Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1990

Search results for: internal hernia

1990 Results of Twenty Years of Laparoscopic Hernia Repair Surgeries

Authors: Arun Prasad

Abstract:

Introduction: Laparoscopic surgery of hernia started in early 1990 and has had a mixed acceptance across the world, unlike laparoscopic cholecystectomy that has become a gold standard. Laparoscopic hernia repair claims to have less pain, less recurrence, and less wound infection compared to open hernia repair leading to early recovery and return to work. Materials and Methods: Laparoscopic hernia repair has been done in 2100 patients from 1995 till now with a follow-up data of 1350 patients. Data was analysed for results and satisfaction. Results: There is a recurrence rate of 0.1%. Early complications include bleeding, trocar injury and nerve pain. Late complications were rare. Conclusion: Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair has a steep learning curve but after that the results and patient satisfaction are very good. It should be the procedure of choice in all bilateral and recurrent hernias.

Keywords: laparoscopy, hernia, mesh, surgery

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
1989 Inguinal Hernia Preperitoneal Mesh and Internal Hernia with Caecal Volvulus

Authors: Daniel Tani, Goutham Sivasuthan, Reuben Ndegwa, Omar Mansour

Abstract:

We report a case of a caecal volvulus in a 52-year-old female who had an internal hernia from adhesions originating at the region of a previous inguinal hernia mesh repair. The patient described epigastric and right lower quadrant pain for the preceding two weeks that seemed to worsen with oral intake. She had previous laparoscopic preperitoneal hernia repairs with mesh bilaterally; the left in 2007 and the right in 2012. Further surgical history included an open Spigelian hernia repair with mesh in the left lower quadrant and a laparoscopic cholecystectomy 20 years earlier. In addition to this, she had had a colonoscopy done three months prior, which showed no masses or polyps. The patient was hemodynamically stable on review with a soft abdomen. The right lower quadrant was exquisitely tender with a rebound. There were no palpable masses. Blood tests revealed hemoglobin of 155 g/L, a white cell count of 8 x 109/L, and a C-reactive protein of 37 mg/L. A computed tomography scan with portal venous contrast demonstrated a mechanical small bowel obstruction with the terminal ileum and caecum looped around itself in a whirlpool appearance, and the colon collapsed distally. There was a trace of free fluid in the right paracolic gutter and no abdominal free air. Hernia meshes were visible in the inguinal orifices bilaterally and at the left lower quadrant. The mesh on the right inguinal canal appeared to be displaced intraperitoneally. The patient then underwent emergency diagnostic laparoscopy. Intraoperatively, there was a caecal volvulus caused by internal herniation underneath a thick band adhesion at the right iliac fossa. This band appeared to arise from the anterior abdominal wall just posterior to the right inguinal hernia preperitoneal mesh. There was no mesh or tacks exposed and there was no recurrent hernia. A right hemicolectomy was performed with a stapled side-to-side anastomosis. The postoperative course was uncomplicated, and she was discharged on day 6. At follow-up two weeks later, the patient was well and bowel function had returned to normal. Histopathology was negative for dysplasia or malignancy. Inguinal preperitoneal mesh has not been definitively linked to intraabdominal adhesion formation. There has been a study in 2016 that examined the formation of adhesions after ventral hernia repair as detected by MRI and laparoscopic correlation. However, this included intraperitoneal mesh, and the results were not stratified by mesh location. There was an overall 60% rate of adhesions after ventral hernia mesh. There has also been one case report in the literature that describes an adhesional small bowel obstruction that was attributed to a tack that had been placed during a laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. In our case report, there was clearly a band adhesion from the preperitoneal mesh that had led to an internal hernia and caecal volvulus; however, whether the mesh had initiated the adhesion is uncertain. While inguinal hernia repair with mesh remains the gold standard, the formation of intra-abdominal adhesions may need to be a consideration in fixation techniques.

Keywords: internal hernia, inguinal hernia mesh, caecal volvulus, adhesion

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
1988 Comparative Study of Outcomes of Nonfixation of Mesh versus Fixation in Laparoscopic Total Extra Peritoneal (TEP) Repair of Inguinal Hernia: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Raman Sharma, S. K. Jain

Abstract:

