Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2561

Search results for: initial antidepressant

2561 Application of EEG Wavelet Power to Prediction of Antidepressant Treatment Response

Authors: Dorota Witkowska, Paweł Gosek, Lukasz Swiecicki, Wojciech Jernajczyk, Bruce J. West, Miroslaw Latka


In clinical practice, the selection of an antidepressant often degrades to lengthy trial-and-error. In this work we employ a normalized wavelet power of alpha waves as a biomarker of antidepressant treatment response. This novel EEG metric takes into account both non-stationarity and intersubject variability of alpha waves. We recorded resting, 19-channel EEG (closed eyes) in 22 inpatients suffering from unipolar (UD, n=10) or bipolar (BD, n=12) depression. The EEG measurement was done at the end of the short washout period which followed previously unsuccessful pharmacotherapy. The normalized alpha wavelet power of 11 responders was markedly different than that of 11 nonresponders at several, mostly temporoparietal sites. Using the prediction of treatment response based on the normalized alpha wavelet power, we achieved 81.8% sensitivity and 81.8% specificity for channel T4.

Keywords: alpha waves, antidepressant, treatment outcome, wavelet

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2560 QSAR and Anti-Depressant Studies of Some Novel Phenothiazine Derivatives

Authors: D. L. Tambe, S. Dighe Nachiket


Objective: Depression is a common but serious illness and the phenothiazine derivatives shows prominent effect against the depression hence work was undertaken to validate this use scientifically. Material and Methods: Synthesis of phenothiazine derivatives are done by the substitution of various groups, but the basic scheme of synthesis is started with synthesis of 4-(Cyclohexylidene) Benzoic acid using PABA. After that with the further six step of synthesis of 3-(10H-phenothiazin-2-yl)-N, 5-diphenyl-4H-1, 2, 4-triazol-4-amine is done which is final product. Antidepressant activity of all the synthesized compounds was evaluated by despair swim test by using Sprague Dawley Rats. Standard drug imipramine was used as the control. In the despair swim test, all the synthesized derivatives showed antidepressant activity. Results: Among the all phenothiazine derivatives four compounds (6.6-7.2 (14H –phenyl ), 9.43 (1H OH), 8.50 (1H NH phenothiazine),6.85-8.21(14H phenyl), 8.50 (1H NH phenothiazine), 11.82 (1H – OH), 6.6-7.2 (8H –phenyl ), 9.43 (1H OH), 8.50 (1H NH phenothiazine), 4.2 (1H NH) and 6.85-8.21(8H phenyl), 8.50 (1H NH phenothiazine), 3.9 (1H NH) 11.82 (1H – OH) showed significant antidepressant activity comparing with control drug imipramine. Conclusion: Various Novel phenothiazine derivatives show more potent antidepressant activity and it plays more beneficial role in human health for the treatment of depression.

Keywords: antidepressant activities, despair swim test, phenothiazine, Sprague Dawley Rats

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2559 Neural Changes Associated with Successful Antidepressant Treatment in Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder

Authors: Dung V. H. Pham, Kathryn Cullen


Introduction: 40% of adolescents with major depression (MDD) are unresponsive to 1st line antidepressant treatment. The neural mechanism underlying treatment-responsive and treatment-resistant depression in adolescent are unclear. Amygdala is important for emotion processing and has been implicated in mood disorders. Past research has shown abnormal amygdala connectivity in adolescents with MDD. This research study changes in amygdala resting-state functional connectivity to find neural correlates of successful antidepressant treatment. Methods: Thirteen adolescents aged 12-19 underwent rfMRI before and after 8-week antidepressant treatment and completed BDI-II at each scan. A whole-brain approach, using anatomically defined amygdala ROIs (1) identified brain regions that are highly synchronous with the amygdala, (2) correlated neural changes with changes in overall depression and specific symptom clusters within depression. Results: Some neural correlates were common across domains: (1) decreased amygdala RSFC with the default mode network (posterior cingulate, precuneus) is associated with improvement in overall depression and many symptom clusters, (2) increased amygdala RSFC with fusiform gyrus is associated with symptom improvement across many symptom clusters. We also found unique neural changes associated with symptom improvement in each symptom cluster. Conclusion: This is the first preliminary study that looks at neural correlates of antidepressant treatment response to overall depression as well as different clusters of symptoms of depression. The finding suggests both overlapping and distinct neural mechanisms underlying improvement in each symptom clusters within depression. Some brain regions found are also implicated in MDD among adults in previous literature.

Keywords: depression, adolescents, fMRI, antidepressants

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2558 Elucidation of Mechanism of Action of Antidepressant-Like Effect of Valeriana wallichii Maaliol Chemotype in Mice

