Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4473

Search results for: international maritime organization

4473 Nature of Maritime Dispute Resolution by Arbitration: USA as a Reference Point

Authors: Thusitha B. Abeysekara, M. A. Nihal Chandrathilake

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to examine the legal mechanism of resolving maritime disputes by arbitration, and it would be a reference point on the analysis of USA approaches. In doing so, the research aims to analyse the relevant legal principles in the context of current maritime arbitration practices in selected jurisdictions. The research also aims to analyse the advantages and applicability of arbitration in maritime dispute settlements over the litigation and further approaches the role of specialist maritime arbitration institutes in the USA and the position of international merchant organizations in maritime arbitration. Further, research values the legislative aspects of maritime arbitration. The study would evaluate the contemporary issues in maritime arbitration practices in the USA and further analyses the statistical information on maritime arbitration. Finally, the research made remarks to often parallel consequence in USA legal systems in maritime arbitration and despite the fundamental divergences of the applicable principles and practices of maritime arbitration. The research finally suggests the doctrine should reshape with equitable remedies and international maritime arbitration practices with its institutional impact rather than using as statutory rules related maritime arbitration.

Keywords: arbitration, international shipping, maritime dispute, New York convention

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
4472 Maritime Transportation and Environmental Pollution: Emerging Trends and Challenges

Authors: Emil Mathew

Abstract:

Liberalisation policies adopted by a large number of countries, implementation of technological innovations with development in communication networks and continuous reduction in transport costs contributed towards the growth of international transportation of goods over the last 50 to 60 years. The present paper examines the environmental externalities of maritime transportation, that is, externalities associated with the movement of cargoes, as distinct from those emanate from production and consumption of goods. Though shipping is less polluting compared to other modes of transportation, considering the huge volume of goods transported and future growth prospects, it is important to examine environmental externalities of maritime transportation. It focuses on varied types of environmental externalities of maritime transportation and suggests that appropriate policies may be adopted by international agencies to address this issue without adversely affecting the course of international trade and also its possibility to get diverted to alternate modes of transportation.

Keywords: externalities of globalisation, maritime environment, maritime externality, transportation externality

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4471 International Dispute Settlements According to the Law of the Sea: Coastal States vs. Maritime Conflicts

Authors: Ermal Xhelilaj

Abstract:

International practice has revealed that many maritime conflicts have been initiated as a direct result of coastal states’ disagreements over maritime boundaries and other related maritime issues. These disagreements embrace relevant problematic matters reflecting international conflicts, which in order to prevent further escalation into international crises or even armed conflicts have to be legally resolved. The most challenging cases in international system involve regional or bilateral disputes regarding maritime boundaries delimitations between states, which may result in the activation of respective armed forces, considered crucial elements for the protection of territorial sovereignty. Taken under considerations the legal issues that Law of the Sea Convention (1982) reflects, including the legal provisions over disputes settlements, the importance of analyzing this paramount issue might be considered relevant at present. Therefore, this study will be focused in discussing legal and practical issues that concern the resolution of international maritime disputes seen from international relations point of view, by initially analyzing UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS 1982) relevant legal provisions, further discussing several notable cases over maritime boundaries delimitations as well as concluding with some recommendations related to this issue. The author is of the opinion that although the boundaries delimitation’s legal regime of UNCLOS reflects important standards for dispute settlements, yet considering the complex situation that represents this issue, relevant amendments might be necessary to be undertaken by international maritime organizations in order to further clarify the aforementioned legal matter.

Keywords: Law of the Sea, maritime conflicts, dispute settlements, international relations

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4470 Judicial Review of Indonesia's Position as the First Archipelagic State to implement the Traffic Separation Scheme to Establish Maritime Safety and Security

Authors: Rosmini Yanti, Safira Aviolita, Marsetio

Abstract:

Indonesia has several straits that are very important as a shipping lane, including the Sunda Strait and the Lombok Strait, which are the part of the Indonesian Archipelagic Sea Lane (IASL). An increase in traffic on the Marine Archipelago makes the task of monitoring sea routes increasingly difficult. Indonesia has proposed the establishment of a Traffic Separation Scheme (TSS) in the Sunda Strait and the Lombok Strait and the country now has the right to be able to conceptualize the TSS as well as the obligation to regulate it. Indonesia has the right to maintain national safety and sovereignty. In setting the TSS, Indonesia needs to issue national regulations that are in accordance with international law and the general provisions of the IMO (International Maritime Organization) can then be used as guidelines for maritime safety and security in the Sunda Strait and the Lombok Strait. The research method used is a qualitative method with the concept of linguistic and visual data collection. The source of the data is the analysis of documents and regulations. The results show that the determination of TSS was justified by International Law, in accordance with article 22, article 41, and article 53 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) 1982. The determination of TSS by the Indonesian government would be in accordance with COLREG (International Convention on Preventing Collisions at Sea) 10, which has been designed to follow IASL. Thus, TSS can provide a function as a safety and monitoring medium to minimize ship accidents or collisions, including the warship and aircraft of other countries that cross the IASL.