Aims and Objectives: Fixation of the mesh during laparoscopic total extraperitoneal (TEP) repair of inguinal hernia is thought to be necessary to prevent recurrence. However, mesh fixation may increase surgical complications and postoperative pain. Our objective was to compare the outcomes of nonfixation with fixation of polypropylene mesh by metal tacks during TEP repair of inguinal hernia. Methods: Forty patients aged 18 to72 years with inguinal hernia were included who underwent laparoscopic TEP repair of inguinal hernia with (n=20) or without (n=20) fixation of the mesh. The outcomes were operative duration, postoperative pain score, cost, in-hospital stay, time to return to normal activity, and complications. Results: Patients in whom the mesh was not fixed had shorter mean operating time (p < 0.05). We found no difference between groups in the postoperative pain score, incidence of recurrence, in-hospital stay, time to return to normal activity and complications (P > 0.05). Moreover, a net cost savings was realized for each hernia repair performed without stapled mesh. Conclusions: TEP repair without mesh fixation resulted in the shorter operating time and lower operative cost with no difference between groups in the postoperative pain score, incidence of recurrence, in-hospital stay, time to return to normal activity and complications. All this contribute to make TEP repair without mesh fixation a better choice for repair of uncomplicated inguinal hernia, especially in developing nations with scarce resources.

Keywords: postoperative pain score, inguinal hernia, nonfixation of mesh, total extra peritoneal (TEP)

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
1987 Unusual Presentation of Colorectal Cancer within Inguinal Hernia: A Systemic Review of Reported Cases

Authors: Sena Park

Abstract:

Background: The concurrent presentation with colorectal cancer in the inguinal hernia has been extremely rare. Due to its rarity, its presentation may lead to diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. We aim to review all the reported cases on colorectal cancer incarcerated in the inguinal hernia in the last 20 years, and discuss the operative approaches. Methods: We identified all case reports on colorectal cancer within inguinal hernia using PUBMED (2002-2022) and MEDLINE (2002-2022). The search strategy included the following keywords: colorectal cancer (title/abstract) AND inguinal hernia (title/abstract) OR incarceration (title/abstract). The search did not include letters, book chapters, systemic reviews, meta-analysis and editorials. Results: In the last 20 years, a total of 19 cases on colorectal cancer within the inguinal hernia were identified. The age of the patients ranged between 48 and 89. Majority of the patients were male (95%). Most commonly involved part of the large intestine was sigmoid colon (79%). Of all the cases, 79 percent of patients received open procedure and 21 percent had laparoscopic procedure. Discussion: Inguinal hernias are common with an incidence of approximately 1.7 percent. Colorectal cancer is the one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. However, their concurrent presentation has been extremely rare. In the last 20 years, 19 cases on concurrent presentation of colorectal cancer and inguinal hernia have been reported. Most patients who had open procedures had two incisions of groin incision and a midline laparotomy. There were 4 cases where the oncological resection was performed laparoscopically. The advantages of laparoscopic resection include reduced blood lost, reduced post-operative pain, reduced length of hospital stay and similar number of lymph nodes taken. From the review of the cases in the last 20 years, both open and laparoscopic approaches seemed to be safe and achieve adequate oncological resections. Conclusion: This is a brief overview of reported cases of colorectal cancer presenting with inguinal hernia concurrently. Due to its rarity, there are no current guidelines on operative approach in clinical practice. The experience in the last 20 years supports both open and laparoscopic approach.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, inguinal hernia, incarceration, operative approach

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1986 Ultrasound Markers in Evaluation of Hernias

Authors: Aniruddha Kulkarni

Abstract:

In very few cases of external hernias we require imaging modalities as on most occasions clinical examination tests are good enough. Ultrasound will help in chronic abdominal or groin pain, equivocal clinical results & complicated hernias. Ultrasound is useful in assessment of cause of raised intrabdominal pressure. In certain cases will comment about etiology, complications and chronicicty of lesion. Screening of rest of abdominal organs too is important advantage being real time modality. Cost effectiveness, no radiation allows modality be used repeatedly in indicated cases. Sonography is better accepted by patients too as it is cost effective. Best advanced tissue harmonic equipment and increasing expertise making it popular. Ultrasound can define surgical anatomy, rent size, contents, etiological /recurrence factors in great detail and with authority hence accidental findings in a planned surgical procedure can be easily avoided. Clinical dynamic valselva and reducibility test can better documented by real time ultrasound study. In case of recurrence, Sonography will help in assessing the hernia details better as being dynamic real time investigation. Ultrasound signs in case of internal hernias are well comparable with CT findings.

Keywords: laparoscopic repair, Hernia, CT findings, chronic pain

Procedia PDF Downloads 424
1985 Literature Review and Evaluation of the Internal Marketing Theory

Authors: Hsiao Hsun Yuan

Abstract:

Internal marketing was proposed in 1970s. The theory of the concept has continually changed over the past forty years. This study discussed the following themes: the definition and implication of internal marketing, the progress of its development, and the evolution of its theoretical model. Moreover, the study systematically organized the strategies of the internal marketing theory adopted on enterprise and how they were put into practice. It also compared the empirical studies focusing on how the existent theories influenced the important variables of internal marketing. The results of this study are expected to serve as references for future exploration of the boundary and studies aiming at how internal marketing is applied to different types of enterprises.

