Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 230

Search results for: inferior tilt

230 The Effects of Inferior Tilt Fixation on a Glenoid Components in Reverse Shoulder-Arthroplasty

Authors: Soo Min Kim, Soo-Won Chae, Soung-Yon Kim, Haea Lee, Ju Yong Kang, Juneyong Lee, Seung-Ho Han

Abstract:

Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) has become an effective treatment option for cuff tear arthropathy and massive, irreparable rotator cuff tears and indications for its use are expanding. Numerous methods for optimal fixation of the glenoid component have been suggested, such as inferior overhang, inferior tilt, to maximize initial fixation and prevent glenoid component loosening. The inferior tilt fixation of a glenoid component has been suggested, which is expected to decrease scapular notching and to improve the stability of a glenoid component fixation in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Inferior tilt fixation of the glenoid component has been suggested, which can improve stability and, because it provides the most uniform compressive forces and imparts the least amount of tensile forces and micromotion, reduce the likelihood of mechanical failure. Another study reported that glenoid component inferior tilt improved impingement-free range of motion as well as minimized the scapular notching. Several authors have shown that inferior tilt of a glenoid component reduces scapular notching. However, controversy still exists regarding its importance in the literature. In this study the influence of inferior tilt fixation on the primary stability of a glenoid component has been investigated. Finite element models were constructed from cadaveric scapulae and glenoid components were implanted with neutral and 10° inferior tilts. Most previous biomechanical studies regarding the effect of glenoid component inferior tilt used a solid rigid polyurethane foam or sawbones block, not cadaveric scapulae, to evaluate the stability of the RTSA. Relative micromotions at the bone-glenoid component interface, and the distribution of bone stresses under the glenoid component and around the screws were analyzed and compared between neutral and 10° inferior tilt groups. Contact area between bone and screws and cut surface area of the cancellous bone exposed after reaming of the glenoid have also been investigated because of the fact that cancellous and cortical bone thickness vary depending on the resection level of the inferior glenoid bone. The greater relative micromotion of the bone-glenoid component interface occurred in the 10° inferior tilt group than in the neutral tilt group, especially at the inferior area of the bone-glenoid component interface. Bone stresses under the glenoid component and around the screws were also higher in the 10° inferior tilt group than in the neutral tilt group, especially at the inferior third of the glenoid bone surface under the glenoid component and inferior scapula. Thus inferior tilt fixation of the glenoid component may adversely affect the primary stability and longevity of the reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.

Keywords: finite element analysis, glenoid component, inferior tilt, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
229 Performance Improvement of Photovoltaic Module at Different Tilt Angle in Kuwait

Authors: Hussain Bunyan, Wesam Ali

Abstract:

In this paper we will study the performance of a Silicon Photovoltaic (PV) system with different tilt angle arrangement in Kuwait (latitude 30˚ N). In this study the PV system is installed facing south, collecting maximum solar radiation at noon, and their angles are from 00 to 900 respectively, during full year at the Solstice and Equinox periods and aiming for a higher angle than 300 with competitive output power. The results show that the performance and the output power of the PV system with 50˚ tilt angle, is equivalent to the latitude tilt angle (30˚) during a full year.

Keywords: photovoltaic model, tilt angle, solar collector, PV system performance, State of Kuwait

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
228 Performance of Photovoltaic Module at Different Tilt Angles

Authors: Hussain Bunyan, Wesam Ali

Abstract:

In this paper we will study the performance of a Silicon Photovoltaic (PV) system with different tilt angle arrangement in Kuwait (latitude 30˚ N). In the study the PV system is installed facing South, collecting maximum solar radiation at noon, and their angles are from 00 to 900 respectively, during full year at the Solstice and Equinox periods, aiming for a higher angle than 300 with competitive output power. The results show that the performance and the output power of the PV system with 50˚ tilt angle, is equivalent to the latitude tilt angle (30˚) during a full year.

Keywords: photovoltaic model, tilt angle, solar collector, PV system performance, State of Kuwait

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
227 Development of MEMS Based 3-Axis Accelerometer for Hand Movement Monitoring

Authors: Zohra Aziz Ali Manjiyani, Renju Thomas Jacob, Keerthan Kumar

Abstract:

This project develops a hand movement monitoring system, which feeds the data into the computer and gives the 3D image rotation according to the direction of the tilt and hence monitoring the movement of the hand in context to its tilt. Advancement of MEMS Technology has enabled us to get very small and low-cost accelerometer ICs which is based on capacitive principle. Accelerometer based Tilt sensor ADXL335 is used in this paper, based on MEMS technology and the project emphasis on the development of the MEMS-based accelerometer to measure the tilt, interfacing the hardware with the LabVIEW and showing the 3D rotation to the user, which is in his understandable form and tilt data can be saved in the computer. It provides an experience of working on emerging technologies like MEMS and design software like LabVIEW.

