Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 863

Search results for: hip joint

863 Design Modification of Lap Joint of Fiber Metal Laminates (CARALL)

Authors: Shaher Bano, Samia Fida, Asif Israr


The synergistic effect of properties of metals and fibers reinforced laminates has diverted attention of the world towards use of robust composite materials known as fiber-metal laminates in many high performance applications. In this study, modification of an adhesively bonded joint as a single lap joint of carbon fibers based CARALL FML has done to increase interlaminar shear strength of the joint. The effect of different configurations of joint designs such as spews, stepped and modification in adhesive by addition of nano-fillers was studied. Both experimental and simulation results showed that modified joint design have superior properties as maximum force experienced stepped joint was 1.5 times more than the simple lap joint. Addition of carbon nano-tubes as nano-fillers in the adhesive joint increased the maximum force due to crack deflection mechanism.

Keywords: adhesive joint, Carbon Reinforced Aluminium Laminate (CARALL), fiber metal laminates, spews

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
862 Joint Physical Custody: Lessons from the European Union

Authors: Katarzyna Kamińska


When thinking about custodial arrangements after divorce or separation, there has been a shift from sole custody, particularly maternal preference, to joint physical custody. In many Western countries, an increasing of children with separated parents have joint physical custody, which is believed to be in the best interests of the child, as children can maintain personal relations and direct contact with both parents on a regular basis. The aim of the article is to examine joint physical custody, both from the perspective of the binding legal instruments that are relevant to joint physical custody, the Principles of European Family Law drafted by the CEFL, as well as the international research on this matter. The thesis underlying this paper is that joint physical custody is in itself neither good nor bad, and it depends on how the arrangements are managed by the parents. The paper includes a reflection on joint physical custody in the face of the COVID-19 crisis. The results indicate that in normal circumstances, joint physical custody demands broad communication, and now it times of crisis, we need over-communication about children and plans. Only a very tight and coordinated co-parenting plan make the whole family safer.

Keywords: joint physical custody, co-parenting, child welfare, COVID-19

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
861 Seismic Response Analysis of Frame Structures Based on Super Joint Element Model

Authors: Li Xu, Yang Hong, T. Zhao Wen


Experimental results of many RC beam-column subassemblage indicate that slippage of longitudinal beam rebar within the joint and the shear deformation of joint core have significant influence on seismic behavior of the subassemblage. However, rigid joint assumption has been generally used in the seismic response analysis of RC frames, in which two kinds of inelastic deformation of joint have been ignored. Based on OpenSees platform, ‘Super Joint Element Model’ with more detailed inelastic mechanism is used to simulate the inelastic response of joints. Two finite element models of typical RC plane frame, namely considering or ignoring the inelastic deformation of joint respectively, were established and analyzed under seven strong earthquake waves. The simulated global and local inelastic deformations of the RC plane frame is shown and discussed. The analyses also confirm the security of the earthquake-resistant frame designed according to Chinese codes.

Keywords: frame structure, beam-column joint, longitudinal bar slippage, shear deformation, nonlinear analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
860 The Effect of Impact on the Knee Joint Due to the Shocks during Double Impact Phase of Gait Cycle

Authors: Jobin Varghese, V. M. Akhil, P. K. Rajendrakumar, K. S. Sivanandan


The major contributor to the human locomotion is the knee flexion and extension. During heel strike, a huge amount of energy is transmitted through the leg towards knee joint, which in fact is damped at heel and leg muscles. During high shocks, although it is damped to a certain extent, the balance force transmits towards knee joint which could damage the knee. Due to the vital function of the knee joint, it should be protected against damage due to additional load acting on it. This work concentrates on the development of spring mass damper system which exactly replicates the stiffness at the heel and muscles and the objective function is optimized to minimize the force acting at the knee joint. Further, the data collected using force plate are put into the model to verify its integrity and are found to be in good agreement.