Keywords: corporate responsibility, employee organizational performance, internal marketing, internal customer

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
1984 A Systematic Review Examining the Experimental methodology behind in vivo testing of hiatus hernia and Diaphragmatic Hernia Mesh

Authors: Whitehead-Clarke T., Beynon V., Banks J., Karanjia R., Mudera V., Windsor A., Kureshi A.

Abstract:

Introduction: Mesh implants are regularly used to help repair both hiatus hernias (HH) and diaphragmatic hernias (DH). In vivo studies are used to test not only mesh safety but increasingly comparative efficacy. Our work examines the field of in vivo mesh testing for HH and DH models to establish current practices and standards. Method: This systematic review was registered with PROSPERO. Medline and Embase databases were searched for relevant in vivo studies. 44 articles were identified and underwent abstract review, where 22 were excluded. 4 further studies were excluded after full text review – leaving 18 to undergo data extraction. Results: Of 18 studies identified, 9 used an in vivo HH model and 9 a DH model. 5 studies undertook mechanical testing on tissue samples – all uniaxial in nature. Testing strip widths ranged from 1-20mm (median 3mm). Testing speeds varied from 1.5-60mm/minute. Upon histology, the most commonly assessed structural and cellular factors were neovascularization and macrophages, respectively (n=9 each). Structural analysis was mostly qualitative, where cellular analysis was equally likely to be quantitative. 11 studies assessed adhesion formation, of which 8 used one of four scoring systems. 8 studies measured mesh shrinkage. Discussion: In vivo studies assessing mesh for HH and DH repair are uncommon. Within this relatively young field, we encourage surgical and materials testing institutions to discuss its standardisation.

Keywords: hiatus, diaphragmatic, hernia, mesh, materials testing, in vivo

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
1983 Anatomical Features of Internal Pudendal Artery

Authors: Adel Yasky, Waseem Al-Talalwah, Shorok Al Dorazi, Roger Soames

Abstract:

The internal pudendal artery is a standard branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery. The current study includes 41 cadavers to investigate the origin and branches of the internal pudendal artery and its clinical significances. The internal pudendal artery arose directly from the anterior division of the internal iliac artery in 48.3% while it arose indirectly in 48.5%. However, the internal pudendal artery arose from the posterior division of internal iliac artery in 1.6%. Moreover, it arose internal iliac artery bifurcation site in 1.6%. Further, the internal pudendal artery supplied the urinary bladder in 17.1%. Also, the internal pudendal artery supplied the rectum 33.5% respectively. It gave uterine and vaginal arteries in 9.4% and 7.8% respectively. Finally, it supplied the sciatic nerve via giving lateral sacral branch in 1.6%. Internists, surgeons and radiologists have to be aware of the variability to decrease iatrogenic injury. Therefore, unnecessary proximal ligation should be avoided at the site of indirect origin of the internal pudendal artery to prevent sciatic neuropathy. Further, intrapelvic bleeding as result of laceration of internal pudendal branches during hysterectomy, prostatectomy or proctectomy should be expected. Therefore, this study increases the awareness of surgeons leading to minimize iatrogenic faults,

Keywords: internal pudendal artery, inferior gluteal artery, superior gluteal artery, internal iliac artery, impotence, decreased libido

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
1982 The Impacts of Internal Employees on Brand Building: A Case Study of Cell Phone

Authors: Adnan Gohar

Abstract:

This research work aims the importance of internal employees in the making of a brand (cell phone) through customer satisfaction which basically explains the connection of internal employees with external customers. This research is designed to measure the satisfaction level of internal employees which further connects to the product evolution as a brand leaving a brand image in the eye of the external customer. The main focus is that internal employees are as important as external customers for the uplift of the product resulting in the brand. Internal employees are individual organization employees, vendors, departments, and distributors.

Keywords: brand building, customer satisfaction, internal employees, mobile franchise

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
1981 The Effect of Internal Auditing Function on the Quality of Financial Reporting: A Theoretical Framework

Authors: Hani Albogami

Abstract:

The internal audit function is considered as one of the internal corporate governance mechanisms that may have an impact on improving earnings quality by constraining earnings management. The internal audit function is also a unique corporate governance mechanism because internal auditors have more involvement with the day-to-day operations comparing to the audit committee, and also internal auditors audit their companies the whole year compared to the external auditor who audits only a certain time of the year. The relationships between internal audit function and earnings management can be understood by some theories. Therefore, this paper provides a theoretical background of the influence of the quality of internal audit function on earnings management. In particular, the agency theory, institutional theory, singling theory, and resource dependency theory are adapted by this paper to provide some understanding and analyses that can be a basis for future research to contribute to the corporate governance academic studies.

