Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7172

Search results for: hourly charge rate

7172 Do Industry Expert Audit Engagement Partners Earn Fee Premiums? Evidence from Labor Usage and the Hourly Charge Rate

Authors: Gil Bae, Seung Uk Choi, Jae Eun Lee, Joon Hwa Rho

Abstract:

Using proprietary engagement partner identity information for the Big 4 audit firms in Korea over the 2001-2011 period, we find that expert engagement partners obtain significantly higher total compensation than do non-expert partners. Importantly, we also find that expert partners increase the number of audit hours compared to their non-expert counterparts. The hourly billing rate, calculated as total fees divided by total audit hours, of expert partners is not higher than that of non-expert partners, indicating that there is no expert partner premium reflected in the hourly rate. This finding suggests that the increase in total audit fees is attributable mainly to the increase in the quantity of audit hours that expert partners work, not from the higher fee per hour. The results are not attributable to auditor selection bias.

Keywords: industry expert partners, expert premiums, audit hours, hourly charge rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
7171 Multivariate Rainfall Disaggregation Using MuDRain Model: Malaysia Experience

Authors: Ibrahim Suliman Hanaish

Abstract:

Disaggregation daily rainfall using stochastic models formulated based on multivariate approach (MuDRain) is discussed in this paper. Seven rain gauge stations are considered in this study for different distances from the referred station starting from 4 km to 160 km in Peninsular Malaysia. The hourly rainfall data used are covered the period from 1973 to 2008 and July and November months are considered as an example of dry and wet periods. The cross-correlation among the rain gauges is considered for the available hourly rainfall information at the neighboring stations or not. This paper discussed the applicability of the MuDRain model for disaggregation daily rainfall to hourly rainfall for both sources of cross-correlation. The goodness of fit of the model was based on the reproduction of fitting statistics like the means, variances, coefficients of skewness, lag zero cross-correlation of coefficients and the lag one auto correlation of coefficients. It is found the correlation coefficients based on extracted correlations that was based on daily are slightly higher than correlations based on available hourly rainfall especially for neighboring stations not more than 28 km. The results showed also the MuDRain model did not reproduce statistics very well. In addition, a bad reproduction of the actual hyetographs comparing to the synthetic hourly rainfall data. Mean while, it is showed a good fit between the distribution function of the historical and synthetic hourly rainfall. These discrepancies are unavoidable because of the lowest cross correlation of hourly rainfall. The overall performance indicated that the MuDRain model would not be appropriate choice for disaggregation daily rainfall.

Keywords: rainfall disaggregation, multivariate disaggregation rainfall model, correlation, stochastic model

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
7170 Effect of pH-Dependent Surface Charge on the Electroosmotic Flow through Nanochannel

Authors: Partha P. Gopmandal, Somnath Bhattacharyya, Naren Bag

Abstract:

In this article, we have studied the effect of pH-regulated surface charge on the electroosmotic flow (EOF) through nanochannel filled with binary symmetric electrolyte solution. The channel wall possesses either an acidic or a basic functional group. Going beyond the widely employed Debye-Huckel linearization, we develop a mathematical model based on Nernst-Planck equation for the charged species, Poisson equation for the induced potential, Stokes equation for fluid flow. A finite volume based numerical algorithm is adopted to study the effect of key parameters on the EOF. We have computed the coupled governing equations through the finite volume method and our results found to be in good agreement with the analytical solution obtained from the corresponding linear model based on low surface charge condition or strong electrolyte solution. The influence of the surface charge density, reaction constant of the functional groups, bulk pH, and concentration of the electrolyte solution on the overall flow rate is studied extensively. We find the effect of surface charge diminishes with the increase in electrolyte concentration. In addition for strong electrolyte, the surface charge becomes independent of pH due to complete dissociation of the functional groups.

Keywords: electroosmosis, finite volume method, functional group, surface charge

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
7169 Evaluation of Satellite and Radar Rainfall Product over Seyhan Plain

Authors: Kazım Kaba, Erdem Erdi, M. Akif Erdoğan, H. Mustafa Kandırmaz

Abstract:

Rainfall is crucial data source for very different discipline such as agriculture, hydrology and climate. Therefore rain rate should be known well both spatial and temporal for any area. Rainfall is measured by using rain-gauge at meteorological ground stations traditionally for many years. At the present time, rainfall products are acquired from radar and satellite images with a temporal and spatial continuity. In this study, we investigated the accuracy of these rainfall data according to rain-gauge data. For this purpose, we used Adana-Hatay radar hourly total precipitation product (RN1) and Meteosat convective rainfall rate (CRR) product over Seyhan plain. We calculated daily rainfall values from RN1 and CRR hourly precipitation products. We used the data of rainy days of four stations located within range of the radar from October 2013 to November 2015. In the study, we examined two rainfall data over Seyhan plain and the correlation between the rain-gauge data and two raster rainfall data was observed lowly.