Authors: Sangeeta Pilkhwal Sah, C. S. Mathela, Kanwaljit Chopra


Valeriana wallichii DC, an ayurvedic traditional medicine, popularly named as Indian valerian exist as three chemotypes. GC-MS analysis of V. wallichii essential oil in present study showed maaliol as the major constituent followed by the presence of β-gurjunene, acoradiene, guaiol and α-santalene. The results thus confirmed it to be a maaliol chemotype. Further, the antidepressant-like effect of root essential oil (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg p.o.) was investigated in both acute and chronic treatment study using forced swim test in mice. Single administration of different doses produced an inverted U shaped curve and significantly inhibited the immobility period (39.7% and 58%) at doses 10 and 40 mg/kg respectively. Standard drug imipramine significantly decreased immobility period (59.8%). None of the doses altered locomotor activity except a significant decrease of 44.9% was observed with 40 mg/kg (p < 0.05). Similarly, daily administration of essential oil for 14 days produced a dose dependent effect with significantly reduced immobility period (70.9%) at 40 mg/kg dose only whereas imipramine produced 86% decrease (p < 0.05). The neurotransmitter levels in mouse brain were estimated on day 14 after the behavioral study. Significant increase in the level of norepinephrine (10%) and dopamine (23%) (p < 0.05) was found at 40 mg/kg dose, while no change was observed at 10 and 20 mg/kg doses. The antidepressant-like effect of essential oil (40 mg/kg) was prevented by pretreatment of mice with L-arginine (750 mg/kg i.p.) and sildenafil (5 mg/kg i.p). On the contrary, pretreatment of mice with L-NAME (10 mg/kg i.p.) or methylene blue (10 mg/kg i.p.) potentiated the antidepressant action of essential oil (20 mg/kg). The findings thus demonstrated that nitric oxide pathway is involved in mediating antidepressant like effect of essential oil from this chemotype.

Keywords: Valeriana wallichii DC chemotype, essential oil, forced swim test, nitric oxide modulators, neurotransmitters

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2557 Improving Depression Symptoms and Antidepressant Medication Adherence Using Encrypted Short Message Service Text Message Reminders

Authors: Ogbonna Olelewe


This quality improvement project seeks to address the background and significance of promoting antidepressant (AD) medication adherence to reduce depression symptoms in patients diagnosed with major depression. This project aims to substantiate using daily encrypted short message service (SMS) text reminders to take prescribed antidepressant medications with the goal of increasing medication adherence to reduce depression scores in patients diagnosed with major depression, thereby preventing relapses and increasing remission rates. Depression symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scale. The PHQ-9 provides a total score of depression symptoms from mild to severe, ranging from 0 to 27. A -pretest/post-test design was used, with a convenience sample size of 35 adult patients aged 18 years old to 45 years old, diagnosed with MDD, and prescribed at least one antidepressant for one year or more. Pre- and post-test PHQ-9 scores were conducted to compare depression scores before and after the four-week intervention period. The results indicated improved post-intervention PHQ-9 scores, improved AD medication adherence, and a significant reduction in depression symptoms.

Keywords: major depressive disorder, antidepressants, short message services, text reminders, Medication adherence/non-adherence, Patient Health Questionnaire 9

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2556 Prevalence, Median Time, and Associated Factors with the Likelihood of Initial Antidepressant Change: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Nervana Elbakary, Sami Ouanes, Sadaf Riaz, Oraib Abdallah, Islam Mahran, Noriya Al-Khuzaei, Yassin Eltorki


Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) requires therapeutic interventions during the initial month after being diagnosed for better disease outcomes. International guidelines recommend a duration of 4–12 weeks for an initial antidepressant (IAD) trial at an optimized dose to get a response. If depressive symptoms persist after this duration, guidelines recommend switching, augmenting, or combining strategies as the next step. Most patients with MDD in the mental health setting have been labeled incorrectly as treatment-resistant where in fact they have not been subjected to an adequate trial of guideline-recommended therapy. Premature discontinuation of IAD due to ineffectiveness can cause unfavorable consequences. Avoiding irrational practices such as subtherapeutic doses of IAD, premature switching between the ADs, and refraining from unjustified polypharmacy can help the disease to go into a remission phase We aimed to determine the prevalence and the patterns of strategies applied after an IAD was changed because of a suboptimal response as a primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included the median survival time on IAD before any change; and the predictors that were associated with IAD change. This was a retrospective cross- sectional study conducted in Mental Health Services in Qatar. A dataset between January 1, 2018, and December 31, 2019, was extracted from the electronic health records. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined and applied. The sample size was calculated to be at least 379 patients. Descriptive statistics were reported as frequencies and percentages, in addition, to mean and standard deviation. The median time of IAD to any change strategy was calculated using survival analysis. Associated predictors were examined using two unadjusted and adjusted cox regression models. A total of 487 patients met the inclusion criteria of the study. The average age for participants was 39.1 ± 12.3 years. Patients with first experience MDD episode 255 (52%) constituted a major part of our sample comparing to the relapse group 206(42%). About 431 (88%) of the patients had an occurrence of IAD change to any strategy before end of the study. Almost half of the sample (212 (49%); 95% CI [44–53%]) had their IAD changed less than or equal to 30 days. Switching was consistently more common than combination or augmentation at any timepoint. The median time to IAD change was 43 days with 95% CI [33.2–52.7]. Five independent variables (age, bothersome side effects, un-optimization of the dose before any change, comorbid anxiety, first onset episode) were significantly associated with the likelihood of IAD change in the unadjusted analysis. The factors statistically associated with higher hazard of IAD change in the adjusted analysis were: younger age, un-optimization of the IAD dose before any change, and comorbid anxiety. Because almost half of the patients in this study changed their IAD as early as within the first month, efforts to avoid treatment failure are needed to ensure patient-treatment targets are met. The findings of this study can have direct clinical guidance for health care professionals since an optimized, evidence-based use of AD medication can improve the clinical outcomes of patients with MDD; and also, to identify high-risk factors that could worsen the survival time on IAD such as young age and comorbid anxiety