Keywords: internal audit, corporate governance, earnings management, accounting

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
1980 Use of Triclosan-Coated Sutures Led to Cost Saving in Public and Private Setting in India across Five Surgical Categories: An Economical Model Assessment

Authors: Anish Desai, Reshmi Pillai, Nilesh Mahajan, Hitesh Chopra, Vishal Mahajan, Ajay Grover, Ashish Kohli

Abstract:

Surgical Site Infection (SSI) is hospital acquired infection of growing concern. This study presents the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of triclosan-coated suture, in reducing the burden of SSI in India. Methodology: A systematic literature search was conducted for economic burden (1998-2018) of SSI and efficacy of triclosan-coated sutures (TCS) vs. non-coated sutures (NCS) (2000-2018). PubMed Medline and EMBASE indexed articles were searched using Mesh terms or Emtree. Decision tree analysis was used to calculate, the cost difference between TCS and NCS at private and public hospitals, respectively for 7 surgical procedures. Results: The SSI range from low to high for Caesarean section (C-section), Laparoscopic hysterectomy (L-hysterectomy), Open Hernia (O-Hernia), Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (L-Cholecystectomy), Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), Total knee replacement (TKR), and Mastectomy were (3.77 to 24.2%), (2.28 to 11.7%), (1.75 to 60%), (1.71 to 25.58%), (1.6 to 18.86%), (1.74 to 12.5%), and (5.56 to 25%), respectively. The incremental cost (%) of TCS ranged 0.1%-0.01% in private and from 0.9%-0.09% at public hospitals across all surgical procedures. Cost savings at median efficacy & SSI risk was 6.52%, 5.07 %, 11.39%, 9.63%, 3.62%, 2.71%, 9.41% for C-section, L-hysterectomy, O-Hernia, L-Cholecystectomy, CABG, TKR, and Mastectomy in private and 8.79%, 4.99%, 12.67%, 10.58%, 3.32%, 2.35%, 11.83% in public hospital, respectively. Efficacy of TCS and SSI incidence in a particular surgical procedure were important determinants of cost savings using one-way sensitivity analysis. Conclusion: TCS suture led to cost savings across all 7 surgeries in both private and public hospitals in India.

Keywords: cost Savings, non-coated sutures, surgical site infection, triclosan-coated sutures

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
1979 Change of Internal Friction on Magnesium Alloy with 5.48% Al Dependence on the Temperature

Authors: Milan Uhríčik, Andrea Soviarová, Zuzana Dresslerová, Peter Palček, Alan Vaško

Abstract:

The article is focused on the analysis changes dependence on the temperature on the magnesium alloy with 5,48% Al, 0,813% Zn and 0,398% Mn by internal friction. Internal friction is a property of the material is measured on the ultrasonic resonant aparature at a frequency about f = 20470 Hz. The measured temperature range was from 30 °C up to 420 °C. Precisely measurement of the internal friction can be monitored ongoing structural changes and various mechanisms that prevent these changes.

Keywords: internal friction, magnesium alloy, temperature, resonant frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 546
1978 Internal Audit and the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Operations in Hospitals

Authors: Naziru Suleiman

Abstract:

The ever increasing cases of financial frauds and corporate accounting scandals in recent years have raised more concern on the operation of internal control mechanisms and performance of the internal audit departments in organizations. In most cases the seeming presence of both the internal control system and internal audit in organizations do not prove useful as frauds errors and irregularities are being perpetuated. The aim of this study, therefore, is to assess the role of internal audit in achieving the objectives of internal control system of federal hospitals in Kano State from the perception of the respondents. The study used survey research design and generated data from primary source by means of questionnaire. A total number of 100 copies of questionnaire were administered out of which 68 were duly completed and returned. Cronbach’s alpha was used to test the internal validity of the various items in the constructs. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, Mann Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis ANOVA were employed for the analysis of data. The study finds that from the perception of the respondents, internal audit departments in Federal Hospitals in Kano State are effective and that they contribute positively to the overall attainment of the objectives of internal control system of these hospitals. There is no significant difference found on the views of the respondents from the three hospitals. Hence, the study concludes that strong and functional internal audit department is a basic requirement for effectiveness of operations of the internal control system. In the light of the findings, it is recommended that internal audit should continue to ensure that the objectives of internal control system of these hospitals are achieved through proper and adequate evaluation and review of the system.

