Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6581

Search results for: integral production

6581 On Fourier Type Integral Transform for a Class of Generalized Quotients

Authors: A. S. Issa, S. K. Q. AL-Omari

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate certain spaces of generalized functions for the Fourier and Fourier type integral transforms. We discuss convolution theorems and establish certain spaces of distributions for the considered integrals. The new Fourier type integral is well-defined, linear, one-to-one and continuous with respect to certain types of convergences. Many properties and an inverse problem are also discussed in some details.

Keywords: Boehmian, Fourier integral, Fourier type integral, generalized quotient

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
6580 Three-Dimensional Numerical Analysis of the Harmfulness of Defects in Oil Pipes

Authors: B. Medjadji, L. Aminallah, B. Serier, M. Benlebna

Abstract:

In this study, the finite element method in 3-D is used to calculate the integral J in the semi-elliptical crack in a pipe subjected to internal pressure. The stress-strain curve of the pipe has been determined experimentally. The J-integral was calculated in two fronts crack (Ф = 0 and Ф = π/2). The effect of the configuration of the crack on the J integral is analysed. The results show that an external longitudinal crack in a pipe is the most dangerous. It also shows that the increase in the applied pressure causes a remarkable increase of the integral J. The effect of the depth of the crack becomes important when the ratio between the depth of the crack and the thickness of the pipe (a / t) tends to 1.

Keywords: J integral, pipeline, crack, MEF

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
6579 A Comparative Study on a Tilt-Integral-Derivative Controller with Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller for a Pacemaker

Authors: Aysan Esgandanian, Sabalan Daneshvar

Abstract:

The study is done to determine the comparison between proportional-integral-derivative controller (PID controller) and tilt-integral-derivative (TID controller) for cardiac pacemaker systems, which can automatically control the heart rate to accurately track a desired preset profile. The controller offers good adaption of heart to the physiological needs of the patient. The parameters of the both controllers are tuned by particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm which uses the integral of time square error as a fitness function to be minimized. Simulation results are performed on the developed cardiovascular system of humans and results demonstrate that the TID controller produces superior control performance than PID controllers. In this paper, all simulations were performed in Matlab.

Keywords: integral of time square error, pacemaker systems, proportional-integral-derivative controller, PSO algorithm, tilt-integral-derivative controller

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
6578 Integral Image-Based Differential Filters

Authors: Kohei Inoue, Kenji Hara, Kiichi Urahama

Abstract:

We describe a relationship between integral images and differential images. First, we derive a simple difference filter from conventional integral image. In the derivation, we show that an integral image and the corresponding differential image are related to each other by simultaneous linear equations, where the numbers of unknowns and equations are the same, and therefore, we can execute the integration and differentiation by solving the simultaneous equations. We applied the relationship to an image fusion problem, and experimentally verified the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: integral images, differential images, differential filters, image fusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
6577 The Finite Element Method for Nonlinear Fredholm Integral Equation of the Second Kind

Authors: Melusi Khumalo, Anastacia Dlamini

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider a numerical solution for nonlinear Fredholm integral equations of the second kind. We work with uniform mesh and use the Lagrange polynomials together with the Galerkin finite element method, where the weight function is chosen in such a way that it takes the form of the approximate solution but with arbitrary coefficients. We implement the finite element method to the nonlinear Fredholm integral equations of the second kind. We consider the error analysis of the method. Furthermore, we look at a specific example to illustrate the implementation of the finite element method.

Keywords: finite element method, Galerkin approach, Fredholm integral equations, nonlinear integral equations

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
6576 On a Univalent Function and the Integral Means of Its Derivative

Authors: Shatha S. Alhily

Abstract:

The purpose of this research paper is to show all the possible values of the pth power of the integrable function which make the integral means of the derivative of univalent function existing and finite.

Keywords: derivative, integral means, self conformal maps, univalent function

Procedia PDF Downloads 447
6575 Image Transform Based on Integral Equation-Wavelet Approach

Authors: Yuan Yan Tang, Lina Yang, Hong Li

Abstract:

Harmonic model is a very important approximation for the image transform. The harmanic model converts an image into arbitrary shape; however, this mode cannot be described by any fixed functions in mathematics. In fact, it is represented by partial differential equation (PDE) with boundary conditions. Therefore, to develop an efficient method to solve such a PDE is extremely significant in the image transform. In this paper, a novel Integral Equation-Wavelet based method is presented, which consists of three steps: (1) The partial differential equation is converted into boundary integral equation and representation by an indirect method. (2) The boundary integral equation and representation are changed to plane integral equation and representation by boundary measure formula. (3) The plane integral equation and representation are then solved by a method we call wavelet collocation. Our approach has two main advantages, the shape of an image is arbitrary and the program code is independent of the boundary. The performance of our method is evaluated by numerical experiments.

