Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 801

Search results for: household bargaining

801 Efficient Bargaining versus Right to Manage in the Era of Liberalization

Authors: Panagiota Koliousi, Natasha Miaouli

Abstract:

We compare product and labour market liberalization under the two trade union bargaining models: the Right-to-Manage (RTM) model and the Efficient Bargaining (EB) model. The vehicle is a dynamic general equilibrium (DGE) model that incorporates two types of agents (capitalists and workers), imperfectly competitive product and labour markets. The model is solved numerically employing common parameter values and data from the euro area. A key message is that product market deregulation is favourable under any labour market structure while opting for labour market deregulation one should provide special attention to the structure of the labour market such as the bargaining system of unions. If the prevailing way of bargaining is the RTM model then restructuring both markets is beneficial for all agents.

Keywords: market structure, structural reforms, trade unions, unemployment

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800 The Right to Engage in Collective Bargaining in South Africa: An Exploratory Analysis

Authors: Koboro J. Selala

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Whilst the system of collective bargaining is well-researched in South Africa, recent studies reveal that this is an area of law and practice that is poorly understood. Despite the growing attention being paid by most scholars to the role of collective bargaining in the labour relations system, only a handful of the studies have considered collective bargaining as a mechanism of dispute resolution. The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical analysis of the current understanding of the right to engage in collective bargaining in South Africa to assess the extent to which collective bargaining is used to resolve labour disputes. The overall objective is to offer a deeper understanding of the role of collective bargaining in dispute resolution process within the South African constitutional labour law context. To this end, the paper examines the applicable legal framework of collective bargaining to address two fundamental questions that are critical to the proper understanding of the functioning of the South African collective labour dispute resolution system. The first concerns the extent to which the current South African legislative framework supports the fundamental labour rights entrenched in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa. The second addresses the role of trade unions in collective dispute resolution processes and the extent to which they can best utilize collective bargaining to resolve labour disputes. Finally, the paper discusses the general implications of the findings to stimulate further research and to enhance the constitutional development of collective labour rights in South Africa.

Keywords: collective bargaining, constitution, freedom of association, labour relations act

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799 The Trend and Implementation of Bargaining Agreements at University of Fort Hare, Eastern Cape, South Africa 2012 to 2016

Authors: Olusola Olasupo, E. O. C. Ijeoma

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The University of Fort Hare and the National Education Health and Allied Workers Union (NEHAWU), the registered labor union at the University recognizes the significance of collective bargaining. This prompted both parties to enter into agreement with the notion to strengthening the relationship between them. The agreement was therefore entered into between NEHAWU representing the employees and the University. The agreement was signed on August 31st, 2005. The study adopting historical research method reveals the trend and implementation of bargaining agreements at University of Fort Hare from 2012 to 2016. This study examines how the implementation of bargaining agreement is utilized to solve labor related challenges and also improve on employee’s wages and conditions of service thereby strengthening the relationship between the management and employees at University of Fort Hare. The study contributes to knowledge on the effects of the implementation of bargaining agreement on wages and other conditions of service leading to harmonious relationship between the Staff and the management towards the effective administration of the University of Fort Hare. Findings reveal that ever since 2005 when the agreement was reached, University of Fort Hare and NEHAWU have been committed to improving the employees’ wages through substantive agreement. The study concludes by recommending a more effective implementation of bargaining agreement at University of Fort Hare.

Keywords: agreement, bargaining, implementation, trend

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798 Social Action for Strengthening Craftsmen's Bargaining Position in Marketing of Product of Tourism Souvenir