Keywords: internal audit, internal control, federal hospitals, financial frauds

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
1977 An Investigation on the Internal Quality Assurance System of Higher Education in Indonesia

Authors: Andi Mursidi

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate why the internal quality assurance system as the basis for the assessment of external quality assurance systems is not well developed at universities in Indonesia. To answer this problem, technical analysis used single instrumental case study with the respondents from ten universities. The findings of this study are the internal quality assurance system that is applied so far (1) only to gain accreditation; and (2) considered as a liability rather than as a necessity to meet the demands of quality standards. It needs strong commitment from internal stakeholders at the college/university to establish internal quality assurance systems that exceed the national standards of higher education. A high quality college/ university will have a good accreditation rank.

Keywords: internal stakeholders, internal quality assurance system, commitment, higher education

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
1976 Design of Lead-Lag Based Internal Model Controller for Binary Distillation Column

Authors: Rakesh Kumar Mishra, Tarun Kumar Dan

Abstract:

Lead-Lag based Internal Model Control method is proposed based on Internal Model Control (IMC) strategy. In this paper, we have designed the Lead-Lag based Internal Model Control for binary distillation column for SISO process (considering only bottom product). The transfer function has been taken from Wood and Berry model. We have find the composition control and disturbance rejection using Lead-Lag based IMC and comparing with the response of simple Internal Model Controller.

Keywords: SISO, lead-lag, internal model control, wood and berry, distillation column

Procedia PDF Downloads 512
1975 The Impact of Audit Committee Industry Expertise on Internal Audit Function

Authors: Abdulaziz Alzeban

Abstract:

This study examines whether internal audit function is indeed greater when audit committee members have industry expertise combined with auditing expertise. Data from a survey of 64 chief internal auditors from companies registered on the Saudi Stock Exchange TADAWL, provides results that suggest that when audit committee members possess both industry expertise and auditing expertise, the committee’s role in improving the quality of internal audit is enhanced. This outcome is concluded as one that can be generalized beyond the Saudi Arabian context.

Keywords: internal audit, audit committee, industry expertise, function

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
1974 Impact of Internal Control on Fraud Detection and Prevention: A Survey of Selected Organisations in Nigeria

Authors: Amos Olusola Akinola

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to evaluate the internal control system on fraud prevention in Nigerian business organizations. A survey research was undertaken in five organizations from the banking and manufacturing sectors in Nigeria using the simple random sampling technique and primary data was obtained with the aid structured questionnaire drawn on five likert’s scale. Four Hypotheses were formulated and tested using the T-test Statistics, Correlation and Regression Analysis at 95% confidence interval. It was discovered that internal control has a significant positive relationship with fraud prevention and that a weak internal control system permits fraudulent activities among staff. Based on the findings, it was recommended that organizations should continually and methodically review and evaluate the components of its internal control system whether activities are working as planned or not and that every organization should have pre-determined guidelines for conducting its operations and ensures compliance with these set guidelines while proactive steps should be taken to establish the independence of the internal audit by making the audit reportable to the governing council of an organization and not the chief executive officer.

Keywords: internal control, internal system, internal audit, fraud prevention, fraud detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
1973 Telemedicine Versus Face-to-Face Follow up in General Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Teagan Fink, Lynn Chong, Michael Hii, Brett Knowles

Abstract:

Background: Telemedicine is a rapidly advancing field providing healthcare to patients at a distance from their treating clinician. There is a paucity of high-quality evidence detailing the safety and acceptability of telemedicine for postoperative outpatient follow-up. This randomized controlled trial – conducted prior to the COVID 19 pandemic – aimed to assess patient satisfaction and safety (as determined by readmission, reoperation and complication rates) of telephone compared to face-to-face clinic follow-up after uncomplicated general surgical procedures. Methods: Patients following uncomplicated laparoscopic appendicectomy or cholecystectomy and laparoscopic or open umbilical or inguinal hernia repairs were randomized to a telephone or face-to-face outpatient clinic follow-up. Data points including patient demographics, perioperative details and postoperative outcomes (eg. wound healing complications, pain scores, unplanned readmission to hospital and return to daily activities) were compared between groups. Patients also completed a Likert patient satisfaction survey following their consultation. Results: 103 patients were recruited over a 12-month period (21 laparoscopic appendicectomies, 65 laparoscopic cholecystectomies, nine open umbilical hernia repairs, six laparoscopic inguinal hernia repairs and two laparoscopic umbilical hernia repairs). Baseline patient demographics and operative interventions were the same in both groups. Patient or clinician-reported concerns on postoperative pain, use of analgesia, wound healing complications and return to daily activities at clinic follow-up were not significantly different between the two groups. Of the 58 patients randomized to the telemedicine arm, 40% reported high and 60% reported very high patient satisfaction. Telemedicine clinic mean consultation times were significantly shorter than face-to-face consultation times (telemedicine 10.3 +/- 7.2 minutes, face-to-face 19.2 +/- 23.8 minutes, p-value = 0.014). Rates of failing to attend clinic were not significantly different (telemedicine 3%, control 6%). There was no increased rate of postoperative complications in patients followed up by telemedicine compared to in-person. There were no unplanned readmissions, return to theatre, or mortalities in this study. Conclusion: Telemedicine follow-up of patients undergoing uncomplicated general surgery is safe and does not result in any missed diagnosis or higher rates of complications. Telemedicine provides high patient satisfaction and steps to implement this modality in inpatient care should be undertaken.