Keywords: harmonic model, partial differential equation (PDE), integral equation, integral representation, boundary measure formula, wavelet collocation

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
6574 Cellular Automata Using Fractional Integral Model

Authors: Yasser F. Hassan

Abstract:

In this paper, a proposed model of cellular automata is studied by means of fractional integral function. A cellular automaton is a decentralized computing model providing an excellent platform for performing complex computation with the help of only local information. The paper discusses how using fractional integral function for representing cellular automata memory or state. The architecture of computing and learning model will be given and the results of calibrating of approach are also given.

Keywords: fractional integral, cellular automata, memory, learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
6573 Multidimensional Integral and Discrete Opial–Type Inequalities

Authors: Maja Andrić, Josip Pečarić

Abstract:

Over the last five decades, an enormous amount of work has been done on Opial’s integral inequality, dealing with new proofs, various generalizations, extensions and discrete analogs. The Opial inequality is recognized as a fundamental result in the analysis of qualitative properties of solution of differential equations. We use submultiplicative convex functions, appropriate representations of functions and inequalities involving means to obtain generalizations and extensions of certain known multidimensional integral and discrete Opial-type inequalities.

Keywords: Opial's inequality, Jensen's inequality, integral inequality, discrete inequality

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6572 Two Dimensional Numerical Analysis for the Seismic Response of the Geosynthetic-Reinforced Soil Integral Abutments

Authors: Dawei Shen, Ming Xu, Pengfei Liu

Abstract:

The joints between simply supported bridge decks and abutments need to be regularly repaired, which would greatly increase the cost during the service life of the bridge. Simply supported girder bridges suffered the most severe damage during earthquakes. Another type of bridge, the integral bridge, of which the superstructure and abutment are rigidly connected, was also used in some European countries. Because no bearings or joints exit in the integral bridge, this type of bridge could significantly reduce maintenance requirements and costs. However, conventional integral bridge usually result in high earth pressure on the abutment and surface settlement in the backfill. To solve these problems, a new type of integral bridge, geosynthetic-reinforced soil (GRS) integral bridge, was come up in recent years. This newly invented bridge has not been used in engineering practices. There was a lack of research on the seismic behavior of the conventional and new type of integral abutments. In addition, no common design code could be found for the calculation of seismic pressure of soil behind the abutment. This paper developed a dynamic constitutive model, which can consider the soil behaviors under cyclic loading. Numerical analyses of the seismic response of a full height integral bridge and GRS integral bridge were carried out using the two-dimensional numerical code, FLAC. A parametric study was also performed to investigate the soil-structure interaction. The results are presented below. The seismic responses of GRS integral bridge together with conventional simply supported bridge, GRS conventional bridge and conventional integral bridge were investigated. The results show that the GRS integral bridge holds the highest seismic stability, followed by conventional integral bridge, GRS simply supported bridge and conventional simply supported bridge. Compared with the integral bridge with 1 m thick abutments, the GRS integral bridge with 0.4 m thick abutments is subjected to a smaller bending moment, and the natural frequency and horizontal displacement remains almost the same. Geosynthetic-reinforcement will be more effective when the abutment becomes thinner or the abutment is higher.

Keywords: geosynthetic-reinforced soil integral bridge, nonlinear hysteretic model, numerical analysis, seismic response

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6571 Thermal Fracture Analysis of Fibrous Composites with Variable Fiber Spacing Using Jk-Integral

Authors: Farid Saeidi, Serkan Dag

Abstract:

In this study, fracture analysis of a fibrous composite laminate with variable fiber spacing is carried out using Jk-integral method. The laminate is assumed to be under thermal loading. Jk-integral is formulated by using the constitutive relations of plane orthotropic thermoelasticity. Developed domain independent form of the Jk-integral is then integrated into the general purpose finite element analysis software ANSYS. Numerical results are generated so as to assess the influence of variable fiber spacing on mode I and II stress intensity factors, energy release rate, and T-stress. For verification, some of the results are compared to those obtained using displacement correlation technique (DCT).

Keywords: Jk-integral, Variable Fiber Spacing, Thermoelasticity, T-stress, Finite Element Method, Fibrous Composite.

