Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 223

Search results for: historic

223 Assessment of the Remains in Historic Urban Area Based on Spatial Prototype: Case Study on Jingmen City, China

Authors: Guangtong Xu, Yi He

Abstract:

Like most historic and cultural cities in China, the historic urban area of Jingmen city is facing a typical spatial problem of fragmentation and fuzzification. This study focuses on exploring a method for evaluating the existing values of historic urban area based on spatial prototype, a concept introduced into urban morphology from 'Archetype' in architectural typology. As the spatial elements and built-up relationship of historic city, spatial prototype has habitual structural characteristics and formal modulus. It is the inherent logic and order rules behind the scattered historic environment, providing a clue to understand the spatial characteristics and a basis for guiding the construction and conservation in historic urban areas. Three criteria, the resolution of historical elements, the completeness of historical structure and the renewal potential of associated land, were selected to construct the integrated assessment system. These three dimensions are linked to the spatial prototype and its constituent elements, as well as the transformation relationship in ancient and present day. The results showed that historic urban areas have changed from a holistic city to different existing types dominated by their historic structure elements. It is necessary to improve the pertinence of planning strategies and develop diversified management measures in the conservation scope of historic urban area. Moreover, a constructive-conservation strategy should be put forward to enhance the integrity of historic urban area based on the trace of spatial prototype and evaluation results.

Keywords: constructive conservation, existing value, historic urban area, spatial prototype

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222 Sense of Place in Historic City

Authors: Hiba Alkhalaf

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Historic cities and places of cultural significance is continuously under the pressure of economic development and social change that threaten its natural and cultural environment. The challenge here is to find a balance between preserving the cultural character while ensuring the socio-economic gains and continuity of its uniqueness. That is by sustaining the use, character, meaning and social interaction associated with the place, in other words the sense of place. The main argument here is what we attempt to conserve is the cultural physical and non-physical dimensions of the historic city. It is based on the proposition that what give the historic city its character is its strong sense of place- whether it is historic or current. When properly identified, its various dimensions (use, meaning and form) would help determine what to sustain and what not by making the development meaningfully related to the uniqueness of the historic place. Accordingly, those socio-economic features within the context of a changing historic environment needed to be clarified. This paper, thus, explores the various perspectives of the role of sense of place within the historic city and its connection to cultural heritage. It also reviews urban conservation practice as it is currently understood in the context of historic city development. It concludes that sense of place lies in complex interrelated relationships between various users of the place and the physical, economic, cultural, political, and environmental contexts in which they interact. This calls for the need to sustain the sense of place as part of the overall urban development and conservation strategies.

Keywords: cultural heritage, historic urban areas, urban development, sense of place

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221 Urban Regeneration of Historic Paths: A Case Study of Kom El Dekka Historic Path

Authors: Ahmed R. Ismail, Hatem A. El Tawil, Nevin G. Rezk

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Historic paths in today's cities are facing the pressure of the urban development due to the rapid urban growth. Every new development is tearing the old urban fabric and the socio-economic character of the historic paths. Furthermore, in some cases historic paths suffer from negligence and decay. Kom El Dekka historic path was one of those deteriorated paths in the city of Alexandria, Egypt, in spite of its high heritage and socio-economic value. Therefore, there was a need to develop urban regeneration strategies as a part of a wider sustainable development vision, to handle the situation and revitalize the path as a livable space in the heart of the city. This study aims to develop a comprehensive assessment methodology to evaluate the different values of the path and to create community-oriented and economic-based analysis methodology for its socio-economic values. These analysis and assessments provide strategies for any regeneration action plan for Kom El Dekka historic path.

Keywords: community-oriented, economic-based, syntactical analysis, urban regeneration

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220 Developing a Theory for Study of Transformation of Historic Cities

Authors: Sana Ahrar

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Cities are undergoing rapid transformation with the change in lifestyle and technological advancements. These transformations may be experienced or physically visible in the built form. This paper focuses on the relationship between the social, physical environment, change in lifestyle and the interrelated factors influencing the transformation of any historic city. Shahjahanabad as a city has undergone transformation under the various political powers as well as the various policy implementations after independence. These visible traces of transformation diffused throughout the city may be due to socio-economic, historic, political factors and due to the globalization process. This study shall enable evolving a theory for the study of transformation of Historic cities such as Shahjahanabad: which has been plundered, rebuilt, and which still thrives as a ‘living heritage city’. The theory developed will be the process of studying the transformation and can be used by planners, policy makers and researchers in different urban contexts.