Keywords: spring, mass, damper, knee joint

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
859 The Nonlinear Research on Rotational Stiffness of Cuplock Joint

Authors: Liuyu Zhang, Di Mo, Qiang Yan, Min Liu


As the important equipment in the construction field, cuplock scaffold plays an important role in the construction process. As a scaffold connecting member, cuplock joint is of great importance. In order to explore the rotational stiffness nonlinear characteristics changing features of different structural forms of cuplock joint in different tightening torque condition under different conditions of load, ANSYS is used to establish four kinds of cuplock joint models with different forces to simulate the real force situation. By setting the different load conditions which means the cuplock is loaded at a certain distance from the cuplock joint in a certain direction until the cuplock is damaged and considering the gap between the cross bar joint and the vertical bar, the differences in the influence of the structural form and tightening torque on the rotation stiffness of the cuplock under different load conditions are compared. It is significantly important to improve the accuracy of calculating bearing capacity and stability of the cuplock steel pipe scaffold.

Keywords: cuplock joint, highway tunnel, non-linear characteristics, rotational stiffness, scaffold stability, theoretical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
858 The Effect of Tool Type on Surface Morphology of FSJ Joint

Authors: Yongfang Deng, Dunwen Zuo


An attempt is made here to join 2024 aluminum alloy plate by friction stir joining (FSJ) using different types of tools. Joint surface morphology was observed, and both arc line spacing and flash were measured. Study is carried out on the effect of pin, shoulder and eccentricity of the tool on the surface topography of the joint and the formation of the joint surface topography is analyzed. It is found that, eccentric squeezing action of the tool is the mainly motive power to form arc lines contour and flash structure. Little flash appears in the advancing side but with severe deformation, while the flash in the retreating side is heavy but with soft deformation. The pin of tool has a deep impact on the flash on the advancing side of the joints. Shoulder can widen the arc lines, refine arcs structure, reduce flash in the retreat side, but will increase the flash in the advancing side. Increasing the amount of eccentricity, it has litter effect on the arc line spacing but will destroy the arc lines morphology in the joint surface and promote the formation of filamentous flash structure in the joint.

Keywords: FSJ, surface morphology, tool, joint

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
857 Development of a New Method for T-Joint Specimens Testing under Shear Loading

Authors: Radek Doubrava, Roman Ruzek


Nonstandard tests are necessary for analyses and verification of new developed structural and technological solutions with application of composite materials. One of the most critical primary structural parts of a typical aerospace structure is T-joint. This structural element is loaded mainly in shear, bending, peel and tension. The paper is focused on the shear loading simulations. The aim of the work is to obtain a representative uniform distribution of shear loads along T-joint during the mechanical testing is. A new design of T-joint test procedure, numerical simulation and optimization of representative boundary conditions are presented. The different conditions and inaccuracies both in simulations and experiments are discussed. The influence of different parameters on stress and strain distributions is demonstrated on T-joint made of CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic). A special test rig designed by VZLU (Aerospace Research and Test Establishment) for T-shear test procedure is presented.

Keywords: T-joint, shear, composite, mechanical testing, finite element analysis, methodology

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
856 Numerical Prediction of Bearing Strength on Composite Bolted Joint Using Three Dimensional Puck Failure Criteria

Authors: M. S. Meon, M. N. Rao, K-U. Schröder


Mechanical fasteners especially bolting is commonly used in joining carbon-fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite structures due to their good joinability and easy for maintenance characteristics. Since this approach involves with notching, a proper progressive damage model (PDM) need to be implemented and verified to capture existence of damages in the structure. A three dimensional (3D) failure criteria of Puck is established to predict the ultimate bearing failure of such joint. The failure criteria incorporated with degradation scheme are coded based on user subroutine executed in Abaqus. Single lap joint (SLJ) of composite bolted joint is used as target configuration. The results revealed that the PDM adopted here could sufficiently predict the behaviour of composite bolted joint up to ultimate bearing failure. In addition, mesh refinement near holes increased the accuracy of predicted strength as well as computational effort.

Keywords: bearing strength, bolted joint, degradation scheme, progressive damage model

Procedia PDF Downloads 420
855 Evaluation of Joint Contact Forces and Muscle Forces in the Subjects with Non-Specific Low Back Pain