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
6570 Comparison of Proportional-Integral (P-I) and Integral-Propotional (I-P) Controllers for Speed Control in Vector Controlled Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drive

Authors: V. Srikanth, K. Balasubramanian, Rajath R. Bhat, A. S. Arjun, Nandhu Venugopal, Ananthu Unnikrishnan

Abstract:

Indirect vector control is known to produce high performance in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) drives by decoupling flux and torque producing current components of stator current. The most commonly used controller or the vector control of AC motor is Proportional-Integral (P-I) controller. However, the P-I controller has some disadvantages such as high starting overshoot, sensitivity to controller gains and slower response to sudden disturbance. Therefore, the Integral-Proportional controller for PMSM drives to overcome the disadvantages of the P-I controller. Simulations results are presented and analyzed for both controllers and it is observed that Integral-Proportional (I-P) controllers give better responses than the traditional P-I controllers.

Keywords: PMSM, FOC, PI controller, IP controller

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
6569 A Phenomenological Expression for Self-Attractive Energy of Singlelayer Graphene Sheets

Authors: Bingjie Wu, C. Q. Ru

Abstract:

The present work studies several reasonably expected candidate integral forms for self-attractive potential energy of a free monolayer graphene sheet. The admissibility of a specific integral form for ripple formation is verified, while all others most of the candidate integral forms are rejected based on the non-existence of stable periodic ripples. Based on the selected integral form of self-attractive potential energy, some mechanical behavior, including ripple formation and buckling, of a free monolayer grapheme sheet are discussed in details

Keywords: graphene, monolayer, ripples, van der Waals energy

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6568 Numerical Solution of Integral Equations by Using Discrete GHM Multiwavelet

Authors: Archit Yajnik, Rustam Ali

Abstract:

In this paper, numerical method based on discrete GHM multiwavelets is presented for solving the Fredholm integral equations of second kind. There is hardly any article available in the literature in which the integral equations are numerically solved using discrete GHM multiwavelet. A number of examples are demonstrated to justify the applicability of the method. In GHM multiwavelets, the values of scaling and wavelet functions are calculated only at t = 0, 0.5 and 1. The numerical solution obtained by the present approach is compared with the traditional Quadrature method. It is observed that the present approach is more accurate and computationally efficient as compared to quadrature method.

Keywords: GHM multiwavelet, fredholm integral equations, quadrature method, function approximation

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6567 Quantum Mechanism Approach for Non-Ruin Probability and Comparison of Path Integral Method and Stochastic Simulations

Authors: Ahmet Kaya

Abstract:

Quantum mechanism is one of the most important approaches to calculating non-ruin probability. We apply standard Dirac notation to model given Hamiltonians. By using the traditional method and eigenvector basis, non-ruin probability is found for several examples. Also, non-ruin probability is calculated for two different Hamiltonian by using the tensor product. Finally, the path integral method is applied to the examples and comparison is made for stochastic simulations and path integral calculation.

Keywords: quantum physics, Hamiltonian system, path integral, tensor product, ruin probability

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
6566 Multi-Criteria Evaluation for the Selection Process of a Wind Power Plant's Location Using Choquet Integral

Authors: Serhat Tüzün, Tufan Demirel

Abstract:

The objective of the present study is to select the most suitable location for a wind power plant station through Choquet integral method. The problem of selecting the location for a wind power station was considered as a multi-criteria decision-making problem. The essential and sub-criteria were specified and location selection was expressed in a hierarchic structure. Among the main criteria taken into account in this paper are wind potential, technical factors, social factors, transportation, and costs. The problem was solved by using different approaches of Choquet integral and the best location for a wind power station was determined. Then, the priority weights obtained from different Choquet integral approaches are compared and commented on.

Keywords: multi-criteria decision making, choquet integral, fuzzy sets, location of a wind power plant

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6565 Automation of Kitchen Chemical in the Textile Industry

Authors: José Luiz da Silva Neto, Renato Sipelli Silva, Érick Aragão Ribeiro

Abstract:

The automation of industrial processes plays a vital role in industries today, becoming an integral and important part of the industrial process and modern production. The process control systems are designed to maximize production, reduce costs and minimize risks in production. However, these systems are generally not deployed methodologies and planning. So that this article describes the development of an automation system of a kitchen preparation of chemicals in the textile industry based on a retrofitting methodology that provides more quality into the process at a lower cost.