Authors: Dumasari, Pujiati Utami

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The bargaining position is important for a craftsman in every transaction. A strong bargaining position to encourage craftsmen to gain feasible prices on souvenirs tourism products are sold in several market segments. Some social actions of craftsmen turned out to also determine the conditions bargaining. The main goal of this study is to assess the range of social action to strengthen the bargaining position of craftsmen in marketing various products of tourism souvenir. Location of the study is set intentionally in the Sub-District of Baturaden, Banyumas Regency and also the Sub-District of Purbalingga Wetan, Purbalingga Regency. Both of them are located in the Central Java Province, Indonesia. The research method is the descriptive case study. The results showed that the craftsmen not only carry out one or two type of social action. They do all of the social action: the first is rational based instrumental, the second is rational based on the values, the third is affective, and the fourth is traditional. However, craftsmen also develop other social actions namely: collective, productive and creative action. At respondents in Baturaden dominant type of social action that is instrumentally rational, productive and creative. Meanwhile, respondents in Purbalingga more dominant social action collective, productive and creative. Some social actions implemented simultaneously by the respondents. Because of this, they concluded that the rational action that modified by themselves is more easily for strengthening the bargaining position when facing the craftsmen traders collectors. Collective and rationality social action has the highest sensitivity value for strengthening the bargaining position of craftsmen.

Keywords: bargaining position, craftsmen, strengthen, social actions, marketing of tourism souvenir

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797 A Fishery Regulation Model: Bargaining over Fishing Pressure

Authors: Duplan Yves Jamont Junior

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The Diamond-Mortensen-Pissarides model widely used in labor economics is tailored to fishery. By this way, a fishing function is defined to depict the fishing technology, and Bellman equations are established to describe the behaviors of fishermen and conservationists. On this basis, a negotiation takes place as a Nash-bargaining over the upper limit of the fishing pressure between both political representative groups of fishermen and conservationists. The existence and uniqueness conditions of the Nash-bargained fishing pressure are established. Given the biomass evolution equation, the dynamics of the model variables (fishing pressure, biomass, fish need) is studied.

Keywords: conservation, fishery, fishing, Nash bargaining

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796 Financial Information and Collective Bargaining: Conflicting or Complementing

Authors: Humayun Murshed, Shibly Abdullah

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The research conducted in early seventies apparently assumed the existence of a universal decision model for union negotiators and furthermore tended to regard financial information as a ‘neutral’ input into a rational decision-making process. However, research in the eighties began to question the neutrality of financial information as an input in collective bargaining rather viewing it as a potentially effective means for controlling the labour force. Furthermore, this later research also started challenging the simplistic assumptions relating particularly to union objectives which have underpinned the earlier search for universal union decision models. Despite the above developments there seems to be a dearth of studies in developing countries concerning the use of financial information in collective bargaining. This paper seeks to begin to remedy this deficiency. Utilising a case study approach based on two enterprises, one in the public sector and the other a multinational, the universal decision model is rejected and it is argued that the decision whether or not to use financial information is a contingent one and such a contingency is largely defined by the context and environment in which both union and management negotiators work. An attempt is also made to identify the factors constraining as well as promoting the use of financial information in collective bargaining, these being regarded as unique to the organizations within which the case studies are conducted.

Keywords: collective bargaining, developing countries, disclosures, financial information

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795 Investigating the Factors Affecting the Household Accounting of People in Bangkeaw Samutsongkhram

Authors: Khajeerat Phumpurk

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This research aims to study the knowledge, attitude toward household accounting of people in Bangkeaw Samutsongkhram. The sample use in this study was the people in tambol bangkeao Mueang Samut songkhram province. The Sample size for 100 household by using the accidental sampling and data collection was a questionnaire. Statistical analysis for frequency, percentage, mean, minimum, maximum value and standard deviation. It was found that the most of the respondent are farmers for 63.4. Most of them are male, with average of age 49.54 years. The education is vocational. The average household income is 60,873.74 per year. The respondent has the debt with the bank for 64.4 percent. The greatest influence to do the household accounting of farmers is the bank expertise. All the advice about doing household accounts get it from the staff of the bank for agriculture and agricultural cooperatives. The farmers for 57.3 do household accounting during the night time.

Keywords: Bangkeaw Samutsongkhram, household accounting, knowledge, sufficiency economy

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794 Microfinance and Women Empowerment in Bangladesh: Impact in Economic Dimension

Authors: Abm Mostafa, Rumbidzai Mukono, Peijie Wang

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Using 285 respondents from two microfinance institutions, this research aims to assess the impact of microfinance on women’s economic empowerment in Bangladesh. Empirical measures of economic empowerment used in this paper are underpinned by a bargaining theory of household. Questionnaire is used for data collection following purposive sampling. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test, binary, and ordinal logistic regressions are deployed for data analysis. The findings of this study show that around three quarters of respondents have increased household income. They have increased their savings overwhelmingly; nonetheless, many of them are found to have a very small amount of savings. Still, more than half of the respondents are reported to have increased their savings when it is checked against at least 500 BDT per month. On the contrary, the percentage of women is moderate in terms of increasing control over finances. Empirical findings demonstrate the evidence of a relationship between the amount of loan and women’s household income, their savings, and control over finances. Nonetheless, no relationship is found in women’s areas. This study infers that women’s access to financial resources is fundamental to empower them in economic dimension.