Authors: Mohammad Taghi Karimi, Maryam Hasan Zahraee


Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a common health and socioeconomic problem, especially the chronic one. The joint contact force is an important parameter during walking which increases the incidence of injury and degenerative joint disease. To our best knowledge, there are not enough evidences in literature on the muscular forces and joint contact forces in subjects with low back pain. Purpose: The main hypothesis associated with this research was that joint contact force of L4/L5 of non-specific chronic low back pain subjects was the same as that of normal. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the joint contact force difference between non-specific chronic low back pain and normal subjects. Method: This was an experimental-comparative study. 20 normal subjects and 20 non-specific chronic low back pain patients were recruited in this study. Qualysis motion analysis system and a Kistler force plate were used to collect the motions and the force applied on the leg, respectively. OpenSimm software used to determine joint contact force and muscle forces in this study. Some parameters such as force applied on the legs (pelvis), kinematic of hip and pelvic, peaks of muscles, force of trunk musculature and joint contact force of L5/S1 were used for further analysis. Differences between mean values of all data were measured using two-sample t-test among the subjects. Results: The force produced by Semitendinosus, Biceps Femoris, and Adductor muscles were significantly different between low back pain and normal subjects. Moreover, the mean value of breaking component of the force of the knee joint increased significantly in low back pain subjects, besides a significant decrease in mean value of the vertical component of joint reaction force compared to the normal ones. Conclusions: The forces produced by the trunk and pelvic muscles, and joint contact forces differ significantly between low back pain and normal subjects. It seems that those with non-specific chronic low back pain use trunk muscles more than normal subjects to stabilize the pelvic during walking.

Keywords: low back pain, joint contact force, kinetic, muscle force

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
854 Analysis of Artificial Hip Joint Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Syed Zameer, Mohamed Haneef


Hip joint plays very important role in human beings as it takes up the whole body forces generated due to various activities. These loads are repetitive and fluctuating depending on the activities such as standing, sitting, jogging, stair casing, climbing, etc. which may lead to failure of Hip joint. Hip joint modification and replacement are common in old aged persons as well as younger persons. In this research study static and Fatigue analysis of Hip joint model was carried out using finite element software ANSYS. Stress distribution obtained from result of static analysis, material properties and S-N curve data of fabricated Ultra High molecular weight polyethylene / 50 wt% short E glass fibres + 40 wt% TiO2 Polymer matrix composites specimens were used to estimate fatigue life of Hip joint using stiffness Degradation model for polymer matrix composites. The stress distribution obtained from static analysis was found to be within the acceptable range.The factor of safety calculated from linear Palmgren linear damage rule is less than one, which indicates the component is safe under the design.

Keywords: hip joint, polymer matrix composite, static analysis, fatigue analysis, stress life approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
853 Biomechanical Study of a Type II Superior Labral Anterior to Posterior Lesion in the Glenohumeral Joint Using Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Javier A. Maldonado E., Duvert A. Puentes T., Diego F. Villegas B.


The SLAP lesion (Superior Labral Anterior to Posterior) involves the labrum, causing pain and mobility problems in the glenohumeral joint. This injury is common in athletes practicing sports that requires throwing or those who receive traumatic impacts on the shoulder area. This paper determines the biomechanical behavior of soft tissues of the glenohumeral joint when type II SLAP lesion is present. This pathology is characterized for a tear in the superior labrum which is simulated in a 3D model of the shoulder joint. A 3D model of the glenohumeral joint was obtained using the free software Slice. Then, a Finite Element analysis was done using a general purpose software which simulates a compression test with external rotation. First, a validation was done assuming a healthy joint shoulder with a previous study. Once the initial model was validated, a lesion of the labrum built using a CAD software and the same test was done again. The results obtained were stress and strain distribution of the synovial capsule and the injured labrum. ANOVA was done for the healthy and injured glenohumeral joint finding significant differences between them. This study will help orthopedic surgeons to know the biomechanics involving this type of lesion and also the other surrounding structures affected by loading the injured joint.

Keywords: biomechanics, computational model, finite elements, glenohumeral joint, superior labral anterior to posterior lesion

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
852 Neural Networks for Distinguishing the Performance of Two Hip Joint Implants on the Basis of Hip Implant Side and Ground Reaction Force

Authors: L. Parisi


In this research work, neural networks were applied to classify two types of hip joint implants based on the relative hip joint implant side speed and three components of each ground reaction force. The condition of walking gait at normal velocity was used and carried out with each of the two hip joint implants assessed. Ground reaction forces’ kinetic temporal changes were considered in the first approach followed but discarded in the second one. Ground reaction force components were obtained from eighteen patients under such gait condition, half of which had a hip implant type I-II, whilst the other half had the hip implant, defined as type III by Orthoload®. After pre-processing raw gait kinetic data and selecting the time frames needed for the analysis, the ground reaction force components were used to train a MLP neural network, which learnt to distinguish the two hip joint implants in the abovementioned condition. Further to training, unknown hip implant side and ground reaction force components were presented to the neural networks, which assigned those features into the right class with a reasonably high accuracy for the hip implant type I-II and the type III. The results suggest that neural networks could be successfully applied in the performance assessment of hip joint implants.

