Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1309

Search results for: historical cartography

1309 Retrofitting of Historical Structures in Van City

Authors: Eylem Güzel, Mustafa Gülen

Abstract:

Historical structures are the most important symbols of a country that link the past with the future. In order to transfer them in their present conditions to the next generations, maintaining these historical structures are one of our main tasks. Seismic performance of historical structures damaged by the earthquake effects can be enhanced by repair and retrofitting applications. However, repair and retrofitting applications of historical structures are more complicated compared with the traditional structures. For this reason, they need much more attention in repair and retrofitting applications to preserve the spirit of historical structures. In this study, the present condition of selected historical structures built up in Van city that has a very rich historical heritage is given and the necessity of repair and retrofitting applications of historical structures are debated in detail.

Keywords: historical structures, repair, retrofitting, Van city

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1308 The Cartometric-Geographical Analysis of Ivane Javakhishvili 1922: The Map of the Republic of Georgia

Authors: Manana Kvetenadze, Dali Nikolaishvili

Abstract:

The study revealed the territorial changes of Georgia before the Soviet and Post-Soviet periods. This includes the estimation of the country's borders, its administrative-territorial arrangement change as well as the establishment of territorial losses. Georgia’s old and new borders marked on the map are of great interest. The new boundary shows the condition of 1922 year, following the Soviet period. Neither on this map nor in other works Ivane Javakhishvili talks about what he implies in the old borders, though it is evident that this is the Pre-Soviet boundary until 1921 – i.e., before the period when historical Tao, Zaqatala, Lore, Karaia represented the parts of Georgia. According to cartometric-geographical terms, the work presents detailed analysis of Georgia’s borders, along with this the comparison of research results has been carried out: 1) At the boundary line on Soviet topographic maps, the maps of 100,000; 50,000 and 25,000 scales are used; 2) According to Ivane Javakhishvili’s work ('The borders of Georgia in terms of historical and contemporary issues'). During that research, we used multi-disciplined methodology and software. We used Arc GIS for Georeferencing maps, and after that, we compare all post-Soviet Union maps, in order to determine how the borders have changed. During this work, we also use many historical data. The features of the spatial distribution of the territorial administrative units of Georgia, as well as the distribution of administrative-territorial units of the objects depicted on the map, have been established. The results obtained are presented in the forms of thematic maps and diagrams.

Keywords: border, GIS, georgia, historical cartography, old maps

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1307 Retrospective Cartography of Tbilisi and Surrounding Area

Authors: Dali Nikolaishvili, Nino Khareba, Mariam Tsitsagi

Abstract:

Tbilisi has been a capital of Georgia since the 5ᵗʰ century. City area was covered by forest in historical past. Nowadays the situation has been changing dramatically. Dozens of problems are caused by damages/destruction of green cover and solution, at one glance, seems to be uncomplicated (planting trees and creating green quarters), but on the other hand, according to the increasing tendency, the built up of areas still remains unsolved. Finding out the ways to overcome such obstacles is important even for protecting the health of society. Making of Retrospective cartography of the forest area of Tbilisi with use of GIS technology and remote sensing was the main aim of the research. Research about the dynamic of forest-cover in Tbilisi and its surroundings included the following steps: assessment of the dynamic of forest in Tbilisi and its surroundings. The survey was mainly based on the retrospective mapping method. Using of GIS technology, studying, comparing and identifying the narrative sources was the next step. And the last one was analyzed of the changes from the 80s to the present days on the basis of decryption of remotely sensed images. After creating a unified cartographic basis, the mapping and plans of different periods have been linked to this geodatabase. Data about green parks, individual old plants existing in the private yards and respondents' Information (according to a questionnaire created in advance) was added to the basic database, the general plan of Tbilisi and Scientific works as well. On the basis of analysis of historic, including cartographic sources, forest-cover maps for different periods of time were made. In addition, was made the catalog of individual green parks (location, area, typical composition, name and so on), which was the basis of creating several thematic maps. Areas with a high rate of green area degradation were identified. Several maps depicting the dynamics of forest cover of Tbilisi were created and analyzed. The methods of linking the data of the old cartographic sources to the modern basis were developed too, the result of which may be used in Urban Planning of Tbilisi. Understanding, perceiving and analyzing the real condition of green cover in Tbilisi and its problems, in turn, will help to take appropriate measures for the maintenance of ancient plants, to develop forests and to plan properly parks, squares, and recreational sites. Because the healthy environment is the main condition of human health and implies to the rational development of the city.

