Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2596

Search results for: integrated anaerobic digestion

2596 Municipal Sewage Sludge as Co-Substrate in Anaerobic Digestion of Vegetable Waste and Biogas Yield

Authors: J. V. Thanikal, M. Torrijos, Philipe Sousbie, S. M. Rizwan, R. Senthil Kumar, Hatem Yezdi

Abstract:

Co-digestion is one of the advantages of anaerobic digestion process because; several wastes having complimentary characteristics can be treated in a single process. The anaerobic co-digestion process, which can be defined as the simultaneous treatment of two –or more – organic biodegradable waste streams by anaerobic digestion offers great potential for the proper disposal of the organic fraction of solid waste coming from source or separate collection systems. The results of biogas production for sewage sludge, when used as a single substrate, were low (350ml/d), and also the biodegradation rate was slow. Sewage sludge as a co-substrate did not show much effect on biogas yield. The vegetable substrates (Potato, Carrot, Spinach) with a total charge of 27–36 g VS, with a HRT starting from 3 days and ending with 1 day, shown a considerable increase in biogas yield 3.5-5 l/d.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, co-digestion, vegetable substrate, sewage sludge

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2595 Economic Analysis of an Integrated Anaerobic Digestion and Ozonolysis System

Authors: Tshilenge Kabongo, John Kabuba

Abstract:

The distillery wastewater has become major issues in sanitation sectors. One of the solutions to overcome this sewage is to install the Wastewater Treatment Plant. Economic analysis is fundamentally required for its viability. Integrated anaerobic digestion and advanced oxidation (AD-AOP) in the treatment of distillery wastewater (DWW), anaerobic digestion achieved sufficient biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals of 95% and 75%, respectively, and methane production of 0.292 L/g COD removed at an organic loading rate of 15 kg COD/m3/d. However, a considerable amount of biorecalcitrant compounds still existed in the anaerobically treated effluent, contributing to a residual COD of 4.5 g/L and an intense dark brown color. To remove the biorecalcitrant color and COD, ozonation, which is an AOP, was introduced as a post-treatment method to AD. Ozonation is a highly competitive treatment technique that can be easily applied to remove the biorecalcitrant compounds, including color, and turbidity. In the ozonation process carried out for an hour, more than 80% of the color was removed at an ozone dose of 45 mg O3/L/min (corresponding to 1.8 g O3/g COD). Thus, integrating AD with the AOP can be effective for organic load and color reductions during the treatment of DWW. The deliverable established the best configuration of the AD-AOP system, where DWW is first subjected to AD followed by AOP post-treatment. However, for establishing the feasibility of the industrial application of the integrated system, it is necessary to carry out the economic analysis. This may help the starting point of the wastewater treatment plant construction and its operation and maintenance costs.

Keywords: distillery wastewater, economic analysis, integrated anaerobic digestion, ozonolysis, treatment

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2594 Three-Stage Anaerobic Co-digestion of High-Solids Food Waste and Horse Manure

Authors: Kai-Chee Loh, Jingxin Zhang, Yen-Wah Tong

Abstract:

Hydrolysis and acidogenesis are the rate-controlling steps in an anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Considering that the optimum conditions for each stage can be diverse diverse, the development of a multi-stage AD system is likely to the AD efficiency through individual optimization. In this research, we developed a highly integrate three-stage anaerobic digester (HM3) to combine the advantages of dry AD and wet AD for anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and horse manure. The digester design comprised mainly of three chambers - high-solids hydrolysis, high-solids acidogenesis and wet methanogensis. Through comparing the treatment performance with other two control digesters, HM3 presented 11.2 ~22.7% higher methane yield. The improved methane yield was mainly attributed to the functionalized partitioning in the integrated digester, which significantly accelerated the solubilization of solid organic matters and the formation of organic acids, as well as ammonia in the high-solids hydrolytic and acidogenic stage respectively. Additionally, HM3 also showed the highest volatile solids reduction rate among the three digesters. Real-time PCR and pyrosequencing analysis indicated that the abundance and biodiversity of microorganisms including bacteria and archaea in HM3 was much higher than that in the control reactors.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, high-solids, food waste and horse manure, microbial community

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2593 Modelling the Anaerobic Digestion of Esparto Paper Industry Wastewater Effluent in a Batch Digester Using IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1)

Authors: Boubaker Fezzani, Ridha Ben Cheikh, Tarek Rouissi

Abstract:

In this work the original ADM1, implemented in the simulation software package MATLAB/Simulink, was modified and adapted and applied to reproduce the experimental results of the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of Esperto paper industry wastewater in a batch digester. The data set from lab-scale experiment runs were used to calibrate and validate the model. The simulations’ results indicated that the modified ADM1 was able to predict reasonably well the steady state results of gas flows, methane and carbon dioxide contents, pH and total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) observed with all influents concentrations.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, mathematical modelling, Simulation, ADM1, batch digester, esparto paper industry effluent, mesophilic temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
2592 The Feasibility of Anaerobic Digestion at 45⁰C

Authors: Nuruol S. Mohd, Safia Ahmed, Rumana Riffat, Baoqiang Li

Abstract:

Anaerobic digestion at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures have been widely studied and evaluated by numerous researchers. Limited extensive research has been conducted on anaerobic digestion in the intermediate zone of 45°C, mainly due to the notion that limited microbial activity occurs within this zone. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the performance and the capability of anaerobic digestion at 45°C in producing class A biosolids, in comparison to a mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion system operated at 35°C and 55°C, respectively. In addition to that, the investigation on the possible inhibition factors affecting the performance of the digestion system at this temperature will be conducted as well. The 45°C anaerobic digestion systems were not able to achieve comparable methane yield and high-quality effluent compared to the mesophilic system, even though the systems produced biogas with about 62-67% methane. The 45°C digesters suffered from high acetate accumulation, but sufficient buffering capacity was observed as the pH, alkalinity and volatile fatty acids (VFA)-to-alkalinity ratio were within recommended values. The accumulation of acetate observed in 45°C systems were presumably due to the high temperature which contributed to high hydrolysis rate. Consequently, it produced a large amount of toxic salts that combined with the substrate making them not readily available to be consumed by methanogens. Acetate accumulation, even though contributed to 52 to 71% reduction in acetate degradation process, could not be considered as completely inhibitory. Additionally, at 45°C, no ammonia inhibition was observed and the digesters were able to achieve volatile solids (VS) reduction of 47.94±4.17%. The pathogen counts were less than 1,000 MPN/g total solids, thus, producing Class A biosolids.