Keywords: kinemic gait data, neural networks, hip joint implant, hip arthroplasty, rehabilitation engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
851 Measuring Audit Quality Using Text Analysis: An Empirical Study of Indian Companies

Authors: Leesa Mohanty, Ashok Banerjee


Better audit quality signifies the financial statements of the auditee firm reflect true and fair view of their actual state of affairs, which reduces information asymmetry between management and shareholders, as a result, helps protect interests of shareholders. This study examines the impact of joint audit on audit quality. It is motivated by the ongoing debate where The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI), the regulatory body governing auditors, has advocated the finance ministry and the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) for the mandatory use of joint audit in private banks to enhance the quality of audit. Earlier, the Government of India had rejected the plea by ICAI for mandatory joint audits in large companies stating it is not a viable option for promoting domestic firms. We introduce a new measure of audit quality. Drawing from the domain of text analytics, we use relevant phrases in audit reports to gauge audit quality and demonstrate that joint audit improves audit quality. We also, for robustness, use prevalent proxy for audit quality (Big N Auditor, ratio of audit fees to total fees) and find negative effect of joint audit on audit quality. We, therefore highlight that different proxy for audit quality show opposite effect of joint audit.

Keywords: audit fees, audit quality, Big N. Auditor, joint audit

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
850 A Numerical Study of Adherend Geometry on the Stress Distribution in Adhesively Lap Joint

Authors: Ahmet Calik


In present study, the effect of adherend geometry on the tensile strength of adhesively single lap aluminum structures joint, bonded was numerically studied using by three dimensional finite element model. Six joint model were investigated. Analyses were performed in ANSYS commercial software. The results shows that the adherends shape has the highest effect on peel and shear stresses.

Keywords: adhesive, adherend, single lap joints, finite element

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
849 Pushover Experiment of Traditional Dieh-Dou Timber Frame

Authors: Ren Zuo Wang


In this paper, in order to investigate the joint behaviors of the Dieh-Dou structure. A pushover experiment of Dieh-Dou Jia-Dong is implemented. NDI, LVDT and image measurement system are used to measure displacements of joints and deformations of Dieh-Dou Jia-Dong. In addition, joint rotation-moment relationships of column restoring force, purlin-supporting, Dou-Shu, Dou-Gong brackets, primary beam-Gua Tong, secondary beam-Gua Tong, Tertiary beam are builied. From Jia-Dong experiments, formulations of joint rotation are proposed.

Keywords: pushover experiment, Dieh-Dou timber frame, image measurement system, joint rotation-moment relationships

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
848 Composite Behavior of Precast Concrete Coping with Internal Connector and Precast Girder

Authors: Junki Min, Heeyoung Lee, Wonseok Chung


Traditional marine concrete structures are difficult to construct and may cause environmental pollution. This study presents new concrete bridge system in the marine. The main feature of the proposed bridge is that precast girders and precast coping are applied to facilitate assembly and to improve constructability. In addition, the moment of the girder is reduced by continuation the joint. In this study, a full-scale joint specimen with a span of 7.0 m was fabricated and tested to evaluate the composite behavior of the joint. A finite element model was also developed and compared against the experimental results. All members of the test specimen behaved stably up to the design load. It was found that the precast joint of the proposed bridge showed the composite behavior efficiently before the failure.

Keywords: finite element analysis, full-scale test, coping, joint performance, marine structure, precast

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
847 Experimental Study on Connection Method of Precast Beam-Column Using CFRPS

Authors: Harmonis Rante, Rudy Djamaluddin, Herman Parung, Victor Sampebulu


Many research of FRP strengthening on beam-column joint have been done. They used FRP as a strengthening material but not as a connection method. This paper presents a result of experimental-study on connection method of precast beam-column using CFRP sheet to investigate the possibility of CFRP sheet to be a connecting material. Six specimens were prepared and tested to investigate the behavior of CFRP-s connection capacity. The performance of two-connection method is presented in this paper. Three specimens have been tested so far, they were specimen without belt, specimen using one belt and monolith specimen as a control specimen. Result indicated that FRP joint system without belt reached higher capacity than joint system using one belt, but both are lower than monolith joint. Capacity of joint system without belt is 90.6% and 62.5% for the joint system using one belt, respectively compared to the control specimen.