Keywords: archipelago state, maritime law, maritime security, traffic separation scheme

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4469 Competitive Intelligence within the Maritime Security Intelligence

Authors: Dicky R. Munaf, Ayu Bulan Tisna

Abstract:

Competitive intelligence (business intelligence) is the process of observing the external environment which often conducted by many organizations to get the relevant information which will be used to create the organization policy, whereas, security intelligence is related to the function of the officers who have the duties to protect the country and its people from every criminal actions that might harm the national and individual security. Therefore, the intelligence dimension of maritime security is associated with all the intelligence activities including the subject and the object that connected to the maritime issues. The concept of intelligence business regarding the maritime security perspective is the efforts to protect the maritime security using the analysis of economic movements as the basic strategic plan. Clearly, a weak maritime security will cause high operational cost to all the economic activities which uses the sea as its media. Thus, it affects the competitiveness of a country compared to the other countries that are able to maintain the maritime law enforcement and secure their marine territory. So, the intelligence business within the security intelligence is important to conduct as the beginning process of the identification against the opponent strategy that might happen in the present or in the future. Thereby, the scenario of the potential impact of all the illegal maritime activities, as well as the strategy in preventing the opponent maneuver can be made.

Keywords: competitive intelligence, maritime security intelligence, intelligent systems, information technology

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4468 Current Situation of Maritime Transport and Logistics in Myanmar

Authors: S. N. S. Thein, H. L. Yang, Z. B. Liu

Abstract:

There are many modes of transport. Among them, maritime transport is a major transportation mode of international trade. In the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (Burma), water transportation served as one of the most important modes of transport for country's exports and imports. Getting the accurate information and data-gathering activity are the most important aspects for any study field. Therefore, in this research, a historical review of the development of ports in Myanmar and how they have changed had been carried out. All the relevant literature and documents have also been reviewed, studied, and organized. The sources of collected data are from reports, journals, internet, as well as from the publications of authorized organizations and international associations. To get better understanding about real situation of maritime transport and logistics in Myanmar; current condition of existing ports, expansion and on-going projects, and future port development plans are described successively. Hence, the main purpose of this study is to build up a comprehensive picture of maritime transport and logistics, in addition to border trade within ASEAN and Myanmar. It will help for academic researchers, decision makers, and stakeholders for national planning as well as for the local and foreign investors to recognize current situation of maritime transport and logistics in Myanmar.

Keywords: ASEAN, border trade, logistics, maritime transport, ports of Myanmar

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4467 Jurisdiction Conflicts in Contracts of International Maritime Transport: The Application of the Forum Selection Clause in Brazilian Courts

Authors: Renan Caseiro De Almeida, Mateus Mello Garrute

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The world walks to be ever more globalised. This trend promotes an increase on the number of transnational commercial transactions. The main modal for carriage of goods is by sea, and many countries have their economies dependent on the maritime freightage – it could be because they exercise largely this activity or because they follow the tendency of using the maritime logistic widely. Among these ones, Brazil is included. This nation counts with sixteen ports with good capacities, which receive most of the international income by sea. It is estimated that 85 per cent of the total influx of goods in Brazil is by maritime modal, leaving mere 15 per cent for the other ones. This made it necessary to develop maritime law in international and national basis, to create a standard to be applied with the intention to harmonize the transnational carriage of goods by sea. Maritime contracts are very specific and have interesting peculiarities, but in their range, little research has been made on what causes the main divergences when it comes to international contracts: the jurisdiction conflict. Likewise any other international contract, it is common for the parties to set a forum selection clause to choose the forum which will be able to judge the litigations that could rise from a maritime transport contract and, consequently, also which law should be applied to the cases. However, the forum choice in Brazil has always been somewhat polemical – not only in the maritime law sphere - for sometimes national tribunals overlook the parties’ choice and call the competence for themselves. In this sense, it is interesting to mention that the Mexico Convention of 1994 about the law applicable to international contracts did not gain strength in Brazil, nor even reached the Congress to be considered for ratification. Furthermore, it is also noteworthy that Brazil has a new Civil Procedure Code, which was put into reinforcement in 2016 bringing new legal provisions specifically about the forum selection. This represented a mark in the national legal system in this matter. Therefore, this paper intends to give an insight through Brazilian jurisprudence, making an analysis of how this issue has been treated on litigations about maritime contracts in the national tribunals, as well as the solutions found by the Brazilian legal system for the jurisdiction conflicts in those cases. To achieve the expected results, the hypothetical-deductive method will be used in combination with researches on doctrine and legislations. Also, jurisprudential research and case law study will have a special role, since the main point of this paper is to verify and study the position of the courts in Brazil in a specific matter. As a country of civil law, the Brazilian judges and tribunals are very attached to the rules displayed on codes. However, the jurisprudential understanding has been changing during the years and with the advent of the new rules about the applicable law and forum selection clause, it is noticeable that new winds are being blown.