Keywords: general surgery, telemedicine, patient satisfaction, patient safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
1972 CyberSecurity Malaysia: Towards Becoming a National Certification Body for Information Security Management Systems Internal Auditors

Authors: M. S. Razana, Z. W. Shafiuddin

Abstract:

Internal auditing is one of the most important activities for organizations that implement information security management systems (ISMS). The purpose of internal audits is to ensure the ISMS implementation is in accordance to the ISO/IEC 27001 standard and the organization’s own requirements for its ISMS. Competent internal auditors are the main element that contributes to the effectiveness of internal auditing activities. To realize this need, CyberSecurity Malaysia is now in the process of becoming a certification body that certifies ISMS internal auditors. The certification scheme will assess the competence of internal auditors in generic knowledge and skills in management systems, and also in ISMS-specific knowledge and skills. The certification assessment is based on the ISO/IEC 19011 Guidelines for auditing management systems, ISO/IEC 27007 Guidelines for information security management systems auditing and ISO/IEC 27001 Information security management systems requirements. The certification scheme complies with the ISO/IEC 17024 General requirements for bodies operating certification systems of persons. Candidates who pass the exam will be certified as an ISMS Internal Auditor, whose competency will be evaluated every three years.

Keywords: ISMS internal audit, ISMS internal auditor, ISO/IEC 17024, competence, certification

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
1971 Internal and External Validity in Experimental Economics

Authors: Helena Chytilova, Robin Maialeh

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Experimental economics is subject to criticism with regards to frequently discussed trade-off between internal and external validity requirements, which seems to be critically flawed. Incompatibility of trade-off condition and condition of internal validity as a prerequisite for external validity is presented. In addition, the imprecise concept of artificiality found to be rather improving external validity, seems to strengthen illusory status of external versus internal validity tension. Internal validity will be further analysed with regards to Duhem-Quine problem, where unpredictability argument is significantly weakened trough application of inductivism within the illustrative hypothetical-deductive model. Discussion outlined above partially weakens critical arguments related to robustness of results in experimental economics, if perfectly controlled experimental environment is secured.

Keywords: Duhem-Quine problem, external validity, inductivism, internal validity

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
1970 Comparative Efficacy of Prolene and Polyester Mesh for the Repair of Abdominal Wall Defect in Pigeons (Columba livia)

Authors: Muhammad Naveed Ali, Hamad Bin Rashid, Muhammad Arif Khan, Abdul Basit, Hafiz Muhammad Arshad

Abstract:

Abdominal defects are very common in pigeons. A new technique is known as intraabdominal mesh transplant that give better protection for herniorrhaphy. The aim of this study was to determine the performance of hernia mesh. In this study, an efficacy of two synthetic hernia mesh implants viz. conventional Prolene and a lightweight mesh monofilament polyester were assessed for the abdominal wall repair in pigeons. Twenty four healthy pigeons were selected and randomly distributed into three groups, A, B and C (n=8). In all groups, experimental laparotomy was performed; thereafter, abdominal muscles and peritoneum were sutured together, while, a 2 x 2 cm defect was created in the abdominal muscles. For onlay hernioplasty, the hernia mesh (Prolene mesh: group A; Polyester mesh: group B) was implanted over the external oblique muscles of the abdomen. In group C (control), the mesh was not implanted; instead, the laparotomy incision was closed after a herniorrhaphy. Post-operative pain wound healing, adhesion formation, histopathological findings and formation of hematoma, abscess and seroma were assessed as short-term complications. Post-operatively, pain at surgical site was significantly less (P < 0.001) in group B (Polyester mesh); wound healing was also significantly better and rapid in group B (P < 0.05) than in group A (Prolene mesh). Group B (Polyester mesh) also depicted less than 25% adhesions when assessed on the basis of a Quantitative Modified Diamond scale; a Qualitative Adhesion Tenacity scale also depicted either no adhesions or flimsy adhesions (n=2) in group B (Polyester mesh), in contrast to group A (Prolene), which manifested greater adhesion formation and presence of dense adhesions requiring blunt dissection. There were observed hematoma, seroma and abscess formations in birds treated by Prolene mesh only. Conclusively, the polyester mesh proved superior to the Prolene mesh regarding lesser adhesion, better in wound healing, and no short-term follow-up complications.