Keywords: initial antidepressant, dose optimization, major depressive disorder, comorbid anxiety, combination, augmentation, switching, premature discontinuation

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2555 Batch Biodrying of Pulp and Paper Secondary Sludge: Influence of Initial Moisture Content on the Process

Authors: César Huiliñir, Danilo Villanueva, Pedro Iván Alvarez, Francisco Cubillos


Biodrying aims at removing water from biowastes and has been mostly studied for municipal solid wastes (MSW), while few studies have dealt with secondary sludge from the paper and pulp industry. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of initial moisture content (MC) on the batch biodrying of pulp and paper secondary sludge, using rice husks as bulking agents. Three initial MCs were studied (54, 65, and 74% w.b.) in closed batch laboratory-scale reactors under adiabatic conditions and with a constant air-flow rate (0.65 l min-1 kg-1 wet solid). The initial MC of the mixture of secondary sludge and rice husks showed a significant effect on the biodrying process. Using initial moisture content between 54-65% w.b., the solid moisture content was reduce up to 37 % w.b. in ten days, getting calorific values between 8000-9000 kJ kg-1. It was concluded that a decreasing of initial MC improves the drying rate and decreases the solid volatile consumption, therefore, the optimization of biodrying should consider this parameter.

Keywords: biodrying, secondary sludge, initial moisture content, pulp and paper industry, rice husk

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2554 IPO Price Performance and Signaling

Authors: Chih-Hsiang Chang, I-Fan Ho


This study examines the credibility of the signaling as explanation for IPO initial underpricing. Findings reveal the initial underpricing and the long-term underperformance of IPOs in Taiwan. However, we only find weak support for signaling as explanation of IPO underpricing.

Keywords: signaling, IPO initial underpricing, IPO long-term underperformance, Taiwan’s stock market

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2553 Antidepressant-Like Effects of EQC-34, a 5HT3 Receptor Antagonist in Neurobehavioral Mouse Model of Depression

Authors: D: Gupta, M. Radhakrishnan, Y. Kurhe, D. Thangaraj


Depression is among the leading causes of death worldwide. The current pharmacotherapy is associated with poor compliance, resistance and relapse, which necessitate the development of novel compounds with better efficacy. The present study designed and synthesized EQC-34 (N-cyclohexyl-3-ethoxyquinoxalin-2-carboxamide) as novel serotonin type-3 (5HT3) antagonist and evaluated its antidepressant-like effects using neurobehavioral mouse model. 5HT3 antagonism (as pA2 value) was determined on the longitudinal smooth muscle of guinea-pig ileum against 2-methyl-5HT (a 5HT3 agonist). The doses were calculated by dose response of basal locomotor activity. Consequently, effects of EQC-34 on neurobehavioral parameters were measured in forced swim (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). The possible mechanism was estimated by interaction study with fluoxetine (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and mCPBG (1-(m-chlorophenyl)-biguanide, a selective 5HT3 agonist), and confirmed by potentiation of head twitch response by 5hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5HTP). EQC-34 (1-4 mg/kg, i.p.) produced significant decreased behavioral despair effects in FST and TST. It potentiated fluoxetine response, while mCPBG reduced EQC-34 activity in FST. Further, EQC-34 potentiated 5HTP induced head twitch response. EQC-34 revealed potential antidepressant-like effects, which may involve 5HT3 receptor mediated facilitation of 5HT neurotransmission, thereby reversing the pathological deficiency of monoamines (5HT) observed in depression. Thus, it may be further investigated as promising agent to improve therapeutics of depression.

Keywords: depression, forced swim test, 5HT3 receptor antagonist, serotonin

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2552 Relation between Initial Stability of the Dental Implant and Bone-Implant Contact Level

Authors: Jui-Ting Hsu, Heng-Li Huang, Ming-Tzu Tsai, Kuo-Chih Su, Lih-Jyh Fuh


The objectives of this study were to measure the initial stability of the dental implant (ISQ and PTV) in the artificial foam bone block with three different quality levels. In addition, the 3D bone to implant contact percentage (BIC%) was measured based on the micro-computed tomography images. Furthermore, the relation between the initial stability of dental implant (ISQ and PTV) and BIC% were calculated. The experimental results indicated that enhanced the material property of the artificial foam bone increased the initial stability of the dental implant. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the BIC% and the two approaches (ISQ and PTV) were 0.652 and 0.745.

Keywords: dental implant, implant stability quotient, peak insertion torque, bone-implant contact, micro-computed tomography

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2551 Particle Swarm Optimization Based Method for Minimum Initial Marking in Labeled Petri Nets

Authors: Hichem Kmimech, Achref Jabeur Telmoudi, Lotfi Nabli


The estimation of the initial marking minimum (MIM) is a crucial problem in labeled Petri nets. In the case of multiple choices, the search for the initial marking leads to a problem of optimization of the minimum allocation of resources with two constraints. The first concerns the firing sequence that could be legal on the initial marking with respect to the firing vector. The second deals with the total number of tokens that can be minimal. In this article, the MIM problem is solved by the meta-heuristic particle swarm optimization (PSO). The proposed approach presents the advantages of PSO to satisfy the two previous constraints and find all possible combinations of minimum initial marking with the best computing time. This method, more efficient than conventional ones, has an excellent impact on the resolution of the MIM problem. We prove through a set of definitions, lemmas, and examples, the effectiveness of our approach.