Keywords: MEMS accelerometer, tilt sensor ADXL335, LabVIEW simulation, 3D animation

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
226 Structure of Grain Boundaries in α-Zirconium and Niobium

Authors: Divya Singh, Avinash Parashar

Abstract:

Due to superior mechanical, creep and nuclear cross section, zirconium and niobium (Zr-Nb) based alloys are commonly used as nuclear materials for the manufacturing of fuel cladding and pressure tubes in nuclear power plants. In this work, symmetrical tilt grain boundary (STGB) structures in α-Zr are studied for their structure and energies along two tilt axes- [0001] and [0-110] using MD based simulations. Tilt grain boundaries are obtained along [0001] tilt axis, and special twin structures are obtained along [0-110] tilt axis in α-Zr. For Nb, STGBs are constructed along [100] and [110] axis using atomistic simulations. The correlation between GB structures and their energies is subsequently examined. A close relationship is found to exist between individual GB structure and its energy in both α-Zr and Nb. It is also concluded that the energies of the more coherent twin grain boundaries are lower than the symmetrical tilt grain boundaries.

Keywords: grain boundaries, molecular dynamics, grain boundary energy, hcp crystal

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
225 Optimization of Tilt Angle for Solar Collectors: A Case Study for Bursa, Turkey

Authors: N. Arslanoglu

Abstract:

This paper deals with the optimum tilt angle for the solar collector in order to collect the maximum solar radiation. The optimum angle for tilted surfaces varying from 0 to 90 in steps of 1was computed. In present study, a theoretical model is used to predict the global solar radiation on a tilted surface and to obtain the optimum tilt angle for a solar collector in Bursa, Turkey. Global solar energy radiation on the solar collector surface with an optimum tilt angle is calculated for specific periods. It is determined that the optimum slope angle varies between 0 (June) and 59 (December) throughout the year. In winter (December, January, and February) the tilt should be 55, in spring (March, April, and May) 19.6, in summer (June, July, and August) 5.6, and in autumn (September, October, and November) 44.3. The yearly average of this value was obtained to be 31.1 and this would be the optimum fixed slope throughout the year.

Keywords: Bursa, global solar radiation, optimum tilt angle, tilted surface

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
224 Prosody Generation in Neutral Speech Storytelling Application Using Tilt Model

Authors: Manjare Chandraprabha A., S. D. Shirbahadurkar, Manjare Anil S., Paithne Ajay N.

Abstract:

This paper proposes Intonation Modeling for Prosody generation in Neutral speech for Marathi (language spoken in Maharashtra, India) story telling applications. Nowadays audio story telling devices are very eminent for children. In this paper, we proposed tilt model for stressed words in Marathi for speech modification. Tilt model predicts modification in tone of neutral speech. GMM is used to identify stressed words for modification.

Keywords: tilt model, fundamental frequency, statistical parametric speech synthesis, GMM

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
223 The Variation of the Inferior Gluteal Artery Origin

Authors: Waseem Al Talalwah, Shorok Al Dorazi, Roger Soames

Abstract:

The inferior gluteal artery is a prominent branch of the anterior trunk of internal iliac artery. It escapes from the pelvic cavity through the greater sciatic foramen below the lower edge of piriformis. In gluteal region, it provides several muscular branches to gluteal maximus and articular branch to hip joint. Further, it provides sciatic branch to sciatic nerve. Current study investigates the origin of the inferior gluteal artery of 41 cadavers in Centre for Anatomy and Human Identification, University of Dundee, UK. It arose from the anterior trunk in 37.5% independently and 45.7% dependently as with the internal pudendal artery. Therefore, it arose from the anterior trunk in 83.2%. However, it found to be as a branch of the posterior trunk of internal iliac artery in 7.7% which is either a direct branch in 6.2% as or indirect branch in 1.5%. Beside the inferior gluteal artery arose with internal pudendal artery as from GPT of anterior division in 45.7%, it arose from the GPT arising from the internal iliac artery bifurcation site in 1.5%. Further, the inferior gluteal artery arose from the trunk with internal pudendal and obturator arteries in 1.5% referred as obturatogluteopudendal trunk. Occasionally, it arose from the sciatic artery in 1.5%. In few cases, the inferior gluteal artery found to be congenital absence in 4.6% which is compensated by the persistent sciatic artery. Therefore, radiologists have to aware of the origin variability of the inferior gluteal artery to alert surgeons. Knowing the origin of the inferior gluteal artery may help the surgeons to avoid iatrogenic sciatic neuropathy in pelvic procedures such as removing prostate or of uterine fibroid. Further, it may also prevent avascular necrosis of femur neck as well as gluteal claudication.

Keywords: inferior gluteal artery, internal iliac artery, sciatic neuropathy, gluteal claudication

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
222 Design of a Cooperative Neural Network, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Fuzzy Based Tracking Control for a Tilt Rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Mostafa Mjahed

Abstract:

Tilt Rotor UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) are naturally unstable and difficult to maneuver. The purpose of this paper is to design controllers for the stabilization and trajectory tracking of this type of UAV. To this end, artificial intelligence methods have been exploited. First, the dynamics of this UAV was modeled using the Lagrange-Euler method. The conventional method based on Proportional, Integral and Derivative (PID) control was applied by decoupling the different flight modes. To improve stability and trajectory tracking of the Tilt Rotor, the fuzzy approach and the technique of multilayer neural networks (NN) has been used. Thus, Fuzzy Proportional Integral and Derivative (FPID) and Neural Network-based Proportional Integral and Derivative controllers (NNPID) have been developed. The meta-heuristic approach based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method allowed adjusting the setting parameters of NNPID controller, giving us an improved NNPID-PSO controller. Simulation results under the Matlab environment show the efficiency of the approaches adopted. Besides, the Tilt Rotor UAV has become stable and follows different types of trajectories with acceptable precision. The Fuzzy, NN and NN-PSO-based approaches demonstrated their robustness because the presence of the disturbances did not alter the stability or the trajectory tracking of the Tilt Rotor UAV.