Keywords: applicable law, forum selection clause, international business, international maritime contracts, litigation in courts

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
4466 A Comparative Study of Black Carbon Emission Characteristics from Marine Diesel Engines Using Light Absorption Method

Authors: Dongguk Im, Gunfeel Moon, Younwoo Nam, Kangwoo Chun

Abstract:

Recognition of the needs about protecting environment throughout worldwide is widespread. In the shipping industry, International Maritime Organization (IMO) has been regulating pollutants emitted from ships by MARPOL 73/78. Recently, the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) of IMO, at its 68th session, approved the definition of Black Carbon (BC) specified by the following physical properties (light absorption, refractory, insolubility and morphology). The committee also agreed to the need for a protocol for any voluntary measurement studies to identify the most appropriate measurement methods. Filter Smoke Number (FSN) based on light absorption is categorized as one of the IMO relevant BC measurement methods. EUROMOT provided a FSN measurement data (measured by smoke meter) of 31 different engines (low, medium and high speed marine engines) of member companies at the 3rd International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) workshop on marine BC. From the comparison of FSN, the results indicated that BC emission from low speed marine diesel engines was ranged from 0.009 to 0.179 FSN and it from medium and high speed marine diesel engine was ranged 0.012 to 3.2 FSN. In consideration of measured the low FSN from low speed engine, an experimental study was conducted using both a low speed marine diesel engine (2 stroke, power of 7,400 kW at 129 rpm) and a high speed marine diesel engine (4 stroke, power of 403 kW at 1,800 rpm) under E3 test cycle. The results revealed that FSN was ranged from 0.01 to 0.16 and 1.09 to 1.35 for low and high speed engines, respectively. The measurement equipment (smoke meter) ranges from 0 to 10 FSN. Considering measurement range of it, FSN values from low speed engines are near the detection limit (0.002 FSN or ~0.02 mg/m3). From these results, it seems to be modulated the measurement range of the measurement equipment (smoke meter) for enhancing measurement accuracy of marine BC and evaluation on performance of BC abatement technologies.

Keywords: black carbon, filter smoke number, international maritime organization, marine diesel engine (two and four stroke), particulate matter

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4465 Preliminary Design of Maritime Energy Management System: Naval Architectural Approach to Resolve Recent Limitations

Authors: Seyong Jeong, Jinmo Park, Jinhyoun Park, Boram Kim, Kyoungsoo Ahn

Abstract:

Energy management in the maritime industry is being required by economics and in conformity with new legislative actions taken by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the European Union (EU). In response, the various performance monitoring methodologies and data collection practices have been examined by different stakeholders. While many assorted advancements in operation and technology are applicable, their adoption in the shipping industry stays small. This slow uptake can be considered due to many different barriers such as data analysis problems, misreported data, and feedback problems, etc. This study presents a conceptual design of an energy management system (EMS) and proposes the methodology to resolve the limitations (e.g., data normalization using naval architectural evaluation, management of misrepresented data, and feedback from shore to ship through management of performance analysis history). We expect this system to make even short-term charterers assess the ship performance properly and implement sustainable fleet control.

Keywords: data normalization, energy management system, naval architectural evaluation, ship performance analysis

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4464 Enhancing Maritime Governance in Africa: Challenges of Maritime Policy Development in the East African Community

Authors: Christantus Begealawuh Nchongayi

Abstract:

As clearly stated in goal 14 of sustainable development goals, global oceans greatly contribute to making the earth habitable for mankind. This explains why ocean governance is an important global concern today. The emerging maritime security problems and the impact of climate change on African oceans, evidenced by tropical cyclones as seen recently in the Southern region of Africa, is also an indication that maritime governance and policymaking are important elements of peace and security in Africa. Within the last decade, there have been commendable efforts towards maritime governance and policymaking in Africa, although implementation of existing maritime policies is still lacking. This paper provides a snapshot of the overall state of the maritime policymaking process in Africa. It specifically explores the challenges facing policymakers in developing national and regional maritime security strategy in the East African Community. For methodology, the paper relied on primary and secondary data. Primary data was collected from informal discussions with policymakers and key policy-making bodies in Africa, and from a survey of public opinions. The study found that the Africa Integrated Maritime Strategy (2050 AIMS) is a recent template for regional and national maritime security policymaking in Africa and that although maritime security has in the past not been prioritized in the security agenda of the East African Community, developing and aligning a regional maritime security strategy to the 2050 AIMS will result to positive regional integration outcomes in East Africa.

Keywords: 2050 Africa integrated maritime strategy, east African community, maritime policy-making, maritime security

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4463 A Review and Classification of Maritime Disasters: The Case of Saudi Arabia's Coastline

Authors: Arif Almutairi, Monjur Mourshed

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Due to varying geographical and tectonic factors, the region of Saudi Arabia has been subjected to numerous natural and man-made maritime disasters during the last two decades. Natural maritime disasters, such as cyclones and tsunamis, have been recorded in coastal areas of the Indian Ocean (including the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Aden). Therefore, the Indian Ocean is widely recognised as the potential source of future destructive natural disasters that could affect Saudi Arabia’s coastline. Meanwhile, man-made maritime disasters, such as those arising from piracy and oil pollution, are located in the Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf, which are key locations for oil export and transportation between Asia and Europe. This paper provides a brief overview of maritime disasters surrounding Saudi Arabia’s coastline in order to classify them by frequency of occurrence and location, and discuss their future impact the region. Results show that the Arabian Gulf will be more vulnerable to natural maritime disasters because of its location, whereas the Red Sea is more vulnerable to man-made maritime disasters, as it is the key location for transportation between Asia and Europe. The results also show that with the aid of proper classification, effective disaster management can reduce the consequences of maritime disasters.