Keywords: meteosat, radar, rainfall, rain-gauge, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
7168 Behaviour of an RC Circuit near Extreme Point

Authors: Tribhuvan N. Soorya

Abstract:

Charging and discharging of a capacitor through a resistor can be shown as exponential curve. Theoretically, it takes infinite time to fully charge or discharge a capacitor. The flow of charge is due to electrons having finite and fixed value of charge. If we carefully examine the charging and discharging process after several time constants, the points on q vs t graph become discrete and curve become discontinuous. Moreover for all practical purposes capacitor with charge (q0-e) can be taken as fully charged, as it introduces an error less than one part per million. Similar is the case for discharge of a capacitor, where the capacitor with the last electron (charge e) can be taken as fully discharged. With this, we can estimate the finite value of time for fully charging and discharging a capacitor.

Keywords: charging, discharging, RC Circuit, capacitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
7167 Nonequilibrium Effects in Photoinduced Ultrafast Charge Transfer Reactions

Authors: Valentina A. Mikhailova, Serguei V. Feskov, Anatoly I. Ivanov

Abstract:

In the last decade the nonequilibrium charge transfer have attracted considerable interest from the scientific community. Examples of such processes are the charge recombination in excited donor-acceptor complexes and the intramolecular electron transfer from the second excited electronic state. In these reactions the charge transfer proceeds predominantly in the nonequilibrium mode. In the excited donor-acceptor complexes the nuclear nonequilibrium is created by the pump pulse. The intramolecular electron transfer from the second excited electronic state is an example where the nuclear nonequilibrium is created by the forward electron transfer. The kinetics of these nonequilibrium reactions demonstrate a number of peculiar properties. Most important from them are: (i) the absence of the Marcus normal region in the free energy gap law for the charge recombination in excited donor-acceptor complexes, (ii) extremely low quantum yield of thermalized charge separated state in the ultrafast charge transfer from the second excited state, (iii) the nonexponential charge recombination dynamics in excited donor-acceptor complexes, (iv) the dependence of the charge transfer rate constant on the excitation pulse frequency. This report shows that most of these kinetic features can be well reproduced in the framework of stochastic point-transition multichannel model. The model involves an explicit description of the nonequilibrium excited state formation by the pump pulse and accounts for the reorganization of intramolecular high-frequency vibrational modes, for their relaxation as well as for the solvent relaxation. The model is able to quantitatively reproduce complex nonequilibrium charge transfer kinetics observed in modern experiments. The interpretation of the nonequilibrium effects from a unified point of view in the terms of the multichannel point transition stochastic model allows to see similarities and differences of electron transfer mechanism in various molecular donor-acceptor systems and formulates general regularities inherent in these phenomena. The nonequilibrium effects in photoinduced ultrafast charge transfer which have been studied for the last 10 years are analyzed. The methods of suppression of the ultrafast charge recombination, similarities and dissimilarities of electron transfer mechanism in different molecular donor-acceptor systems are discussed. The extremely low quantum yield of the thermalized charge separated state observed in the ultrafast charge transfer from the second excited state in the complex consisting of 1,2,4-trimethoxybenzene and tetracyanoethylene in acetonitrile solution directly demonstrates that its effectiveness can be close to unity. This experimental finding supports the idea that the nonequilibrium charge recombination in the excited donor-acceptor complexes can be also very effective so that the part of thermalized complexes is negligible. It is discussed the regularities inherent to the equilibrium and nonequilibrium reactions. Their fundamental differences are analyzed. Namely the opposite dependencies of the charge transfer rates on the dynamical properties of the solvent. The increase of the solvent viscosity results in decreasing the thermal rate and vice versa increasing the nonequilibrium rate. The dependencies of the rates on the solvent reorganization energy and the free energy gap also can considerably differ. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (Grant No. 16-13-10122).

Keywords: Charge recombination, higher excited states, free energy gap law, nonequilibrium

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
7166 New Technique of Estimation of Charge Carrier Density of Nanomaterials from Thermionic Emission Data

Authors: Dilip K. De, Olukunle C. Olawole, Emmanuel S. Joel, Moses Emetere

Abstract:

A good number of electronic properties such as electrical and thermal conductivities depend on charge carrier densities of nanomaterials. By controlling the charge carrier densities during the fabrication (or growth) processes, the physical properties can be tuned. In this paper, we discuss a new technique of estimating the charge carrier densities of nanomaterials from the thermionic emission data using the newly modified Richardson-Dushman equation. We find that the technique yields excellent results for graphene and carbon nanotube.