Keywords: belt, CFRP-s, connection method, strengthening

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
846 Testing of the Decreasing Bond Strength of Polyvinyl Acetate Adhesive by Low Temperatures

Authors: Pavel Boška, Jan Bomba, Tomáš Beránek, Jiří Procházka


When using wood products bonded by polyvinyl acetate, glues such as windows are the most limiting element of degradation of the glued joint due to weather changes. In addition to moisture and high temperatures, the joint may damage the low temperature below freezing point, where dimensional changes in the material and distortion of the adhesive film occur. During the experiments, the joints were exposed to several degrees of sub-zero temperatures from 0 °C to -40 °C and then to compare how the decreasing temperature affects the strength of the joint. The experiment was performed on wood beech samples (Fagus sylvatica), bonded with PVAc with D3 resistance and the shear strength of bond was measured. The glued and treated samples were tested on a laboratory testing machine, recording the strength of the joint. The statistical results have given us information that the strength of the joint gradually decreases with decreasing temperature, but a noticeable and statistically significant change is achieved only at very low temperatures.

Keywords: adhesives, bond strength, low temperatures, polyvinyl acetate

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
845 Biases in Numerically Invariant Joint Signatures

Authors: Reza Aghayan


This paper illustrates that numerically invariant joint signatures suffer biases in the resulting signatures. Next, we classify the arising biases as Bias Type 1 and Bias Type 2 and show how they can be removed.

Keywords: Euclidean and affine geometries, differential invariant signature curves, numerically invariant joint signatures, numerical analysis, numerical bias, curve analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 493
844 Finite Element Modelling of Log Wall Corner Joints

Authors: Reza Kalantari, Ghazanfarah Hafeez


The paper presents outcomes of the numerical research performed on standard and dovetail corner joints under lateral loads. An overview of the past research on log shear walls is also presented. To the authors’ best knowledge, currently, there are no specific design guidelines available in the code for the design of log shear walls, implying the need to investigate the performance of log shear walls. This research explores the performance of the log shear wall corner joint system of standard joint and dovetail types using numerical methods based on research available in the literature. A parametric study is performed to study the effect of gap size provided between two orthogonal logs and the presence of wood and steel dowels provided as joinery between log courses on the performance of such a structural system. The research outcomes are the force-displacement curves. 8% variability is seen in the reaction forces with the change of gap size for the case of the standard joint, while a variation of 10% is observed in the reaction forces for the dovetail joint system.

Keywords: dovetail joint, finite element modelling, log shear walls, standard joint

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
843 Improved Performance Scheme for Joint Transmission in Downlink Coordinated Multi-Point Transmission

Authors: Young-Su Ryu, Su-Hyun Jung, Myoung-Jin Kim, Hyoung-Kyu Song


In this paper, improved performance scheme for joint transmission is proposed in downlink (DL) coordinated multi-point(CoMP) in case of constraint transmission power. This scheme is that serving transmission point (TP) request a joint transmission to inter-TP and selects one pre-coding technique according to channel state information(CSI) from user equipment(UE). The simulation results show that the bit error rate(BER) and throughput performances of the proposed scheme provide high spectral efficiency and reliable data at the cell edge.

Keywords: CoMP, joint transmission, minimum mean square error, zero-forcing, zero-forcing dirty paper coding

Procedia PDF Downloads 451
842 Analysis study According Some of Physical and Mechanical Variables for Joint Wrist Injury