Keywords: heritage, historic cities, Shahjahanabad, transformation

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219 Effects of Blast Load on Historic Stone Masonry Buildings in Canada: A Review and Analytical Study

Authors: Abass Braimah, Maha Hussein Abdallah

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The global ascendancy of terrorist attacks on building infrastructure with economic and heritage significance has increased awareness of the possibility of terrorism in Canada. Many structures in Canada that are at risk of terrorist attacks include government buildings, built many years ago of historic stone masonry construction. Although many researchers are investigating ways to retrofit masonry stone buildings to mitigate the effect of blast loadings, lack of knowledge on the dynamic behavior of historic stone masonry structures under blast loads makes it difficult to ascertain the effectiveness of the retrofitting techniques. This paper presents a review of open-source literature for the experimental and numerical stone masonry structures under blast loads. This review yielded very little information of the response of the historic stone masonry structures under blast loads. Thus, a comprehensive study is needed to understand the blast load effects on historic stone masonry buildings. The out-of-plane response of historic masonry structures to blast loads is investigated by using single-degree-of-freedom analysis. This approach presents equations that can be used effectively in the analysis of historic masonry walls to out-of-plane blast loading.

Keywords: blast loads, historical buildings, masonry structure, single-degree-of-freedom analysis

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218 Blending Values for Historic Neighborhood Upliftment: Case of Heritage Hotel in Ahmedabad

Authors: Vasudha Saraogi

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Heritage hotels are architectural marvels and embody a number of values of heritage discourses within them. The adaptive re-use of old structures to make them commercially viable as heritage hotels, not only boosts tourism and the local economy but also brings in development for the neighborhood in which it is located. This paper seeks to study the value created by heritage hotels in general and French Haveli (Ahmedabad) in particular using the single case study methodology. The paper draws upon the concept of the Italian model of Albergo Diffuso and its implementation via French Haveli, for value creation and development in Dhal Ni Pol (a historic neighborhood) while recognizing the importance of stakeholders to the process of the historic neighborhood upliftment.

Keywords: heritage discourses, historic neighborhoods, heritage hotel, Old City Ahmedabad

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217 Indoor Microclimate in a Historic Library: Considerations on the Positive Effect of Historic Books on the Stability of Indoor Relative Humidity

Authors: Magda Posani, Maria Do Rosario Veiga, Vasco Peixoto De Freitas

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The presented research considers the hygrothermal data acquired in the municipal library of Porto. The library is housed in an XVIII century convent and, among all the rooms in the construction, one, in particular, was chosen for the monitoring campaign because of the presence of a great number of historic books. Temperature and relative humidity, as well as CO₂ concentration, were measured for six consecutive months, in the period December 24th - June 24th. The indoor environment of the building is controlled with a heating and cooling system that is turned on only during the opening hours of the library. The ventilation rate is low because the windows are kept closed, and there is no forced ventilation. The micro-climate is analyzed in terms of users’ comfort and degradation risks for historic books and valuable building surfaces. Through a comparison between indoor and outdoor measured hygrothermal data, indoor relative humidity appears very stable. The influence of the hygroscopicity of books on the stabilization of indoor relative humidity is therefore investigated in detail. The paper finally discusses the benefits given by the presence of historic books in libraries with intermittent heating and cooling. The possibility of obtaining a comfortable and stable indoor climate with low use of HVAC systems in these conditions, while avoiding degradation risks for books and historic building components, is further debated.

Keywords: books, historic buildings, hygroscopicity, relative humidity

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216 Urban Heritage and Its Role in the Tourism Development in Yemen: Case Study of Historic Town of Zabid

Authors: Yasser Alhiagi, Moshalleh Almoraekhi, Sameh Refaat

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Urban heritage has an important status in the process of developing the Yemeni tourism sector. Urban heritage in Yemen differs depending on the regions and historical cities such as City of Old Sana'a, Historic Town of Zabid, Shibam Hadhramout, Taiz, and others. Zabid is an old town with a long history, founded in the 9th century. It has been the capital of Yemen from the 13th to the 15th century and played, because of its Islamic university, an important role in the Arab and Muslim world for many centuries. The aim of this research is to promote the built heritage of Historic Town of Zabid and explore the possibilities of visiting the rehabilitated buildings and other heritage attractions through tourism. It examines the nature of the relationship exists between tourism and built heritage. The research is intended to contribute to the strategy development of national tourism for the purpose of protecting, developing, and utilizing cultural heritage. Also, the research depended chiefly on the results of a field work proposed to be carried out at Historic Town of Zabid.

Keywords: historic town of Zabid, strategy, tourism development, urban heritage

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215 Timescape-Based Panoramic View for Historic Landmarks

Authors: H. Ali, A. Whitehead

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Providing a panoramic view of famous landmarks around the world offers artistic and historic value for historians, tourists, and researchers. Exploring the history of famous landmarks by presenting a comprehensive view of a temporal panorama merged with geographical and historical information presents a unique challenge of dealing with images that span a long period, from the 1800’s up to the present. This work presents the concept of temporal panorama through a timeline display of aligned historic and modern images for many famous landmarks. Utilization of this panorama requires a collection of hundreds of thousands of landmark images from the Internet comprised of historic images and modern images of the digital age. These images have to be classified for subset selection to keep the more suitable images that chronologically document a landmark’s history. Processing of historic images captured using older analog technology under various different capturing conditions represents a big challenge when they have to be used with modern digital images. Successful processing of historic images to prepare them for next steps of temporal panorama creation represents an active contribution in cultural heritage preservation through the fulfillment of one of UNESCO goals in preservation and displaying famous worldwide landmarks.