Keywords: automation, textile industry, kitchen chemical, information integration

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6564 Hermite–Hadamard Type Integral Inequalities Involving k–Riemann–Liouville Fractional Integrals and Their Applications

Authors: Artion Kashuri, Rozana Liko

Abstract:

In this paper, some generalization integral inequalities of Hermite–Hadamard type for functions whose derivatives are s–convex in modulus are given by using k–fractional integrals. Some applications to special means are obtained as well. Some known versions are recovered as special cases from our results. We note that our inequalities can be viewed as new refinements of the previous results. Finally, our results have a deep connection with various fractional integral operators and interested readers can find new interesting results using our idea and technique as well.

Keywords: Hermite-Hadamard's inequalities, Hölder's inequality, k-Riemann-Liouville fractional integral, special means

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
6563 MP-SMC-I Method for Slip Suppression of Electric Vehicles under Braking

Authors: Tohru Kawabe

Abstract:

In this paper, a new SMC (Sliding Mode Control) method with MP (Model Predictive Control) integral action for the slip suppression of EV (Electric Vehicle) under braking is proposed. The proposed method introduce the integral term with standard SMC gain , where the integral gain is optimized for each control period by the MPC algorithms. The aim of this method is to improve the safety and the stability of EVs under braking by controlling the wheel slip ratio. There also include numerical simulation results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

Keywords: sliding mode control, model predictive control, integral action, electric vehicle, slip suppression

Procedia PDF Downloads 476
6562 Algebras over an Integral Domain and Immediate Neighbors

Authors: Shai Sarussi

Abstract:

Let S be an integral domain with field of fractions F and let A be an F-algebra. An S-subalgebra R of A is called S-nice if R∩F = S and the localization of R with respect to S \{0} is A. Denoting by W the set of all S-nice subalgebras of A, and defining a notion of open sets on W, one can view W as a T0-Alexandroff space. A characterization of the property of immediate neighbors in an Alexandroff topological space is given, in terms of closed and open subsets of appropriate subspaces. Moreover, two special subspaces of W are introduced, and a way in which their closed and open subsets induce W is presented.

Keywords: integral domains, Alexandroff topology, immediate neighbors, valuation domains

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6561 Parametric Study on the Development of Earth Pressures Behind Integral Bridge Abutments Under Cyclic Translational Movements

Authors: Lila D. Sigdel, Chin J. Leo, Samanthika Liyanapathirana, Pan Hu, Minghao Lu

Abstract:

Integral bridges are a class of bridges with integral or semi-integral abutments, designed without expansion joints in the bridge deck of the superstructure. Integral bridges are economical alternatives to conventional jointed bridges with lower maintenance costs and greater durability, thereby improving social and economic stability for the community. Integral bridges have also been proven to be effective in lowering the overall construction cost compared to the conventional type of bridges. However, there is significant uncertainty related to the design and analysis of integral bridges in response to cyclic thermal movements induced due to deck expansion and contraction. The cyclic thermal movements of the abutments increase the lateral earth pressures on the abutment and its foundation, leading to soil settlement and heaving of the backfill soil. Thus, the primary objective of this paper is to investigate the soil-abutment interaction under the cyclic translational movement of the abutment. Results from five experiments conducted to simulate different magnitudes of cyclic translational movements of abutments induced by thermal changes are presented, focusing on lateral earth pressure development at the abutment-soil interface. Test results show that the cycle number and magnitude of cyclic translational movements have significant effects on the escalation of lateral earth pressures. Experimentally observed earth pressure distributions behind the integral abutment were compared with the current design approaches, which shows that the most of the practices has under predicted the lateral earth pressure.

Keywords: integral bridge, cyclic thermal movement, lateral earth pressure, soil-structure interaction

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6560 Finite Element Modeling of Integral Abutment Bridge for Lateral Displacement

Authors: M. Naji, A. R. Khalim, M. Naji

Abstract:

Integral Abutment Bridges (IAB) are defined as simple or multiple span bridges in which the bridge deck is cast monolithically with the abutment walls. This kind of bridges are becoming very popular due to different aspects such as good response under seismic loading, low initial costs, elimination of bearings and less maintenance. However, the main issue related to the analysis of this type of structures is dealing with soil-structure interaction of the abutment walls and the supporting piles. A two-dimensional, non-linear finite element (FE) model of an integral abutment bridge has been developed to study the effect of lateral time history displacement loading on the soil system.