Keywords: catalogue of green area, GIS, historical cartography, cartography, remote sensing, Tbilisi

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1306 A Brief Overview of Seven Churches in Van Province

Authors: Eylem Güzel, Soner Guler, Mustafa Gulen

Abstract:

Van province which has a very rich historical heritage is located in eastern part of Turkey, between Lake Van and the Iranian border. Many civilizations prevailing in Van until today have built up many historical structures such as castles, mosques, churches, bridges, baths, etc. In 2011, a devastating earthquake with magnitude 7.2 Mw, epicenter in Tabanlı Village, occurred in Van, where a large part of the city locates in the first-degree earthquake zone. As a result of this earthquake, 644 people were killed; a lot of reinforced, unreinforced and historical structures were badly damaged. Many historical structures damaged due to this earthquake have been restored. In this study, the damages observed in Seven churches (Yedi Kilise) after 2011 Van earthquake is evaluated with regard to architecture and civil engineering perspective.

Keywords: earthquake, historical structures, Van province, church

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1305 “Waving High the Delicate Mistress”: on Feminist Geography and American Identity in the Valley of the Moon

Authors: Yangyang Zhang

Abstract:

In The Valley of the Moon, Jack London implicitly presents the connection between the city and the male, the country and the female, constructing a gender space where the city and the countryside are opposed. But meanwhile, London is constantly dismantling the gender space through the reversed travel map so as to highlight the fluidity and productivity of female space. Under such circumstance, the original gender space has to be reorganized. Through the construction of gendered urban and rural spaces, Jack London presents the national crisis in the process of urbanization of the American West in the late 19th century, while the female-led reversed travel map reproduces the original contribution of the American West to the construction of nationality. In the end, the reorganized neutral space “valley of the moon” reflects the “garden” motif in American national imagination and plays an important role in rebuilding national identity. This research studies the feminist geography and cartography in Jack London's novel The Valley of the Moon and analyzes the gender-politics attribution in the literary geography writing in London's novel on this basis. The research returns to the American historical context at the end of the 19th century, focusing on how London’s feminist geography embodies his sense of nationality and investigating how female-dominated literary cartography reconstructs American identity. This paper takes Literary Cartography, and feminist geography as the ideological guide combines with the discourse of gender politics. comprehensively uses various literary criticism methods such as deconstructionist literary criticism, and new historicism literary criticism, etc., Through the study of Jack London's work, the paper aims to analyse how London constructs a national image by literary geography.

Keywords: American identity, American west, feminist geography, garden motif, the valley of the moon

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1304 Development of Historical City Centers and Revitalization in Isfahan/Iran

Authors: Reihaneh Rafiemanzelt

Abstract:

The need to protect our cultural heritage was stressed on revitalization of historical city centers in communities. The main goals the proses was to attract finance and activities to the historical city centers through the citizens and municipalities participation while cities expanded their boundaries toward suburban areas. Todays the main problems which facing to the most historical city centers, is loss of their centrality through effect of urbanization on any point of the cities which is the most important issue on neglect and abandonment of the historical central area by decentralizing living, commerce and public areas. This article evaluate the ways in which city center revitalization can be effect on vitality and viability of the central area in case of Naghshe Jahan square which situated at the center of Isfahan city, Iran. Constructed between 1598 and 1629, it is now an important historical site, and one of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites.

Keywords: urban development, revitalization, city centers, vitality and viability

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1303 Revisiting the Historical Narratives of the Old Churches in Albay, Bikol Region, Philippines

Authors: Ruby Ann L. Ayo

Abstract:

As cultural heritage reflects the historical origin of a certain group of people, it reveals their customs, traits, beliefs, practices and even values they hold on for years. One of the tangible examples of cultural heritage is the physical structures including the old churches. The study looked-into the existing historical narratives of the century Old Catholic churches in the Province of Albay, Bikol Region, Philippines: NuestraSeñora de Salvacion in Joroan, Tiwi, Albay; the Our Lady of the Gate in Daraga, Albay; the San Juan de Bautista in Tabaco City and the St. John the Baptist in Camalig, Albay. The historical narratives were analysed in terms of validity and reliability of the secondary documents with reference to the elements of history revealing consistency and adequacy of historical facts. The contents were examined using a modified Checklist of Historical Documents. The historical narratives were likewise submitted to the content expert for validation as regards historical authenticity and accuracy. The contents of the narratives were scrutinized according to the following codes: (1.1) the Patron Saints;(1.2) factors that paved to their constructions; (1.3) the people responsible for their constructions; (1.4) the misconceptions about their constructions; and (1.5) their contributions to Bikol heritage. Based on the codes, themes were identified as: (2.1) Marian Devotees and Christ-centered Patron Saints; (2.2) geographical, socio-political and cultural factors; (2.3) church and government officials; (2.4) misconceptions on the dates of constructions and original sites; and (2.5) popular pilgrim sites and well-admired architectural designs.