Keywords: 45°C anaerobic digestion, acetate accumulation, class A biosolids, salt toxicity

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2591 Improvement Anaerobic Digestion Performance of Sewage Sludge by Co-Digestion with Cattle Manure

Authors: Raouf Hassan

Abstract:

Biogas energy production from sewage sludge is an economically feasible and eco-friendly in nature. Sewage sludge is considered nutrient-rich substrates, but had lower values of carbone which consider an energy source for anaerobic bacteria. The lack or lower values of carbone-to-nitrogen ratio (C/N) reduced biogas yield and fermentation rate. Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge offers several benefits over mono-digestion such as optimize nutrient balance, increased cost-efficiency and increased degradation rate. The high produced amounts of animal manures, which reach up to 90% of the total collected organic wastes, are recommended for the co-digestion with sewage sludge, especially with the limitations of industrial substrates. Moreover, cattle manures had high methane production potential (500 m3/t vsadded). When mixed with sewage sludge the potential methane production increased with increasing cattle manure content. In this paper, the effect of cattle manure (CM) addition as co-substrates on the sewage sludge (SS) anaerobic digestion performance was investigated under mesophilic conditions (35°C) using anaerobic batch reactors. The batch reactors were operated with a working volume 0.8 liter, and a hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The research work focus on studying two main parameters; the biogas yield (expressed as VSS) and pH values inside the reactors.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, sewage sludge, cattle manure, mesophilic, biogas yield, pH

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2590 Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Duckweed (Lemna gibba) and Waste Activated Sludge in Batch Mode

Authors: Rubia Gaur, Surindra Suthar

Abstract:

The present study investigates the anaerobic co-digestion of duckweed (Lemna gibba) and waste activated sludge (WAS) of different proportions with acclimatized anaerobic granular sludge (AAGS) as inoculum in mesophilic conditions. Batch experiments were performed in 500 mL capacity reagent bottles at 300C temperature. Varied combinations of pre-treated duckweed biomass with constant volume of anaerobic inoculum (AAGS - 100 mL) and waste activated sludge (WAS - 22.5 mL) were devised into five batch tests. The highest methane generation was observed with batch study, T4. The Gompertz model fits well on the experimental data of the batch study, T4. The values of correlation coefficient were achieved relatively higher (R2 ≥ 0.99). The co-digestion without pre-treatment of both duckweed and WAS shows poor generation of methane gas.

Keywords: aquatic weed, biogas, biomass, Gompertz equation, waste activated sludge

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2589 Conditions of the Anaerobic Digestion of Biomass

Authors: N. Boontian

Abstract:

Biological conversion of biomass to methane has received increasing attention in recent years. Grasses have been explored for their potential anaerobic digestion to methane. In this review, extensive literature data have been tabulated and classified. The influences of several parameters on the potential of these feedstocks to produce methane are presented. Lignocellulosic biomass represents a mostly unused source for biogas and ethanol production. Many factors, including lignin content, crystallinity of cellulose, and particle size, limit the digestibility of the hemicellulose and cellulose present in the lignocellulosic biomass. Pretreatments have used to improve the digestibility of the lignocellulosic biomass. Each pretreatment has its own effects on cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, the three main components of lignocellulosic biomass. Solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) generally occurs at solid concentrations higher than 15%. In contrast, liquid anaerobic digestion (AD) handles feedstocks with solid concentrations between 0.5% and 15%. Animal manure, sewage sludge, and food waste are generally treated by liquid AD, while organic fractions of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and lignocellulosic biomass such as crop residues and energy crops can be processed through SS-AD. An increase in operating temperature can improve both the biogas yield and the production efficiency, other practices such as using AD digestate or leachate as an inoculant or decreasing the solid content may increase biogas yield but have negative impact on production efficiency. Focus is placed on substrate pretreatment in anaerobic digestion (AD) as a means of increasing biogas yields using today’s diversified substrate sources.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, lignocellulosic biomass, methane production, optimization, pretreatment

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2588 The Effects of Nano Zerovalent Iron (nZVI) and Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles on Methane Production during Anaerobic Digestion of Waste Activated Sludge

Authors: Passkorn Khanthongthip, John T. Novak

Abstract:

Many studies have been reported that the nZVI and MgO NPs were often found in waste activated sludge (WAS). However, little is known about the impact of those NPs on WAS stabilization. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of both NPs on WAS anaerobic digestion for methane production and to examine the change of metanogenic population under those different environments using qPCR. Four dosages (2, 50, 100, and 200 mg/g-TSS) of MgO NPs were added to four different bottles containing WAS to investigate the impact of MgO NPs on methane production during WAS anaerobic digestion. The effects of nZVI on methane production during WAS anaerobic digestion were also conducted in another four bottles using the same methods described above except that the MgO NPs were replaced by nZVI. A bottle of WAS anaerobic digestion without nanoparticles addition was also operated to serve as a control. It was found that the relative amounts, compared to the control system, of methane production in each WAS anaerobic digestion bottle adding 2, 50, 100, 200 mg/gTSS MgO NPs were 98, 62, 28, and 14 %, respectively. This suggests that higher MgO NPs resulted in lower methane production. The data of batch test for the effects of corresponding released Mg2+ indicated that 50 mg/gTSS MgO NPs or higher could inhibit methane production at least 25%. Moreover, the volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration was 328, 384, 928, 3,684, and 7,848 mg/L for the control and four WAS anaerobic digestion bottles with 2, 50, 100, 200 mg/gTSS MgO NPs addition, respectively. Higher VFA concentration could reduce pH and subsequently decrease methanogen growth, resulting in lower methane production. The relative numbers of total gene copies of methanogens analyzed from samples taken from WAS anaerobic digestion bottles were approximately 99, 68, 38, and 24 % of control for the addition of 2, 50, 100, and 200 mg/gTSS, respectively. Obviously, the more MgO NPs appeared in sludge anaerobic digestion system, the less methanogens remained. In contrast, the relative amount of methane production found in another four WAS anaerobic digestion bottles adding 2, 50, 100, and 200 mg/gTSS nZVI were 102, 128, 112, and 104 % of the control, respectively. The measurement of methanogenic population indicated that the relative content of methanogen gene copies were 101, 132, 120, and 112 % of those found in control, respectively. Additionally, the cumulative VFA was 320, 234, 308, and 330 mg/L, respectively. This reveals that nZVI addition could assist to increase methanogenic population. Higher amount of methanogen accelerated VFA degradation for greater methane production, resulting in lower VFA accumulation in digesters. Moreover, the data for effects of corresponding released Fe2+ conducted by batch tests suggest that the addition of approximately 50 mg/gTSS nZVI increased methane production by 20%. In conclusion, the presence of MgO NPs appeared to diminish the methane production during WAS anaerobic digestion. Higher MgO NPs dosages resulted in more inhibition on methane production. In contrast, nZVI addition promoted the amount of methanogenic population which facilitated methane production.

Keywords: magnesium oxide nanoparticles, methane production, methanogenic population, nano zerovalent iron

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2587 Small Scale Batch Anaerobic Digestion of Rice Straw

Authors: V. H. Nguyen, A. Castalone, C. Jamieson, M. Gummert

Abstract:

Rice straw is an abundant biomass resource in Asian countries that can be used for bioenergy. In continuously flooded rice fields, it can be removed without reducing the levels of soil organic matter. One suitable bioenergy technology is anaerobic digestion (AD), but it needs to be further verified using rice straw as a feedstock. For this study, a batch AD system was developed using rice straw and cow dung. It is low cost, farm scale, with the batch capacity ranging from 5 kg to 200 kg of straw mixed with 10% of cow dung. The net energy balance obtained was from 3000 to 4000 MJ per ton of straw input at 15-18% moisture content. Net output energy obtained from biogas and digestate ranged from 4000 to 5000 MJ per ton of straw. This indicates AD as a potential solution for converting rice straw from a waste to a clean fuel, reducing the environmental footprint caused by current disposal practices.

Keywords: rice straw, anaerobic digestion, biogas, bioenergy

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2586 How to Capitalize on BioCNG at a Wastewater Plant

Authors: William G. "Gus" Simmons

Abstract:

Municipal and industrial wastewater plants across our country utilize anaerobic digestion as either primary treatment or as a means of waste sludge treatment and reduction. The emphasis on renewable energy and clean energy over the past several years, coupled with increasing electricity costs and increasing consumer demands for efficient utility operations has led to closer examination of the potential for harvesting the energy value of the biogas produced by anaerobic digestion. Although some facilities may have already come to the belief that harvesting this energy value is not practical or a top priority as compared to other capital needs and initiatives at the wastewater plant, we see that many are seeing biogas, and an opportunity for additional revenues, go up in flames as they continue to flare. Conversely, few wastewater plants under progressive and visionary leadership have demonstrated that harvesting the energy value from anaerobic digestion is more than “smoke and hot air”. From providing thermal energy to adjacent or on-campus operations to generating electricity and/or transportation fuels, these facilities are proving that energy harvesting can not only be profitable, but sustainable. This paper explores ways in which wastewater treatment plants can increase their value and import to the communities they serve through the generation of clean, renewable energy; also presented the processes in which these facilities moved from energy and cost sinks to sparks of innovation and pride in the communities in which they operate.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, harvesting energy, biogas, renewable energy, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
2585 LCA of Waste Disposal from Olive Oil Production: Anaerobic Digestion and Conventional Disposal on Soil

Authors: T. Tommasi, E. Batuecas, G. Mancini, G. Saracco, D. Fino

Abstract:

Extra virgin olive-oil (EVO) production is an important economic activity for several countries, especially in the Mediterranean area such as Spain, Italy, Greece and Tunisia. The two major by-products from olive oil production, solid-liquid Olive Pomace (OP) and the Olive Mill Waste Waters (OMWW), are still mainly disposed on soil, in spite of the existence of legislation which already limits this practice. The present study compares the environmental impacts associated with two different scenarios for the management of waste from olive oil production through a comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The two alternative scenarios are: (I) Anaerobic Digestion and (II) current Disposal on soil. The analysis was performed through SimaPro software and the assessment of the impact categories was based on International Life Cycle Data and Cumulative Energy Demand methods. Both the scenarios are mostly related to the cultivation and harvesting phase and are highly dependent on the irrigation practice and related energy demand. Results from the present study clearly show that as the waste disposal on soil causes the worst environmental performance of all the impact categories here considered. Important environmental benefits have been identified when anaerobic digestion is instead chosen as the final treatment. It was consequently demonstrated that anaerobic digestion should be considered a feasible alternative for olive mills, to produce biogas from common olive oil residues, reducing the environmental burden and adding value to the olive oil production chain.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, waste management, agro-food waste, biogas