Keywords: neural network, fuzzy logic, PSO, PID, trajectory tracking, tilt-rotor UAV

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
221 The Variation of the Inferior Gluteal Artery Origin in United Kingdom Population

Authors: Waseem Al Talalwah, Shorok Ali Al Dorazi, Roger Soames

Abstract:

The inferior gluteal artery is a largest branch of the anterior division of internal iliac artery. It escapes from the pelvic cavity through the greater sciatic foramen below the lower edge of piriformis. In gluteal region, it provides several muscular branches to gluteal maximus and articular branch to hip joint. Further, it provides sciatic branch to sciatic nerve. Present study explores the origin of the inferior gluteal artery of 41 cadavers in Centre for Anatomy and Human Identification, University of Dundee, UK. It arose directly from the anterior division of internal iliac artery in 39% and 45.7% indirectly as with the internal pudendal artery. Further, it arose indirectly from anterior division with internal pudendal and obturator arteries in 1.5% referred as obturatogluteopudendal trunk in 1.5%. Therefore, it arose from the anterior division of the internal iliac artery in 86.2%. However, it found to be as a branch of the posterior division of internal iliac artery in 7.7% which is either a direct branch in 6.2% as or indirect branch (as from the sciatic artery) in 1.5%. It neither arose from anterior or posterior division in 1.5% as from gluteopudendal trunk arising from the internal iliac artery bifurcation site. In few cases, the inferior gluteal artery found to be congenital absence in 4.6% which is compensated by the persistent sciatic artery. Therefore, radiologists have to aware of the origin variability of the inferior gluteal artery to alert surgeons. Knowing the origin of the inferior gluteal artery may help the surgeons to avoid iatrogenic sciatic neuropathy or gluteal claudication due to prolonged ligation in pelvic procedures such as removing prostate or of uterine fibroid.

Keywords: inferior gluteal artery, internal pudendal, sciatic nerve, sciatic artery, gluteal claudication, sciatic neuopathy

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
220 Development of a Tilt-Rotor Aircraft Model Using System Identification Technique

Authors: Antonio Vitale, Nicola Genito, Giovanni Cuciniello, Ferdinando Montemari

Abstract:

The introduction of tilt-rotor aircraft into the existing civilian air transportation system will provide beneficial effects due to tilt-rotor capability to combine the characteristics of a helicopter and a fixed-wing aircraft into one vehicle. The disposability of reliable tilt-rotor simulation models supports the development of such vehicle. Indeed, simulation models are required to design automatic control systems that increase safety, reduce pilot's workload and stress, and ensure the optimal aircraft configuration with respect to flight envelope limits, especially during the most critical flight phases such as conversion from helicopter to aircraft mode and vice versa. This article presents a process to build a simplified tilt-rotor simulation model, derived from the analysis of flight data. The model aims to reproduce the complex dynamics of tilt-rotor during the in-flight conversion phase. It uses a set of scheduled linear transfer functions to relate the autopilot reference inputs to the most relevant rigid body state variables. The model also computes information about the rotor flapping dynamics, which are useful to evaluate the aircraft control margin in terms of rotor collective and cyclic commands. The rotor flapping model is derived through a mixed theoretical-empirical approach, which includes physical analytical equations (applicable to helicopter configuration) and parametric corrective functions. The latter are introduced to best fit the actual rotor behavior and balance the differences existing between helicopter and tilt-rotor during flight. Time-domain system identification from flight data is exploited to optimize the model structure and to estimate the model parameters. The presented model-building process was applied to simulated flight data of the ERICA Tilt-Rotor, generated by using a high fidelity simulation model implemented in FlightLab environment. The validation of the obtained model was very satisfying, confirming the validity of the proposed approach.

Keywords: flapping dynamics, flight dynamics, system identification, tilt-rotor modeling and simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
219 Influence of Single Source Irradiation on the Homogeneous Alignment of Liquid Crystals Molecules on Glass Substrates

Authors: Sarah Akhtar, Rizwan Mahmood

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A detailed study of homogeneous alignment of liquid crystal molecules on a glass substrate will be presented. Thin films of polyimide were coated on several glass substrates. Various methods were employed to prepare coated surfaces to achieve desired alignment; these include traditionally rubbing the surface with a felt cloth then exposing them perpendicular to the easy axis with incandescent light (IL), linearly polarized ultraviolet (LPUVR) and un-polarized ultraviolet (UPUVR) radiation. The quality of the alignment was tested by measuring the tilt angle in the temperature range between 30°C to 55°C. Regression analysis of the data using ‘SigmaPlot’ suggests a gradual increase in tilt angle (1.1°-1.8°) for the rubbed, 0.6° to 3.6° increase for the rubbed plus IL radiated and 1.6° to 4.6° for the rubbed plus UPUVL radiated samples, respectively. However to our surprise, we found tilt angle to be decreasing from 2.4° to 1.6° for the rubbed plus LPUVL radiated samples. We hope that these findings will be helpful in the fabrication of display panels and other electro-optic devices.