Keywords: historical narratives, old churches, cultural heritage, historical validity and reliability, elements of history

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1302 The Usage of Adobe in Historical Structures of Van City

Authors: Mustafa Gülen, Eylem Güzel, Soner Guler

Abstract:

The studies concentrated on the historical background of Van show the fact that Van has had a significant position as a settlement since ancient times and that it has hosted many civilizations during history. With the dominance of Ottoman Empire in 16th century, the region had been re-constructed by building new walls at the southern side of Van Castle. These construction activities had mostly been fulfilled by the usage of adobe which had been a fundamental material for thousands of years. As a result of natural disasters, battles and the move at the threshold of 20th century to the new settlement which is 9 kilometers away from the Ancient City Van is an open-air museum with the ruins of churches, mosques and baths. In this study, the usage of adobe in historical structures of Van city is evaluated in detail.

Keywords: historical structures, adobe, Van city, adobe

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1301 Implementation-Oriented Discussion for Historical and Cultural Villages’ Conservation Planning

Authors: Xing Zhang

Abstract:

Since the State Council of China issued the Regulations on the Conservation of Historical Cultural Towns and Villages in 2008, formulation of conservation planning has been carried out in national, provincial and municipal historical and cultural villages for protection needs, which provides a legal basis for inheritance of historical culture and protection of historical resources. Although the quantity and content of the conservation planning are continually increasing, the implementation and application are still ambiguous. To solve the aforementioned problems, this paper explores methods to enhance the implementation of conservation planning from the perspective of planning formulation. Specifically, the technical framework of "overall objectives planning - sub-objectives planning - zoning guidelines - implementation by stages" is proposed to implement the planning objectives in different classifications and stages. Then combined with details of the Qiqiao historical and cultural village conservation planning project in Ningbo, five sub-objectives are set, which are implemented through the village zoning guidelines. At the same time, the key points and specific projects in the near-term, medium-term and long-term work are clarified, and the spatial planning is transformed into the action plan with time scale. The proposed framework and method provide a reference for the implementation and management of the conservation planning of historical and cultural villages in the future.

Keywords: conservation planning, planning by stages, planning implementation, zoning guidelines

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1300 The Usage of Mudbrick in Historical Structures of Van City

Authors: Mustafa Gulen, Eylem Guzel, Soner Guler

Abstract:

The studies concentrated on the historical background of Van city show the fact that Van city has had a significant position as a settlement since ancient times and that it has hosted many civilizations during history. With the dominance of Ottoman Empire in 16th century, the region had been re-constructed by building new walls at the southern side of Van Castle. These construction activities had mostly been fulfilled by the usage of mudbrick which had been a fundamental material for thousands of years. As a result of natural disasters, battles and the move at the threshold of 20th century to the new settlement which is 9 kilometers away from the Ancient City Van is an open-air museum with the ruins of churches, mosques and baths. In this study, the usage of mudbrick from past till today in historical structures of Van city is evaluated in detail.

Keywords: historical structures, history, mudbrick, Van city

Procedia PDF Downloads 447
1299 Historical Studies on Gilt Decorations on Glazed Surfaces

Authors: Sabra Saeidi

Abstract:

This research focuses on the historical techniques associated with the lajevardina and Haft-Rangi production methods in creating tiles, with emphasis on the identification of the techniques of inserting gold sheets on the surface of such historical glazed tiles. In this regard, firstly, the history of the production of enamel, gold plated, and Lajevardina glazed pottery work made during the Khwarizmanshahid and Mongol era (eleventh to the thirteenth century) have been assessed to reach a better understanding of the background and the history associated with historical glazing methods. After the historical overview of the production technique of glazed pottery work and introductions of the civilizations using those techniques, we focused on the niches production methods of enamel and Lajevardina glazing, which are two categories of decorations usually found in tiles. Next, a general classification method for various types of gilt tiles has been introduced, which is applicable to the tile works up to Safavid period (Sixteenth to the seventeenth century). Gilded lajevardina glazed tiles, gilt Haft-Rangi tiles, monolithic glazed gilt tiles, and gilt mosaic tiles are included in the categories.