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2584 Optimization of Process Parameters Affecting Biogas Production from Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste via Anaerobic Digestion

Authors: B. Sajeena Beevi, P. P. Jose, G. Madhu

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to obtain the optimal conditions for biogas production from anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) using response surface methodology (RSM). The parameters studied were initial pH, substrate concentration and total organic carbon (TOC). The experimental results showed that the linear model terms of initial pH and substrate concentration and the quadratic model terms of the substrate concentration and TOC had significant individual effect (p < 0.05) on biogas yield. However, there was no interactive effect between these variables (p > 0.05). The highest level of biogas produced was 53.4 L/Kg VS at optimum pH, substrate concentration and total organic carbon of 6.5, 99gTS/L, and 20.32 g/L respectively.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas, optimization, response surface methodology

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2583 Quantification of Biomethane Potential from Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste at Vaal University of Technology

Authors: Kgomotso Matobole, Pascal Mwenge, Tumisang Seodigeng

Abstract:

The global urbanisation and worldwide economic growth have caused a high rate of food waste generation, resulting in environmental pollution. Food waste disposed on landfills decomposes to produce methane (CH4), a greenhouse gas. Inadequate waste management practices contribute to food waste polluting the environment. Thus effective organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) management and treatment are attracting widespread attention in many countries. This problem can be minimised by the employment of anaerobic digestion process, since food waste is rich in organic matter and highly biodegradable, resulting in energy generation and waste volume reduction. The current study investigated the Biomethane Potential (BMP) of the Vaal University of Technology canteen food waste using anaerobic digestion. Tests were performed on canteen food waste, as a substrate, with total solids (TS) of 22%, volatile solids (VS) of 21% and moisture content of 78%. The tests were performed in batch reactors, at a mesophilic temperature of 37 °C, with two different types of inoculum, primary and digested sludge. The resulting CH4 yields for both food waste with digested sludge and primary sludge were equal, being 357 Nml/g VS. This indicated that food waste form this canteen is rich in organic and highly biodegradable. Hence it can be used as a substrate for the anaerobic digestion process. The food waste with digested sludge and primary sludge both fitted the first order kinetic model with k for primary sludge inoculated food waste being 0.278 day-1 with R2 of 0.98, whereas k for digested sludge inoculated food waste being 0.034 day-1, with R2 of 0.847.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas, bio-methane potential, food waste

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2582 Biogas Production from Zebra Manure and Winery Waste Co-Digestion

Authors: Wicleffe Musingarimi

Abstract:

Currently, the rising energy demand as a result of an increase in the world’s population and the sustainable use of abundant natural resources are key issues facing many developed and developing countries including South Africa. Most of the energy to meet this growing demand comes from fossil fuel. Use of fossil fuels has led to environmental problems such air pollution, climate change, and acid rain. In addition, fossil fuels are facing continual depletion, which has led to the rise in oil prices, leading to the global economies melt down. Hence development of alternative clean and renewable energy source is a global priority. Renewable biomass from forest products, agricultural crops, and residues, as well as animal and municipal waste are promising alternatives. South Africa is one of the leading wine producers in the world; leading to a lot of winery waste (ww) being produced which can be used in anaerobic digestion (AD) to produce biogas. Biogas was produced from batch anaerobic digestion of zebra manure (zm) and batch anaerobic co-digestion of winery waste (ww) and zebra manure through water displacement. The batch digester with slurry of winery waste and zebra manure in the weight ratio of 1:2 was operated in a 1L container at 37°C for 30days. Co-digestion of winery waste and zebra manure produced higher amount of biogas as compared to zebra manure alone and winery waste alone. No biogas was produced by batch anaerobic digestion of winery waste alone. Chemical analysis of C/N ratio and total solids (TS) of zebra manure was 21.89 and 25.2 respectively. These values of C/N ratio and TS were quite high compared to values of other studied manures. Zebra manure also revealed unusually high concentration of Fe reaching 3600pm compared to other studies of manure. PCR with communal DNA of the digestate gave a positive hit for the presence of archaea species using standard archea primers; suggesting the presence of methanogens. Methanogens are key microbes in the production of biogas. Therefore, this study demonstrated the potential of zebra manure as an inoculum in the production of biogas.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas, co-digestion, methanogens

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2581 Experimental Studies on the Effect of Premixing Methods in Anaerobic Digestor with Corn Stover

Authors: M. Sagarika, M. Chandra Sekhar

Abstract:

Agricultural residues are producing in large quantities in India and account for abundant but underutilized source of renewable biomass in agriculture. In India, the amount of crop residues available is estimated to be approximately 686 million tons. Anaerobic digestion is a promising option to utilize the surplus agricultural residues and can produce biogas and digestate. Biogas is mainly methane (CH4), which can be utilized as an energy source in replacement for fossil fuels such as natural gas, oil, in other hand, digestate contains high amounts of nutrients, can be employed as fertilizer. Solid state anaerobic digestion (total solids ≥ 15%) is suitable for agricultural residues, as it reduces the problems like stratification and floating issues that occur in liquid anaerobic digestion (total solids < 15%). The major concern in solid-state anaerobic digestion is the low mass transfer of feedstock and inoculum that resulting in low performance. To resolve this low mass transfer issue, effective mixing of feedstock and inoculum is required. Mechanical mixing using stirrer at the time of digestion process can be done, but it is difficult to operate the stirring of feedstock with high solids percentage and high viscosity. Complete premixing of feedstock and inoculum is an alternative method, which is usual in lab scale studies but may not be affordable due to high energy demand in large-scale digesters. Developing partial premixing methods may reduce this problem. Current study is to improve the performance of solid-state anaerobic digestion of corn stover at feedstock to inoculum ratios 3 and 5, by applying partial premixing methods and to compare the complete premixing method with two partial premixing methods which are two alternative layers of feedstock and inoculum and three alternative layers of feedstock and inoculum where higher inoculum ratios in the top layers. From experimental studies it is observed that, partial premixing method with three alternative layers of feedstock and inoculum yielded good methane.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, premixing methods, methane yield, corn stover, volatile solids