Keywords: disaster classification, maritime disaster, natural disasters, man-made disasters

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4462 Smart Security Concept in the East Mediterranean: Anti Asymmetrical Area Denial (A3D)

Authors: Serkan Tezgel

Abstract:

The two qualities of the sea, as a medium of transportation and as a resource, necessitate maritime security for economic stability and good order at sea. The borderless nature of the sea makes it one of the best platforms to contribute to regional peace and international order. For this reason, the establishment of maritime security in East Mediterranean will enhance the security-peace-democracy triangle in the region. This paper proposes the application of the Smart Security Concept in the East Mediterranean. Smart Security aims to secure critical infrastructure, such as hydrocarbon platforms, against asymmetrical threats. The concept is based on Anti Asymmetrical Area Denial (A3D) which necessitates limiting freedom of action of maritime terrorists and piracy by founding safe and secure maritime areas through sea lines of communication using short range capabilities. Smart Security is a regional maritime cooperation concept for the narrow seas. Cooperation and interoperability are essential attributes of this regional security concept. Therefore, multinational excellence centers such as Multinational Maritime Security Center of Excellence-Aksaz in Turkey, which will determine necessary capabilities and plan/coordinate workshops, training and exercises, are bound to be the principal characteristic of Smart Security concept and similar regional concepts. Smart Security, a crucial enabler of energy and regional security, can provide an enduring approach for operating in the challenging environment of narrow seas and for countering asymmetrical threats.

Keywords: security, cooperation, asymmetrical, area denial

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4461 Bibliometric Analysis of Risk Assessment of Inland Maritime Accidents in Bangladesh

Authors: Armana Huq, Wahidur Rahman, Sanwar Kader

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Inland waterways in Bangladesh play an important role in providing comfortable and low-cost transportation. However, a maritime accident takes away many lives and creates unwanted hazards every year. This article deals with a comprehensive review of inland waterway accidents in Bangladesh. Additionally, it includes a comparative study between international and local inland research studies based on maritime accidents. Articles from inland waterway areas are analyzed in-depth to make a comprehensive overview of the nature of the academic work, accident and risk management process and different statistical analyses. It is found that empirical analysis based on the available statistical data dominates the research domain. For this study, major maritime accident-related works in the last four decades in Bangladesh (1981-2020) are being analyzed for preparing a bibliometric analysis. A study of maritime accidents of passenger's vessels during (1995-2005) indicates that the predominant causes of accidents in the inland waterways of Bangladesh are collision and adverse weather (77%), out of which collision due to human error alone stands (56%) of all accidents. Another study refers that the major causes of waterway accidents are the collision (60.3%) during 2005-2015. About 92% of this collision occurs due to direct contact with another vessel during this period. Rest 8% of the collision occurs by contact with permanent obstruction on waterway roots. The overall analysis of another study from the last 25 years (1995-2019) shows that one of the main types of accidents is collisions, with about 50.3% of accidents being caused by collisions. The other accident types are cyclone or storm (17%), overload (11.3%), physical failure (10.3%), excessive waves (5.1%), and others (6%). Very few notable works are available in testing or comparing the methods, proposing new methods for risk management, modeling, uncertainty treatment. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the evolution of marine accident-related research domain regarding inland waterway of Bangladesh and attempts to introduce new ideas and methods to abridge the gap between international and national inland maritime-related work domain which can be a catalyst for a safer and sustainable water transportation system in Bangladesh. Another fundamental objective of this paper is to navigate various national maritime authorities and international organizations to implement risk management processes for shipping accident prevention in waterway areas.

Keywords: inland waterways, safety, bibliometric analysis, risk management, accidents

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4460 Military Role of Russia beyond Its National Boundary

Authors: Nipuli Gajanayake

Abstract:

The Russian military role beyond its national frontier has become a debatable hot topic in the international political arena. It’s advanced, and strategic responses in combating regional and international security problems have always been a factor to debate and criticize. Under such critical circumstances, Russia is attentive to play its military role according to the provisions of the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation. Most importantly, the legal basis of the doctrine has also consisted with the generally recognized principles and norms of international law. Therefore, Russian international military assistances are pledged to accomplish international peace and security. The expansion of Russian military participation in the United Nations Peacekeeping operations, and military- political, and technical cooperation have largely evident the great effort of Russia in maintaining and restoring international peace and security. Moreover, the conflict management diplomacy and the development of dialogue with nation states to confront military risks and threats can also identify as a part of preserving international peace and security. In addition, Russia strives to strengthen the system of collective security with regional and international organizations through the legal framework of the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO). Maintaining cooperative ties with the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) have highlighted the Russian deliberation on maintaining regional peace and security. Nevertheless, the extension of cordial relations with nation states and providing of military assistances during tensions and conflicts on their territories can also underscore as Russians commitments on maintaining international peace and security. Observing and recognizing the disparity between the West portrayed terms like ‘illegal Russian interventions’ and the comprehensive reality behind the ‘Russian military assistances’ are important to understand. However, a lopsided vision or a perspective towards the Russian international military role would not present a clear understanding about its valued and also dedicated hard work on maintaining international peace and security.