Keywords: charge carrier density, nano materials, new technique, thermionic emission

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
7165 Effective Charge Coupling in Low Dimensional Doped Quantum Antiferromagnets

Authors: Suraka Bhattacharjee, Ranjan Chaudhury

Abstract:

The interaction between the charge degrees of freedom for itinerant antiferromagnets is investigated in terms of generalized charge stiffness constant corresponding to nearest neighbour t-J model and t1-t2-t3-J model. The low dimensional hole doped antiferromagnets are the well known systems that can be described by the t-J-like models. Accordingly, we have used these models to investigate the fermionic pairing possibilities and the coupling between the itinerant charge degrees of freedom. A detailed comparison between spin and charge couplings highlights that the charge and spin couplings show very similar behaviour in the over-doped region, whereas, they show completely different trends in the lower doping regimes. Moreover, a qualitative equivalence between generalized charge stiffness and effective Coulomb interaction is also established based on the comparisons with other theoretical and experimental results. Thus it is obvious that the enhanced possibility of fermionic pairing is inherent in the reduction of Coulomb repulsion with increase in doping concentration. However, the increased possibility can not give rise to pairing without the presence of any other pair producing mechanism outside the t-J model. Therefore, one can conclude that the t-J-like models themselves solely are not capable of producing conventional momentum-based superconducting pairing on their own.

Keywords: generalized charge stiffness constant, charge coupling, effective Coulomb interaction, t-J-like models, momentum-space pairing

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
7164 Combined Influence of Charge Carrier Density and Temperature on Open-Circuit Voltage in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

Authors: Douglas Yeboah, Monishka Narayan, Jai Singh

Abstract:

One of the key parameters in determining the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs) is the open-circuit voltage, however, it is still not well understood. In order to examine the performance of OSCs, it is necessary to understand the losses associated with the open-circuit voltage and how best it can be improved. Here, an analytical expression for the open-circuit voltage of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) OSCs is derived from the charge carrier densities without considering the drift-diffusion current. The open-circuit voltage thus obtained is dependent on the donor-acceptor band gap, the energy difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the hole quasi-Fermi level of the donor material, temperature, the carrier density (electrons), the generation rate of free charge carriers and the bimolecular recombination coefficient. It is found that open-circuit voltage increases when the carrier density increases and when the temperature decreases. The calculated results are discussed in view of experimental results and agree with them reasonably well. Overall, this work proposes an alternative pathway for improving the open-circuit voltage in BHJ OSCs.

Keywords: charge carrier density, open-circuit voltage, organic solar cells, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
7163 Modelling of Rate-Dependent Hysteresis of Polypyrrole Dual Sensing-Actuators for Precise Position Control

Authors: Johanna Schumacher, Toribio F. Otero, Victor H. Pascual

Abstract:

Bending dual sensing-actuators based on electroactive polymers are faradaic motors meaning the consumed charge determines the actuator’s tip position. During actuation, consumed charges during oxidation and reduction result in different tip positions showing dynamic hysteresis effects with errors up to 25%. For a precise position control of these actuators, the characterization of the hysteresis effect due to irreversible reactions is crucial. Here, the investigation and modelling of dynamic hysteresis effects of polypyrrole-dodezylbenzenesulfonate (PPyDBS) actuators under ambient working conditions are presented. The hysteresis effect is studied for charge consumption at different frequencies and a rate-dependent hysteresis model is derived. The hysteresis model is implemented as closed loop system and is verified experimentally.

Keywords: dual sensing-actuator, electroactive polymers, hysteresis, position control

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
7162 Battery State of Charge Management Algorithm for Photovoltaic Ramp Rate Control

Authors: Nam Kyu Kim, Hee Jun Cha, Jae Jin Seo, Dong Jun Won

Abstract:

Output power of a photovoltaic (PV) generator depends on incident solar irradiance. If the clouds pass or the climate condition is bad, the PV output fluctuates frequently. When PV generator is connected to the grid, these fluctuations adversely affect power quality. Thus, ramp rate control with battery energy storage system (BESS) is needed to reduce PV output fluctuations. At the same time, for effective BESS operation and sizing the optimal BESS capacity, managing state of charge (SOC) is the most important part. In addition, managing SOC helps to avoid violating the SOC operating range of BESS when performing renewable integration (RI) continuously. As PV and BESS increase, the SOC management of BESS will become more important in the future. This paper presents the SOC management algorithm which helps to operate effectively BESS, and has focused on method to manage SOC while reducing PV output fluctuations. A simulation model is developed in PSCAD/EMTDC software. The simulation results show that the SOC is maintained within the operating range by adjusting the output distribution according to the SOC of the BESS.