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2580 Enhanced Methane Production from Waste Paper through Anaerobic Co-Digestion with Macroalgae

Authors: Cristina Rodriguez, Abed Alaswad, Zaki El-Hassan, Abdul G. Olabi

Abstract:

This study investigates the effect on methane production from the waste paper when co-digested with macroalgal biomass as a source of nitrogen. Both feedstocks were previously mechanically pretreated in order to reduce their particle size. Methane potential assays were carried out at laboratory scale in batch mode for 28 days. The study was planned according to two factors: the feedstock to inoculum (F/I) ratio and the waste paper to macroalgae (WP/MA) ratio. The F/I ratios checked were 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 and the WP/MA ratios were 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 100:0. The highest methane yield (608 ml/g of volatile solids (VS)) was achieved at an F/I ratio of 0.2 and a WP/MA ratio of 50:50. The methane yield at a ratio WP/MA of 50:50 is higher than for single compound, while for ratios WP/MA of 25:75 and 75:25 the methane yield decreases compared to biomass mono-digestion. This behavior is observed for the three levels of F/I ratio being more noticeable at F/I ratio of 0.3. A synergistic effect was found for the WP/MA ratio of 50:50 and all F/I ratios and for WP/MA=50:50 and F/I=0.2. A maximum increase of methane yield of 49.58% was found for a co-digestion ratio of 50:50 and an F/I ratio of 0.4. It was concluded that methane production from waste paper improves significantly when co-digested with macroalgae biomass. The methane yields from co-digestion were also found higher that from macroalgae mono-digestion.

Keywords: anaerobic co-digestion, biogas, macroalgae, waste paper

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2579 Comparative Study on Hydrothermal Carbonization as Pre- and Post-treatment of Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Sludge: Focus on Energy Recovery, Resources Transformation and Hydrochar Utilization

Authors: Mahmood Al Ramahi, G. Keszthelyi-Szabo, S. Beszedes

Abstract:

Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermochemical reaction that utilizes saturated water and vapor pressure to convert waste biomass to C-rich products This work evaluated the effect of HTC as a pre- and post-treatment technique to anaerobic digestion (AD) of dairy sludge, as information in this field is still in its infancy, with many research and methodological gaps. HTC effect was evaluated based on energy recovery, nutrients transformation, and sludge biodegradability. The first treatment approach was executed by applying hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) under a range of temperatures, prior to mesophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) of dairy sludge. Results suggested an optimal pretreatment temperature at 210 °C for 30 min. HTC pretreatment increased methane yield and chemical oxygen demand removal. The theoretical model based on Boyle’s equation had a very close match with the experimental results. On the other hand, applying HTC subsequent to AD increased total energy production, as additional energy yield was obtained by the solid fuel (hydrochar) beside the produced biogas. Furthermore, hydrothermal carbonization of AD digestate generated liquid products (HTC digestate) with improved chemical characteristics suggesting their use as liquid fertilizers.

Keywords: hydrothermal carbonization, anaerobic digestion, energy balance, sludge biodegradability, biogas

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2578 Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Sewage Sludge and Bagasse for Biogas Recovery

Authors: Raouf Ahmed Mohamed Hassan

Abstract:

In Egypt, the excess sewage sludge from wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is rapidly increasing due to the continuous increase of population, urban planning and industrial developments. Also, cane bagasses constitute an important component of Urban Solid Waste (USW), especially at the south of Egypt, which are difficult to degrade under normal composting conditions. These wastes need to be environmentally managed to reduce the negative impacts of its application or disposal. In term of biogas recovery, the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge or bagasse separately is inefficient, due to the presence of nutrients and minerals. Also, the Carbone-Nitrogen Ratio (C/N) play an important role, sewage sludge has a ratio varies from 6-16, where cane bagasse has a ratio around 150, whereas the suggested optimum C/N ratio for anaerobic digestion is in the range of 20 to 30. The anaerobic co-digestion is presented as a successful methodology that combines several biodegradable organic substrates able to decrease the amount of output wastes by biodegradation, sharing processing facilities, reducing operating costs, while enabling recovery of biogas. This paper presents the study of co-digestion of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants as a type of organic wastes and bagasse as agriculture wastes. Laboratory-scale mesophilic and thermophilic digesters were operated with varied hydraulic retention times. Different percentage of sludge and bagasse are investigated based on the total solids (TS). Before digestion, the bagasse was subjected to grinding pretreatment and soaked in distilled water (water pretreatment). The effect of operating parameters (mixing, temperature) is investigated in order to optimize the process in the biogas production. The yield and the composition of biogas from the different experiments were evaluated and the cumulative curves were estimated. The conducted tests did show that there is a good potential to using the co-digestion of wastewater sludge and bagasse for biogas production.