Keywords: cultural heritage, image registration, image subset selection, registered image similarity, temporal panorama, timescapes

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214 Evaluation of Cultural Landscape Perception in Waterfront Historic Districts Based on Multi-source Data - Taking Venice and Suzhou as Examples

Authors: Shuyu Zhang

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The waterfront historical district, as a type of historical districts on the verge of waters such as the sea, lake, and river, have a relatively special urban form. In the past preservation and renewal of traditional historic districts, there have been many discussions on the land range, and the waterfront and marginal spaces are easily overlooked. However, the waterfront space of the historic districts, as a cultural landscape heritage combining historical buildings and landscape elements, has strong ecological and sustainable values. At the same time, Suzhou and Venice, as sister water cities in history, have more waterfront spaces that can be compared in urban form and other levels. Therefore, this paper focuses on the waterfront historic districts in Venice and Suzhou, establishes quantitative evaluation indicators for environmental perception, makes analogies, and promotes the renewal and activation of the entire historical district by improving the spatial quality and vitality of the waterfront area. First, this paper uses multi-source data for analysis, such as Baidu Maps and Google Maps API to crawl the street view of the waterfront historic districts, uses machine learning algorithms to analyze the proportion of cultural landscape elements such as green viewing rate in the street view pictures, and uses space syntax software to make quantitative selectivity analysis, so as to establish environmental perception evaluation indicators for the waterfront historic districts. Finally, by comparing and summarizing the waterfront historic districts in Venice and Suzhou, it reveals their similarities and differences, characteristics and conclusions, and hopes to provide a reference for the heritage preservation and renewal of other waterfront historic districts.

Keywords: waterfront historical district, cultural landscape, perception, multi-source Data

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213 A Proposal for Developing a Post Occupancy Evaluation Sustainability Assessment Tool for Refurbished Historic Government Buildings

Authors: Hasnizan Aksah, Adi Irfan Che Ani

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Refurbished historic government buildings should perform as intended to support the organization’s goals that enhance occupant satisfaction. However, these buildings may have issues associated with functional performance evaluation. The aim of this study is to develop a Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) sustainability assessment tool for functional performance evaluation of refurbished historic government buildings. Developing an assessment tool requires a strategic methodology for a logical and cohesive tool that incorporating relevant theories and practical experiences. In this study, mixed method approaches use to collect all necessary data to achieve the objectives of this study. The design of sampling involves are interviews and survey questionnaires to relevant professionals in order to evaluate the criteria and problem encircled in functional performance evaluation. Then, the involvement of expert panels is required in establishing the assessment tool. During the process of investigation on the functional performance criteria, it was discovered that is seen to be critical in aspects of comfort, safety, and services. The proposed assessment tool has a significant role in providing opportunities for the improvement of building performance especially on functional performance for the future historic government building refurbishment project. It is hoped that the tool developed from this study will give benefits to related professionals, public agencies, local municipality, and relevant interested parties in historic building management.

Keywords: refurbished historic government buildings, functional performance, Post Occupancy Evaluation, sustainability

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212 Creative Thinking in Structural Design of Historic Constructions

Authors: Avraham Mosseri

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The architectural conservation process of the built heritage is a very complex process dealing with the integration of professional knowledge from many fields like history, sociology, economy, engineering, etc. One of the most important fields is the structural field, which has a great influence on the final architectural and aesthetic solution of the built heritage. In many cases, the ability to protect and save the heritage values of the historical buildings is an outcome of the structural creativity and conceptual design of the conservation engineers. This creativity is especially important when dealing with structural engineering of historic construction, where there are a lot of constraints and contradictions between different aspects like aesthetics, artistic values, culture, authenticity, structural performance, etc. But in spite of the importance of this creativity in conservation engineering, many research efforts are mainly devoted to the structural analysis of historic construction, which of course is very important and vital. But, in general, more attention can be paid to the creative process in the conceptual stage. In this situation there is a need, in parallel to analysis research, to devote more resources in order to improve the creative and conceptual theories in relation to conservation engineering. This paper focuses on the creativity aspects in the structural design process in the conservation of historic buildings as part of conservation theories.