Keywords: collective security, diplomacy, international military role of Russia, international peace and security

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4459 Role of International Organizations towards Good Governance: Recent Trends

Authors: E. Prema Shyam

Abstract:

The role of international organizations has contributed in various ways for the good governance in the world at large. Since the beginning of the 1990s international organizations, particularly those active in the areas of human rights, trade and economic etc., have embraced a 'good governance'. It is also pertinent to mention that the application of the concept of good governance to international organizations themselves and not exclusively to national or regional polities is a more recent phenomenon. Especially since the second half of the 1990s, a number of international organizations have carried out major governance reforms, assuming that their calls for governments to heed higher standards of good governance will be all the more credible provided that they develop a good governance standard for themselves. In addition to this number of organizations such as the United Nations (UN), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), European Union (EU), International Committee of the Red Cross and World Trade Organization (WTO). OECD has been specifically mobilized to fight corruption. The World Bank was the first international organization to address the issue of good governance when it attributed the African development crisis to a crisis of governance in a 1989 report. International organizations are often denounced for their lack of transparency and democracy. However, in the last few years, a number of them have pushed through impressive reforms aimed at enhancing good governance standards within their own organizations, especially in the light of their long-standing secrecy. This is a remnant of the traditional conception of international organizations, which renders them merely answerable to their Members. International organizations have already gone quite some way in the areas of good management and opening up to the public. However, as far as participatory governance is concerned, lot to be done for the larger interest of society. In this paper, an attempt has been made to focus the issues on international organisations with regard to good governance.

Keywords: good governance, World Trade Organisation, international organisation, governance reforms

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4458 A Descriptive Study of Turkish Straits System on Dynamics of Environmental Factors Causing Maritime Accidents

Authors: Gizem Kodak, Alper Unal, Birsen Koldemir, Tayfun Acarer

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Turkish Straits System which consists of Istanbul Strait (Bosphorus), Canakkale Strait (Dardanelles) and the Marmara Sea has a strategical location on international maritime as it is a unique waterway between the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and the Aegean Sea. Thus, this area has great importance since it is the only waterway between Black Sea countries and the rest of the World. Turkish Straits System has dangerous environmental factors hosts more vessel every day through developing World trade and this situation results in expanding accident risks day by day. Today, a lot of precautions have been taken to ensure safe navigation and to prevent maritime accidents, and international standards are followed to avoid maritime accidents. Despite this, the environmental factors that affect this area, trigger the maritime accidents and threaten the vessels with new accidents risks in different months with different hazards. This descriptive study consists of temporal and spatial analyses of environmental factors causing maritime accidents. This study also aims at contributing to safety navigation including monthly and regionally characteristics of variables. In this context, two different data sets are created consisting of environmental factors and accidents. This descriptive study on the accidents between 2001 and 2017 the mentioned region also studies the months and places of the accidents with environmental factor variables. Environmental factor variables are categorized as dynamic and static factors. Dynamic factors are appointed as meteorological and oceanographical while static factors are appointed as geological factors that threaten safety navigation with geometrical restricts. The variables that form dynamic factors are approached meteorological as wind direction, wind speed, wave altitude and visibility. The circulations and properties of the water mass on the system are studied as oceanographical properties. At the end of the study, the efficient meteorological and oceanographical parameters on the region are presented monthly and regionally. By this way, we acquired the monthly, seasonal and regional distributions of the accidents. Upon the analyses that are done; The Turkish Straits System that connects the Black Sea countries with the other countries and which is one of the most important parts of the world trade; is analyzed on temporal and spatial dimensions on the reasons of the accidents and have been presented as environmental factor dynamics causing maritime accidents.

Keywords: descriptive study, environmental factors, maritime accidents, statistics

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4457 Calculating Collision Risk Exposures and Risk Probabilities at Container Terminals

Authors: Mohammad Ali Hasanzadeh, Thierry Vanelslander, Eddy Van De Voorde

Abstract:

Nowadays maritime transport is a key element in international trade and global supply chain. Economies of scale in transporting goods are one of the most attractive elements of using ships. Without maritime transport, almost no globalization of economics can be imagined. Within maritime transport, ports are the interface between lands and see. Even though using ships help cargo owners to have a competitive margin but an accident in port during loading or unloading or even moving cargoes within the terminal can diminish such margin. Statistics shows that due to the high-speed notion of activities within ports, collision accidents are the most common type of accidents. To mitigate such accidents, the appropriate risk exposures have to be defined and calculate, later on risk probabilities can be determined for each type of accident, i.e. fatal, severe, moderate and minor ones. Having such risk probabilities help managers to define the effectiveness of each collision risk control option. This research defined travelled distance as main collision risk exposure in container terminals, taking all the related items into consideration, it was calculated for Shahid Rajae container terminals. Following this finding, collision risk probabilities were computed.