Keywords: homogeneous, liquid crystals, polyimide, tilt angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
218 The Effects of Separating Inferior Alveolar Neurovascular Bundles on Osteogenesis of Tissue-Engineered Bone and Vascularization

Authors: Lin Feng, E. Lingling, Hongchen Liu

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In order to evaluate the effects of autologous blood vessels and nerves on vascularization. A dog model of tissue-engineered bone vascularization was established by constructing inferior alveolar neurovascular bundles through the mandibular canal. Sixteen 12-month-old healthy beagles were randomly divided into two groups (n=8). Group A retained inferior alveolar neurovascular bundles, and Group B retained inferior alveolar nerves. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were injected into β-tricalcium phosphate to prepare internal tissue-engineered bone scaffold. A personalized titanium mesh was then prepared by rapid prototyping and fixed by external titanium scaffold. Two dogs in each group were sacrificed on the 30th, 45th, 60th, and 90th postoperative days respectively. The bone was visually examined, scanned by CT, and subjected to HE staining, immunohistochemical staining, vascular casting and PCR to detect the changes in osteogenesis and vascularization.The two groups had similar outcomes in regard to osteogenesis and vascularization (P>0.05) both showed remarkable regenerative capacities. The model of tissue-engineered bone vascularization is potentially applicable in clinical practice to allow satisfactory osteogenesis and vascularization.

Keywords: inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle, osteogenesis, tissue-engineered bone, vascularization

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
217 Morphological Anatomical Study of the Axis Vertebra and Its Clinical Orientation

Authors: Mangala M. Pai, B. V. Murlimanju, Latha V. Prabhu, P. J. Jiji , Vandana Blossom

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Background:To study the morphological parameters of the axis vertebra in anatomical specimens. Methods: The present study was designed to obtain the morphometric data of axis vertebra. The superior and inferior articular facets of the axis were macroscopically observed for their shapes and the different parameters were measured using the digital Vernier caliper. It included 20 dried axis bones, which were obtained from the anatomy laboratory. Results: The morphometric data obtained in the present study are represented in the tables. The side wise comparison of the length and width of the articular facets of the axis vertebra were done. The present study observed that, there is no statistically significant difference observed among the parameters of right and left side articular facets (p>0.05). The superior and inferior articular facets were observed to have variable shapes. The frequencies of different shapes of superior and inferior articular facets are represented in figures. All the shapes of the inferior and superior articular facets were symmetrical over the right and left sides. Among the superior articular facets, the constrictions were absent in 13 cases (65%), 2 (10%) exhibited a single constriction, 3 (15%) had 2 constrictions and 2 (10%) were having 3 constrictions. The constrictions were absent in 11 (55%) of the inferior articular facets, 3 (15%) of them had 1 constriction, 3 (15%) were having 2 constrictions, 2 (10%) exhibited 3 constrictions and 1 (5%) of them had 4 constrictions. The constrictions of the inferior and superior articular facets were symmetrical over the right and left sides. Conclusion: We believe that the present study has provided additional information on the morphometric data of the axis vertebra. The data are important to the neurosurgeons, orthopedic surgeons and radiologists. The preoperative assessment of the axis vertebra may prevent dangerous complications like spinal cord and nerve root compression during the surgical intervention.

Keywords: axis, articular facet, morphology, morphometry

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
216 A Comparative Study on a Tilt-Integral-Derivative Controller with Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller for a Pacemaker

Authors: Aysan Esgandanian, Sabalan Daneshvar

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The study is done to determine the comparison between proportional-integral-derivative controller (PID controller) and tilt-integral-derivative (TID controller) for cardiac pacemaker systems, which can automatically control the heart rate to accurately track a desired preset profile. The controller offers good adaption of heart to the physiological needs of the patient. The parameters of the both controllers are tuned by particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm which uses the integral of time square error as a fitness function to be minimized. Simulation results are performed on the developed cardiovascular system of humans and results demonstrate that the TID controller produces superior control performance than PID controllers. In this paper, all simulations were performed in Matlab.

Keywords: integral of time square error, pacemaker systems, proportional-integral-derivative controller, PSO algorithm, tilt-integral-derivative controller

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
215 Analysing Maximum Power Point Tracking in a Stand Alone Photovoltaic System

Authors: Osamede Asowata

Abstract:

Optimized gain in respect to output power of stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems is one of the major focus of PV in recent times. This is evident in its low carbon emission and efficiency. Power failure or outage from commercial providers, in general, does not promote development to public and private sector; these basically limit the development of industries. The need for a well-structured PV system is of importance for an efficient and cost effective monitoring system. The purpose of this paper is to validate the maximum power point of an off-grid PV system taking into consideration the most effective tilt and orientation angles for PV's in the southern hemisphere. This paper is based on analyzing the system using a solar charger with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) from a pulse width modulation (PWM) perspective. The power conditioning device chosen is a solar charger with MPPT. The practical setup consists of a PV panel that is set to an orientation angle of 0°N, with a corresponding tilt angle of 36°, 26°, and 16°. Preliminary results include regression analysis (normal probability plot) showing the maximum power point in the system as well the best tilt angle for maximum power point tracking.