Keywords: marking, production system, labeled Petri nets, particle swarm optimization

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2550 Developmental Trends on Initial Letter Fluency in Typically Developing Children

Authors: Sunila John, B. Rajashekhar


Initial letter fluency tasks are one of the simple behavioral measures to evaluate the complex nature of word retrieval ability. This task requires the participant to retrieve as many words as possible beginning with a particular letter in a fixed time frame. Though the task of verbal fluency is popular among adult clinical conditions, its role in children has been less emphasized. There exists a lack of in-depth understanding of processes underlying verbal fluency performance in typically developing children. The present study, therefore, aims to delineate the developmental trend on initial letter fluency task observed in typically developing Malayalam speaking children. The participants were aged between 5 to 10 years and categorized into three groups: Group I (class I and II, mean (SD) age years: 6.44(.78)), Group II (class III and IV, mean (SD) age years: 8.59 (.83)) and group III (class V and VI, mean (SD) age years: 10.28 (.80). On two tasks of initial letter fluency, the verbal fluency outcome measures were analyzed. The study findings revealed a distinct pattern of initial letter fluency development which may enhance its usefulness in clinical and research settings.

Keywords: children, development, initial letter fluency, word retrieval

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2549 Fast Algorithm to Determine Initial Tsunami Wave Shape at Source

Authors: Alexander P. Vazhenin, Mikhail M. Lavrentiev, Alexey A. Romanenko, Pavel V. Tatarintsev


One of the problems obstructing effective tsunami modelling is the lack of information about initial wave shape at source. The existing methods; geological, sea radars, satellite images, contain an important part of uncertainty. Therefore, direct measurement of tsunami waves obtained at the deep water bottom peruse recorders is also used. In this paper we propose a new method to reconstruct the initial sea surface displacement at tsunami source by the measured signal (marigram) approximation with the help of linear combination of synthetic marigrams from the selected set of unit sources, calculated in advance. This method has demonstrated good precision and very high performance. The mathematical model and results of numerical tests are here described.

Keywords: numerical tests, orthogonal decomposition, Tsunami Initial Sea Surface Displacement

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2548 Measure-Valued Solutions to a Class of Nonlinear Parabolic Equations with Degenerate Coercivity and Singular Initial Data

Authors: Flavia Smarrazzo


Initial-boundary value problems for nonlinear parabolic equations having a Radon measure as initial data have been widely investigated, looking for solutions which for positive times take values in some function space. On the other hand, if the diffusivity degenerates too fast at infinity, it is well known that function-valued solutions may not exist, singularities may persist, and it looks very natural to consider solutions which, roughly speaking, for positive times describe an orbit in the space of the finite Radon measures. In this general framework, our purpose is to introduce a concept of measure-valued solution which is consistent with respect to regularizing and smoothing approximations, in order to develop an existence theory which does not depend neither on the level of degeneracy of diffusivity at infinity nor on the choice of the initial measures. In more detail, we prove existence of suitably defined measure-valued solutions to the homogeneous Dirichlet initial-boundary value problem for a class of nonlinear parabolic equations without strong coerciveness. Moreover, we also discuss some qualitative properties of the constructed solutions concerning the evolution of their singular part, including conditions (depending both on the initial data and on the strength of degeneracy) under which the constructed solutions are in fact unction-valued or not.

Keywords: degenerate parabolic equations, measure-valued solutions, Radon measures, young measures

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2547 Inverse Polynomial Numerical Scheme for the Solution of Initial Value Problems in Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: Ogunrinde Roseline Bosede


This paper presents the development, analysis and implementation of an inverse polynomial numerical method which is well suitable for solving initial value problems in first order ordinary differential equations with applications to sample problems. We also present some basic concepts and fundamental theories which are vital to the analysis of the scheme. We analyzed the consistency, convergence, and stability properties of the scheme. Numerical experiments were carried out and the results compared with the theoretical or exact solution and the algorithm was later coded using MATLAB programming language.

Keywords: differential equations, numerical, polynomial, initial value problem, differential equation

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2546 The Effect of Antibiotic Use on Blood Cultures: Implications for Future Policy