Keywords: integral abutment bridge, soil structure interaction, finite element modeling, soil-pile interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
6559 Detection and Classification of Myocardial Infarction Using New Extracted Features from Standard 12-Lead ECG Signals

Authors: Naser Safdarian, Nader Jafarnia Dabanloo

Abstract:

In this paper we used four features i.e. Q-wave integral, QRS complex integral, T-wave integral and total integral as extracted feature from normal and patient ECG signals to detection and localization of myocardial infarction (MI) in left ventricle of heart. In our research we focused on detection and localization of MI in standard ECG. We use the Q-wave integral and T-wave integral because this feature is important impression in detection of MI. We used some pattern recognition method such as Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to detect and localize the MI. Because these methods have good accuracy for classification of normal and abnormal signals. We used one type of Radial Basis Function (RBF) that called Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) because of its nonlinearity property, and used other classifier such as k-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and Naive Bayes Classification. We used PhysioNet database as our training and test data. We reached over 80% for accuracy in test data for localization and over 95% for detection of MI. Main advantages of our method are simplicity and its good accuracy. Also we can improve accuracy of classification by adding more features in this method. A simple method based on using only four features which extracted from standard ECG is presented which has good accuracy in MI localization.

Keywords: ECG signal processing, myocardial infarction, features extraction, pattern recognition

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6558 Closed Form Solution for 4-D Potential Integrals for Arbitrary Coplanar Polygonal Surfaces

Authors: Damir Latypov

Abstract:

A closed-form solution for 4-D double surface integrals arising in boundary integrals equations of a potential theory is obtained for arbitrary coplanar polygonal surfaces. The solution method is based on the construction of exact differential forms followed by the application of Stokes' theorem for each surface integral. As a result, the 4-D double surface integral is reduced to a 2-D double line integral. By an appropriate change of variables, the integrand is transformed into a separable function of integration variables. The closed-form solutions to the corresponding 1-D integrals are readily available in the integration tables. Previously closed-form solutions were known only for the case of coincident triangle surfaces and coplanar rectangles. Solutions for these cases were obtained by surface-specific ad-hoc methods, while the present method is general. The method also works for non-polygonal surfaces. As an example, we compute in closed form the 4-D integral for the case of coincident surfaces in the shape of a circular disk. For an arbitrarily shaped surface, the proposed method provides an efficient quadrature rule. Extensions of the method for non-coplanar surfaces and other than 1/R integral kernels are also discussed.

Keywords: boundary integral equations, differential forms, integration, stokes' theorem

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6557 Integral Abutment Bridge: A Study on Types, Importance, Limitations and Design Guidelines

Authors: Babitha Elizabeth Philip

Abstract:

This paper aims to study in general about bridges without expansion joints. Integral Abutment Bridges (IAB) fall into this category of bridges. They are having a continuous deck and also the girders are integrated into the abutments. They are most cost effective system in terms of construction, maintenance, and longevity. The main advantage of IAB is that it is corrosion resistant since water is not allowed to pass through the structure. The other attractions of integral bridges are its simple and rapid construction, smooth and uninterrupted deck which provides a safe ride. Also damages to the abutments can be avoided to a great extent due to better load distribution at the bridge ends. Damages due to improper drainage are not seen in IAB because of its properly drained approach slabs thus eliminating the possibility of erosion of the abutment backfill and freeze and thaw damage resulting from saturated backfill.

Keywords: continuous bridge, integral abutment bridge, joint bridge, life cycle cost, soil interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
6556 The Assessment of the Comparative Efficiency of Reforms through the Integral Index of Transformation

Authors: Samson Davoyan, Ashot Davoyan, Ani Khachatryan

Abstract:

The indexes (Global Competitiveness Index, Economic Freedom Index, Human Development Index, etc.) developed by different international and non-government organizations in time and space express the quantitative and qualitative features of different fields of various reforms implemented in different countries. The main objective of our research is to develop new methodology that we will use to create integral index based on many indexes and that will include many areas of reforms. To achieve our aim we have used econometric methods (regression model for panel data method). The basis of our methodology is the development of the new integral index based on quantitative assessment of the change of two main parameters: the score of the countries by different indexes and the change of the ranks of countries for following two periods of time. As a result of the usage of methods for analyzes we have defined the indexes that are used to create the new integral index and the scales for each of them. Analyzing quantitatively and qualitatively analysis through the integral index for more than 100 countries for 2009-2014, we have defined comparative efficiency that helps to conclude in which directions countries have implemented reforms more effectively compared to others and in which direction reforms have implemented less efficiently.