Keywords: collision accident, container terminal, maritime transport, risk exposure

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4456 The Impact of India’s Centre-State Relations on its Maritime Counter-Terrorism Strategy

Authors: Riddhi Shah

Abstract:

Centre-state relations in India are a fascinating area of studies. The structure of the relationship has an effect on every single aspect of life as we know it in India. This paper is an attempt to study centre-state relations in the context of India’s maritime counter-terrorism strategy. Although the Government of India has not publicly stated its counter-terrorism strategy on the sea; intelligence, information sharing, crisis response, finances for internal security and the nation’s legislation for battling terrorism together comprise of India’s maritime-terrorism strategy. Through study of these areas, the paper argues that the centre-state divide has had systemic implications on India’s maritime security and has largely done more harm than good to collective initiatives that aspire to prevent future risk of terrorism from the sea or on the sea.

Keywords: counter-terrorism, maritime terrorism, India, federalism, centre-state relations

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4455 A Temporal Analysis on the Legal Status of the Turkish Straits in the Scope of National and International Legislation

Authors: Gizem Kodak, Birsen Koldemir

Abstract:

The Turkish Straits are at the crossroads of Europe and Asia continents and are unique waterways connecting the Black Sea countries to the rest of the world. Because of the geostrategic value of the location, passage of trade and war ships through the Turkish Straits has become a vital attraction and importance for the great powers and the riparian states throughout the history. This study contains a temporal analysis of the legal measures implemented in the Turkish Straits System. In this context, the historical alternation of the Turkish Straits has been examined, taking into account the relevant national and international regulations. In other words, relevant national and international regulations have been examined in this study according to historical time schedules. Parallel to the main concept mentioned above, the first chapter focuses on international regulations. These arrangements are organized according to date order and in three subheadings: Sèvres Treaty (1920), Lausanne Treaty (1923) and Montreux Convention (1936). Another topic, the national regulations, has been examined under five subheadings. These; (1982), Port Regulations of Canakkale (1982), Marine Traffic Regulations of the Turkish Straits and Marmara Region (1994) and Maritime Traffic Regulations for the Turkish Straits (1998). In doing so, the aim was to identify the differences in legal arrangements throughout the time regarding the navigation through the Turkish Straits. The current situation of the Turkish Straits has been presented in detail in the last part of the work, taking Montreux Convention into consideration. In this context, the articles of the Convention which regulate the passage of trade vessels have been examined from two perspectives; Peace time and war time. As for the measures that can be implemented in time of war, three options put forward depending on Turkey's stance: ‘Turkey not being belligerent’, ‘Turkey being belligerent’ and ‘situation in which Turkey considers herself threatened with imminent danger of war’.

Keywords: temporal analysis, maritime law, Turkish straits, maritime accidents

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4454 Lost Maritime Culture in the Netherlands: Linking Material and Immaterial Datasets for a Modern Day Perception of the Late Medieval Maritime Cultural Landscape of the Zuiderzee Region

Authors: Y. T. van Popta

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the never thoroughly examined yet in native relevant late medieval maritime cultural landscape of the former Zuiderzee (A.D. 1170-1932) in the center part of the Netherlands. Especially the northeastern part of the region, nowadays known as the Noordoostpolder, testifies of the dynamic battle of the Dutch against the water. This highly dynamic maritime region developed from a lake district into a sea and eventually into a polder. By linking physical and cognitive datasets from the Noordoostpol-der region in a spatial environment, new information on a late medieval maritime culture is brought to light, giving the opportunity to: (i) create a modern day perception on the late medieval maritime cultural landscape of the region and (ii) to underline the value of interdisciplinary and spatial research in maritime archaeology in general. Since the large scale reclamations of the region (A.D. 1932-1968), many remains have been discovered of a drowned and eroded late medieval maritime culture, represented by lost islands, drowned settlements, cultivated lands, shipwrecks and socio-economic networks. Recent archaeological research has proved the existence of this late medieval maritime culture by the discovery of the remains of the drowned settlement Fenehuysen (Veenhuizen) and its surroundings. The fact that this settlement and its cultivated surroundings remained hidden for so long proves that a large part of the maritime cultural landscape is ‘invisible’ and can only be found by extensive interdisciplinary research.

Keywords: drowned settlements, late middle ages, lost islands, maritime cultural landscape, the Netherlands

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4453 Innovations in the Organization of Adaptation Program for International Students in Russia Based on Human Capital Approach

Authors: Kalinina Anastasiya, Pevnaya Mariya

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The authors present the results of research of educational and cultural habitat of international students at Ural Federal University, revealing problem zones in the organization of adaptation program in 2014-2015 as well as innovations in adaptation program for 2015-2016. The research is based on U-curve theory of culture shock and theory of human capital. The authors provide also the first results for all stakeholders of practically implemented pilot adaptation program for foreign students which was based on the human capital approach.