Keywords: microfinance, women, economic, empowerment, Bangladesh

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793 Changing Pattern and Trend of Head of Household in India: Evidence from Various Rounds of National Family Health Survey

Authors: Moslem Hossain, Mukesh Kumar, K. C. Das

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Background: Household headship is the crucial decision-maker as well as the economic provider of the household. In Indian society, household heads occupied by men from the pre-colonial period. This study attempt to examine the changes in household headship in India. Methods: The study used univariate and multivariate analysis to examine the trends and patterns of different characteristics of the household head using the various rounds of national family health survey data. Results: The female household head is gradually increasing; on the other hand, the male-dominant is decreasing over the four national family and health surveys. The mean age of the household head is higher in rural areas than urban India. Only ten percentage of Households are higher educated, and 83 percent of the male household head has a low standard of living. The mean family size of the household has a decreasing trend in both the urban and rural areas during the study period. Conclusions: The result indicates that women's autonomy is increasing and leading to inclusive growth, which introduced in the eleven five year plan, especially focuses on the woman and young people in the country.

Keywords: household head, national family health survey, mean age, mean family size

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792 Empowerment Means Decision-Making: How Does It Empower Women: Case of Slum Areas of Dhaka City, Bangladesh

Authors: Nurunnaher Nurunnaher

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This paper examines the impact of women’s participation in microcredit on women’s decision making in the slum areas of Dhaka city, Bangladesh. There is confusion in the literature about whether women’s empowerment is or is not a trickle down impact of poverty alleviation or household well-being, and the studies use more or less similar indicators to measure the status of household and the status of women. Studies very rarely conceptualize and operationalize the term ‘empowerment’ as the word is often used without proper care by policy makers and development practitioners instead of household wellbeing. Currently, decision making in many studies has been used as an indicator of women’s empowerment when assessing the impact of microcredit programs on women. Based on a qualitative and feminist study this paper operationalizes women’s empowerment through the development of a conceptual framework, the identification of assessment criteria and the development of proper indicators that guided the whole study. The testimonies of participants, both men and women, were the basis of exploration of women’s lived experiences, which is the most appropriate method to explore the impact of such programs on women’s empowerment. The study considers empowerment as a process that affects various levels of life and gender relationships. The study found that there is a positive change in women’s position in decision making when women have developed an independent economic base with credit money. However, predominantly, women’s decision making is shared with men with the final decision still in the men’s hands. It can be said that women’s microcredit participation has not significantly challenged the social norms, therefore it is not surprising that women who hand over credit to their husband rarely have any power in intra-household bargaining process. Nevertheless, overall it is evident that women are continuously struggling toward the freedom to have the authority over household, economic and personal matters. It is concluded that while making strategic choices or gaining empowerment requires several steps, women’s participation in decision-making has several implications on their lives and potentially challenges patriarchy.

Keywords: women, gender inequality/equality, decision making, empowerment, microcredit, slums, Dhaka, Bangladesh

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791 Consumption Insurance against the Chronic Illness: Evidence from Thailand

Authors: Yuthapoom Thanakijborisut

Abstract:

This paper studies consumption insurance against the chronic illness in Thailand. The study estimates the impact of household consumption in the chronic illness on consumption growth. Chronic illness is the health care costs of a person or a household’s decision in treatment for the long term; the causes and effects of the household’s ability for smooth consumption. The chronic illnesses are measured in health status when at least one member within the household faces the chronic illness. The data used is from the Household Social Economic Panel Survey conducted during 2007 and 2012. The survey collected data from approximately 6,000 households from every province, both inside and outside municipal areas in Thailand. The study estimates the change in household consumption by using an ordinary least squares (OLS) regression model. The result shows that the members within the household facing the chronic illness would reduce the consumption by around 4%. This case indicates that consumption insurance in Thailand is quite sufficient against chronic illness.