Keywords: gilt tiles, Islamic art, Iranian art, historical studies, gilding

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1298 Difficulty and Complexity in Dealing with Visual Pollution in the Historical Cities: The Historical City of Ibb-Yemen as a Case Study

Authors: Abdulfattah A. Q .Alwah, Wen Li, Mohammed A. Q. Alwah, Duc Thien Tran, Bing Xi Liu

Abstract:

The historical cities in the third world suffer from many environmental problems; one of them is the spread of visual pollution manifestations. These phenomena increase with low levels of public awareness and low per capita income. The historical city of Ibb is suffering from a variety of visual pollution of the urban environment, so it has been chosen as a case study. This study aims to identify the difficulty and complexity of dealing with visual pollutions manifestations in the historical city of Ibb, and to provide appropriate solutions, which suit with the complex and contradictory circumstances. The study relies on an inductive approach to achieve its aims through two methods; the first is a visual survey of the visual pollution phenomenon based on images and researcher notes. The Second method is the analyses of the opinions and impressions of the city's residents and visitors through interviews, in addition to interviews with the officials in the competent authorities, and some specialists in the field of urban environment. Through the results of the field study and discussion of the interview results, this study presents an analysis of the phenomenon of visual distortion of the historical city of Ibb regarding the appearances and the reasons. Furthermore, this study provides appropriate solutions, which suitable with the complex and contradictory circumstances. These solutions take two paths: the first one is to stop the spread of visual distortions, and the second path is to address the current visual pollutions.

Keywords: visual pollution, visual image, urban environment, difficulty, complexity, historical cities, the historical city of Ibb

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1297 Digital Mapping as a Tool for Finding Cities' DNA

Authors: Sanja Peter

Abstract:

Transformation of urban environments can be compared to evolutionary processes. Systematic digital mapping of historical data can enable capturing some of these processes and their outcomes. For example, it may help reveal the structure of a city’s historical DNA. Gathering historical data for automatic processing may be giving a basis for cultural algorithms. Gothenburg City museum is trying to make city’s heritage information accessible through GIS-platforms and is now partnering with academic institutions to find appropriate methods to make accessible the knowledge on the city’s historical fabric. Hopefully, this will be carried out through a project called Digital Twin Cities. One part of this large project, concerning matters of Cultural Heritage, will be in collaboration with Chalmers University of Technology. The aim is to create a layered map showing historical developments of the city and extracting quantitative data about its built heritage, above and below the earth. It will allow interpreting the information from historic maps through, for example, names of the streets/places, geography, structural changes in urban fabric and information gathered by archaeologists’ excavations. Through the study of these geographical, historical and local metamorphoses, urban environment will reveal its metaphorical DNA or its MEM (Dawkins).

Keywords: Gothenburg, mapping, cultural heritage, city history

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1296 In Search of Lost Subject: Marx's Historical Materialism, Subject and Existentialism

Authors: Doruk Atahan Erbas

Abstract:

This paper concerns the early writings of Karl Marx, specifically The Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, The German Ideology and Theses on Feuerbach. The two crucial themes of these early writings are the doctrine called historical materialism and, as a worker, the worker's resistance towards the current condition of society out of the division of labor. After Marx, including his closest friend Friedrich Engels, some of the philosophers, activists, and politicians have considered the historical materialism as a rigorous science which includes the explanation of historical causality manifested in the social, political sphere. However, this consideration, by its description as a science, is completely alienated from the concept of subject (as the suffering worker) nothing other than one of the abovementioned themes. Therefore, from this perspective, Marx's early doctrine seems to be self contradictory. The alternative approach which will be introduced in this essay offers a new basis for a correlation between the concept of subject and historical materiality by means of investigating materiality as phenomenality and ultimately rereading Marx as a creator of an existential subject surrounded by phenomenality. So that, it provides an opportunity to rethink the concept of historical materiality from an existential point of view.

Keywords: existentialism, Karl Marx, materiality, phenomenality, subject

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1295 Ill-Defined and Ill-Equipped: Understanding the Limits of the Concept of Truth in South Africa’S Truth and Reconciliation Commission

Authors: Keo Mbebe

Abstract:

The South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) is widely regarded as a blueprint for countries seeking to transcend the atrocities of their past and create a new human rights-based administration. The aim of these societies is to establish historical truth. Within the TRC, the aspects of truth-finding and truth-telling were considered to be catalysts for national unity and reconciliation. Truth-seeking, in addition, was mandated in the Promotion of National Unity and Reconciliation Act (TRC Act), which is the legislation behind the TRC. However, there is an incongruency between the conception of truth outlined in the Act, and the conception of truth explained in the Report of the TRC proceedings. The aim of this paper is to delineate these two kinds of “truth” and to critically analyze them. Doing so, it will then be evident in the discussion that there is a need for substantial clarity in the conception of truth used in transitional justice settings based on truth-finding and truth-seeking, and the paper will present ways in which such clarity may be achieved. The paper will begin with a philosophical engagement on the notion of historical truth used by the TRC legislation. Thereafter, the historical background to the political context in which the TRC Act was mandated will be provided. The next section would then be a sketch of the conceptions of historical truth and historical injustice in the Act, as well as its supporting documents. Lastly, it will be argued that the subversion of the TRC’s mandate to promote reconciliation and national unity by bringing to light past human rights violations during apartheid is betrayed by its amorphous conception of historical truth.