Keywords: adaptation, human capital, international students, student volunteering, social community, youth politics

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4452 Analysis of Network Connectivity for Ship-To-Ship Maritime Communication Using IEEE 802.11 on Maritime Environment of Tanjung Perak, Indonesia

Authors: Ahmad Fauzi Makarim, Okkie Puspitorini, Hani'ah Mahmudah, Nur Adi Siswandari, Ari Wijayanti

Abstract:

As a maritime country, Indonesia needs a solution in maritime connectivity which can assist the maritime communication system which including communication from harbor to the ship or ship to ship. The needs of many application services for maritime communication, whether for safety reasons until voyage service to help the process of voyage activity needs connection with a high bandwith. To support the government efforts in handling that kind of problem, a research is conducted in maritime communication issue by applying the new developed technology in Indonesia, namely IEEE 802.11. In this research, 3 outdoor WiFi devices are used in which have a frequency of 5.8 GHz. Maritime of Tanjung Perak harbor in Surabaya until Karang Jamuang Island are used as the location of the research with defining permission of ship node spreading by Navigation District Class 1. That maritime area formed by state 1 and state 2 areas which are the narrow area with average wave height of 0.7 meter based on the data from BMKG S urabaya. After that, wave height used as one of the parameters which are used in analyzing characteristic of signal propagation at sea surface, so it can be determined on the coverage area of transmitter system. In this research has been used three samples of outdoor wifi, there is the coverage of device A can be determined about 2256 meter, device B 4000 meter, and device C 1174 meter. Then to analyze of network connectivity for the ship to ship is used AODV routing algorithm system based on the value of the power transmit was smallest of all nodes within the transmitter coverage.

Keywords: maritime of Indonesia, maritime communications, outdoor wifi, coverage, AODV

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4451 Challenges in Video Based Object Detection in Maritime Scenario Using Computer Vision

Authors: Dilip K. Prasad, C. Krishna Prasath, Deepu Rajan, Lily Rachmawati, Eshan Rajabally, Chai Quek

Abstract:

This paper discusses the technical challenges in maritime image processing and machine vision problems for video streams generated by cameras. Even well documented problems of horizon detection and registration of frames in a video are very challenging in maritime scenarios. More advanced problems of background subtraction and object detection in video streams are very challenging. Challenges arising from the dynamic nature of the background, unavailability of static cues, presence of small objects at distant backgrounds, illumination effects, all contribute to the challenges as discussed here.

Keywords: autonomous maritime vehicle, object detection, situation awareness, tracking

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4450 China's BRI and Germany's Baghdad Railroad – a Realist Analysis of Hegemonic Conflict and the Circumvention of Maritime Power

Authors: Kamen Kirov

Abstract:

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Britain dominated global trade and finance in large part due to its maritime superiority. Germany, a land power, sought to undermine Britain’s position as the primary hegemon but ultimately could not challenge Britain’s maritime position or capabilities. This drove Germany to seek alternative strategies to weaken Britain’s position. Notably, it pushed Germany to create a reliable overland link through the Balkans to the Middle East via railroad. This article will seek to draw parallels between the German-British hegemonic conflict of the early 20th century and the Chinese-American hegemonic conflict taking place today using both secondary historical sources and current scholarly discussions of the changing international sphere. In doing so, it will provide useful insights into how China might attempt to outflank American power. The article will demonstrate that in many ways, the strategic positions and approaches of the early-20th century Germany and modern China are similar. Both countries were faced with a vastly superior foe with respect to maritime and economic power, and in both cases, their response was to undermine their rival hegemon by creating new overland infrastructure. Furthermore, in both cases, a major goal of creating new overland links was to gain further access to and control over Middle Eastern energy markets. It seems that in the modern day, China is conducting such a policy on a much grander scale than Germany did in the early 20th century—which may result in negative consequences for the US strategic position.

Keywords: belt and road Initiative, hegemonic conflict, maritime power, realism

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4449 Process Assessment Model for Process Capability Determination Based on ISO/IEC 20000-1:2011

Authors: Harvard Najoan, Sarwono Sutikno, Yusep Rosmansyah

Abstract:

Most enterprises are now using information technology services as their assets to support business objectives. These kinds of services are provided by the internal service provider (inside the enterprise) or external service provider (outside enterprise). To deliver quality information technology services, the service provider (which from now on will be called ‘organization’) either internal or external, must have a standard for service management system. At present, the standard that is recognized as best practice for service management system for the organization is international standard ISO/IEC 20000:2011. The most important part of this international standard is the first part or ISO/IEC 20000-1:2011-Service Management System Requirement, because it contains 22 for organization processes as a requirement to be implemented in an organizational environment in order to build, manage and deliver quality service to the customer. Assessing organization management processes is the first step to implementing ISO/IEC 20000:2011 into the organization management processes. This assessment needs Process Assessment Model (PAM) as an assessment instrument. PAM comprises two parts: Process Reference Model (PRM) and Measurement Framework (MF). PRM is built by transforming the 22 process of ISO/IEC 20000-1:2011 and MF is based on ISO/IEC 33020. This assessment instrument was designed to assess the capability of service management process in Divisi Teknologi dan Sistem Informasi (Information Systems and Technology Division) as an internal organization of PT Pos Indonesia. The result of this assessment model can be proposed to improve the capability of service management system.