Keywords: conservation, creativity, historic constructions, structural design

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211 Guidelines for Sustainable Urban Mobility in Historic Districts from International Experiences

Authors: Tamer ElSerafi

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In recent approaches to heritage conservation, the whole context of historic areas becomes as important as the single historic building. This makes the provision of infrastructure and network of mobility an effective element in the urban conservation. Sustainable urban conservation projects consider the high density of activities, the need for a good quality access system to the transit system, and the importance of the configuration of the mobility network by identifying the best way to connect the different districts of the urban area through a complex unique system that helps the synergic development to achieve a sustainable mobility system. A sustainable urban mobility is a key factor in maintaining the integrity between socio-cultural aspects and functional aspects. This paper illustrates the mobility aspects, mobility problems in historic districts, and the needs of the mobility systems in the first part. The second part is a practical analysis for different mobility plans. It is challenging to find innovative and creative conservation solutions fitting modern uses and needs without risking the loss of inherited built resources. Urban mobility management is becoming an essential and challenging issue in the urban conservation projects. Depending on literature review and practical analysis, this paper tries to define and clarify the guidelines for mobility management in historic districts as a key element in sustainability of urban conservation and development projects. Such rules and principles could control the conflict between the socio–cultural and economic activities, and the different needs for mobility in these districts in a sustainable way. The practical analysis includes a comparison between mobility plans which have been implemented in four different cities; Freiburg in Germany, Zurich in Switzerland and Bray Town in Ireland. This paper concludes with a matrix of guidelines that considers both principles of sustainability and livability factors in urban historic districts.

Keywords: sustainable mobility, urban mobility, mobility management, historic districts

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210 Thermal Comfort in Office Rooms in a Historic Building with Modernized Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Systems

Authors: Hossein Bakhtiari, Mathias Cehlin, Jan Akander

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Envelopes with low thermal performance is a common characteristic in many European historic buildings which leads to higher energy demand for heating and cooling as well as insufficient thermal comfort for the occupants. This paper presents the results of a study on the thermal comfort in the City Hall (Rådhuset) in Gävle, Sweden. This historic building is currently used as an office building. It is equipped with two relatively modern mechanical heat recovery ventilation systems with displacement ventilation supply devices in the offices. The district heating network heats the building via pre-heat supply air and radiators. Summer cooling comes from an electric heat pump that rejects heat into the exhaust ventilation air. A building management system controls HVAC equipment (heating, ventilation and air conditioning). The methodology is based on on-site measurements, data logging on the management system and evaluating the occupants’ perception of a summer and a winter period indoor environment using a standardized questionnaire. The main aim of the study is to investigate whether or not it is enough to have modernized HVAC systems to get adequate thermal comfort in a historic building with poor envelope performance used as an office building in Nordic climate conditions.

Keywords: historic buildings, on-site measurements, standardized questionnaire, thermal comfort

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209 How Cultural Tourists Perceive Authenticity in World Heritage Historic Centers: An Empirical Research

Authors: Odete Paiva, Cláudia Seabra, José Luís Abrantes, Fernanda Cravidão

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There is a clear ‘cult of authenticity’, at least in modern Western society. So, there is a need to analyze the tourist perception of authenticity, bearing in mind the destination, its attractions, motivations, cultural distance, and contact with other tourists. Our study seeks to investigate the relationship among cultural values, image, sense of place, perception of authenticity and behavior intentions at World Heritage Historic Centers. From a theoretical perspective, few researches focus on the impact of cultural values, image and sense of place on authenticity and intentions behavior in tourists. The intention of this study is to help close this gap. A survey was applied to collect data from tourists visiting two World Heritage Historic Centers – Guimarães in Portugal and Cordoba in Spain. Data was analyzed in order to establish a structural equation model (SEM). Discussion centers on the implications of model to theory and managerial development of tourism strategies. Recommendations for destinations managers and promoters and tourist organizations administrators are addressed.

Keywords: authenticity perception, behavior intentions, cultural tourism, cultural values, world heritage historic centers

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208 Reinvestment of the Urban Context in Historic Cities: The Case Study of El Sheikh Kandil Street, Rosetta, Egypt

Authors: Riham A. Ragheb, Ingy M. Naguib

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Conservation and urban investment are a prerequisite to improve the quality of life. Since the historic street is a part of the economic system, it should be able to play an important role in the city development by upgrading all services, public open spaces and reuse of historical buildings and sites. Furthermore, historical conservation enriches the political, economic, social, cultural and functional aspects of the site. Rosetta has been selected as an area of study because it has a unique character due to its possession of a variety of monuments and historical buildings. The aim of this research is to analyze the existing situation of an historic street named El Sheikh Kandil, to be able to identify the potentials and problems. The paper gives a proposal for the redesign and reinvestment of the street and the reuse for the historical buildings to serve the community, users and visitors. Then, it concludes with recommendations to improve quality of life through the rehabilitation of the historical buildings and strengthening of the cultural and historical identity of the street. Rosetta city can benefit from these development proposals by preserving and revitalizing its unique character which leads to tourism development and benefits from the new investments.