Keywords: battery energy storage system, ramp rate control, renewable integration, SOC management

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
7161 X-Ray and DFT Electrostatics Parameters Determination of a Coumarin Derivative Compound C17H13NO3

Authors: Y. Megrous, A. Chouaih, F. Hamzaoui

Abstract:

The crystal structure of 4-Methyl-7-(salicylideneamino)coumarin C17H13NO3has been determined using X-ray diffraction to establish the configuration and stereochemistry of the molecule. This crystal is characterized by its nolinear activity. The molecular electron charge density distribution of the title compound is described accurately using the multipolar model of Hansen and Coppens. The net atomic charge and the molecular dipole moment in-crystal have been determined in order to understand the nature of inter-and intramolecular charge transfer. The study present the thermal motion and the structural analysis obtained from the least-square refinement on F2,this study has also allowed us to determine the electrostatic potential and therefore locate the electropositive part and the electronegative part in molecular scale of the title compound.

Keywords: electron charge density, net atomic charge, molecular dipole moment, X-ray diffraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
7160 Simulations of High-Intensity, Thermionic Electron Guns for Electron Beam Thermal Processing Including Effects of Space Charge Compensation

Authors: O. Hinrichs, H. Franz, G. Reiter

Abstract:

Electron guns have a key function in a series of thermal processes, like EB (electron beam) melting, evaporation or welding. These techniques need a high-intensity continuous electron beam that defocuses itself due to high space charge forces. A proper beam transport throughout the magnetic focusing system can be ensured by a space charge compensation via residual gas ions. The different pressure stages in the EB gun cause various degrees of compensation. A numerical model was installed to simulate realistic charge distributions within the beam by using CST-Particle Studio code. We will present current status of beam dynamic simulations. This contribution will focus on the creation of space charge ions and their influence on beam and gun components. Furthermore, the beam transport in the gun will be shown for different beam parameters. The electron source allows to produce beams with currents of 3 A to 15 A and energies of 40 keV to 45 keV.

Keywords: beam dynamic simulation, space charge compensation, thermionic electron source, EB melting, EB thermal processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
7159 Prediction of Positive Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Striking Zones for Charged Thundercloud Based on Line Charge Model

Authors: Surajit Das Barman, Rakibuzzaman Shah, Apurv Kumar

Abstract:

Bushfire is known as one of the ascendant factors to create pyrocumulus thundercloud that causes the ignition of new fires by pyrocumulonimbus (pyroCb) lightning strikes and creates major losses of lives and property worldwide. A conceptual model-based risk planning would be beneficial to predict the lightning striking zones on the surface of the earth underneath the pyroCb thundercloud. PyroCb thundercloud can generate both positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) and negative cloud-to-ground (-CG) lightning in which +CG tends to ignite more bushfires and cause massive damage to nature and infrastructure. In this paper, a simple line charge structured thundercloud model is constructed in 2-D coordinates using the method of image charge to predict the probable +CG lightning striking zones on the earth’s surface for two conceptual thundercloud charge configurations: titled dipole and conventional tripole structure with excessive lower positive charge regions that lead to producing +CG lightning. The electric potential and surface charge density along the earth’s surface for both structures via continuously adjusting the position and the charge density of their charge regions is investigated. Simulation results for tilted dipole structure confirm the down-shear extension of the upper positive charge region in the direction of the cloud’s forward flank by 4 to 8 km, resulting in negative surface density, and would expect +CG lightning to strike within 7.8 km to 20 km around the earth periphery in the direction of the cloud’s forward flank. On the other hand, the conceptual tripole charge structure with enhanced lower positive charge region develops negative surface charge density on the earth’s surface in the range |x| < 6.5 km beneath the thundercloud and highly favors producing +CG lightning strikes.

Keywords: pyrocumulonimbus, cloud-to-ground lightning, charge structure, surface charge density, forward flank

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
7158 Kerr Electric-Optic Measurement of Electric Field and Space Charge Distribution in High Voltage Pulsed Transformer Oil

Authors: Hongda Guo, Wenxia Sima

Abstract:

Transformer oil is widely used in power systems because of its excellent insulation properties. The accurate measurement of electric field and space charge distribution in transformer oil under high voltage impulse has important theoretical and practical significance, but still remains challenging to date because of its low Kerr constant. In this study, the continuous electric field and space charge distribution over time between parallel-plate electrodes in high-voltage pulsed transformer oil based on the Kerr effect is directly measured using a linear array photoelectrical detector. Experimental results demonstrate the applicability and reliability of this method. This study provides a feasible approach to further study the space charge effects and breakdown mechanisms in transformer oil.