Keywords: poly-crystalline PV panels, solar chargers, tilt and orientation angles, maximum power point tracking, MPPT, Pulse Width Modulation (PWM).

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
214 Yacht DB Construction Based on Five Essentials of Sailing

Authors: Jae-Neung Lee, Myung-Won Lee, Jung-Su Han, Keun-Chang Kwak

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The paper established DB on the basis of five sailing essentials in the real yachting environment. It obtained the yacht condition (tilt, speed and course), surrounding circumstances (wind direction and speed) and user motion. Gopro camera for image processing was used to recognize the user motion and tilt sensor was employed to see the yacht balance. In addition, GPS for course, wind speed and direction sensor and marked suit were employed.

Keywords: DB consturuction, yacht, five essentials of sailing, marker, Gps

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
213 Long Standing Orbital Floor Fracture Repair: Case Report

Authors: Hisham A. Hashem, Sameh Galal, Bassem M. Moeshed

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A 36 years old male patient presented to our unit with a history of motor-car accident from 7 months complaining of disfigurement and double vision. On examination and investigations, there was an orbital floor fracture in the left eye with inferior rectus muscle entrapment causing diplopia, dystopia and enophthalmos. Under general anesthesia, a sub-ciliary incision was performed, and the orbital floor fracture was repaired with a double layer Medpor sheet (30x50x15) with removing and freeing fibrosis that was present and freeing of the inferior rectus muscle. Remarkable improvement of the dystopia was noticed, however, there was a residual diplopia in upgaze and enophthalmos. He was then referred to a strabismologist, which upon examination found left hypotropia of 8 ΔD corrected by 8 ΔD base up prism and positive forced duction test on elevation and pseudoptosis. Under local anesthesia, a limbal incision approach with hangback 4mm recession of inferior rectus muscle was performed after identifying an inferior rectus muscle structure. Improvement was noted shortly postoperative with correction of both diplopia and pseudoptosis. Follow up after 1, 4 and 8 months was done showing a stable condition. Delayed surgery in cases of orbital floor fracture may still hold good results provided proper assessment of the case with management of each sign separately.

Keywords: diplopia, dystopia, late surgery, orbital floor fracture

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
212 Effect of Muscle Energy Technique on Anterior Pelvic Tilt in Lumbar Spondylosis Patients

Authors: Enas El Sayed Abutaleb, Mohamed Taher Eldesoky, Shahenda Abd El Rasol

Abstract:

Background: Muscle energy techniques (MET) have been widely used by manual therapists over the past years, but still limited research validated its use and there was limited evidence to substantiate the theories used to explain its effects. Objective: To investigate the effect of muscle energy technique (MET) on anterior pelvic tilt in patients with lumbar spondylosis. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Subjects: Thirty patients with anterior pelvic tilt from both sexes were involved, aged between 35 to 50 years old and they were divided into MET and control groups with 15 patients in each. Methods: All patients received 3 sessions/week for 4 weeks where the study group received MET, Ultrasound and Infrared, and the control group received U.S and I.R only. Pelvic angle was measured by palpation meter, pain severity by the visual analogue scale and functional disabilities by the Oswestry disability index. Results: Both groups showed significant improvement in all measured variables. The MET group was significantly better than the control group in pelvic angle, pain severity, and functional disability as p-value were (0.001, 0.0001, 0.0001) respectively. Conclusion and implication: The study group fulfilled greater improvement in all measured variables than the control group which implies that application of MET in combination with U.S and I.R were more effective in improving pelvic tilting angle, pain severity and functional disabilities than using electrotherapy only.

Keywords: anterior pelvic tilt, lumbar spondylosis, muscle energy technique exercise, pelvic tilting angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
211 Estimating the Power Influence of an Off-Grid Photovoltaic Panel on the Indicting Rate of a Storage System (Batteries)

Authors: Osamede Asowata

Abstract:

The current resurgence of interest in the use of renewable energy is driven by the need to reduce the high environmental impact of fossil-based energy. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of a stationary PV panel on the charging rate of deep-cycle valve regulated lead-acid (DCVRLA) batteries. Stationary PV panels are set to a fixed tilt and orientation angle, which plays a major role in dictating the output power of a PV panel and subsequently on the charging time of a DCVRLA battery. In a basic PV system, an energy storage device that stores the power from the PV panel is necessary due to the fluctuating nature of the PV voltage caused by climatic conditions. The charging and discharging times of a DCVRLA battery were determined for a twelve month period from January through December 2012. Preliminary results, which include regression analysis (R2), conversion-time per week and work-time per day, indicate that a 36 degrees tilt angle produces a good charging rate for a latitude of 26 degrees south throughout the year.

Keywords: tilt and orientation angles, solar chargers, PV panels, storage devices, direct solar radiation.