Keywords: adaptive reuse, heritage street, historic investment, restoration, urban design

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207 Planning Strategy for Sustainable Transportation in Heritage Areas

Authors: Hassam Hassan Elborombaly

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The pollution generated from transportation modes, congestion and traffic heritage has led to the deterioration of historic buildings and the urban heritage in historic cities. Accordingly, this paper attempts to diagnose the transport and traffic problems in historic cities. In general and in Heritage Cities, and to investigate methods for conserving the urban heritage from negative effects of traffic congestion and of the traditional red modes of transportation. It also attempts to explore possible areas for intervention to mitigate transportation and traffic problems in the light of the principles of the sustainable transportation framework. It aims to draw conclusion and propose recommendation that would increase the efficiency and effectiveness of transportation plans in historic Cairo and consequently achieve sustainable transportation. Problems In historic cities public paths compose an irregular network enclosing large residential plots (defined as super blocks quarters or hettas). The blocks represent the basic morphology units in historic Cities. Each super block incorporates several uses (i.e. residential, non-residential, service uses and others). Local paths reach the interior of the super blocks in an organized inter core, which deals mainly with residential functions mixed with handicraft activities and is composed of several local path units; (b) the other core, which is bound by the public paths and contains a combination of residential, commercial and social activities. Objectives: 1- To provide amenity convenience and comfort for visitors and people who live and work in the area. Pedestrianizing, accessibility and safety are to be reinforced while respecting the organic urban pattern. 2- To enhance street life, vitality and activity, in order to attract people and increase economic prosperity. Research Contents • Relation between residential areas and transportation in the inner core • Analytical studies for historic areas in heritage cities • Sustainable transportation planning in heritage cities • Dynamic and flexible methodology for achieving sustainable transportation network for the Heritage Cities • Result and Recommendation

Keywords: irregular network, public paths, sustainable transportation, urban heritage

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206 Learning Fashion Construction and Manufacturing Methods from the Past: Cultural History and Genealogy at the Middle Tennessee State University Historic Clothing Collection

Authors: Teresa B. King

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In the millennial age, with more students desiring a fashion major yet fewer having sewing and manufacturing knowledge, this increases demand on academicians to adequately educate. While fashion museums have a prominent place for historical preservation, the need for apparel education via working collections of handmade or mass manufactured apparel is lacking in most universities in the United States, especially in the Southern region. Created in 1988, Middle Tennessee State University’s historic clothing collection provides opportunities to study apparel construction methods throughout history, to compare and apply to today’s construction and manufacturing methods, as well as to learn the cyclical nature/importance of historic styles on current and upcoming fashion. In 2019, a class exercise experiment was implemented for which students researched their family genealogy using Ancestry.com, identified the oldest visual media (photographs, etc.) available, and analyzed the garment represented in said media. The student then located a comparable garment in the historic collection and evaluated the construction methods of the ancestor’s time period. A class 'fashion' genealogy tree was created and mounted for public viewing/education. Results of this exercise indicated that student learning increased due to the 'personal/familial connection' as it triggered more interest in historical garments as related to the student’s own personal culture. Students better identified garments regarding the historical time period, fiber content, fabric, and construction methods utilized, thus increasing learning and retention. Students also developed increased learning and recognition of custom construction methods versus current mass manufacturing techniques, which impact today’s fashion industry. A longitudinal effort will continue with the growth of the historic collection and as students continue to utilize the historic clothing collection.

Keywords: ancestry, clothing history, fashion history, genealogy, historic fashion museum collection

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205 The Analysis of the Protection of Historical and Cultural Heritage in the Development of Cities: Taking Quzhou Ancient City as an Example

Authors: Zhen Shu

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The historical and cultural heritage demonstrates the wisdom of the entire nation and it has left its own traces in the process of urban construction. It has very important instructional significance for the construction of modern cities and the development of cultural aspects of modern people. The Protection of historical and cultural heritage has become an inevitable choice for the development of modern civilization. This paper discusses the relationship between urban development and historic preservation. And it emphasizes the important value of strengthening the protection of historical and cultural heritage in urban construction, introduces the value of cultural heritage, the process of historic preservation and its problems in Quzhou, Zhejiang Province. In conclusion, we puts forward some Suggestions for strengthening the protection of historical heritage in the process of urban construction.

Keywords: cultural heritage, historic preservation, Quzhou ancient city, urban development

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204 Retrofitting Insulation to Historic Masonry Buildings: Improving Thermal Performance and Maintaining Moisture Movement to Minimize Condensation Risk