Keywords: electric field, Kerr, space charge, transformer oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
7157 Disaggregation the Daily Rainfall Dataset into Sub-Daily Resolution in the Temperate Oceanic Climate Region

Authors: Mohammad Bakhshi, Firas Al Janabi

Abstract:

High resolution rain data are very important to fulfill the input of hydrological models. Among models of high-resolution rainfall data generation, the temporal disaggregation was chosen for this study. The paper attempts to generate three different rainfall resolutions (4-hourly, hourly and 10-minutes) from daily for around 20-year record period. The process was done by DiMoN tool which is based on random cascade model and method of fragment. Differences between observed and simulated rain dataset are evaluated with variety of statistical and empirical methods: Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (K-S), usual statistics, and Exceedance probability. The tool worked well at preserving the daily rainfall values in wet days, however, the generated data are cumulated in a shorter time period and made stronger storms. It is demonstrated that the difference between generated and observed cumulative distribution function curve of 4-hourly datasets is passed the K-S test criteria while in hourly and 10-minutes datasets the P-value should be employed to prove that their differences were reasonable. The results are encouraging considering the overestimation of generated high-resolution rainfall data.

Keywords: DiMoN Tool, disaggregation, exceedance probability, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, rainfall

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
7156 Estimation of the State of Charge of the Battery Using EFK and Sliding Mode Observer in MATLAB-Arduino/Labview

Authors: Mouna Abarkan, Abdelillah Byou, Nacer M'Sirdi, El Hossain Abarkan

Abstract:

This paper presents the estimation of the state of charge of the battery using two types of observers. The battery model used is the combination of a voltage source, which is the open circuit battery voltage of a strength corresponding to the connection of resistors and electrolyte and a series of parallel RC circuits representing charge transfer phenomena and diffusion. An adaptive observer applied to this model is proposed, this observer to estimate the battery state of charge of the battery is based on EFK and sliding mode that is known for their robustness and simplicity implementation. The results are validated by simulation under MATLAB/Simulink and implemented in Arduino-LabView.

Keywords: model of the battery, adaptive sliding mode observer, the EFK observer, estimation of state of charge, SOC, implementation in Arduino/LabView

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
7155 Hourly Solar Radiations Predictions for Anticipatory Control of Electrically Heated Floor: Use of Online Weather Conditions Forecast

Authors: Helene Thieblemont, Fariborz Haghighat

Abstract:

Energy storage systems play a crucial role in decreasing building energy consumption during peak periods and expand the use of renewable energies in buildings. To provide a high building thermal performance, the energy storage system has to be properly controlled to insure a good energy performance while maintaining a satisfactory thermal comfort for building’s occupant. In the case of passive discharge storages, defining in advance the required amount of energy is required to avoid overheating in the building. Consequently, anticipatory supervisory control strategies have been developed forecasting future energy demand and production to coordinate systems. Anticipatory supervisory control strategies are based on some predictions, mainly of the weather forecast. However, if the forecasted hourly outdoor temperature may be found online with a high accuracy, solar radiations predictions are most of the time not available online. To estimate them, this paper proposes an advanced approach based on the forecast of weather conditions. Several methods to correlate hourly weather conditions forecast to real hourly solar radiations are compared. Results show that using weather conditions forecast allows estimating with an acceptable accuracy solar radiations of the next day. Moreover, this technique allows obtaining hourly data that may be used for building models. As a result, this solar radiation prediction model may help to implement model-based controller as Model Predictive Control.

Keywords: anticipatory control, model predictive control, solar radiation forecast, thermal storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
7154 Improving Cyclability and Capacity of Lithium Oxygen Batteries via Low Rate Pre-Activation

Authors: Zhihong Luo, Guangbin Zhu, Lulu Guo, Zhujun Lyu, Kun Luo

Abstract:

Cycling life has become the threshold for the prospective application of Li-O₂ batteries, and the protection of Li anode has recently regarded as the key factor to the performance. Herein, a simple low rate pre-activation (20 cycles at 0.5 Ag⁻¹ and a capacity of 200 mAh g⁻¹) was employed to effectively improve the performance and cyclability of Li-O₂ batteries. The charge/discharge cycles at 1 A g⁻¹ with a capacity of 1000 mAh g⁻¹ were maintained for up to 290 times versus 55 times for the cell without pre-activation. The ultimate battery capacity and high rate discharge property were also largely enhanced. Morphology, XRD and XPS analyses reveal that the performance improvement is in close association with the formation of the smooth and compact surface layer formed on the Li anode after low rate pre-activation, which apparently alleviated the corrosion of Li anode and the passivation of cathode during battery cycling, and the corresponding mechanism was also discussed.