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
210 Comparison of Trunk and Hip Muscle Activities and Anterior Pelvic Tilt Angle during Three Different Bridging Exercises in Subjects with Chronic Low Back Pain

Authors: Da-Eun Kim, Heon-Seock Cynn, Sil-Ah Choi, A-Reum Shin

Abstract:

Bridging exercise in supine position with the hips and knees flexed have been commonly performed as one of the therapeutic exercises and is a comfortable and pain-free position to most individuals with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Many previous studies have investigated the beneficial way of performing bridging exercises to improve activation of abdominal and gluteal muscle and reduce muscle activity of hamstrings (HAM) and erector spinae (ES) and compensatory lumbopelvic motion. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of three different bridging exercises on the HAM, ES, gluteus maximus (Gmax), gluteus medius (Gmed), and transverse abdominis/internal abdominis oblique (TrA/IO) activities and anterior pelvic tilt angle in subjects with CLBP. Seventeen subjects with CLBP participated in this study. They performed bridging under three different conditions (with 30° hip abduction, isometric hip abduction, and isometric hip adduction). Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activity, and the ImageJ software was used to calculate anterior pelvic tilt angle. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to assess the statistical significance of the measured variables. HAM activity was significantly lower in bridging with 30° hip abduction and isometric hip abduction than in bridging with isometric hip adduction. Gmax and Gmed activities were significantly greater in bridging with isometric hip abduction than in bridging with 30° hip abduction and isometric hip adduction. TrA/IO muscle activity was significantly greater and anterior pelvic tilt angle was significantly lower in bridging with isometric hip adduction than in bridging with 30° hip abduction and isometric hip abduction. Bridging with isometric hip abduction using Thera-Band can effectively reduce HAM activity, and increase Gmax and Gmed activities in subjects with CLBP. Bridging with isometric hip adduction using a pressure biofeedback unit can be a beneficial exercise to improve TrA/IO activity and minimize anterior pelvic tilt in subjects with CLBP.

Keywords: bridging exercise, electromyography, low back pain, lower limb exercise

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
209 The Effect of Main Factors on Forces during FSJ Processing of AA2024 Aluminum

Authors: Dunwen Zuo, Yongfang Deng, Bo Song

Abstract:

An attempt is made here to measure the forces of three directions, under conditions of different feed speeds, different tilt angles of tool and without or with the pin on the tool, by using octagonal ring dynamometer in the AA2024 aluminum FSJ (Friction Stir Joining) process, and investigate how four main factors influence forces in the FSJ process. It is found that, high feed speed lead to small feed force and small lateral force, but high feed speed leads to large feed force in the stable joining stage of process. As the rotational speed increasing, the time of axial force drop from the maximum to the minimum required increased in the push-up process. In the stable joining stage, the rotational speed has little effect on the feed force; large rotational speed leads to small lateral force and axial force. The maximum axial force increases as the tilt angle of tool increases at the downward movement stage. At the moment of start feeding, as tilt angle of tool increases, the amplitudes of the axial force increasing become large. In the stable joining stage, with the increase of tilt angle of tool, the axial force is increased, the lateral force is decreased, and the feed force almost unchanged. The tool with pin will decrease axial force in the downward movement stage. The feed force and lateral force will increase, but the axial force will reduced in the stable joining stage by using the tool with pin compare to by using the tool without pin.

Keywords: FSJ, force factor, AA2024 aluminum, friction stir joining

Procedia PDF Downloads 409
208 Visibility of the Borders of the Mandibular Canal: A Comparative in Vitro Study Using Digital Panoramic Radiography, Reformatted Panoramic Radiography and Cross Sectional Cone Beam Computed Tomography

Authors: Keerthilatha Pai, Sakshi Kamra

Abstract:

Objectives: Determining the position of the mandibular canal prior to implant placement and surgeries of the posterior mandible are important to avoid the nerve injury. The visibility of the mandibular canal varies according to the imaging modality. Although panoramic radiography is the most common, slowly cone beam computed tomography is replacing it. This study was conducted with an aim to determine and compare the visibility of superior and inferior borders of the mandibular canal in digital panoramic radiograph, reformatted panoramic radiograph and cross-sectional images of cone beam computed tomography. Study design: digital panoramic, reformatted panoramic radiograph and cross sectional CBCT images of 25 human mandibles were evaluated for the visibility of the superior and inferior borders of the mandibular canal according to a 5 point scoring criteria. Also, the canal was evaluated as completely visible, partially visible and not visible. The mean scores and visibility percentage of all the imaging modalities were determined and compared. The interobserver and intraobserver agreement in the visualization of the superior and inferior borders of the mandibular canal were determined. Results: The superior and inferior borders of the mandibular canal were completely visible in 47% of the samples in digital panoramic, 63% in reformatted panoramic and 75.6% in CBCT cross-sectional images. The mandibular canal was invisible in 24% of samples in digital panoramic, 19% in reformatted panoramic and 2% in cross-sectional CBCT images. Maximum visibility was seen in Zone 5 and least visibility in Zone 1. On comparison of all the imaging modalities, CBCT cross-sectional images showed better visibility of superior border in Zones 2,3,4,6 and inferior border in Zones 2,3,4,6. The difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: CBCT cross-sectional images were much superior in the visualization of the mandibular canal in comparison to reformatted and digital panoramic radiographs. The inferior border was better visualized in comparison to the superior border in digital panoramic imaging. The mandibular canal was maximumly visible in posterior one-third region of the mandible and the visibility decreased towards the mental foramen.