Authors: Moses Jenkins

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Much of the focus when improving energy efficiency in buildings fall on the raising of standards within new build dwellings. However, as a significant proportion of the building stock across Europe is of historic or traditional construction, there is also a pressing need to improve the thermal performance of structures of this sort. On average, around twenty percent of buildings across Europe are built of historic masonry construction. In order to meet carbon reduction targets, these buildings will require to be retrofitted with insulation to improve their thermal performance. At the same time, there is also a need to balance this with maintaining the ability of historic masonry construction to allow moisture movement through building fabric to take place. This moisture transfer, often referred to as 'breathable construction', is critical to the success, or otherwise, of retrofit projects. The significance of this paper is to demonstrate that substantial thermal improvements can be made to historic buildings whilst avoiding damage to building fabric through surface or interstitial condensation. The paper will analyze the results of a wide range of retrofit measures installed to twenty buildings as part of Historic Environment Scotland's technical research program. This program has been active for fourteen years and has seen interventions across a wide range of building types, using over thirty different methods and materials to improve the thermal performance of historic buildings. The first part of the paper will present the range of interventions which have been made. This includes insulating mass masonry walls both internally and externally, warm and cold roof insulation and improvements to floors. The second part of the paper will present the results of monitoring work which has taken place to these buildings after being retrofitted. This will be in terms of both thermal improvement, expressed as a U-value as defined in BS EN ISO 7345:1987, and also, crucially, will present the results of moisture monitoring both on the surface of masonry walls the following retrofit and also within the masonry itself. The aim of this moisture monitoring is to establish if there are any problems with interstitial condensation. This monitoring utilizes Interstitial Hygrothermal Gradient Monitoring (IHGM) and similar methods to establish relative humidity on the surface of and within the masonry. The results of the testing are clear and significant for retrofit projects across Europe. Where a building is of historic construction the use of materials for wall, roof and floor insulation which are permeable to moisture vapor provides both significant thermal improvements (achieving a u-value as low as 0.2 Wm²K) whilst avoiding problems of both surface and intestinal condensation. As the evidence which will be presented in the paper comes from monitoring work in buildings rather than theoretical modeling, there are many important lessons which can be learned and which can inform retrofit projects to historic buildings throughout Europe.

Keywords: insulation, condensation, masonry, historic

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203 Women Perception of Spatial Safety Relating to Working in Historic Cairo’s Retail Street Markets

Authors: Toka M. Abufarag

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This research primarily studies the correlation between the existence of different spatial factors in relation to the perception of females towards safely participating in the labor force within selected areas of economic bustle in Historic Cairo. This research measures the following independent variables: (1) perception regarding spatial safety on the street as controlled by street network, (2) vegetation as a facilitator and inhibitor of feeling safe in public places, and (3) outdoor lighting; in relation to the following dependent variable: the perception of females towards safely participating in the labor force in Historic Cairo. The objective of this research lies within adding to the design guidelines of urban design and planning in terms of design recommendations, making them more inclusive, especially those dealing with conserving and enhancing the built environment of old and historic cities. It is hypothesized that a balanced male-to-female ratio in terms of street activity, increased visibility of street in terms of its volume, a decrease in street obstacles, creation of open sighted vegetation, and increased visibility due to proper lighting will show up as positive response relating to the female perception of safety. The site chosen as an area to host this exercise of data collection is Al-Ataba. The site is within the borders of Historic Cairo and was chosen for two reasons: firstly, it provides a major source of economic bustle in Historic Cairo; and secondly, it hosts retail economic activities. This is a cross-sectional study. The data collected will consist of three parts: (1) observations by the researcher regarding the percentage of female participation, as well as perception of females on site, (2) interviews with women working on-site regarding the percentage of female participation, as well as their perception on participating, and (3) an anonymous online survey that studies the perception of a random sample of women towards the site as a place to exist in. The survey will aid in producing design recommendations on how to design an open 'souk' that suits women’s perception of a safe space.

Keywords: urban design, women empowerment, safety perception, street markets, historic Cairo

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202 Warfare Ships at Ancient Egypt: Since Pre-Historic Era (3700 B.C.) Uptill the End of the 2nd Intermediate Period (1550 B.C.)

Authors: Mohsen Negmeddin

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Throughout their history, ancient Egyptians had known several kinds and types of boats, which were made from two main kinds of materials, the local one, as the dried papyrus reeds and the local tree trunks, the imported one, as the boats which were made from Lebanon cedar tree trunks. A varied using of these boats, as the fish hunting small boats, the transportation and trade boats "Cargo Boats", as well as the ceremonial boats, and the warfare boats. The research is intending for the last one, the warfare boats and the river/maritime battles since the beginning of ancient Egyptian civilization at the pre-historic era up till the end of the second intermediate period, to reveal the kinds and types of those fighting ships before establishing the Egyptian navy at the beginning of the New Kingdome (1550-1770 B.C). Two methods will follow at this research, the mention of names and titles of these ships through the texts (ancient Egyptian language) resources, and the depiction of it at the scenes.

Keywords: the warfare boats, the maritime battles, the pre-historic era, the second intermediate period

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201 Tracing the Courtyard Typology from the Past: Highlighting a Need for Conservation in Case of Historic Settlement in Historic Town of Gwalior

Authors: Shivani Dolas, A. Richa Mishra

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The existence of Courtyards in India can be traced back to ‘Indus valley civilization’ and various layers of history bearing implications like socio-cultural, traditional, religious, climatic, etc., moreover serving as a breathing space in case of historical core areas. Over time, with the overlay of various historic layers within the historic urban cores and the present high density populace, the cores are getting congested day by day. In this case, courtyards may emerge out as an efficient medium to provide quality of life through livable spaces. Presently, with the growing population of the historic town of Gwalior, town in Madhya Pradesh holds remarkable essence of courtyards with its multiple concepts over time. Its scale and function varies from an imposing grand appearance in palatial form, up to functional practices as residential. Its privilege can also be drawn in urban forms, in sharing single space by multiple dwellings and in temples which can be sketched specifically in the region. Moreover, the effectiveness of courtyards has proven balance and control of micro-climate in such composite climate region. The research paper aims to underline the concept of courtyards in case of a mixed use neighborhood, Naya bazar, in Lashkar area of Gwalior, which developed during 19th century, highlighting the need of its preservation. The paper also elaborates its various implications on user-space relationship as in the present context, and growing congestion in the area, user and space relationship is seen lost. The noticeable change in the behavioral context in buildings and users can be noticed with the downfall of courtyards, isolating users with land. Also, a concern has been expressed on negligence of courtyard planning in future development, suggesting recommendations on preserving the courtyard typology as heritage.