Keywords: lithium oxygen battery, pre-activation, cyclability, capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
7153 Independent Control over Surface Charge and Wettability Using Polyelectrolyte Architecture

Authors: Shanshan Guo, Xiaoying Zhu, Dominik Jańczewski, Koon Gee Neoh

Abstract:

Surface charge and wettability are two prominent physical factors governing cell adhesion and have been extensively studied in the literature. However, a comparison between the two driving forces in terms of their independent and cooperative effects in affecting cell adhesion is rarely explored on a systematic and quantitative level. Herein, we formulate a protocol which allows two-dimensional and independent control over both surface charge and wettability. This protocol enables the unambiguous comparison of the effects of these two properties on cell adhesion. This strategy is implemented by controlling both the relative thickness of polyion layers in the layer-by-layer assembly and the polyion side chain chemical structures. The 2D property matrix spans surface isoelectric point ranging from 5 to 9 and water contact angle from 35º to 70º, with other interferential factors (e.g. roughness) eliminated. The interplay between these two surface variables influences 3T3 fibroblast cell adhesion. The results show that both surface charge and wettability have an effect on its adhesion. The combined effects of positive charge and hydrophilicity led to the highest cell adhesion whereas negative charge and hydrophobicity led to the lowest cell adhesion. Our design strategy can potentially form the basis for studying the distinct behaviors of electrostatic force or wettability driven interfacial phenomena and serving as a reference in future studies assessing cell adhesion to surfaces with known charge and wettability within the property range studied here.

Keywords: cell adhesion, layer-by-layer, surface charge, surface wettability

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
7152 Bench Tests of Two-Stroke Opposed Piston Aircraft Diesel Engine under Propeller Characteristics Conditions

Authors: A. Majczak, G. Baranski, K. Pietrykowski

Abstract:

Due to the growing popularity of light aircraft, it has become necessary to develop aircraft engines for this type of construction. One of engine system, designed to increase efficiency and reduce weight, is the engine with opposed pistons. In such an engine, the combustion chamber is formed by two pistons moving in one cylinder. Therefore, this type of engines run in a two-stroke cycle, so they have many advantages such as high power and torque, high efficiency, or a favorable power-to-weight ratio. Tests of one of the available aircraft engines with opposing piston system fueled with diesel oil were carried out on an engine dynamometer equipped with an eddy current brake and the necessary measuring and testing equipment. In order to get to know the basic parameters of the engine, the tests were carried out under partial load conditions for the following torque values: 40, 60, 80, 100 Nm. The rotational speed was changed from 1600 to 2500 rpm. Measurements were also taken for designated points of propeller characteristics. During the tests, the engine torque, engine power, fuel consumption, intake manifold pressure, and oil pressure were recorded. On the basis of the measurements carried out for particular loads, the power curve, hourly and specific fuel consumption curves were determined. Characteristics of charge pressure as a function of rotational speed as well as power, torque, hourly and specific fuel consumption curves for propeller characteristics were also prepared. The obtained characteristics make it possible to select the optimal points of engine operation.

Keywords: aircraft, diesel, engine testing, opposed piston

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
7151 Effect of Atrial Flutter on Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy

Authors: Ibrahim Ahmed, Richard Amoateng, Akhil Jain, Mohamed Ahmed

Abstract:

Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is a type of acquired cardiomyopathy caused by chronic alcohol consumption. Frequently ACM is associated with arrhythmias such as atrial flutter. Our aim was to characterize the patient demographics and investigate the effect of atrial flutter (AF) on ACM. This was a retrospective cohort study using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database to identify admissions in adults with principal and secondary diagnoses of alcoholic cardiomyopathy and atrial flutter from 2019. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were adjusted for age, gender, race, household income, insurance status, Elixhauser comorbidity score, hospital location, bed size, and teaching status. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality, and secondary outcomes were the length of stay (LOS) and total charge in USD. There was a total of 21,855 admissions with alcoholic cardiomyopathy, of which 1,635 had atrial flutter (AF-ACM). Compared to Non-AF-ACM cohort, AF-ACM cohort had fewer females (4.89% vs 14.54%, p<0.001), were older (58.66 vs 56.13 years, p<0.001), fewer Native Americans (0.61% vs2.67%, p<0.01), had fewer smaller (19.27% vs 22.45%, p<0.01) & medium-sized hospitals (23.24% vs28.98%, p<0.01), but more large-sized hospitals (57.49% vs 48.57%, p<0.01), more Medicare (40.37% vs 34.08%, p<0.05) and fewer Medicaid insured (23.55% vs 33.70%, p=<0.001), fewer hypertension (10.7% vs 15.01%, p<0.05), and more obesity (24.77% vs 16.35%, p<0.001). Compared to Non-AF-ACM cohort, there was no difference in AF-ACM cohort mortality rate (6.13% vs 4.20%, p=0.0998), unadjusted mortality OR 1.49 (95% CI 0.92-2.40, p=0.102), adjusted mortality OR 1.36 (95% CI 0.83-2.24, p=0.221), but there was a difference in LOS 1.23 days (95% CI 0.34-2.13, p<0.01), total charge $28,860.30 (95% CI 11,883.96-45,836.60, p<0.01). In patients admitted with ACM, the presence of AF was not associated with a higher all-cause mortality rate or odds of all-cause mortality; however, it was associated with 1.23 days increase in LOS and a $28,860.30 increase in total hospitalization charge. Native Americans, older age and obesity were risk factors for the presence of AF in ACM.