Authors: Avirup Chowdhury, Angus K. McFadyen, Linsey Batchelor


Blood cultures (BCs) are an important aspect of management of the septic patient, identifying the underlying pathogen and its antibiotic sensitivities. However, while the current literature outlines indications for initial BCs to be taken, there is little guidance for repeat sampling in the following 5-day period and little information on how antibiotic use can affect the usefulness of this investigation. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using inpatients who had undergone 2 or more BCs within 5 days between April 2016 and April 2017 at a 400-bed hospital in the west of Scotland and received antibiotic therapy between the first and second BCs. The data for BC sampling was collected from the electronic microbiology database, and cross-referenced with data from the hospital electronic prescribing system. Overall, 283 BCs were included in the study, taken from 92 patients (mean 3.08 cultures per patient, range 2-10). All 92 patients had initial BCs, of which 83 were positive (90%). 65 had a further sample within 24 hours of commencement of antibiotics, with 35 positive (54%). 23 had samples within 24-48 hours, with 4 (17%) positive; 12 patients had sampling at 48-72 hours, 12 at 72-96 hours, and 10 at 96-120 hours, with none positive. McNemar’s Exact Test was used to calculate statistical significance for patients who received blood cultures in multiple time blocks (Initial, < 24h, 24-120h, > 120h). For initial vs. < 24h-post BCs (53 patients tested), the proportion of positives fell from 46/53 to 29/53 (one-tailed P=0.002, OR 3.43, 95% CI 1.48-7.96). For initial vs 24-120h (n=42), the proportions were 38/42 and 4/42 respectively (P < 0.001, OR 35.0, 95% CI 4.79-255.48). For initial vs > 120h (n=36), these were 33/36 and 2/36 (P < 0.001,OR ∞). These were also calculated for a positive in initial or < 24h vs. 24-120h (n=42), with proportions of 41/42 and 4/42 (P < 0.001, OR 38.0, 95% CI 5.22-276.78); and for initial or < 24h vs > 120h (n=36), with proportions of 35/36 and 2/36 respectively (P < 0.001, OR ∞). This data appears to show that taking an initial BC followed by a BC within 24 hours of antibiotic commencement would maximise blood culture yield while minimising the risk of false negative results. This could potentially remove the need for as many as 46% of BC samples without adversely affecting patient care. BC yield decreases sharply after 48 hours of antibiotic use, and may not provide any clinically useful information after this time. Further multi-centre studies would validate these findings, and provide a foundation for future health policy generation.

Keywords: antibiotics, blood culture, efficacy, inpatient

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2545 Optimization Study of Adsorption of Nickel(II) on Bentonite

Authors: B. Medjahed, M. A. Didi, B. Guezzen


This work concerns with the experimental study of the adsorption of the Ni(II) on bentonite. The effects of various parameters such as contact time, stirring rate, initial concentration of Ni(II), masse of clay, initial pH of aqueous solution and temperature on the adsorption yield, were carried out. The study of the effect of the ionic strength on the yield of adsorption was examined by the identification and the quantification of the present chemical species in the aqueous phase containing the metallic ion Ni(II). The adsorbed species were investigated by a calculation program using CHEAQS V. L20.1 in order to determine the relation between the percentages of the adsorbed species and the adsorption yield. The optimization process was carried out using 23 factorial designs. The individual and combined effects of three process parameters, i.e. initial Ni(II) concentration in aqueous solution (2.10−3 and 5.10−3 mol/L), initial pH of the solution (2 and 6.5), and mass of bentonite (0.03 and 0.3 g) on Ni(II) adsorption, were studied.

Keywords: adsorption, bentonite, factorial design, Nickel(II)

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2544 Effects of Initial State on Opinion Formation in Complex Social Networks with Noises

Authors: Yi Yu, Vu Xuan Nguyen, Gaoxi Xiao


Opinion formation in complex social networks may exhibit complex system dynamics even when based on some simplest system evolution models. An interesting and important issue is the effects of the initial state on the final steady-state opinion distribution. By carrying out extensive simulations and providing necessary discussions, we show that, while different initial opinion distributions certainly make differences to opinion evolution in social systems without noises, in systems with noises, given enough time, different initial states basically do not contribute to making any significant differences in the final steady state. Instead, it is the basal distribution of the preferred opinions that contributes to deciding the final state of the systems. We briefly explain the reasons leading to the observed conclusions. Such an observation contradicts with a long-term belief on the roles of system initial state in opinion formation, demonstrating the dominating role that opinion mutation can play in opinion formation given enough time. The observation may help to better understand certain observations of opinion evolution dynamics in real-life social networks.

Keywords: opinion formation, Deffuant model, opinion mutation, consensus making

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2543 Effect the Use of Steel Fibers (Dramix) on Reinforced Concrete Slab

Authors: Faisal Ananda, Junaidi Al-Husein, Oni Febriani, Juli Ardita, N. Indra, Syaari Al-Husein, A. Bukri


Currently, concrete technology continues to grow and continue to innovate one of them using fibers. Fiber concrete has advantages over non-fiber concrete, among others, strong against the effect of shrinkage, ability to reduce crack, fire resistance, etc. In this study, concrete mix design using the procedures listed on SNI 03-2834-2000. The sample used is a cylinder with a height of 30 cm and a width of 15cm in diameter, which is used for compression and tensile testing, while the slab is 400cm x 100cm x 15cm. The fiber used is steel fiber (dramix), with the addition of 2/3 of the thickness of the slabs. The charging is done using a two-point loading. From the result of the research, it is found that the loading of non-fiber slab (0%) of the initial crack is the maximum crack that has passed the maximum crack allowed with a crack width of 1.3 mm with a loading of 1160 kg. The initial crack with the largest load is found on the 1% fiber mixed slab, with the initial crack also being a maximum crack of 0.5mm which also has exceeded the required maximum crack. In the 4% slab the initial crack of 0.1 mm is a minimal initial crack with a load greater than the load of a non-fiber (0%) slab by load1200 kg. While the maximum load on the maximum crack according to the applicable maximum crack conditions, on the 5% fiber mixed slab with a crack width of 0.32mm by loading 1250 kg.