Keywords: courtyards, Gwalior, historic settlement, heritage

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200 The Use of Network Theory in Heritage Cities

Authors: J. L. Oliver, T. Agryzkov, L. Tortosa, J. Vicent, J. Santacruz

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This paper aims to demonstrate how the use of Network Theory can be applied to a very interesting and complex urban situation: The parts of a city which may have some patrimonial value, but because of their lack of relevant architectural elements, they are not considered to be historic in a conventional sense. In this paper, we use the suburb of La Villaflora in the city of Quito, Ecuador as our case study. We first propose a system of indicators as a tool to characterize and quantify the historic value of a geographic area. Then, we apply these indicators to the suburb of La Villaflora and use Network Theory to understand and propose actions.

Keywords: graphs, mathematics, networks, urban studies

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199 An Experience on Urban Regeneration: A Case Study of Isfahan, Iran

Authors: Sedigheh Kalantari, Yaping Huang

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The historic area of cities has experienced different phases of transformation. The beginning of the twentieth century, modernism, and modern development changed the integrated pattern of change and the historic urban quarter were regarded as subject comprehensive redevelopment. In this respect, historic area of Iranian cities have not been safe from these changes and affected by widespread evolutions; in particular after Islamic Revolution eras (1978) cities have traveled through an evolution in conservation and development policies and practices. Moreover, moving toward a specific approach and specific attention paid to the regeneration of the historical urban centers in Iran has started since the 1990s. This reveals the great importance attached to the historical centers of cities. This paper is an approach to examine an experience on urban regeneration in Iran through a case study. The study relies on multiple source of evidence. The use of multiple sources of evidence can help substantially improve the validity and reliability of the research. The empirical core of this research, therefore, rests in the process of urban revitalization of the old square in Isfahan. Isfahan is one of the oldest city of Persia. The historic area of city encompasses a large number of valuable buildings and monuments. One of the cultural and historical region of Isfahan is Atiq Square (Old Square). It has been the backbone node of the city that in course of time has being ignored more and more and transformed negatively. The complex had suffered from insufficiencies especially with respect to social and spatial aspects. Therefore, reorganization of that complex as the main and most important urban center of Isfahan became an inevitable issue; So this paper except from reminding the value of such historic-cultural heritage and review of its transformation, focused on an experience of urban revitalization project in this heritage site. The outcome of this research shows that situated in different socio-economic political and historical contexts and in face of different urban regeneration issues, Iran have displayed significant differences in the way of urban regeneration.

Keywords: historic area, Iran, urban regeneration, revitalization

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198 Networking Approach for Historic Urban Landscape: Case Study of the Porcelain Capital of China

Authors: Ding He, Ping Hu

Abstract:

This article presents a “networking approach” as an alternative to the “layering model” in the issue of the historic urban landscape [HUL], based on research conducted in the historic city of Jingdezhen, the center of the porcelain industry in China. This study points out that the existing HUL concept, which can be traced back to the fundamental conceptual divisions set forth by western science, tends to analyze the various elements of urban heritage (composed of hybrid natural-cultural elements) by layers and ignore the nuanced connections and interweaving structure of various elements. Instead, the networking analysis approach can respond to the challenges of complex heritage networks and to the difficulties that are often faced when modern schemes of looking and thinking of landscape in the Eurocentric heritage model encounters local knowledge of Chinese settlement. The fieldwork in this paper examines the local language regarding place names and everyday uses of urban spaces, thereby highlighting heritage systems grounded in local life and indigenous knowledge. In the context of Chinese “Fengshui”, this paper demonstrates the local knowledge of nature and local intelligence of settlement location and design. This paper suggests that industrial elements (kilns, molding rooms, piers, etc.) and spiritual elements (temples for ceramic saints or water gods) are located in their intimate natural networks. Furthermore, the functional, spiritual, and natural elements are perceived as a whole and evolve as an interactive system. This paper proposes a local and cognitive approach in heritage, which was initially developed in European Landscape Convention and historic landscape characterization projects, and yet seeks a more tentative and nuanced model based on urban ethnography in a Chinese city.

