrolled as university students. The use of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals has found to be scarce especially to identify the students’ intrinsic motivational factor in learning science and mathematics. In this research study, we are identifying the correlation between precursor emotion and its dynamic emotion to verify the intrinsic motivational factor of students in learning mathematics and science. The 2-D Affective Space Model (ASM) was used in this research in order to identify the relationship of precursor emotion and its dynamic emotion based on the four basic emotions, happy, calm, fear and sad. These four basic emotions are required to be used as reference stimuli. Then, in order to capture the brain waves, EEG device was used, while Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficient (MFCC) was adopted to be used for extracting the features before it will be feed to Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) to classify the valence and arousal axes for the ASM. The results show that the precursor emotion had an influence the dynamic emotions and it identifies that most students have no interest in mathematics and science according to the negative emotion (sad and fear) appear in the EEG signals. We hope that these results can help us further relate the behavior and intrinsic motivational factor of students towards learning of mathematics and science.

Keywords: EEG, MLP, MFCC, intrinsic motivational factor

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534 Searching the Relationship among Components that Contribute to Interactive Plight and Educational Execution

Authors: Shri Krishna Mishra


In an educational context, technology can prompt interactive plight only when it is used in conjunction with interactive plight methods. This study, therefore, examines the relationships among components that contribute to higher levels of interactive plight and execution, such as interactive Plight methods, technology, intrinsic motivation and deep learning. 526 students participated in this study. With structural equation modelling, the authors test the conceptual model and identify satisfactory model fit. The results indicate that interactive Plight methods, technology and intrinsic motivation have significant relationship with interactive Plight; deep learning mediates the relationships of the other variables with Execution.

Keywords: searching the relationship among components, contribute to interactive plight, educational execution, intrinsic motivation

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533 Effects of Gamification on Lower Secondary School Students’ Motivation and Engagement

Authors: Goh Yung Hong, Mona Masood


This paper explores the effects of gamification on lower secondary school students’ motivation and engagement in the classroom. Two-group posttest-only experimental design were employed to study the influence of gamification teaching method (GTM) when compared with conventional teaching method (CTM) on 60 lower secondary school students. The Student Engagement Instrument (SEI) and Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) were used to assess students’ intrinsic motivation and engagement level towards the respective teaching method. Finding indicates that students who completed the GTM lesson were significantly higher in intrinsic motivation to learn than those from the CTM. Although the result were insignificant and only marginal difference in the engagement mean, GTM still show better potential in raising student’s engagement in class when compared with CTM. This finding proves that the GTM is likely to solve the current issue of low motivation to learn and low engagement in class among lower secondary school students in Malaysia. On the other hand, despite being not significant, higher mean indicates that CTM positively contribute to higher peer support for learning and better teacher and student relationship when compared with GTM. As a conclusion, gamification approach is flexible and can be adapted into many learning content to enhance the intrinsic motivation to learn and to some extent, encourage better student engagement in class.

Keywords: conventional teaching method, gamification teaching method, motivation, engagement

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532 Investigation of Leakage, Cracking and Warpage Issues Observed on Composite Valve Cover in Development Phase through FEA Simulation

Authors: Ashwini Shripatwar, Mayur Biyani, Nikhil Rao, Rajendra Bodake, Sachin Sane


This paper documents the correlation of valve cover sealing, cracking, and warpage Finite Element Modelling with observations on engine test development. The valve cover is a component mounted on engine head with a gasket which provides sealing against oil which flows around camshaft, valves, rockers, and other overhead components. Material nonlinearity and contact nonlinearity characteristics are taken into consideration because the valve cover is made of a composite material having temperature dependent elastic-plastic properties and because the gasket load-deformation curve is also nonlinear. The leakage is observed between the valve cover and the engine head due to the insufficient contact pressure. The crack is observed on the valve cover due to force application at a region with insufficient stiffness and with elevated temperature. The valve cover shrinkage is observed during the disassembly process on hot exhaust side bolt holes after the engine has been running. In this paper, an analytical approach is developed to correlate a Finite Element Model with the observed failures and to address the design issues associated with the failure modes in question by making design changes in the model.

Keywords: cracking issue, gasket sealing analysis, nonlinearity of contact and material, valve cover

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531 ARCS Model for Enhancing Intrinsic Motivation in Learning Biodiversity Subjects: A Case Study of Tertiary Level Students in Malaysia

Authors: Nadia Nisha Musa, Nur Atirah Hasmi, Hasnun Nita Ismail, Zulfadli Mahfodz


In Malaysian Education System, subject related to biodiversity has started in the curriculum from Foundation Study until tertiary education. Biodiversity become the focus of attention due to awareness on global warming which potentially leads to a loss of biodiversity. A loss in biodiversity means a loss in medicinal discoveries and reduces food supply. It is of great important to ensure that young generations become aware of biodiversity conservation. The more interactive approaches are needed to build society with a high awareness for biodiversity conservation. To address this challenge, the goal of this study is to enhance intrinsic motivation of biological students via ARCS model of instruction. Self-access learning materials such as tutorial, module and fieldwork were designed with ARCS elements to a sample size of 70 university students from the beginning of the semester. Both paper and online surveys were used to collect data from the respondents. The results showed that elements of attention, relevance, confidence and satisfaction have a positive impact on intrinsic motivation of students and their academic performance.

Keywords: intrinsic motivation, ARCS model of instruction, biodiversity, self-access learning

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