Keywords: crack, dramix, fiber, load, slab

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2542 Solving Ill-Posed Initial Value Problems for Switched Differential Equations

Authors: Eugene Stepanov, Arcady Ponosov


To model gene regulatory networks one uses ordinary differential equations with switching nonlinearities, where the initial value problem is known to be well-posed if the trajectories cross the discontinuities transversally. Otherwise, the initial value problem is usually ill-posed, which lead to theoretical and numerical complications. In the presentation, it is proposed to apply the theory of hybrid dynamical systems, rather than switched ones, to regularize the problem. 'Hybridization' of the switched system means that one attaches a dynamic discrete component ('automaton'), which follows the trajectories of the original system and governs its dynamics at the points of ill-posedness of the initial value problem making it well-posed. The construction of the automaton is based on the classification of the attractors of the specially designed adjoint dynamical system. Several examples are provided in the presentation, which support the suggested analysis. The method can also be of interest in other applied fields, where differential equations contain switchings, e.g. in neural field models.

Keywords: hybrid dynamical systems, ill-posed problems, singular perturbation analysis, switching nonlinearities

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2541 Relations of Progression in Cognitive Decline with Initial EEG Resting-State Functional Network in Mild Cognitive Impairment

Authors: Chia-Feng Lu, Yuh-Jen Wang, Yu-Te Wu, Sui-Hing Yan


This study aimed at investigating whether the functional brain networks constructed using the initial EEG (obtained when patients first visited hospital) can be correlated with the progression of cognitive decline calculated as the changes of mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scores between the latest and initial examinations. We integrated the time–frequency cross mutual information (TFCMI) method to estimate the EEG functional connectivity between cortical regions, and the network analysis based on graph theory to investigate the organization of functional networks in aMCI. Our finding suggested that higher integrated functional network with sufficient connection strengths, dense connection between local regions, and high network efficiency in processing information at the initial stage may result in a better prognosis of the subsequent cognitive functions for aMCI. In conclusion, the functional connectivity can be a useful biomarker to assist in prediction of cognitive declines in aMCI.

Keywords: cognitive decline, functional connectivity, MCI, MMSE

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2540 Detection of Chaos in General Parametric Model of Infectious Disease

Authors: Javad Khaligh, Aghileh Heydari, Ali Akbar Heydari


Mathematical epidemiological models for the spread of disease through a population are used to predict the prevalence of a disease or to study the impacts of treatment or prevention measures. Initial conditions for these models are measured from statistical data collected from a population since these initial conditions can never be exact, the presence of chaos in mathematical models has serious implications for the accuracy of the models as well as how epidemiologists interpret their findings. This paper confirms the chaotic behavior of a model for dengue fever and SI by investigating sensitive dependence, bifurcation, and 0-1 test under a variety of initial conditions.

Keywords: epidemiological models, SEIR disease model, bifurcation, chaotic behavior, 0-1 test

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2539 The Pedagogical Integration of Digital Technologies in Initial Teacher Training

Authors: Vânia Graça, Paula Quadros-Flores, Altina Ramos


The use of Digital Technologies in teaching and learning processes is currently a reality, namely in initial teacher training. This study aims at knowing the digital reality of students in initial teacher training in order to improve training in the educational use of ICT and to promote digital technology integration strategies in an educational context. It is part of the IFITIC Project "Innovate with ICT in Initial Teacher Training to Promote Methodological Renewal in Pre-school Education and in the 1st and 2nd Basic Education Cycle" which involves the School of Education, Polytechnic of Porto and Institute of Education, University of Minho. The Project aims at rethinking educational practice with ICT in the initial training of future teachers in order to promote methodological innovation in Pre-school Education and in the 1st and 2nd Cycles of Basic Education. A qualitative methodology was used, in which a questionnaire survey was applied to teachers in initial training. For data analysis, the techniques of content analysis with the support of NVivo software were used. The results point to the following aspects: a) future teachers recognize that they have more technical knowledge about ICT than pedagogical knowledge. This result makes sense if we consider the objective of Basic Education, so that the gaps can be filled in the Master's Course by students who wish to follow the teaching; b) the respondents are aware that the integration of digital resources contributes positively to students' learning and to the life of children and young people, which also promotes preparation in life; c) to be a teacher in the digital age there is a need for the development of digital literacy, lifelong learning and the adoption of new ways of teaching how to learn. Thus, this study aims to contribute to a reflection on the teaching profession in the digital age.

Keywords: digital technologies, initial teacher training, pedagogical use of ICT, skills

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2538 Effect on Tolerability and Adverse Events in Participants Receiving Naltrexone/Bupropion and Antidepressant Medication, Including SSRIs, in a Large Randomized Double-Blind Study