Keywords: historical truth, human rights, transitional justice, truth commission

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1294 Analysis of Coloring Styles of Brazilian Urban Heritage

Authors: Natalia Naoumova

Abstract:

Facing changes and continuous growth of the contemporary cities, along with the globalization effects that accelerate cultural dissolution, the maintenance of cultural authenticity, which is implicit in historical areas as a part of cultural diversity, can be considered one of the key elements of a sustainable society. This article focuses on the polychromy of buildings in a historical context as an important feature of urban settings. It analyses the coloring of Brazilian urban heritage, characterized by the study of historical districts in Pelotas and Piratini, located in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The objective is to reveal the coloring characteristics of different historical periods, determine the chromatic typologies of the corresponding building styles, and clarify the connection between the historical chromatic aspects and their relationship with the contemporary urban identity. Architectural style data were collected by different techniques such as stratigraphic prospects of buildings, survey of historical records and descriptions, analysis of images and study of projects with colored facades kept in historical archives. Three groups of characteristics were considered in searching for working criteria in the formation of chromatic model typologies: 1) coloring palette; 2) morphology of the facade, and 3) their relationship. The performed analysis shows the formation of the urban chromatic image of the historical center as a continuous and dynamic process with the development of constant chromatic resources. It establishes that the changes in the formal language of subsequent historical periods lead to the changes in the chromatic schemes, providing a different reading of the facades both in terms of formal interpretation and symbolic meaning.

Keywords: building style, historic colors, urban heritage, urban polychromy

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1293 The Analysis of the Protection of Historical and Cultural Heritage in the Development of Cities: Taking Quzhou Ancient City as an Example

Authors: Zhen Shu

Abstract:

The historical and cultural heritage demonstrates the wisdom of the entire nation and it has left its own traces in the process of urban construction. It has very important instructional significance for the construction of modern cities and the development of cultural aspects of modern people. The Protection of historical and cultural heritage has become an inevitable choice for the development of modern civilization. This paper discusses the relationship between urban development and historic preservation. And it emphasizes the important value of strengthening the protection of historical and cultural heritage in urban construction, introduces the value of cultural heritage, the process of historic preservation and its problems in Quzhou, Zhejiang Province. In conclusion, we puts forward some Suggestions for strengthening the protection of historical heritage in the process of urban construction.

Keywords: cultural heritage, historic preservation, Quzhou ancient city, urban development

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1292 A Recognition Method for Spatio-Temporal Background in Korean Historical Novels

Authors: Seo-Hee Kim, Kee-Won Kim, Seung-Hoon Kim

Abstract:

The most important elements of a novel are the characters, events and background. The background represents the time, place and situation that character appears, and conveys event and atmosphere more realistically. If readers have the proper knowledge about background of novels, it may be helpful for understanding the atmosphere of a novel and choosing a novel that readers want to read. In this paper, we are targeting Korean historical novels because spatio-temporal background especially performs an important role in historical novels among the genre of Korean novels. To the best of our knowledge, we could not find previous study that was aimed at Korean novels. In this paper, we build a Korean historical national dictionary. Our dictionary has historical places and temple names of kings over many generations as well as currently existing spatial words or temporal words in Korean history. We also present a method for recognizing spatio-temporal background based on patterns of phrasal words in Korean sentences. Our rules utilize postposition for spatial background recognition and temple names for temporal background recognition. The knowledge of the recognized background can help readers to understand the flow of events and atmosphere, and can use to visualize the elements of novels.

Keywords: data mining, Korean historical novels, Korean linguistic feature, spatio-temporal background

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1291 Displaying Compostela: Literature, Tourism and Cultural Representation, a Cartographic Approach

Authors: Fernando Cabo Aseguinolaza, Víctor Bouzas Blanco, Alberto Martí Ezpeleta

Abstract:

Santiago de Compostela became a stable object of literary representation during the period between 1840 and 1915, approximately. This study offers a partial cartographical look at this process, suggesting that a cultural space like Compostela’s becoming an object of literary representation paralleled the first stages of its becoming a tourist destination. We use maps as a method of analysis to show the interaction between a corpus of novels and the emerging tradition of tourist guides on Compostela during the selected period. Often, the novels constitute ways to present a city to the outside, marking it for the gaze of others, as guidebooks do. That leads us to examine the ways of constructing and rendering communicable the local in other contexts. For that matter, we should also acknowledge the fact that a good number of the narratives in the corpus evoke the representation of the city through the figure of one who comes from elsewhere: a traveler, a student or a professor. The guidebooks coincide in this with the emerging fiction, of which the mimesis of a city is a key characteristic. The local cannot define itself except through a process of symbolic negotiation, in which recognition and self-recognition play important roles. Cartography shows some of the forms that these processes of symbolic representation take through the treatment of space. The research uses GIS to find significant models of representation. We used the program ArcGIS for the mapping, defining the databases starting from an adapted version of the methodology applied by Barbara Piatti and Lorenz Hurni’s team at the University of Zurich. First, we designed maps that emphasize the peripheral position of Compostela from a historical and institutional perspective using elements found in the texts of our corpus (novels and tourist guides). Second, other maps delve into the parallels between recurring techniques in the fictional texts and characteristic devices of the guidebooks (sketching itineraries and the selection of zones and indexicalization), like a foreigner’s visit guided by someone who knows the city or the description of one’s first entrance into the city’s premises. Last, we offer a cartography that demonstrates the connection between the best known of the novels in our corpus (Alejandro Pérez Lugín’s 1915 novel La casa de la Troya) and the first attempt to create package tourist tours with Galicia as a destination, in a joint venture of Galician and British business owners, in the years immediately preceding the Great War. Literary cartography becomes a crucial instrument for digging deeply into the methods of cultural production of places. Through maps, the interaction between discursive forms seemingly so far removed from each other as novels and tourist guides becomes obvious and suggests the need to go deeper into a complex process through which a city like Compostela becomes visible on the contemporary cultural horizon.

Keywords: compostela, literary geography, literary cartography, tourism

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1290 Data Gathering and Analysis for Arabic Historical Documents

Authors: Ali Dulla

Abstract:

This paper introduces a new dataset (and the methodology used to generate it) based on a wide range of historical Arabic documents containing clean data simple and homogeneous-page layouts. The experiments are implemented on printed and handwritten documents obtained respectively from some important libraries such as Qatar Digital Library, the British Library and the Library of Congress. We have gathered and commented on 150 archival document images from different locations and time periods. It is based on different documents from the 17th-19th century. The dataset comprises differing page layouts and degradations that challenge text line segmentation methods. Ground truth is produced using the Aletheia tool by PRImA and stored in an XML representation, in the PAGE (Page Analysis and Ground truth Elements) format. The dataset presented will be easily available to researchers world-wide for research into the obstacles facing various historical Arabic documents such as geometric correction of historical Arabic documents.

Keywords: dataset production, ground truth production, historical documents, arbitrary warping, geometric correction

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1289 Public Squares and Their Potential for Social Interactions: A Case Study of Historical Public Squares in Tehran

Authors: Asma Mehan

Abstract:

Under the thrust of technological changes, population growth and vehicular traffic, Iranian historical squares have lost their significance and they are no longer the main social nodes of the society. This research focuses on how historical public squares can inspire designers to enhance social interactions among citizens in Iranian urban context. Moreover, the recent master plan of Tehran demonstrates the lack of public spaces designed for the purpose of people’s social gatherings. For filling this gap, first the current situation of 7 selected primary historical public squares in Tehran including Sabze Meydan, Arg, Topkhaneh, Baherstan, Mokhber-al-dole, Rah Ahan and Hassan Abad have been compared. Later, the influencing elements on social interactions of the public squares such as subjective factors (human relationships and memories) and objective factors (natural and built environment) have been investigated. As a conclusion, some strategies are proposed for improving social interactions in historical public squares like; holding cultural, national, athletic and religious events, defining different and new functions in public squares’ surrounding, increasing pedestrian routs, reviving the collective memory, demonstrating the historical importance of square, eliminating visual obstacles across the square, organization the natural elements of the square, appropriate pavement for social activities. Finally, it is argued that the combination of all influencing factors which are: human interactions, natural elements and built environment criteria will lead to enhance the historical public squares’ potential for social interaction.

Keywords: historical square, Iranian public square, social interaction, Tehran

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1288 An Evaluation Model for Automatic Map Generalization

Authors: Quynhan Tran, Hong Fan, Quockhanh Pham

Abstract:

Automatic map generalization is a well-known problem in cartography. The development of map generalization research accompanied the development of cartography. The traditional map is plotted manually by cartographic experts. The paper studies none-scale automation generalization of resident polygons and house marker symbol, proposes methodology to evaluate the result maps based on minimal spanning tree. In this paper, the minimal spanning tree before and after map generalization is compared to evaluate whether the generalization result maintain the geographical distribution of features. The minimal spanning tree in vector format is firstly converted into a raster format and the grid size is 2mm (distance on the map). The statistical number of matching grid before and after map generalization and the ratio of overlapping grid to the total grids is calculated. Evaluation experiments are conduct to verify the results. Experiments show that this methodology can give an objective evaluation for the feature distribution and give specialist an hand while they evaluate result maps of none-scale automation generalization with their eyes.