Keywords: consumption insurance, chronic illness, health care, Thailand

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790 Household Accounting for Expense Behavior Changing of Sufficiency Economy Philosophy in Samut Songkhram Province

Authors: Khajeerat Phumphruk

Abstract:

This research aims to study the knowledge, attitude toward household accounting philosophy of sufficiency economy and study the Expense Behavior Changing of household accounting in Banbolang Samut Songkhram Province. The samples of this research are chief of villages and householders in Banbolang Samut Songkhram. The sampling revealed that chief of villages and 60 of householders. The random sampling was used to collect the data. Tools of this research are structure interview and questionnaires that verified by specialist as the content validity and reliability. The result found that the reasons of doing the household accounting are finding the revenue and expenditure in order to in develop the wealthy of the family and follow the philosophy of sufficiency economy of His Majesty. The reasons of not doing the household accounting are less understanding of the household accounting, less time and useless. Moreover, there are householders who interesting in training about household accounting.

Keywords: expense behavior changing, household accounting, samut songkhram province, sufficiency economy philosophy

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789 Emerging Challenges with Collective Bargaining Agreements In Kenya: The Introduction of Salary and Remuneration Commission Through The Constitution of Kenya 2010

Authors: Benard Omogo

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The Kenyan Constitution 2010 introduced various commissions to devolve the powers that were previously centralized through the imperial Presidency. One of the commissions that directly determine the levels of remuneration and terms of service of Kenyan workers is the Salary and Remuneration Commission (SRC). Article 230 of the Kenyan Constitution 2010 mandates this commission to regularly review the remuneration and benefits of all the state officers and to advise the national and county governments on the remuneration and benefits of all other public officers. At the same time, article 54 of the Kenyan Labor Relations Act 2007 provides for the recognition of trade unions and collective bargaining agreements. The emerging challenges, therefore, originate from the conflicts of the mandate of the Salary and Remuneration Commission, whose advice is almost adopted as the order and this undermines the outcome of the Collective Bargaining Agreements. This has seen so many trade unions in Kenya being rendered irrelevant. This research paper is therefore going to sample the various trade unions of Kenya to assess the challenges that result from the position of the Salary and Remuneration Commission. We will also extend it by purposively sampling several trade unions in Africa to determine how they handle such challenges. The results from this paper will be useful to the Kenyan Lawmakers and Africa at large and may inform them to consider reviewing the laws and acts that relate to the trade unions for prosperity.

Keywords: salary, remuneration, collective, bargaining, labor laws

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788 Household Size and Poverty Rate: Evidence from Nepal

Authors: Basan Shrestha

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The relationship between the household size and the poverty is not well understood. Malthus followers advocate that the increasing population add pressure to the dwindling resource base due to increasing demand that would lead to poverty. Others claim that bigger households are richer due to availability of household labour for income generation activities. Facts from Nepal were analyzed to examine the relationship between the household size and poverty rate. The analysis of data from 3,968 Village Development Committee (VDC)/ municipality (MP) located in 75 districts of all five development regions revealed that the average household size had moderate positive correlation with the poverty rate (Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.44). In a regression analysis, the household size determined 20% of the variation in the poverty rate. Higher positive correlation was observed in eastern Nepal (Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.66). The regression analysis showed that the household size determined 43% of the variation in the poverty rate in east. The relation was poor in far-west. It could be because higher incidence of poverty was there irrespective of household size. Overall, the facts revealed that the bigger households were relatively poorer. With the increasing level of awareness and interventions for family planning, it is anticipated that the household size will decrease leading to the decreased poverty rate. In addition, the government needs to devise a mechanism to create employment opportunities for the household labour force to reduce poverty.