Authors: Kye Gilder, Kevin Shan, Amy Halseth, Steve Smith


This study assessed the effect of prolonged-release naltrexone 32 mg/bupropion 360 mg (NB) on cardiovascular (CV) events in overweight/obese participants at elevated CV risk. Participants must lose ≥2% body weight at 16 wks, without a sustained increase in blood pressure, to continue drug. Only serious adverse events (SAE) and adverse events leading to discontinuation of study drug (AELDSD) were collected. The study was terminated early after second interim analysis with 50% of all CV events. Data on CV endpoints has been published. Current analyses focused on AEs in participants on antidepressants at baseline, as these individuals were excluded from Phase 3 trials. Intent-to-treat (ITT) population (placebo [PBO] N=4450, NB N=4455) was 54.5% female, 83.5% white, mean age of 61 yrs, mean BMI 37.3 kg/m2, 22.8% with a history of depression, 23.1% on antidepressants, including 15.4% on an SSRI. SAEs in participants receiving antidepressants was similar between NB (10.7%) and PBO (9.9%) and also similar to overall population (9.5% NB, 8.1% PBO). SAEs in those on SSRIs were similar, 10.1% NB and PBO 9.4%. For those on SSRIs or other antidepressants, AELDSDs were similar to overall population and were primarily GI disorders. Obesity increases the risk of developing depression. For participants taking NB and antidepressants, including SSRIs, there is a similar AE profile as the overall population and data revealed no evidence of an additional health risk with combined use.

Keywords: antidepressant, Contrave, Mysimba, obesity, pharmacotherapy

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2537 Effects of Paroxetine on Biochemical Parameters and Reproductive Function in Male Rats

Authors: Rachid Mosbah, Aziez Chettoum, Zouhir Djerrou, Alberto Mantovani


Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are a class of molecules used in treating depression, anxiety, and mood disorders. Paroxetine (PRT) is one of the mostly prescribed antidepressant which has attracted great attention regarding its side effects in recent years. This study was planned to assess the adverse effects of PRT on the biochemical parameters and reproductive system. Fourteen male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into two groups (7 rats or each): control and treated with PRT at dose of 5mg/ for two weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood was collected from retro orbital plexus for measuring the biochemical parameters, whereas the reproductive organs were removed for measuring semen quality and the histological investigations. Results showed that PRT induced significant changes in some biochemical parameters and alteration of semen quality including sperm count, spermatids number and sperm viability, motility, and abnormalities. The histopathological examinations of testis and epididymis revealed an alteration of spermatogenesis, cellular disorganization and vacuolization, enlargement of interstitial space, shrinkage and degenerative changes in the epithelium of seminiferous and epididymal tubules with few to nil numbers of spermatozoa in their lumen. In conclusion, PRT treatment caused changes in some biochemical parameters and sperm profile as well as histopathologic effects of reproductive organs.

Keywords: antidepressant, biochemical parameters, reproductive function, paroxetine

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2536 (Anti)Depressant Effects of Non-Steroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs in Mice

Authors: Horia Păunescu


Purpose: The study aimed to assess the depressant or antidepressant effects of several Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) in mice: the selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor meloxicam, and the non-selective COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors lornoxicam, sodium metamizole, and ketorolac. The current literature data regarding such effects of these agents are scarce. Materials and methods: The study was carried out on NMRI mice weighing 20-35 g, kept in a standard laboratory environment. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Medicine and Pharmacy „Carol Davila”, Bucharest. The study agents were injected intraperitoneally, 10 mL/kg body weight (bw) 1 hour before the assessment of the locomotor activity by cage testing (n=10 mice/ group) and 2 hours before the forced swimming tests (n=15). The study agents were dissolved in normal saline (meloxicam, sodium metamizole), ethanol 11.8% v/v in normal saline (ketorolac), or water (lornoxicam), respectively. Negative and positive control agents were also given (amitryptilline in the forced swimming test). The cage floor used in the locomotor activity assessment was divided into 20 equal 10 cm squares. The forced swimming test involved partial immersion of the mice in cylinders (15/9cm height/diameter) filled with water (10 cm depth at 28C), where they were left for 6 minutes. The cage endpoint used in the locomotor activity assessment was the number of treaded squares. Four endpoints were used in the forced swimming test (immobility latency for the entire 6 minutes, and immobility, swimming, and climbing scores for the final 4 minutes of the swimming session), recorded by an observer that was "blinded" to the experimental design. The statistical analysis used the Levene test for variance homogeneity, ANOVA and post-hoc analysis as appropriate, Tukey or Tamhane tests.Results: No statistically significant increase or decrease in the number of treaded squares was seen in the locomotor activity assessment of any mice group. In the forced swimming test, amitryptilline showed an antidepressant effect in each experiment, at the 10 mg/kg bw dosage. Sodium metamizole was depressant at 100 mg/kg bw (increased the immobility score, p=0.049, Tamhane test), but not in lower dosages as well (25 and 50 mg/kg bw). Ketorolac showed an antidepressant effect at the intermediate dosage of 5 mg/kg bw, but not so in the dosages of 2.5 and 10 mg/kg bw, respectively (increased the swimming score, p=0.012, Tamhane test). Meloxicam and lornoxicam did not alter the forced swimming endpoints at any dosage level. Discussion: 1) Certain NSAIDs caused changes in the forced swimming patterns without interfering with locomotion. 2) Sodium metamizole showed a depressant effect, whereas ketorolac proved antidepressant. Conclusion: NSAID-induced mood changes are not class effects of these agents and apparently are independent of the type of inhibited cyclooxygenase (COX-1 or COX-2). Disclosure: This paper was co-financed from the European Social Fund, through the Sectorial Operational Programme Human Resources Development 2007-2013, project number POSDRU /159 /1.5 /S /138907 "Excellence in scientific interdisciplinary research, doctoral and postdoctoral, in the economic, social and medical fields -EXCELIS", coordinator The Bucharest University of Economic Studies.