Authors: Nabeel Abdulkadhim Athab


The purpose of this research is to conduct a comparative study according analysis of programmed to some of physical and mechanical variables for joint wrist injury. As it can be through this research to distinguish between the amount of variation in the work of the joint after sample underwent rehabilitation program to improve the effectiveness of the joint and naturally restore its effectiveness. Supposed researcher that there is statistically significant differences between the results of the tests pre and post the members research sample, as a result of submission the sample to the program of rehabilitation, which led to the development of muscle activity that are working on wrist joint and this is what led to note the differences between the results of the tests pre and post. The researcher used the descriptive method. The research sample included (6) of injured players in the wrist joint, as the average age (21.68) and standard deviation (1.13) either length average (178cm) and standard deviation (2.08). And the sample as evidenced homogeneous among themselves. And where the data were collected, introduced in program for statistical processing to get to the most important conclusions and recommendations and that the most important: 1-The commitment of the sample program the qualifying process variables studied in the search for the heterogeneity of study activity and effectiveness of wrist joint for injured players. 2-The analysis programmed a high accuracy in the measurement of the research variables, and which led to the possibility of discrimination into account differences in motor ability camel and injured in the wrist joint. To search recommendations including: 1-The use of computer systems in the scientific research for the possibility of obtaining accurate research results. 2-Programming exercises rehabilitation according to an expert system for possible use by patients without reference to the person processor.

Keywords: analysis of joint wrist injury, physical and mechanical variables, wrist joint, wrist injury

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841 Effect of Sensory Manipulations on Human Joint Stiffness Strategy and Its Adaptation for Human Dynamic Stability

Authors: Aizreena Azaman, Mai Ishibashi, Masanori Ishizawa, Shin-Ichiroh Yamamoto


Sensory input plays an important role to human posture control system to initiate strategy in order to counterpart any unbalance condition and thus, prevent fall. In previous study, joint stiffness was observed able to describe certain issues regarding to movement performance. But, correlation between balance ability and joint stiffness is still remains unknown. In this study, joint stiffening strategy at ankle and hip were observed under different sensory manipulations and its correlation with conventional clinical test (Functional Reach Test) for balance ability was investigated. In order to create unstable condition, two different surface perturbations (tilt up-tilt (TT) down and forward-backward (FB)) at four different frequencies (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 Hz) were introduced. Furthermore, four different sensory manipulation conditions (include vision and vestibular system) were applied to the subject and they were asked to maintain their position as possible. The results suggested that joint stiffness were high during difficult balance situation. Less balance people generated high average joint stiffness compared to balance people. Besides, adaptation of posture control system under repetitive external perturbation also suggested less during sensory limited condition. Overall, analysis of joint stiffening response possible to predict unbalance situation faced by human.

Keywords: balance ability, joint stiffness, sensory, adaptation, dynamic

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
840 Relationship between Joint Hypermobility and Balance in Patients with Down’s Syndrome

Authors: Meltem Ramoglu, Ertugrul Safran, Hikmet Ucgun, Busra Kepenek Varol, Hulya Nilgun Gurses


Down’s syndrome (DS) is a human genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of an extra chromosome 21. Many patients with DS have musculoskeletal problems that affect weak muscle tone (hypotonia) and ligament laxity. This leads to excessive joint hypermobility and decreased position sense (proprioception). Lack of proprioception may cause balance problems. The aim of our study was to investigate how does joint hypermobility affect balance in patients with DS. Our study conducted with 13 DS patients age between 18 to 40 years. Demographic data were recorded. Beighton Hypermobility Score (BHS) was used to evaluate joint hypermobility. Balance score of participants was evaluated with Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Mean age of our participants was 29,8±3,57 year. Average score of body mass index and BHS were; 33,23 ±3,78 kg/m2 and 7,61±1,04, respectively. Out of a maximum possible score of 56 on the Berg Balance Scale, scores of participants with DS ranged from 36–51, with a mean of 43±4,45. Significant correlation was found between BHS and BBS (r: -,966, p=0.00). All of our participants have 6/9 or higher grade from BHS. As a conclusion of our study; joint hypermobility may affect balance score in patients with DS. The results suggest that people with DS have worse balance scores which affected by hypermobility. Further studies need larger population for more reliable results.