Keywords: household size, poverty rate, nepal, regional development

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787 Designing of Household Dishes to Help Food Waste Prevention Strategies

Authors: Ching-Hsu Huang, Shang-Huan Wu

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In recent years, environmental awareness has increased, environmental issues caused by meat-eating have been extended to promote reducing food surplus and waste advocates. We lose more than 3 million tons of food on average on a daily basis. Private households represent the largest food-waste faction. The main purpose of this study is to design and develop household dishes by using edible food surplus. The questionnaires were conducted to find the majority of food surplus from households, including carrot peel, pumpkin, fish skin, and soy dregs—this study designed and developed the household dishes by using the leftovers. We briefly discuss the contributions of the dishes. Mapping the household dishes deepens the promotion of household food waste prevention strategies. This study also linked the results with a set of policy, education, and restaurant business options

Keywords: food waste, food surplus, household dishes design, food waste prevention strategies

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786 Collective Bargaining Agreement with Its Related Factors and Employees’ Perceived Productivity: The Case of an Academic Institution in Davao City, Philippines

Authors: Amylyn F. Labasano, M. S. Econ

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The study predicts the impact of collective bargaining agreement and its related factors on employees’ perceived productivity in terms of union-management relation’s climate, income, fringe benefits, and job satisfaction of the employees. It also determines whether there are significant differences in the employees’ perceived productivity based on the demographic characteristics of the respondents. The results revealed that the relationship climate which exists between the union and the management is found to have significant adverse effect on the average unpaid hours spent by employees working within the college. On the other hand, the total monthly wage earnings of employees have negative effect on the average hours an employee spent in bringing his work home while job satisfaction positively influences the overall productivity level of employees. The result further shows significant differences in the productivity level of employees across civil status and current designation.

Keywords: perceived productivity, collective bargaining agreement, union, union-management relations climate, income, fringe benefits, job satisfaction

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785 Investigation of Factors Affecting Bangkok Urban Residents’ Behaviour of Bookkeeping for Household Accounts

Authors: Anocha Kimkong

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This research paper, based on demographic variables, is aimed to study the behaviour of bookkeeping for household accounts of residents living in urban communities in Dusit District, Bangkok and to investigate factors that affected the behavior of bookkeeping. By use of non proportional stratified sampling technique of probability sampling, the research had a total of 247 samples. The systematic sampling technique was also utilized by selecting one household out of every 3 households. The demographic findings reported female respondents as the majority with an average age between 26-35 years old, having married status and having children. The respondents earn a living by selling, with an average income per month of between 5,001-15,000 Baht. Most of the families rent a house and each family have approximately 3-4 members. Furthermore, most of the household respondents used to be trained to do bookkeeping for household accounts. In addition, the factors in affecting the residents’ behaviour of doing household account bookkeeping included a dislike of numbers, inaccuracy of recording, availability of accounting counselors in the communities, people’s participation in trainings arranged by outside organizations.

Keywords: household account, bookkeeping, urban community, demographic variables

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
784 Analysis of Awareness and Climate Change Impact in Energy Efficiency of Household Appliances

Authors: Meltem Ucal

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It is obvious that with limited resources and increasing of energy consumption from day to day, increase in amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will increase risk of climate change. The objective of “Raising Awareness in Energy Efficiency of Household Appliances and Climate Change” paper is to make the connection between climate change and energy saving to be understood. First of all, research and evaluation aiming improvement of women’s behaviors of purchasing and using household appliances and also educate next generations who will be faced risks of climate change, with their mothers will be done.

Keywords: energy efficiency, climate change, wareness, household appliences, econometrics model, logit model

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783 A Self-Coexistence Strategy for Spectrum Allocation Using Selfish and Unselfish Game Models in Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Noel Jeygar Robert, V. K.Vidya

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Cognitive radio is a software-defined radio technology that allows cognitive users to operate on the vacant bands of spectrum allocated to licensed users. Cognitive radio plays a vital role in the efficient utilization of wireless radio spectrum available between cognitive users and licensed users without making any interference to licensed users. The spectrum allocation followed by spectrum sharing is done in a fashion where a cognitive user has to wait until spectrum holes are identified and allocated when the licensed user moves out of his own allocated spectrum. In this paper, we propose a self –coexistence strategy using bargaining and Cournot game model for achieving spectrum allocation in cognitive radio networks. The game-theoretic model analyses the behaviour of cognitive users in both cooperative and non-cooperative scenarios and provides an equilibrium level of spectrum allocation. Game-theoretic models such as bargaining game model and Cournot game model produce a balanced distribution of spectrum resources and energy consumption. Simulation results show that both game theories achieve better performance compared to other popular techniques