Keywords: adhesion, mesh, polyester, prolene

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
1969 Internal Migration and Poverty Dynamic Analysis Using a Bayesian Approach: The Tunisian Case

Authors: Amal Jmaii, Damien Rousseliere, Besma Belhadj

Abstract:

We explore the relationship between internal migration and poverty in Tunisia. We present a methodology combining potential outcomes approach with multiple imputation to highlight the effect of internal migration on poverty states. We find that probability of being poor decreases when leaving the poorest regions (the west areas) to the richer regions (greater Tunis and the east regions).

Keywords: internal migration, potential outcomes approach, poverty dynamics, Tunisia

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
1968 A Study of Management Principles Incorporating Corporate Governance and Advocating Ethics to Reduce Fraud at a South African Bank

Authors: Roshan Jelal, Charles Mbohwa

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In today’s world, internal fraud remains one of the most challenging problems within companies worldwide and despite investment in controls and attention given to the problem, the instances of internal fraud has not abated. To the contrary it appears that internal fraud is on the rise especially in the wake of the economic downturn. Leadership within companies believes that the more sophisticated the controls employed the less likely it would be for employees to pilfer. This is a very antiquated view as investment in controls may not be enough to curtail internal fraud; however, ensuring that a company drives the correct culture and behaviour within the organisation is likely to yield desired results. This research aims to understand how creating a strong ethical culture and embedding the principle of good corporate governance impacts on levels of internal fraud with an organization (a South African Bank).

Keywords: internal fraud, corporate governance, ethics, reserve bank, the King Code

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
1967 Political Economy of Internal Dispalcement, Migration and Human Security in Zimbabwe: 1800 to Present Day

Authors: Chupicai Manuel

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The purpose of this article is to examine the political economy and history of internal displacement, migration and human security in Zimbabwe from 1800 to present day. The article gives a timeline of major internal displacement, migration trends that took place in Zimbabwe before colonialism, through the colonial period up to the present day and examines the human security context of such periods. In view of the above, a political economy analysis will be employed to examine the different factors that promoted internal displacement and human movements from 1800 to the present day and explore the architecture of human security in Zimbabwe. The ultimate goal of this literature review is to provide a longitudinal analysis of internal displacement, migration and human security regimes that existed in Zimbabwe with the view of promoting social cohesion and nation building.

Keywords: human security, internal displacement, migration, political economy

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
1966 Research on Measuring Operational Risk in Commercial Banks Based on Internal Control

Authors: Baobao Li

Abstract:

Operational risk covers all operations of commercial banks and has a close relationship with the bank’s internal control. But in the commercial banks' management practice, internal control is always separated from the operational risk measurement. With the increasing of operational risk events in recent years, operational risk is paid more and more attention by regulators and banks’ managements. The paper first discussed the relationship between internal control and operational risk management and used CVaR-POT model to measure operational risk, and then put forward a modified measurement method (to use operational risk assessment results to modify the measurement results of the CVaR-POT model). The paper also analyzed the necessity and rationality of this method. The method takes into consideration the influence of internal control, improves the accuracy and effectiveness of operational risk measurement and save the economic capital for commercial banks, avoiding the drawbacks of using some mainstream models one-sidedly.

Keywords: commercial banks, internal control, operational risk, risk measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
1965 Design Criteria for an Internal Information Technology Cost Allocation to Support Business Information Technology Alignment

Authors: Andrea Schnabl, Mario Bernhart

Abstract:

The controlling instrument of an internal cost allocation (IT chargeback) is commonly used to make IT costs transparent and controllable. Information Technology (IT) became, especially for information industries, a central competitive factor. Consequently, the focus is not on minimizing IT costs but on the strategic aligned application of IT. Hence, an internal IT cost allocation should be designed to enhance the business-IT alignment (strategic alignment of IT) in order to support the effective application of IT from a company’s point of view. To identify design criteria for an internal cost allocation to support business alignment a case study analysis at a typical medium-sized firm in information industry is performed. Documents, Key Performance Indicators, and cost accounting data over a period of 10 years are analyzed and interviews are performed. The derived design criteria are evaluated by 6 heads of IT departments from 6 different companies, which have an internal IT cost allocation at use. By applying these design criteria an internal cost allocation serves not only for cost controlling but also as an instrument in strategic IT management.