Keywords: co-digestion, sewage sludge, bagasse, mixing, mesophilic, thermophilic

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2577 Anaerobic Digestion of Coffee Wastewater from a Fast Inoculum Adaptation Stage: Replacement of Complex Substrate

Authors: D. Lepe-Cervantes, E. Leon-Becerril, J. Gomez-Romero, O. Garcia-Depraect, A. Lopez-Lopez

Abstract:

In this study, raw coffee wastewater (CWW) was used as a complex substrate for anaerobic digestion. The inoculum adaptation stage, microbial diversity analysis and biomethane potential (BMP) tests were performed. A fast inoculum adaptation stage was used by the replacement of vinasse to CWW in an anaerobic sequential batch reactor (AnSBR) operated at mesophilic conditions. Illumina MiSeq sequencing was used to analyze the microbial diversity. While, BMP tests using inoculum adapted to CWW were carried out at different inoculum to substrate (I/S) ratios (2:1, 3:1 and 4:1, on a VS basis). Results show that the adaptability percentage was increased gradually until it reaches the highest theoretical value in a short time of 10 d; with a methane yield of 359.10 NmL CH4/g COD-removed; Methanobacterium beijingense was the most abundant microbial (75%) and the greatest specific methane production was achieved at I/S ratio 4:1, whereas the lowest was obtained at 2:1, with BMP values of 320 NmL CH4/g VS and 151 NmL CH4/g VS, respectively. In conclusion, gradual replacement of substrate was a feasible method to adapt the inoculum in a short time even using complex raw substrates, whereas in the BMP tests, the specific methane production was proportional to the initial amount of inoculum.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biomethane potential test, coffee wastewater, fast inoculum adaptation

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2576 Analysis of Generated Biogas from Anaerobic Digestion of Piggery Dung

Authors: Babatope Alabadan, Adeyinka Adesanya, I. E. Afangideh

Abstract:

The use of energy is paramount to human existence. Every activity globally revolves round it. Over the years, different sources of energy (petroleum fuels predominantly) have been utilized. Animal waste treatment on the farm is a phenomenon that has called for rapt research attention. Generated wastes on farm pollute the environment in diverse ways. Waste-to-bioenergy treatments can provide livestock operators with multiple value-added, renewable energy products. The objective of this work is to generate methane (CH4) gas from the anaerobic digestion of piggery dung. A retention time of 15 and 30 days and a mesophilic temperature range were selected. The generated biogas composition was methane (CH4), carbondioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and ammonia (NH3) using gas chromatography method. At 15 days retention time, 60% of (CH4) was collected while CO2 and traces of H2S and NH3 accounted for 40%. At 30 days retention time, 75% of CH4, 20% of CO2 was collected while traces of H2S and NH3 amounted to 5%. For on and off farm uses, biogas can be upgraded to biomethane by removing the CO2, NH3 and H2S. This product (CH4) can meet heating and power needs or serve as transportation fuels

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas, methane, piggery dung

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
2575 Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Wastes for Biogas Production

Authors: Ayhan Varol, Aysenur Ugurlu

Abstract:

Due to the depletion of fossil fuels and climate change, there is a rising interest in renewable energy sources. In this concept, a wide range of biomass (energy crops, animal manure, solid wastes, etc.) are used for energy production. There has been a growing interest in biomethane production from biomass. Biomethane production from organic wastes is a promising alternative for waste management by providing organic matter stabilization. Anaerobic digestion of organic material produces biogas, and organic substrate is degraded into a more stable material. Therefore, anaerobic digestion technology helps reduction of carbon emissions and produces renewable energy. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR), as well as TS (VS) loadings, influences the anaerobic digestion of organic wastes significantly. The optimum range for HRT varies between 15 days to 30 days, whereas OLR differs between 0.5 to 5 g/L.d depending on the substrate type and its lipid, protein and carbohydrate contents. The organic wastes have biogas production potential through anaerobic digestion. In this study, biomethane production potential of wastes like sugar beet bagasse, agricultural residues, food wastes, olive mill pulp, and dairy manure having different characteristics was investigated in mesophilic CSTR reactor, and their performances were compared. The reactor was mixed in order to provide homogenized content at a rate of 80 rpm. The organic matter content of these wastes was between 85 to 94 % with 61% (olive pulp) to 22 % (food waste) dry matter content. The hydraulic retention time changed between 20-30 days. High biogas productions, 13.45 to 5.70 mL/day, were achieved from the wastes studied when operated at 9 to 10.5% TS loadings where OLR varied between 2.92 and 3.95 gVS/L.day. The results showed that food wastes have higher specific methane production rate and volumetric methane production potential than the other wastes studied, under the similar OLR values. The SBP was 680, 585, 540, 390 and 295 mL/g VS for food waste, agricultural residues, sugar beet bagasse, olive pulp and dairy manure respectively. The methane content of the biogas varied between 72 and 60 %. The volatile solids conversion rate for food waste was 62%.

Keywords: biogas production, organic wastes, biomethane, anaerobic digestion

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
2574 Comparison of the Effects of Continuous Flow Microwave Pre-Treatment with Different Intensities on the Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Sludge for Sustainable Energy Recovery from Sewage Treatment Plant

Authors: D. Hephzibah, P. Kumaran, N. M. Saifuddin

Abstract:

Anaerobic digestion is a well-known technique for sustainable energy recovery from sewage sludge. However, sewage sludge digestion is restricted due to certain factors. Pre-treatment methods have been established in various publications as a promising technique to improve the digestibility of the sewage sludge and to enhance the biogas generated which can be used for energy recovery. In this study, continuous flow microwave (MW) pre-treatment with different intensities were compared by using 5 L semi-continuous digesters at a hydraulic retention time of 27 days. We focused on the effects of MW at different intensities on the sludge solubilization, sludge digestibility, and biogas production of the untreated and MW pre-treated sludge. The MW pre-treatment demonstrated an increase in the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand to total chemical oxygen demand (sCOD/tCOD) and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration. Besides that, the total volatile solid (TVS) removal efficiency and tCOD removal efficiency also increased during the digestion of the MW pre-treated sewage sludge compared to the untreated sewage sludge. Furthermore, the biogas yield also subsequently increases due to the pre-treatment effect. A higher MW power level and irradiation time generally enhanced the biogas generation which has potential for sustainable energy recovery from sewage treatment plant. However, the net energy balance tabulation shows that the MW pre-treatment leads to negative net energy production.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas, microwave pre-treatment, sewage sludge