Keywords: cognitive radio, game theory, bargaining game, Cournot game

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782 The Role of Environmental Citizenship in Household Waste Management

Authors: Lizette Grobler

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Although the notion of environmental citizenship has become an established concept linked to scholarship on sustainability internationally, it is not the case in South Africa. This literature review aims to investigate whether the concept is a viable construct in the South African household waste management context. This literature review firstly examines different approaches to environmental citizenship and the normative notions of environmental values, attitudes, and behaviour advocated by proponents of each tradition. Secondly, this paper deals with the application of environmental citizenship as a measure to address household waste. Thirdly, this paper interrogates the utilization of the concept in South African scholarly literature on waste management. The paper argues for the introduction of the concept as a potential approach to behavioural change in the household waste management context.

Keywords: environmental citizenship, environmental responsibility, household waste, ownership of waste

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781 Towards Islamic Sustainable Consumption: Micro Evidence from Muslim Household in Malaysia

Authors: Noorhaslinda Kulub Abd. Rashid, Zuraini Anang, Bayu Taufiq Possumah, Suriyani Muhamad, Fauziah Abu Hasan, Hairunnizam Wahid

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Reality of Malaysian lives today, especially the households, are not exempted from using a variety of good products and services that are particularly materialistic. In fact, the pace and sophistication of the technology is seen as a major catalyst to the pattern of community life. In facing the challenges of the current economy, the key role to be played by household is managing the pattern of expenditure, income and loan debts regularly and blessed by Allah. Unfortunately, the world today is witnessing the average household could owe solely to meet their needs with existing spending limits. This study aims to measure the ‘Religious Index of Household Expenditure’ (IKM) and analyze how far the religious influence to the pattern of household expenditure based on the 441 Muslim households. The results showed only a 5-item spending, food, housing, transportation, education, and recreation and entertainment that has a significant relationship with IKM. Therefore, Islamic consumer education is a must to establish sustainable consumptions in order to speed up the internalization of sustainable lifestyle among Malaysians.

Keywords: ‘Religious Index of Household Expenditure’ (IKM), income, sustainable consumptions, household expenditure

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780 A Mediation Analysis of Social Capital: Direct and Indirect Effects of Community Influences on Civic Engagement among the Household-Header and Non-Household Header Volunteers in Thai Rural Communities

Authors: Aphiradee Wongsiri

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The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of social capital in the relationships between community influences consisting of community attachment and community support on civic engagement among the household-header and non-household header volunteers. The data were collected from 216 household header volunteers and 204 non-household header volunteers across rural communities in seven sub-districts in Nong Khai Province, Thailand. A good fit structural equation modeling (SEM) was tested for both groups. The findings indicate that the SEM model for the group of household header volunteers, social capital had a direct effect on civic engagement, while community support had an indirect effect on civic engagement through social capital. On the other hand, the SEM model for the group of non-household header volunteers shows that social capital had a direct effect on civic engagement. Also, community attachment and community support had indirect effects on civic engagement through social capital. Therefore, social capital in this study played an important role as a mediator in the relationships between community influences and civic engagement in both groups.

Keywords: social capital, civic engagement, volunteer, rural development

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779 Household Level Determinants of Rural-Urban Migration in Bangladesh

Authors: Shamima Akhter, Siegfried Bauer

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The aim of this study is to analyze the migration process of the rural population of Bangladesh. Heckman Probit model with sample selection was applied in this paper to explore the determinants of migration and intensity of migration at farm household level. The farm survey was conducted in the central part of Bangladesh on 160 farm households with migrant and on 154 farm households without migrant including a total of 316 farm households. The results from the applied model revealed that main determinants of migration at farm household level are household age, economically active males and females, number of young and old dependent members in the household and agricultural land holding. On the other hand, the main determinants of intensity of migration are availability of economically adult male in the household, number of young dependents and agricultural land holding.