Keywords: alcoholic cardiomyopathy, atrial flutter, cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
7150 Reduction of Peak Input Currents during Charge Pump Boosting in Monolithically Integrated High-Voltage Generators

Authors: Jan Doutreloigne

Abstract:

This paper describes two methods for the reduction of the peak input current during the boosting of Dickson charge pumps. Both methods are implemented in the fully integrated Dickson charge pumps of a high-voltage display driver chip for smart-card applications. Experimental results reveal good correspondence with Spice simulations and show a reduction of the peak input current by a factor of 6 during boosting

Keywords: bi-stable display driver, Dickson charge pump, high-voltage generator, peak current reduction, sub-pump boosting, variable frequency boosting

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
7149 Effects of Charge Fluctuating Positive Dust on Linear Dust-Acoustic Waves

Authors: Sanjit Kumar Paul, A. A. Mamun, M. R. Amin

Abstract:

The Linear propagation of the dust-acoustic wave in a dusty plasma consisting of Boltzmann distributed electrons and ions and mobile charge fluctuating positive dust grains has been investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. It has been shown that the dust charge fluctuation is a source of dissipation and its responsible for the formation of the dust-acoustic waves in such a dusty plasma. The basic features of such dust-acoustic waves have been identified. It has been proposed to design a new laboratory experiment which will be able to identify the basic features of the dust-acoustic waves predicted in this theoretical investigation.

Keywords: dust acoustic waves, dusty plasma, Boltzmann distributed electrons, charge fluctuation

Procedia PDF Downloads 540
7148 Localising Gauss’s Law and the Electric Charge Induction on a Conducting Sphere

Authors: Sirapat Lookrak, Anol Paisal

Abstract:

Space debris has numerous manifestations, including ferro-metalize and non-ferrous. The electric field will induce negative charges to split from positive charges inside the space debris. In this research, we focus only on conducting materials. The assumption is that the electric charge density of a conducting surface is proportional to the electric field on that surface due to Gauss's Law. We are trying to find the induced charge density from an external electric field perpendicular to a conducting spherical surface. An object is a sphere on which the external electric field is not uniform. The electric field is, therefore, considered locally. The localised spherical surface is a tangent plane, so the Gaussian surface is a very small cylinder, and every point on a spherical surface has its own cylinder. The electric field from a circular electrode has been calculated in near-field and far-field approximation and shown Explanation Touchless maneuvering space debris orbit properties. The electric charge density calculation from a near-field and far-field approximation is done.

Keywords: near-field approximation, far-field approximation, localized Gauss’s law, electric charge density

Procedia PDF Downloads 6
7147 High Productivity Fed-Batch Process for Biosurfactant Production for Enhanced Oil Recovery Applications

Authors: G. A. Amin, A. D. Al-Talhi

Abstract:

The bacterium B. subtilis produced surfactin in conventional batch culture as a growth associated product and a growth rate (0.4 h-1). A fed-batch process was developed and the fermentative substrate and other nutrients were fed on hourly basis and according to the growth rate of the bacterium. Conversion of different quantities of Maldex-15 into surfactin was investigated in five different fermentation runs. In all runs, most of Maldex-15 was consumed and converted into surfactin and cell biomass with appreciable efficiencies. The best results were obtained with fermentation run supplied with 200 g Maldex-15. Up to 35.4 g.l-1 of surfactin and cell biomass of 30.2 g.l-1 were achieved in 12 hrs. Also, markedly substrate yield of 0.269 g/g and volumetric reactor productivity of 2.61 g.1-1.h-1 were obtained confirming the establishment of a cost effective commercial surfactin production.