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
2573 Thermophilic Anaerobic Granular Membrane Distillation Bioreactor for Wastewater Reuse

Authors: Duong Cong Chinh, Shiao-Shing Chen, Le Quang Huy

Abstract:

Membrane distillation (MD) is actually claimed to be a cost-effective separation process when waste heat, alternative energy sources, or wastewater are used. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that a thermophilic anaerobic granular bioreactor is integrated with membrane distillation (ThAnMDB) was investigated. In this study, the laboratory scale anaerobic bioreactor (1.2 litter) was set-up. The bioreactor was maintained at temperature 55 ± 2°C, hydraulic retention time = 0.5 days, organic loading rates of 7 and 10 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) m³/day. Side-stream direct contact membrane distillation with the polytetrafluoroethylene membrane area was 150 cm². The temperature of the distillate was kept at 25°C. Results show that distillate flux was 19.6 LMH (Liters per square meter per hour) on the first day and gradually decreased to 6.9 LMH after 10 days, and the membrane was not wet. Notably, by directly using the heat from the thermophilic anaerobic for MD separation process, all distilled water from wastewater was reuse as fresh water (electrical conductivity < 120 µs/cm). The ThAnMDB system showed its high pollutant removal performance: chemical oxygen demand (COD) from 99.6 to 99.9%, NH₄⁺ from 60 to 95%, and PO₄³⁻ complete removal. In addition, methane yield was from 0.28 to 0.34 lit CH₄/gram COD removal (80 – 97% of the theoretical) demonstrated that the ThAnMDB system was quite stable. The achievement of the ThAnMDB is not only in removing pollutants and reusing wastewater but also in absolutely unnecessarily adding alkaline to the anaerobic bioreactor system.

Keywords: high rate anaerobic digestion, membrane distillation, thermophilic anaerobic, wastewater reuse

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2572 Energy Potential of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste - Colombian Housing

Authors: Esteban Hincapie

Abstract:

The growing climate change, global warming and population growth have contributed to the energy crisis, aggravated by the generation of organic solid waste, as a material with high energy potential. From the context of waste generation in the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley, was evaluated the potential of energy content in organic solid waste generated in La Herradura housing complex, through anaerobic digestion process in batch reactors, with mixtures of substrate, water and inoculum 1: 3: 0.2 and 1: 3: 0, reaching a total biogas production of 0,2 m³/Kg y 0,14 m³/Kg respectively, in a period of 38 days under temperature conditions of 24°C. The volume of biogas obtained was equivalent to the monthly consumption of natural gas for 75 apartments or 1.856 Kw of electric power. For the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley, a production of 7.152Kw of electric power was estimated for a month, from the treatment of 22.319 tons of organic solid waste that would not be taken to the landfill. The results indicate that the treatment of organic waste from anaerobic digestion is a sustainable option to reduce pollution, contribute to the production of alternative energies and improve the efficiency of urban metabolism.

Keywords: alternative energies, anaerobic digestion, solid waste, sustainable construction, urban metabolism, waste management

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
2571 Enhance Biogas Production by Enzymatic Pre-Treatment from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

Authors: M. S. Tajul Islam, Md. Zahangir Alam

Abstract:

To enhance biogas production through anaerobic digestion, the application of various type of pre-treatment method has some limitations in terms of sustainable environmental management. Many studies on pretreatments especially chemical and physical processes are carried out to evaluate the anaerobic digestion for enhanced biogas production. Among the pretreatment methods acid and alkali pre-treatments gained the highest importance. Previous studies have showed that although acid and alkali pretreatment has significant effect on degradation of biomass, these methods have some negative impact on environment due to their hazard in nature while enzymatic pre-treatment is environmentally friendly. One of the constrains to use of enzyme in pretreatment process for biogas production is high cost which is currently focused to reduce cost through fermentation of waste-based media. As such palm oil mill effluent (POME) as an abundant resource generated during palm oil processing at mill is being used a potential fermentation media for enzyme production. This low cost of enzyme could be an alternative to biogas pretreatment process. This review is to focus direct application of enzyme as enzymatic pre-treatment on POME to enhanced production of biogas.

Keywords: POME, enzymatic pre-treatment, biogas, lignocellulosic biomass, anaerobic digestion

Procedia PDF Downloads 442
2570 Development of Simple-To-Apply Biogas Kinetic Models for the Co-Digestion of Food Waste and Maize Husk

Authors: Owamah Hilary, O. C. Izinyon

Abstract:

Many existing biogas kinetic models are difficult to apply to substrates they were not developed for, as they are substrate specific. Biodegradability kinetic (BIK) model and maximum biogas production potential and stability assessment (MBPPSA) model were therefore developed in this study for the anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and maize husk. Biodegradability constant (k) was estimated as 0.11d-1 using the BIK model. The results of maximum biogas production potential (A) obtained using the MBPPSA model corresponded well with the results obtained using the popular but complex modified Gompertz model for digesters B-1, B-2, B-3, B-4, and B-5. The (If) value of MBPPSA model also showed that digesters B-3, B-4, and B-5 were stable, while B-1 and B-2 were unstable. Similar stability observation was also obtained using the modified Gompertz model. The MBPPSA model can therefore be used as alternative model for anaerobic digestion feasibility studies and plant design.