Keywords: automatic cartography generalization, evaluation model, geographic feature distribution, minimal spanning tree

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1287 Reinvestment of the Urban Context in Historic Cities: The Case Study of El Sheikh Kandil Street, Rosetta, Egypt

Authors: Riham A. Ragheb, Ingy M. Naguib

Abstract:

Conservation and urban investment are a prerequisite to improve the quality of life. Since the historic street is a part of the economic system, it should be able to play an important role in the city development by upgrading all services, public open spaces and reuse of historical buildings and sites. Furthermore, historical conservation enriches the political, economic, social, cultural and functional aspects of the site. Rosetta has been selected as an area of study because it has a unique character due to its possession of a variety of monuments and historical buildings. The aim of this research is to analyze the existing situation of an historic street named El Sheikh Kandil, to be able to identify the potentials and problems. The paper gives a proposal for the redesign and reinvestment of the street and the reuse for the historical buildings to serve the community, users and visitors. Then, it concludes with recommendations to improve quality of life through the rehabilitation of the historical buildings and strengthening of the cultural and historical identity of the street. Rosetta city can benefit from these development proposals by preserving and revitalizing its unique character which leads to tourism development and benefits from the new investments.

Keywords: adaptive reuse, heritage street, historic investment, restoration, urban design

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1286 Words Spotting in the Images Handwritten Historical Documents

Authors: Issam Ben Jami

Abstract:

Information retrieval in digital libraries is very important because most famous historical documents occupy a significant value. The word spotting in historical documents is a very difficult notion, because automatic recognition of such documents is naturally cursive, it represents a wide variability in the level scale and translation words in the same documents. We first present a system for the automatic recognition, based on the extraction of interest points words from the image model. The extraction phase of the key points is chosen from the representation of the image as a synthetic description of the shape recognition in a multidimensional space. As a result, we use advanced methods that can find and describe interesting points invariant to scale, rotation and lighting which are linked to local configurations of pixels. We test this approach on documents of the 15th century. Our experiments give important results.

Keywords: feature matching, historical documents, pattern recognition, word spotting

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1285 Energy Saving, Heritage Conserving Renovation Methods in Case of Historical Building Stock

Authors: Viktória Sugár, Zoltán Laczó, András Horkai, Gyula Kiss, Attila Talamon

Abstract:

The majority of the building stock of Budapest inner districts was built around the turn of the 19th and 20th century. Although the structural stability of the buildings is not questioned, as the load bearing structures are in sufficient state, the secondary structures are aged, resulting unsatisfactory energetic state. The renovation of these historical buildings requires special methodology and technology: their ornamented facades and custom-made fenestration cannot be insulated or exchanged with conventional solutions without damaging the heritage values. The present paper aims to introduce and systematize the possible technological solutions for heritage respecting energy retrofit in case of a historical residential building stock. Through case study, the possible energy saving potential is also calculated using multiple renovation scenarios.

Keywords: energy efficiency, heritage, historical building, renovation

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1284 Explication of the Relationship between Historical Trauma, Culture Loss, and Native American Youth Suicide: A Review of Related Literature

Authors: Julie A. LaRose

Abstract:

Native American youth, ages 10-24, have the highest rate of suicide in the United States. The hopelessness experienced by the native American youth is linked to psychosocial reasons more than biological or intrapsychic reasons. Two significant social determinants of health that diminish their hope include historical trauma and cultural loss. Intergenerational grief is caused by historical trauma from hundreds of years of colonization, broken treaties, and forced migration, leading to land, resources, and sovereignty loss. Forced acculturation through boarding schools that native children were required to attend led to the loss of traditions and culture. The result is hopelessness. This paper reviewed peer-reviewed research literature, government reports, non-government organizations reports, and video and written publications by Native Americans. Building hope through healing historical trauma and embracing cultural traditions may reduce suicide rates among Native American youth.