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis, biosurfactant, exponentially fed-batch fermentation, surfactin

Procedia PDF Downloads 453
7146 Absorption and Carrier Transport Properties of Doped Hematite

Authors: Adebisi Moruf Ademola

Abstract:

Hematite (Fe2O3),commonly known as ‘rust’ which usually surfaced on metal when exposed to some climatic materials. This emerges as a promising candidate for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting due to its favorable physiochemical properties of the narrow band gap (2.1–2.2 eV), chemical stability, nontoxicity, abundance, and low cost. However, inherent limitations such as short hole diffusion length (2–4 nm), high charge recombination rate, and slow oxygen evolution reaction kinetics inhibit the PEC performances of a-Fe2O3 photoanodes. As such, given the narrow bandgap enabling excellent optical absorption, increased charge carrier density and accelerated surface oxidation reaction kinetics become the key points for improved photoelectrochemical performances for a-Fe2O3 photoanodes and metal ion doping as an effective way to promote charge transfer by increasing donor density and improving the electronic conductivity of a-Fe2O3. Hematite attracts enormous efforts with a number of metal ions (Ti, Zr, Sn, Pt ,etc.) as dopants. A facile deposition-annealing process showed greatly enhanced PEC performance due to the increased donor density and reduced electron-hole recombination at the time scale beyond a few picoseconds. Zr doping was also found to enhance the PEC performance of a-Fe2O3 nanorod arrays by reducing the rate of electron-hole recombination. Slow water oxidation reaction kinetics, another main factor limiting the PEC water splitting efficiency of aFe2O3 as photoanodes, was previously found to be effectively improved by surface treatment.

Keywords: deposition-annealing, hematite, metal ion doping, nanorod

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
7145 Multi-Channel Charge-Coupled Device Sensors Real-Time Cell Growth Monitor System

Authors: Han-Wei Shih, Yao-Nan Wang, Ko-Tung Chang, Lung-Ming Fu

Abstract:

A multi-channel cell growth real-time monitor and evaluation system using charge-coupled device (CCD) sensors with 40X lens integrating a NI LabVIEW image processing program is proposed and demonstrated. The LED light source control of monitor system is utilizing 8051 microprocessor integrated with NI LabVIEW software. In this study, the same concentration RAW264.7 cells growth rate and morphology in four different culture conditions (DMEM, LPS, G1, G2) were demonstrated. The real-time cells growth image was captured and analyzed by NI Vision Assistant every 10 minutes in the incubator. The image binarization technique was applied for calculating cell doubling time and cell division index. The cells doubling time and cells division index of four group with DMEM, LPS, LPS+G1, LPS+G2 are 12.3 hr,10.8 hr,14.0 hr,15.2 hr and 74.20%, 78.63%, 69.53%, 66.49%. The image magnification of multi-channel CCDs cell real-time monitoring system is about 100X~200X which compares with the traditional microscope.

Keywords: charge-coupled device (CCD), RAW264.7, doubling time, division index

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
7144 Electrode Performance of Carbon Coated Nanograined LiFePO4 in Lithium Batteries

Authors: Princess Stephanie P. Llanos, Rinlee Butch M. Cervera

Abstract:

Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) is a potential cathode material for lithium-ion batteries due to its promising characteristics. In this study, carbon-coated nanograined LiFePO4 is synthesized via wet chemistry method at a low temperature of 400 °C and investigated its performance as a cathode in Lithium battery. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the synthesized samples can be indexed to an orthorhombic LiFePO4 structure. Agglomerated particles that range from 200 nm to 300 nm are observed from scanning electron microscopy images. Transmission electron microscopy images confirm the crystalline structure of LiFePO4 and coating of amorphous carbon layer. Elemental mapping using Energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis revealed the homogeneous dispersion of Fe, P, O, and C elements. On the other hand, the electrochemical performances of the synthesized cathodes were investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge tests with different C-rates, and cycling performances. Galvanostatic charge and discharge measurements revealed that the sample sintered at 400 °C for 3 hours with carbon coating demonstrated the highest capacity among the samples which reaches up to 160 mAhg⁻¹ at 0.1C rate.

Keywords: cathode, charge-discharge, electrochemical, lithium batteries

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
7143 Electrospray Deposition Technique of Dye Molecules in the Vacuum

Authors: Nouf Alharbi

Abstract:

The electrospray deposition technique became an important method that enables fragile, nonvolatile molecules to be deposited in situ in high vacuum environments. Furthermore, it is considered one of the ways to close the gap between basic surface science and molecular engineering, which represents a gradual change in the range of scientist research. Also, this paper talked about one of the most important techniques that have been developed and aimed for helping to further develop and characterize the electrospray by providing data collected using an image charge detection instrument. Image charge detection mass spectrometry (CDMS) is used to measure speed and charge distributions of the molecular ions. As well as, some data has been included using SIMION simulation to simulate the energies and masses of the molecular ions through the system in order to refine the mass-selection process.

Keywords: charge, deposition, electrospray, image, ions, molecules, SIMION

Procedia PDF Downloads 47