Keywords: biogas, inoculum, model development, stability assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
2569 Water Re-Use Optimization in a Sugar Platform Biorefinery Using Municipal Solid Waste

Authors: Leo Paul Vaurs, Sonia Heaven, Charles Banks

Abstract:

Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a virtually unlimited source of lignocellulosic material in the form of a waste paper/cardboard mixture which can be converted into fermentable sugars via cellulolytic enzyme hydrolysis in a biorefinery. The extraction of the lignocellulosic fraction and its preparation, however, are energy and water demanding processes. The waste water generated is a rich organic liquor with a high Chemical Oxygen Demand that can be partially cleaned while generating biogas in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket bioreactor and be further re-used in the process. In this work, an experiment was designed to determine the critical contaminant concentrations in water affecting either anaerobic digestion or enzymatic hydrolysis by simulating multiple water re-circulations. It was found that re-using more than 16.5 times the same water could decrease the hydrolysis yield by up to 65 % and led to a complete granules desegregation. Due to the complexity of the water stream, the contaminant(s) responsible for the performance decrease could not be identified but it was suspected to be caused by sodium, potassium, lipid accumulation for the anaerobic digestion (AD) process and heavy metal build-up for enzymatic hydrolysis. The experimental data were incorporated into a Water Pinch technology based model that was used to optimize the water re-utilization in the modelled system to reduce fresh water requirement and wastewater generation while ensuring all processes performed at optimal level. Multiple scenarios were modelled in which sub-process requirements were evaluated in term of importance, operational costs and impact on the CAPEX. The best compromise between water usage, AD and enzymatic hydrolysis yield was determined for each assumed contaminant degradations by anaerobic granules. Results from the model will be used to build the first MSW based biorefinery in the USA.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, enzymatic hydrolysis, municipal solid waste, water optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
2568 Anaerobic Digestion of Spent Wash through Biomass Development for Obtaining Biogas

Authors: Sachin B. Patil, Narendra M. Kanhe

Abstract:

A typical cane molasses based distillery generates 15 L of waste water per liter of alcohol production. Distillery waste with COD of over 1,00,000 mg/l and BOD of over 30,000 mg/l ranks high amongst the pollutants produced by industries both in magnitude and strength. Treatment and safe disposal of this waste is a challenging task since long. The high strength of waste water renders aerobic treatment very expensive and physico-chemical processes have met with little success. Thermophilic anaerobic treatment of distillery waste may provide high degree of treatment and better recovery of biogas. It may prove more feasible in most part of tropical country like India, where temperature is suitable for thermophilic micro-organisms. Researchers have reviled that, at thermophilic conditions due to increased destruction rate of organic matter and pathogens, higher digestion rate can be achieved. Literature review reveals that the variety of anaerobic reactors including anaerobic lagoon, conventional digester, anaerobic filter, two staged fixed film reactors, sludge bed and granular bed reactors have been studied, but little attempts have been made to evaluate the usefulness of thermophilic anaerobic treatment for treating distillery waste. The present study has been carried out, to study feasibility of thermophilic anaerobic digestion to facilitate the design of full scale reactor. A pilot scale anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor (AFFFB) of capacity 25m3 was designed, fabricated, installed and commissioned for thermophilic (55-65°C) anaerobic digestion at a constant pH of 6.5-7.5, because these temperature and pH ranges are considered to be optimum for biogas recovery from distillery wastewater. In these conditions, working of the reactor was studied, for different hydraulic retention times (HRT) (0.25days to 12days) and variable organic loading rates (361.46 to 7.96 Kg COD/m3d). The parameters such as flow rate and temperature, various chemical parameters such as pH, chemical oxygen demands (COD), biogas quantity, and biogas composition were regularly monitored. It was observed that, with the increase in OLR, the biogas production was increased, but the specific biogas yield decreased. Similarly, with the increase in HRT, the biogas production got decrease, but the specific biogas yield was increased. This may also be due to the predominant activity of acid producers to methane producers at the higher substrate loading rates. From the present investigation, it can be concluded that for thermophilic conditions the highest COD removal percentage was obtained at an HRT of 08 days, thereafter it tends to decrease from 8 to 12 days HRT. There is a little difference between COD removal efficiency of 8 days HRT (74.03%) and 5 day HRT (78.06%), therefore it would not be feasible to increase the reactor size by 1.5 times for mere 4 percent more efficiency. Hence, 5 days HRT is considered to be optimum, at which the biogas yield was 98 m3/day and specific biogas yield was 0.385 CH4 m3/Kg CODr.

Keywords: spent wash, anaerobic digestion, biomass, biogas

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
2567 The Use of Microalgae Cultivation for Improving the Effluent Behavior of Anaerobic Digestion of Food Wastes at Psychrophilic Range

Authors: Pedro M. Velasco, Cecilia C. Alday, Oscar C. Avello, Ximena T. Faundez, Luis M. Velasco

Abstract:

Anaerobic digestion (AD) plants of food waste (FW) produced by agro-industry, have been widely developed from last decade to nowadays, because of the advantages over aerobic active sludge systems. Despite several bioreactor configurations and operation modes have been successfully improved and implemented at industrial scale in a wide range of applications, effluent behavior, after AD, does not commonly meet requirements for direct disposal into the environment without further treatments. In addition, literature has rarely shown AD of food waste at psychrophilic range. This temperature range may be of interest for making AD plant operation easier and increasing the stability of digestion. In spite of literature shows several methods for post-treatment, such as the use of microalgae, these have not been cultivated on effluents from AD at psychrophilic range. Hence, with the aim of showing the potential use of AD of FW at the psychrophilic range (25ºC) and the viability of microalgae post-treatment, single batch reactors have been used for methane potential tests at laboratory scale. Afterwards, digestates, derived from this AD of FW sludge, were diluted with fresh water at different ratios (1:0, 1:1; 1:4) and used as culture media for photoautotrophic microalgae. Several parameters, such as pH, biogas production, and chemical oxygen demand, were measured periodically over several months. Results show that methane potential is 150 ml g-1 per volatile solid with up to 57.7 % of methane content. Moreover, microalgae has been successfully cultivated on all tested effluents and in case of 1:1 and 1:4 rates, the resulting effluents meet the quality levels required for irrigation water.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas, food waste, microalgae, psychrophilic range

Procedia PDF Downloads 146