Keywords: determinants, Heckman Probit model, migration, rural-urban

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778 Household Food Wastage Assessment: A Case Study in South Africa

Authors: Fhumulani R. Ramukhwatho, Roelien du Plessis, Suzan H. H. Oelofse

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There are a growing number of scientific papers, journals and reports on household food waste, the reason being that food waste has become a significant global issue that is costing billions of Rands in resources. To reduce food waste in a sustainable manner, it requires an understanding of the generation of food waste. This paper assesses household food wastage in the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality (CTMM). A total of 210 interviewed participants using face-to-face interviews based on a structured questionnaire and the actual weighing of households’ food wasted was quantified using a weighing kitchen scale. Fifty-nine percent of respondents agreed that they wasted food, while 41% thought they did not waste food at all. Households wasted an average total of 6 kg of food waste per week per household. The study concluded that households buy and prepare more food that ends up wasted.

Keywords: assessment, developing country, food waste, household

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777 Gender Perception on Food Waste within the Household and Community: Case Study in Bandung City, Indonesia

Authors: Gumilar Hadiningrat, Stewart Barr, Jo Little

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In Indonesia, the majority of those who manage food waste are women. It is Indonesian culture that women act as household managers. Therefore, women as household managers hold an important role in reducing food waste within households. Meanwhile, in the community, women’s organisations are some of the most active organisations dealing with food waste. Food waste has an increasing profile and is the subject of much global attention and have economic, social and environmental impacts. Reducing food waste will improve future food availability in the context of global population growth and increasing resource scarcity. The aim of this research is to investigate women’s experience and understanding of dealing with food waste in the household and in the community. The research will use an inductive approach using in-depth qualitative methods. In terms of data collection, two methods will be used - questionnaire and interviews. All in all, it could be claimed that women, both within the household and the community in Indonesia, hold an important role in dealing with food waste.

Keywords: community waste management, food waste, gender, household waste, waste management

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776 Effect of Cap and Trade Policies for Carbon Emission Reduction on Delhi Households

Authors: Vikram Singh

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This paper aims to take into account carbon tax or cap-and-trade legislation to manage Delhi carbon emissions after a post-Kyoto treaty. This report estimated the influence of the carbon taxes or rebate/compensation cost at the household level. Here, the three possible scenarios will help to comprehend the difference between a straightforward compensation/rebate, and two clearly denoting progressive formula. The straightforward compensation is basically minimizing the regressive applications that will bears on cost. On the other hand, both the progressive formula will generate extra revenue, which will help for feasibility of more efficient, vehicles, appliances and buildings in the low-income household. For the hypothetical case of carbon price $40/tonne, low-income household for both urban and rural region could experience price burden up to 5% and 9% on their income as compared to 3% and 7% for high-income household respectively. The survey report also shown that carbon emission due low-income household are primarily by the substantive requirement like housing and transportation whereas almost 40% emission due to high-income household are by luxurious and non-essential items. The equal distribution of revenue cum incentives will not completely overcome high-income household’s investment in inessential items. However, it will merely help in investing their income in energy efficient and less carbon intensive items. Therefore, the rebate distribution on per capita basis instead on per households will benefit more especially large families at low-income group.

Keywords: household emission, carbon credit, carbon intensity, green house gas emission, carbon generation based insentives

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775 The Impact of Financial Literacy to the Retirement Planning on Malaysian Household

Authors: Stanley Yap, Patrick Kee Peng Kong, Chong Wei Ying, Leow Hon Wei

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Purpose: This study examines the comprehensive household retirement planning based on the level of financial literacy in Malaysia. Sufficient financial literacy is essential to make financial decision on Malaysian household retirement planning. Design/Methodology/Approach: Numerous measurements consist of present value of total retirement fund needed, future value of the expenses and inflation-adjusted interest rate are used in this paper. Therefore, we are able to identify the retirement gap that needs to be considered immediately. Findings: Our results show, firstly, adequate financial literacy is vital to achieve long term household retirement planning. Secondly, there is no retirement gap where the future value of the existing financial assets is greater than the lump sum needs during retirement phase. Thirdly, financial assets should be prepared in early age to accumulate substantial funding to support household retirement life. Practical Implications: The outcomes benefit to retiree and working adults. It highlights the importance of financial literacy to retirement planning. It is also a milestone for Malaysian to achieve developed country if Malaysian has sufficient retirement funding. Originality/Value: There is currently lack of in-depth research on financial literacy related to household retirement planning. Further, the paper also focusses on financial literacy, as a means to assist those in funding retirement resources, in order to fulfil the retirement gap.