Keywords: accounting for IT services, Business IT Alignment, internal cost allocation, IT controlling, IT governance, strategic IT management

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1964 Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernias Laparoscopic Repair is Feasible in Peripheral Hospitals

Authors: Fedorenko Andriy, Dubin Daniel, Lili Hayari, Yulevich Alon,

Abstract:

Background: Laparoscopic repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernias can be done in suitable infants and children with good long-term results. The benefits include a lower risk of infection, less intra-abdominal adhesions, and early recovery while being a “scar-less“procedure. Materials and methods: Three patients are described: a 9-months-old infant with a late presentation of Bochdalek left diaphragmatic hernia, and 2more patients with Morgagni congenital diaphragmatic hernia, a 1-year-old infant, and a 3-year-old toddler. All procedures were performed in an abdominal approach using 3 and 5 mm ports and a 5mm 30 degrees camera. Suturing of the diaphragmatic defect was done with unabsorbed materials (Ethibond® 4.0). Results: All patients recovered quickly and uneventfully, no intra-operative complications were noted, and the patients were discharged between the 3rd-6thpostoperative day. The follow-up period is now between 4-25 months, and so far, there is no evidence of recurrence. Conclusion: Laparoscopic surgery is used more and more in infants and smaller cavities by pediatric surgeons. Laparoscopic repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernias in infants and toddlers can safely be performed in peripheral hospitals by skilled pediatric surgeons with good results. Our follow-up period is relatively short, and because of the relatively common recurrence rate in those patients, 15-40% in different reports, both in laparoscopic and open repair, long-term follow-up is required. The main objective of this study was to show that minimally invasive procedures in infants and toddlers are feasible in peripheral hospitals

Keywords: laparoscopy, peripheral hospitals, infants, toddlers

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1963 The Role of Internal and External Control in the Migrant Related Representations of Right-Wing Extremists

Authors: Gabriella Kengyel

Abstract:

This study aims to describe the differences between the attitudes of the right-wing extremists with internal or external control towards migrants. They both have a significantly higher score on Rotter's Locus of Control Scale, and they are quite xenophobic (54%) according to Bogardus Social Distance Scale. Present research suggests their motives are different. Principle components analysis shows that extremists with internal control reject migrants because of welfare chauvinism and they think that there is some kind of political conspirationism behind the European Refugee Crisis. Contrarily extremist with external control believe in a common enemy and they are significantly more ethnocentric and less skeptical in politics. Results suggest that extremist with internal control shows hostility toward minorities and migrants mainly because of their own reference group.

Keywords: control, extremist, migrant, right-wing

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1962 Recent Developments in the Internal Arc Test Standard IEC 62271-200 for Switchgear Assemblies

Authors: Rajaramamohanarao Chennu, S. Sudhakara Reddy, Gurudev T, Maroti

Abstract:

With the invent of recent available technology and cost optimization, the switchgear assemblies are becoming more compact and designed to operate at critical levels of thermal and dielectric stress. At the same time, the switchgear assemblies shall be designed for protection of persons, met in the event of internal arc for specified installation conditions, according to the latest available national/international standards. These standards are revising regularly for better product design and personal safety. The switchgear assemblies design shall be modified in accordance with the change in requirements in the latest edition of the standards. This paper presents the signifying changes brought in the latest edition of 62271-200:2021 and effect of these changes and the necessitated design improvements for meeting internal arc test requirements is presented by carrying out the internal arc testing experiments on the switchgear assemblies at High Power Laboratory, Central Power Research Institute, Bangalore, India.

Keywords: internal arc, switchgear assembly, high speed videography, IEC 62271-200

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1961 Rethinking Military Aid to Civil Authorities for Internal Security Operations: A Sustainable Solution to Rebuilding Civil Military Relations in Nigeria

Authors: Emmanuela Ngozi Maduka

Abstract:

In Nigeria, civil-military relations is at its lowest point as a result of the challenges emanating from incessant initiation of military aid to civil authorities (MACA) for internal security operations. This paper is concerned with the question whether it is appropriate for the military to handle internal security crisis with exception to terrorism and armed militia. It analyses the legal framework for MACA in internal security operations which appear to be in contradiction with military tactical and equipment training. The paper argues that the expectation that transitional re-training of the military for internal security operations will reconcile these inconsistencies specifically on the issue of use of force is not practicable and will always pose challenges for both the military and the citizens. Accordingly, this paper adopts a socio-legal methodology for better clarity on the interactions between the legal framework on MACA and military internal security operations. The paper also identifies the lack of effective and proficient paramilitary within the security design of Nigeria as the key issue which results in incessant initiation of MACA and advocates for the establishment of an effective and proficient paramilitary to effectively handle internal security crisis within Nigeria.

Keywords: civil-military relations, MACA, military training, operational challenges, paramilitary, use of force

Procedia PDF Downloads 75