Keywords: development, rank, reforms, comparative, index, economic, corruption, social, program

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6555 Cybernetic Modeling of Growth Dynamics of Debaryomyces nepalensis NCYC 3413 and Xylitol Production in Batch Reactor

Authors: J. Sharon Mano Pappu, Sathyanarayana N. Gummadi

Abstract:

Growth of Debaryomyces nepalensis on mixed substrates in batch culture follows diauxic pattern of completely utilizing glucose during the first exponential growth phase, followed by an intermediate lag phase and a second exponential growth phase consuming xylose. The present study deals with the development of cybernetic mathematical model for prediction of xylitol production and yield. Production of xylitol from xylose in batch fermentation is investigated in the presence of glucose as the co-substrate. Different ratios of glucose and xylose concentrations are assessed to study the impact of multi substrate on production of xylitol in batch reactors. The parameters in the model equations were estimated from experimental observations using integral method. The model equations were solved simultaneously by numerical technique using MATLAB. The developed cybernetic model of xylose fermentation in the presence of a co-substrate can provide answers about how the ratio of glucose to xylose influences the yield and rate of production of xylitol. This model is expected to accurately predict the growth of microorganism on mixed substrate, duration of intermediate lag phase, consumption of substrate, production of xylitol. The model developed based on cybernetic modelling framework can be helpful to simulate the dynamic competition between the metabolic pathways.

Keywords: co-substrate, cybernetic model, diauxic growth, xylose, xylitol

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6554 Level Set and Morphological Operation Techniques in Application of Dental Image Segmentation

Authors: Abdolvahab Ehsani Rad, Mohd Shafry Mohd Rahim, Alireza Norouzi

Abstract:

Medical image analysis is one of the great effects of computer image processing. There are several processes to analysis the medical images which the segmentation process is one of the challenging and most important step. In this paper the segmentation method proposed in order to segment the dental radiograph images. Thresholding method has been applied to simplify the images and to morphologically open binary image technique performed to eliminate the unnecessary regions on images. Furthermore, horizontal and vertical integral projection techniques used to extract the each individual tooth from radiograph images. Segmentation process has been done by applying the level set method on each extracted images. Nevertheless, the experiments results by 90% accuracy demonstrate that proposed method achieves high accuracy and promising result.

Keywords: integral production, level set method, morphological operation, segmentation

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6553 Integral Domains and Their Algebras: Topological Aspects

Authors: Shai Sarussi

Abstract:

Let S be an integral domain with field of fractions F and let A be an F-algebra. An S-subalgebra R of A is called S-nice if R∩F = S and the localization of R with respect to S \{0} is A. Denoting by W the set of all S-nice subalgebras of A, and defining a notion of open sets on W, one can view W as a T0-Alexandroff space. Thus, the algebraic structure of W can be viewed from the point of view of topology. It is shown that every nonempty open subset of W has a maximal element in it, which is also a maximal element of W. Moreover, a supremum of an irreducible subset of W always exists. As a notable connection with valuation theory, one considers the case in which S is a valuation domain and A is an algebraic field extension of F; if S is indecomposed in A, then W is an irreducible topological space, and W contains a greatest element.

Keywords: integral domains, Alexandroff topology, prime spectrum of a ring, valuation domains

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6552 Numerical Solutions of Fredholm Integral Equations by B-Spline Wavelet Method

Authors: Ritu Rani

Abstract:

In this paper, we apply minimalistically upheld linear semi-orthogonal B-spline wavelets, exceptionally developed for the limited interim to rough the obscure function present in the integral equations. Semi-orthogonal wavelets utilizing B-spline uniquely developed for the limited interim and these wavelets can be spoken to in a shut frame. This gives a minimized help. Semi-orthogonal wavelets frame the premise in the space L²(R). Utilizing this premise, an arbitrary function in L²(R) can be communicated as the wavelet arrangement. For the limited interim, the wavelet arrangement cannot be totally introduced by utilizing this premise. This is on the grounds that backings of some premise are truncated at the left or right end purposes of the interim. Subsequently, an uncommon premise must be brought into the wavelet development on the limited interim. These functions are alluded to as the limit scaling functions and limit wavelet functions. B-spline wavelet method has been connected to fathom linear and nonlinear integral equations and their systems. The above method diminishes the integral equations to systems of algebraic equations and afterward these systems can be illuminated by any standard numerical methods. Here, we have connected Newton's method with suitable starting speculation for solving these systems.

Keywords: semi-orthogonal, wavelet arrangement, integral equations, wavelet development

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