Keywords: financial literacy, retirement planning, retirement resources, retirement gap, Malaysian household

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774 Can Empowering Women Farmers Reduce Household Food Insecurity? Evidence from Malawi

Authors: Christopher Manyamba

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Women in Malawi produce perform between 50-70 percent of all agricultural tasks and yet the majority remain food insecure. The aim of his paper is to build on existing mixed evidence that indicates that empowering women in agriculture is conducive to improving food security. The WEAI is used to provide evidence on the relationship between women’s empowerment in agriculture and household food security. A multinomial logistic regression is applied to the Women Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI) components and the Household Hunger Scale. The overall results show that the WEAI can be used to determine household food insecurity; however it has to be contextually adapted. Assets ownership, credit, group membership and leisure time are positively associated with food security. Contrary to other literature, empowerment in having control and decisions on income indicate negative association with household food security. These results could potentially better inform public, private and civil society stakeholders’ dialogues in creating the most effective and sustainable interventions to help women attain long-term food security.

Keywords: food security, gender, empowerment, agriculture index, framework for African food security, household hunger scale

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773 Inter-Generational Benefits of Improving Access to Justice for Women: Evidence from Peru

Authors: Iva Trako, Maris Micaela Sviatschi, Guadalupe Kavanaugh

Abstract:

Domestic violence is a major concern in developing countries, with important social, economic and health consequences. However, institutions do not usually address the problems facing women or ethnic and religious minorities. For example, the police do very little to stop domestic violence in rural areas of developing countries. This paper exploits the introduction of women’s justice centers (WJCs) in Peru to provide causal estimates on the effects of improving access to justice for women and children. These centers offer a new integrated public service model for women by including medical, psychological and legal support in cases of violence against women. Our empirical approach uses a difference in difference estimation exploiting variation over time and space in the opening of WJC together with province-by-year fixed effects. Exploiting administrative data from health providers and district attorney offices, we find that after the opening of these centers, there are important improvements on women's welfare: a large reduction in femicides and female hospitalizations for assault. Moreover, using geo-coded household surveys we find evidence that the existence of these services reduces domestic violence, improves women's health, increases women's threat points and, therefore, lead to household decisions that are more aligned with their interests. Using administrative data on the universe of schools, we find large gains on human capital for their children: affected children are more likely to enroll, attend school and have better grades in national exams, instead of working for the family. In sum, the evidence in this paper shows that providing access to justice for women can be a powerful tool to reduce domestic violence and increase education of children, suggesting a positive inter-generational benefit.

Keywords: access to justice, domestic violence, education, household bargaining

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772 Economics of Household Expenditure Pattern on Animal Products in Bauchi Metropolis, Bauchi State, Nigeria

Authors: B. Hamidu, A. Abdulhamid, S. Mohammed, S. Idi

Abstract:

This study examined the household expenditure pattern on animal products in Bauchi metropolis. A cross-sectional data were collected from 157 households using systematic sampling technique. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation and regression models. The results reveal that the mean age, mean household size, mean monthly income and mean total expenditure on animal products were found to be 39 years, 7 persons, N28,749 and N1,740 respectively. It was also found that household monthly income, number of children and educational level of the household heads (P<0.01) significantly influence the level of household expenditure on animal products. Similarly, income was found to be the most important factor determining the proportion of total expenditure on animal products (20.91%). Income elasticity was found to be 0.66 indicating that for every 1% increase in income, expenditure on animal products would increase by 0.66%. Furthermore, beef was found to be the most preferred (54.83%) and most regularly consumed (61.84%) animal products. However, it was discovered that the major constraints affecting the consumption of animal products were low-income level of the households (29.85%), high cost of animal products (15.82%) and increase in prices of necessities (15.82%). Therefore to improve household expenditure on animal products per capita real income of the households should be improved through creation of employment opportunities. Also stabilization of market prices of animal products and other foods items of necessities through increased production are recommended.

Keywords: animal products, economics, expenditure, households

Procedia PDF Downloads 164