Keywords: cone beam computed tomography, mandibular canal, reformatted panoramic radiograph, visualization

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
207 High-Tech Based Simulation and Analysis of Maximum Power Point in Energy System: A Case Study Using IT Based Software Involving Regression Analysis

Authors: Enemeri George Uweiyohowo

Abstract:

Improved achievement with respect to output control of photovoltaic (PV) systems is one of the major focus of PV in recent times. This is evident to its low carbon emission and efficiency. Power failure or outage from commercial providers, in general, does not promote development to public and private sector, these basically limit the development of industries. The need for a well-structured PV system is of importance for an efficient and cost-effective monitoring system. The purpose of this paper is to validate the maximum power point of an off-grid PV system taking into consideration the most effective tilt and orientation angles for PV's in the southern hemisphere. This paper is based on analyzing the system using a solar charger with MPPT from a pulse width modulation (PWM) perspective. The power conditioning device chosen is a solar charger with MPPT. The practical setup consists of a PV panel that is set to an orientation angle of 0∘N, with a corresponding tilt angle of 36∘, 26∘ and 16∘. Preliminary results include regression analysis (normal probability plot) showing the maximum power point in the system as well the best tilt angle for maximum power point tracking.

Keywords: poly-crystalline PV panels, information technology (IT), maximum power point tracking (MPPT), pulse width modulation (PWM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
206 Origin Variability of Superior Vesical Artery

Authors: Waseem Al-Talalwah

Abstract:

The superior vesical artery usually arises directly from the anterior division of the internal iliac artery. It may arise from the umbilical artery as three or four branches to supply the upper and middle parts of bladder. Current study focuses on the different origins of the superior vesical artery to provide a sufficient data for surgeons to disease iatrogenic fault. The superior vesical artery arises directly from the anterior division of the internal iliac artery in 24.5% whereas it arises indirectly as from umbilical artery in 83.7%. Further, it may arise from any branch of the anterior division as from the utrine and obturator arteries in 6.1% and in 6.3% respectively. It also shares the origin of the internal pudendal and inferior glutyeal artery as it arises from the gluteopudendal trunk in 4.1%. The superior vesical artery arises as a single, double, triple and quadruple in 69.4%, 20.4%, 8.2% and 2% respectively. In case of cystectomy for bladder cancer, surgeons have to be aware of the origin variability of superior vesical artery to prevent post-surgical complication such as intra-pelvic bleeding. Also, the as intra-pelvic bleeding has to be expected in case of hysterectomy therefore a great caution of the vesical branches arising from uterine artery has to be considered. In case of aneurysm resection of inferior gluteal artery arising from the gluteopudendal trunk, the surgeons have to be careful of the vascular supply of urinary bladder coming from above and below this common trunk as from superior and inferior vesical arteries respectively. Therefore, present study increases the awareness of clinical significance of superior vesical artery origin for surgeons to minimise the iatroginc errors.

Keywords: superior vesical artery, anterior division, internal iliac, internal pudendal, inferior glutyeal, intra-pelvic bleeding, hysterectomy, cystectomy

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
205 Influence of Bilateral and Unilateral Flatfoot on Pelvic Alignment

Authors: Mohamed Taher Eldesoky, Enas Elsayed Abutaleb

Abstract:

Background: The changes in foot posture possibly generate changes in the pelvic alignment, although, there is lack of evidence about the effects of bilateral and unilateral flatfoot on possible changes in pelvic alignment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of flatfoot on the sagittal and frontal planes of pelvic postures. Materials and Methods: 56 subjects, aged 18–40 years, were assigned into three groups. 20 healthy subjects, 19 subjects with bilateral flexible second-degree flat foot, and 17 subjects with unilateral flexible second-degree flat foot. 3D assessment of the pelvis using the formetric-II device was used to evaluate pelvic alignment in the frontal and sagittal planes by measuring pelvic inclination and pelvic tilt angles. Results: ANOVA test with LSD test were used for statistical analysis. Both Unilateral and bilateral second degree flatfoot produced significant (P < 0.05) pelvic anteversion in comparison to the healthy subjects (P < 0.05), but the bilateral flatfoot subjects seemed to have more anteversion than the unilateral subjects. Unilateral flatfoot caused a significant (P<0.05) lateral pelvic tilt in the direction of the affected side in comparison to the healthy and bilateral flatfoot subjects. Conclusion: The bilateral and unilateral second degree flatfoot changed pelvic alignment. Both of them led to increases of pelvic anteversion while the unilateral one caused lateral pelvic tilt toward the affected side. Thus, foot posture should be considered when assessing patients with pelvic misalignment and disorders.