Keywords: culture loss, historical trauma, Native American, suicide, suicide rates

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1283 Research on the Path of Renewal and Activation of Public Space in Guangzhou Historical City under the Guidance of Public Art

Authors: Jingjing Li, Shifu Wang

Abstract:

After the irreversible consequences of the traditional renewal mode of ‘function first and then beautification’, such as the constructive destruction, social differentiation, and cultural, ecological imbalance, the renewal of the historical urban area began to pay attention to the excavation of cultural connotation, and entered a new stage from the pursuit of ‘quantity’ growth to the promotion of ‘quality’, expecting to rejuvenate the old city through the intervention of public art. This paper interprets the cases at home and abroad, summarizes the different forms of expression and application strategies of public art in the renewal of historical urban areas, and combs the limitations of the existing practice in Guangzhou through observation. Finally, it puts forward suggestions from three aspects of the system, implementation strategy, and implementation path, respectively, and explores the path of simultaneous rejuvenation of material space and cultural space in historical urban areas under the intervention of public art.

Keywords: public art, historic city, public space, renewal activation

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1282 Knowledge Diffusion via Automated Organizational Cartography (Autocart)

Authors: Mounir Kehal

Abstract:

The post-globalization epoch has placed businesses everywhere in new and different competitive situations where knowledgeable, effective and efficient behavior has come to provide the competitive and comparative edge. Enterprises have turned to explicit - and even conceptualizing on tacit - knowledge management to elaborate a systematic approach to develop and sustain the intellectual capital needed to succeed. To be able to do that, you have to be able to visualize your organization as consisting of nothing but knowledge and knowledge flows, whilst being presented in a graphical and visual framework, referred to as automated organizational cartography. Hence, creating the ability of further actively classifying existing organizational content evolving from and within data feeds, in an algorithmic manner, potentially giving insightful schemes and dynamics by which organizational know-how is visualized. It is discussed and elaborated on most recent and applicable definitions and classifications of knowledge management, representing a wide range of views from mechanistic (systematic, data driven) to a more socially (psychologically, cognitive/metadata driven) orientated. More elaborate continuum models, for knowledge acquisition and reasoning purposes, are being used for effectively representing the domain of information that an end user may contain in their decision making process for utilization of available organizational intellectual resources (i.e. Autocart). In this paper, we present an empirical research study conducted previously to try and explore knowledge diffusion in a specialist knowledge domain.

Keywords: knowledge management, knowledge maps, knowledge diffusion, organizational cartography

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1281 Gluteal Augmentation: A Historical Perspective on Society's Fascination with Buttock Size

Authors: Shane R. Jackson

Abstract:

Gluteal augmentation with fat grafting, commonly referred to as the Brazilian Butt Lift, is the fastest-growing cosmetic surgical procedure, despite the risks and controversy that surrounds it. While many commentators attribute this rise in popularity with current societal trends towards public sharing of private life, the fascination with buttock size is in fact a much older human trait. By searching beyond medical literature and delving into historical sources, from ancient civilisations, through the Renaissance and Victorian eras to the ‘Instagram generation’ of the present day, this paper examines the differences – and similarities – in society’s ideal buttock shape and size. Furthermore, the ways in which these various cultures have altered their appearance to achieve this ideal are also examined, looking at the influence of the broader historical context. A deeper understanding of the historical, cultural and psychosocial factors that influence a patient’s desire for buttock augmentation allows the clinician to formulate a well-rounded surgical plan.

Keywords: augmentation, Brazilian butt lift, buttock, fat graft, gluteal

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1280 Bayesian Borrowing Methods for Count Data: Analysis of Incontinence Episodes in Patients with Overactive Bladder

Authors: Akalu Banbeta, Emmanuel Lesaffre, Reynaldo Martina, Joost Van Rosmalen

Abstract:

Including data from previous studies (historical data) in the analysis of the current study may reduce the sample size requirement and/or increase the power of analysis. The most common example is incorporating historical control data in the analysis of a current clinical trial. However, this only applies when the historical control dataare similar enough to the current control data. Recently, several Bayesian approaches for incorporating historical data have been proposed, such as the meta-analytic-predictive (MAP) prior and the modified power prior (MPP) both for single control as well as for multiple historical control arms. Here, we examine the performance of the MAP and the MPP approaches for the analysis of (over-dispersed) count data. To this end, we propose a computational method for the MPP approach for the Poisson and the negative binomial models. We conducted an extensive simulation study to assess the performance of Bayesian approaches. Additionally, we illustrate our approaches on an overactive bladder data set. For similar data across the control arms, the MPP approach outperformed the MAP approach with respect to thestatistical power. When the means across the control arms are different, the MPP yielded a slightly inflated type I error (TIE) rate, whereas the MAP did not. In contrast, when the dispersion parameters are different, the MAP gave an inflated TIE rate, whereas the MPP did not.We conclude that the MPP approach is more promising than the MAP approach for incorporating historical count data.

Keywords: count data, meta-analytic prior, negative binomial, poisson

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