Keywords: ISO/IEC 20000-1:2011, ISO/IEC 33020:2015, process assessment, process capability, service management system

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4448 The Implementation of Organizational Ecoinnovativeness as an Expression of a Strategic Approach of an Organization

Authors: Marzena Hajduk-Stelmachowicz

Abstract:

This paper presents the reasons why the implementation of the organizational eco-innovation (based on requirements of the International Standard ISO 14001) can be an expression of a strategic organization approach. An elaboration about different issues associated with the Environmental Management Systems are given.

Keywords: envionmental management system, ISO 14001, organizational ecoinnovativeness, ecoinnovation

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4447 Evolving Maritime Geopolitics of the Indo-Pacific

Authors: Pragya Pandey

Abstract:

A major discussion in the 21st -century international affairs has been around the shifting economic and political center of gravity to Asia. In the maritime realm, it translates into a shift in focus from the Atlantic to the Pacific-Indian Ocean region or what is now popularly called the Indo-Pacific region. The Indo-Pacific is rapidly eclipsing once dominant Asia-Pacific as center of trade, investment, competition and cooperation. The growing inter-connectivity between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean is bringing forth the ‘confluence of the two seas’. Therefore, the Indo-Pacific strategic arc is acquiring greater salience in consonance with the changing realities of the time. The region is undergoing unprecedented transformation in its security outlook. At present, the region is at an interesting historic epoch- witnessing the simultaneous rise India and China, their economic growth, naval modernization and power projection capabilities, alongside the continued presence of the United States, particularly with its rebalancing strategy. Besides the interplay among the three major stakeholders, other regional players like Japan, Australia, and Indonesia, would play a crucial role in the geopolitical re-arrangement of the Indo-Pacific region. The region will be the future theater of activities to determine the shifts and distribution of sea power, by the virtue of its strategic location, intrinsic value of the energy resources and significant maritime trade routes of the region. Therefore, the central theme of the paper would be to scrutinize the maritime security environment of the region against the backdrop of the tricky geopolitical landscape, contributing to the change in the regional and global balance of power.

Keywords: China, geopolitics, India, United States

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4446 Issues in Implementing ISO 9002 from the Islamic Perspective (ISI 2020)

Authors: Ahmad Masduki Bin Selamat, Kang Chia Yang

Abstract:

The International Standard Organization (ISO) is an international consensus on good management practice. It is derived from the Greek word “isos” meaning equal. ISO is aimed to give organization guidelines on what bring quality management system that leads to continuous improvement. The need of quality product is essential these days, especially in the manufacturing and service sectors. The requirement to produce good product is demanded, hence the certification of ISO enables the company to gain the trust from the public. Due to this, organizations whether government or private sectors in Malaysia are going for the ISO certification. However recently there has been an introduction of Islamic standard known as Islamic Standard Institute 2020 (ISI 2020). The ISI standards emphasize more on values that should be in the employees’ mind. By possessing good values, employees will work only for the betterment of the company. Currently only the feelings of being paid for the job exist in the employees’ mind. The non-Malays like Chinese and others, which comprise 40% of the sample size, are not aware about the existence of any Islamic quality system. As for the Malay managers, they support the Islamic quality systems. For them such values are encouraged by religion. By imitating religion, Allah promises a better life in this world and hereafter. Even though ISI 2020 is still new but the majority of Malays would support the need of Islamic quality system. Our findings suggest that integration of these two-quality systems running parallel would bring a better result.

Keywords: International Standard Organization (ISO), Islamic standard, quality, ISI 2020

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4445 Protection of Human Rights in Europe: The Parliamentary Dimension

Authors: Aleksandra Chiniaeva

Abstract:

The following paper describes the activity of national and international parliamentary assemblies of the European region in protection and promotion of human rights. It may be said that parliamentarians have a “double mandate” — as members of the international assembly and of their respective national parliaments. In other words, parliamentarization at both international and national level provides a situation for parliamentarians, where they link people, national governments and international organizations. The paper is aimed towards demonstrating that the activity of the main international parliamentary assemblies of the European region have a real positive impact on the human rights situation in the European region. In addition, the paper describes the assemblies that include protection of human rights in their Agenda as one of the main subjects: the EP, the PACE, the OSCE PA and the IPA CIS. Co-operation activities such as joint election observation; participation in inter-parliamentary associations, such as the IPU; conclusion agreements allow assemblies to provide observation of human right situation in the states that are not members of the particular organization and as consequence make their impact broader.

Keywords: human rights, international parliamentary assembly, IPU, EP, PACE, OSCE, international election observation

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4444 Measuring Quality of Service in King Khalid International Airport

Authors: T. M. Al Muhareb

Abstract:

Any organization should take into consideration the customers’ satisfaction while providing any service to their customers. The quality of services is always considered as the main aspect that attracts the customers’ attention and helps the airports to develop their services and operations. King Khalid International Airport is considered as the gateway of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to identify the quality service in the departure area at in King Khalid Airport. The SERVQUAL questionnaire was distributed among the passengers in King Khalid International Airport and the respondents have reached to 500 passengers. The results that are obtained from the SERVQUAL questionnaire showed that the quality of airport’s services is low.

Keywords: service quality, SERVQUAL methodology, King Khalid International Airport (KKIA), customers’ satisfaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 359