Keywords: antidepressant, depressant, forced swim, NSAIDs

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2535 Maximum Initial Input Allowed to Iterative Learning Control Set-up Using Singular Values

Authors: Naser Alajmi, Ali Alobaidly, Mubarak Alhajri, Salem Salamah, Muhammad Alsubaie


Iterative Learning Control (ILC) known to be a controlling tool to overcome periodic disturbances for repetitive systems. This technique is required to let the error signal tends to zero as the number of operation increases. The learning process that lies within this context is strongly dependent on the initial input which if selected properly tends to let the learning process be more effective compared to the case where a system starts from blind. ILC uses previous recorded execution data to update the following execution/trial input such that a reference trajectory is followed to a high accuracy. Error convergence in ILC is generally highly dependent on the input applied to a plant for trial $1$, thus a good choice of initial starting input signal would make learning faster and as a consequence the error tends to zero faster as well. In the work presented within, an upper limit based on the Singular Values Principle (SV) is derived for the initial input signal applied at trial $1$ such that the system follow the reference in less number of trials without responding aggressively or exceeding the working envelope where a system is required to move within in a robot arm, for example. Simulation results presented illustrate the theory introduced within this paper.

Keywords: initial input, iterative learning control, maximum input, singular values

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2534 Formulation and In vivo Evaluation of Venlafaxine Hydrochloride Long Acting Tablet

Authors: Abdulwahhab Khedr, Tamer Shehata, Hanaa El-Ghamry


Venlafaxine HCl is a novel antidepressant drug used in the treatment of major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder and panic disorder. Conventional therapeutic regimens with venlafaxine HCl immediate-release dosage forms require frequent dosing due to short elimination half-life of the drug and reduced bioavailability. Hence, this study was carried out to develop sustained-release dosage forms of venlafaxine HCl to reduce its dosing frequency, to improve patient compliance and to reduce side effects of the drug. The polymers used were hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, xanthan gum, sodium alginate, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, Carbopol 940 and ethyl cellulose. The physical properties of the prepared tablets including tablet thickness, diameter, weight uniformity, content uniformity, hardness and friability were evaluated. Also, the in-vitro release of venlafaxine HCl from different matrix tablets was studied. Based on physical characters and in-vitro release profiles, certain formulae showing promising sustained-release profiles were subjected to film coating with 15% w/v EC in dichloromethane/ethanol mixture (1:1 ratio) using 1% w/v HPMC as pore former and 30% w/w dibutyl phthalate as plasticizer. The optimized formulations were investigated for drug-excipient compatibility using FTIR and DSC studies. Physical evaluation of the prepared tablets fulfilled the pharmacopoeial requirements for tablet friability test, where the weight loss of the prepared formulae did not exceed 1% of the weight of the tested tablets. Moderate release was obtained from tablets containing HPMC. FTIR and DSC studies for such formulae revealed the absence of any type of chemical interaction between venlafaxine HCl and the used polymers or excipients. Forced swimming test in rats was used to evaluate the antidepressant activity of the selected matrix tablets of venlafaxine HCl. Results showed that formulations significantly decreased the duration of animals’ immobility during the 24 hr-period of the test compared to non-treated group.

Keywords: antidepressant, sustained-release, matrix tablet, venlafaxine hydrochloride

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2533 The Effect of Initial Sample Size and Increment in Simulation Samples on a Sequential Selection Approach

Authors: Mohammad H. Almomani


In this paper, we argue the effect of the initial sample size, and the increment in simulation samples on the performance of a sequential approach that used in selecting the top m designs when the number of alternative designs is very large. The sequential approach consists of two stages. In the first stage the ordinal optimization is used to select a subset that overlaps with the set of actual best k% designs with high probability. Then in the second stage the optimal computing budget is used to select the top m designs from the selected subset. We apply the selection approach on a generic example under some parameter settings, with a different choice of initial sample size and the increment in simulation samples, to explore the impacts on the performance of this approach. The results show that the choice of initial sample size and the increment in simulation samples does affect the performance of a selection approach.

Keywords: Large Scale Problems, Optimal Computing Budget Allocation, ordinal optimization, simulation optimization

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2532 Geometrically Nonlinear Analysis of Initially Stressed Hybrid Laminated Composite Structures

Authors: Moumita Sit, Chaitali Ray


The present article deals with the free vibration analysis of hybrid laminated composite structures with initial stresses developed in the laminates. Generally initial stresses may be developed in the laminates by temperature and moisture effect. In this study, an eight noded isoparametric plate bending element has been used for the finite element analysis of composite plates. A numerical model has been developed to assess the geometric nonlinear response of composite plates based on higher order shear deformation theory (HSDT) considering the Green–Lagrange type nonlinearity. A computer code based on finite element method (FEM) has also been developed in MATLAB to perform the numerical calculations. To validate the accuracy of the proposed numerical model, the results obtained from the present study are compared with those available in published literature. Effects of the side to thickness ratio, different boundary conditions and initial stresses on the natural frequency of composite plates have been studied. The free vibration analysis of a hollow stiffened hybrid laminated panel has also been carried out considering initial stresses and presented as case study.

Keywords: geometric nonlinearity, higher order shear deformation theory (HSDT), hybrid composite laminate, the initial stress

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