Keywords: bilateral flatfoot, unilateral flatfoot, pelvic alignment, foot posture

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
204 Design Analysis of Tilting System for Spacecraft Transportation

Authors: P. Naresh, Amir Iqbal

Abstract:

Satellite transportation is inevitable step during the course of integration testing and launch. Large satellites are transported in horizontal mode due to constraints on commercially available cargo bay dimensions & on road obstacles. To facilitate transportation of bigger size spacecraft in horizontal mode a tilting system is released. This tilting system consists of tilt table, columns, hinge pin, angular contact bearings, slewing bearing and linear actuators. The tilting system is very compact and easy to use however it is also serves the purpose of a fixture so it is of immense interest to know the stress and fundamental frequency of the system in transportation configuration. This paper discusses design aspects and finite element analysis of tilting system-cum-fixture using Hypermesh/Nastran.

Keywords: tilt table, column, slewing bearing, stress, modal analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 458
203 Simulation of Maximum Power Point Tracking in a Photovoltaic System: A Circumstance Using Pulse Width Modulation Analysis

Authors: Asowata Osamede

Abstract:

Optimized gain in respect to output power of stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems is one of the major focus of PV in recent times. This is evident to its low carbon emission and efficiency. Power failure or outage from commercial providers in general does not promote development to the public and private sector, these basically limit the development of industries. The need for a well-structured PV system is of importance for an efficient and cost-effective monitoring system. The purpose of this paper is to validate the maximum power point of an off-grid PV system taking into consideration the most effective tilt and orientation angles for PV's in the southern hemisphere. This paper is based on analyzing the system using a solar charger with MPPT from a pulse width modulation (PWM) perspective. The power conditioning device chosen is a solar charger with MPPT. The practical setup consists of a PV panel that is set to an orientation angle of 0o north, with a corresponding tilt angle of 36 o, 26o and 16o. The load employed in this set-up are three Lead Acid Batteries (LAB). The percentage fully charged, charging and not charging conditions are observed for all three batteries. The results obtained in this research is used to draw the conclusion that would provide a benchmark for researchers and scientist worldwide. This is done so as to have an idea of the best tilt and orientation angles for maximum power point in a basic off-grid PV system. A quantitative analysis would be employed in this research. Quantitative research tends to focus on measurement and proof. Inferential statistics are frequently used to generalize what is found about the study sample to the population as a whole. This would involve: selecting and defining the research question, deciding on a study type, deciding on the data collection tools, selecting the sample and its size, analyzing, interpreting and validating findings Preliminary results which include regression analysis (normal probability plot and residual plot using polynomial 6) showed the maximum power point in the system. The best tilt angle for maximum power point tracking proves that the 36o tilt angle provided the best average on time which in turns put the system into a pulse width modulation stage.

Keywords: power-conversion, meteonorm, PV panels, DC-DC converters

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
202 Experimental Investigation of Heat Pipe with Annular Fins under Natural Convection at Different Inclinations

Authors: Gangacharyulu Dasaroju, Sumeet Sharma, Sanjay Singh

Abstract:

Heat pipe is characterised as superconductor of heat because of its excellent heat removal ability. The operation of several engineering system results in generation of heat. This may cause several overheating problems and lead to failure of the systems. To overcome this problem and to achieve desired rate of heat dissipation, there is need to study the performance of heat pipe with annular fins under free convection at different inclinations. This study demonstrates the effect of different mass flow rate of hot fluid into evaporator section on the condenser side heat transfer coefficient with annular fins under natural convection at different inclinations. In this study annular fins are used for the experimental work having dimensions of length of fin, thickness of fin and spacing of fin as 10 mm, 1 mm and 6 mm, respectively. The main aim of present study is to discover at what inclination angles the maximum heat transfer coefficient shall be achieved. The heat transfer coefficient on the external surface of heat pipe condenser section is determined by experimental method and then predicted by empirical correlations. The results obtained from experimental and Churchill and Chu relation for laminar are in fair agreement with not more than 22% deviation. It is elucidated the maximum heat transfer coefficient of 31.2 W/(m2-K) at 25˚ tilt angle and minimal condenser heat transfer coefficient of 26.4 W/(m2-K) is seen at 45˚ tilt angle and 200 ml/min mass flow rate. Inclination angle also affects the thermal performance of heat pipe. Beyond 25o inclination, heat transport rate starts to decrease.

Keywords: heat pipe, annular fins, natural convection, condenser heat transfer coefficient, tilt angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
201 Pragmatic Analysis of the Effectiveness of a Power Conditioning Device (DC-DC Converters) in a Simple Photovoltaics System

Authors: Asowata Osamede

Abstract:

Solar radiation provides the largest renewable energy potential on earth and photovoltaics (PV) are considered a promising technological solution to support the global transformation to a low-carbon economy and reduce dependence on fossil fuels. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of power conditioning devices with a focus on the Buck and Boost DC-DC converters (12 V, 24 V and 48 V) in a basic off grid PV system with a varying load profile. This would assist in harnessing more of the available solar energy. The practical setup consists of a PV panel that is set to an orientation angle of 0º N, with corresponding tilt angles. Preliminary results, which include data analysis showing the power loss in the system and efficiency, indicate that the 12V DC-DC converter coupled with the load profile had the highest efficiency for a latitude of 26º S throughout the year.

Keywords: poly-crystalline PV panels, DC-DC converters, tilt and orientation angles, direct solar radiation, load profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 91