Keywords: Chinese city, historic urban landscape, heritage conservation, network

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197 Developing Open-Air Museum: The Heritage Conservation Effort, Oriented to Geotourism Concept and Education

Authors: Rinaldi Ikhram, R. A. Julia Satriani

Abstract:

The discovery of historical objects in Indonesia, especially in the area around Bandung and Priangan zone in general, have been inventorized and recorded by Dutch geologists during the colonial time. Among artefacts such as axes made of chalcedony and quartzite; arrowheads, knives, shrivel, and drill bit all made from obsidian; grindstones, even bracelet from stones. Ceramic mold for smelting bronze or iron were also found. The abundance of artefacts inspired DR. W. Docters van Leeuwen and his colleagues to initiate the establishment of Sunda Open-air Museum "Soenda Openlucht Museum" in 1917, located in the hills of North Bandung area, the site of pre-historic settlements that needs conservation. Unfortunately, this plan was not implemented because shortly after, World War II occurred. The efforts of heritage conservation is one of our responsibilities as a geologist today. Open-air Museum may be one of the solutions of heritage conservation for historic sites around the world. In this paper, the study of the development of Open-air Museum will be focused on the area of Dago, North Bandung. Method used is data analysis of field surveys, and data analysis of the remaining artefacts stored at both the National Museum in Jakarta, and the Bandung Museum of Geology. The museum is based on Geotourism and further research on pre-historic culture, while its purpose is to give people a common interest and to motivate them to participate in the research and conservation of pre-historic relics. This paper will describe more details about the concept, form, and management of the geopark and the Open-air Museum within.

Keywords: geoparks, heritage conservation, open-air museum, sustainable tourism

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196 Regenerating Historic Buildings: Policy Gaps

Authors: Joseph Falzon, Margaret Nelson

Abstract:

Background: Policy makers at European Union (EU) and national levels address the re-use of historic buildings calling for sustainable practices and approaches. Implementation stages of policy are crucial so that EU and national strategic objectives for historic building sustainability are achieved. Governance remains one of the key objectives to ensure resource sustainability. Objective: The aim of the research was to critically examine policies for the regeneration and adaptive re-use of historic buildings in the EU and national level, and to analyse gaps between EU and national legislation and policies, taking Malta as a case study. The impact of policies on regeneration and re-use of historic buildings was also studied. Research Design: Six semi-structured interviews with stakeholders including architects, investors and community representatives informed the research. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed in the English language. Thematic analysis utilising Atlas.ti was conducted for the semi-structured interviews. All phases of the study were governed by research ethics. Findings: Findings were grouped in main themes: resources, experiences and governance. Other key issues included identification of gaps in policies, key lessons and quality of regeneration. Abandonment of heritage buildings was discussed, for which main reasons had been attributed to governance related issues both from the policy making perspective as well as the attitudes of certain officials representing the authorities. The role of authorities, co-ordination between government entities, fairness in decision making, enforcement and management brought high criticism from stakeholders along with time factors due to the lengthy procedures taken by authorities. Policies presented an array from different perspectives of same stakeholder groups. Rather than policy, it is the interpretation of policy that presented certain gaps. Interpretations depend highly on the stakeholders putting forward certain arguments. All stakeholders acknowledged the value of heritage in regeneration. Conclusion: Active stakeholder involvement is essential in policy framework development. Research informed policies and streamlining of policies are necessary. National authorities need to shift from a segmented approach to a holistic approach.

Keywords: adaptive re-use, historic buildings, policy, sustainable

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195 Heritage Tourism Balance between Historic Culture and Marketing Innovation: The Case Study of Taiwan

Authors: Lin Chih-Ken

Abstract:

This paper explores the A Li Shan hotel of Taiwan during the Japanese occupation period, after over a hundred years of time, it has been handed over to the hotel managing enterprise to retain the historic building and the culture. Applying the innovative marketing strategies, coordinate the local government traveling policy then combined local tea agriculture and forestry specialty integrated marketing, to create the special hotel located in the Alishan National Scenic Area with the characteristics of landscape, innovative marketing and history, to attract domestic tourism and visitors around the world. This study interview the hotel owner, managers, employees and guests, in addition to collected message feedback from reservation website, to apply Ambidexterity Marketing Theory and Resource Base Theory to analyze the main impact factors. The conclusion showed that the integration of several key factors and make good use of resource strength generate heterogeneous product characteristics to attracting wider range of visitors.

Keywords: heritage tourism, historic hotel, marketing ambidexterity, resource base theory

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194 Social Studies Teaching Methods: Approaches and Techniques in Teaching History in Primary Education

Authors: Tonguc Basaran

Abstract:

History is a record of a people’s past based on a critical examination of documents and other facts. The essentials of this historical method are not beyond the grasp of even young children. Concrete examples, such as the story of the Rosetta stone, which enabled Champollion to establish the first principles of the deciphering of Egyptian hieroglyphics, vividly illustrate the fundamental processes involved. This search for the facts can be used to illustrate one side of the search for historic truth. The other side is the truth of historic interpretation. The facts cannot be changed, but the interpretation of them can and does change.

Keywords: history, primary education, teaching methods, social studies

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