Keywords: adults, balance, Down's syndrome, joint hypermobility

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
839 Piping Fragility Composed of Different Materials by Using OpenSees Software

Authors: Woo Young Jung, Min Ho Kwon, Bu Seog Ju


A failure of the non-structural component can cause significant damages in critical facilities such as nuclear power plants and hospitals. Historically, it was reported that the damage from the leakage of sprinkler systems, resulted in the shutdown of hospitals for several weeks by the 1971 San Fernando and 1994 North Ridge earthquakes. In most cases, water leakages were observed at the cross joints, sprinkler heads, and T-joint connections in piping systems during and after the seismic events. Hence, the primary objective of this study was to understand the seismic performance of T-joint connections and to develop an analytical Finite Element (FE) model for the T-joint systems of 2-inch fire protection piping system in hospitals subjected to seismic ground motions. In order to evaluate the FE models of the piping systems using OpenSees, two types of materials were used: 1) Steel 02 materials and 2) Pinching 4 materials. Results of the current study revealed that the nonlinear moment-rotation FE models for the threaded T-joint reconciled well with the experimental results in both FE material models. However, the system-level fragility determined from multiple nonlinear time history analyses at the threaded T-joint was slightly different. The system-level fragility at the T-joint, determined by Pinching 4 material was more conservative than that of using Steel 02 material in the piping system.

Keywords: fragility, t-joint, piping, leakage, sprinkler

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
838 Parametric Study for Optimal Design of Hybrid Bridge Joint

Authors: Bongsik Park, Jae Hyun Park, Jae-Yeol Cho


Mixed structure, which is a kind of hybrid system, is incorporating steel beam and prestressed concrete beam. Hybrid bridge adopting mixed structure have some merits. Main span length can be made longer by using steel as main span material. In case of cable-stayed bridge having asymmetric span length, negative reaction at side span can be restrained without extra restraining devices by using weight difference between main span material and side span material. However angle of refraction might happen because of rigidity difference between materials and stress concentration also might happen because of abnormal loading transmission at joint in the hybrid bridge. Therefore the joint might be a weak point of the structural system and it needs to pay attention to design of the joint. However, design codes and standards about the joint in the hybrid-bridge have not been established so the joint designs in most of construction cases have been very conservative or followed previous design without extra verification. In this study parametric study using finite element analysis for optimal design of hybrid bridge joint is conducted. Before parametric study, finite element analysis was conducted based on previous experimental data and it is verified that analysis result approximated experimental data. Based on the finite element analysis results, parametric study was conducted. The parameters were selected as those have influences on joint behavior. Based on the parametric study results, optimal design of hybrid bridge joint has been determined.

Keywords: parametric study, optimal design, hybrid bridge, finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
837 Suggestion of Reasonable Analysis Model for T-Girder Modular Bridge

Authors: Soonwon Kang, Jinwoong Choi, Sungnam Hong, Seung-Kyung Kye, Sun-Kyu Park


The modular bridge is to be constructed by assembling standardized precast segments. This bridge is classified as a slab type and T-girder type. The T-girder bridge has transverse joint. However, it did not perform the verification on the transverse joint, but the slab type was done on the analytic study on the joint. Therefore, it is necessary for precast modular T-girder bridge that has a transverse joint to propose an appropriated model. In this study, specimens and analysis models compared integrated type with segmented type. Results of the integrated and segmented specimens, each of the deflection was 98.40mm and 74.66mm when the maximum load was 269.71kN and 248.29kN, in case of the modeling the specimens, each of the deflection was 84.04mm, 69.39mm when the maximum load was 269.71kN, 248.29kN, therefore, the precast T-girder modular bridges form the analytic model proposed appropriate.

Keywords: precast, T-girder modular bridge, finite element analysis, joint

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
836 Modifications in Design of Lap Joint of Fiber Metal Laminates

Authors: Shaher Bano, Samia Fida, Asif Israr


The continuous development and exploitation of materials and designs have diverted the attention of the world towards the use of robust composite materials known as fiber-metal laminates in many high-performance applications. The hybrid structure of fiber metal laminates makes them a material of choice for various applications such as aircraft skin panels, fuselage floorings, door panels and other load bearing applications. The synergistic effect of properties of metals and fibers reinforced laminates are responsible for their high damage tolerance as the metal element provides better fatigue and impact properties, while high stiffness and better corrosion properties are inherited from the fiber reinforced matrix systems. They are mostly used as a layered structure in different joint configurations such as lap and but joints. The FML layers are usually bonded with each other using either mechanical fasteners or adhesive bonds. This research work is also focused on modification of an adhesive bonded joint as a single lap joint of carbon fibers based CARALL FML has been modified to increase interlaminar shear strength and avoid delamination. For this purpose different joint modification techniques such as the introduction of spews and shoulder to modify the bond shape and use of nanofillers such as carbon nano-tubes as a reinforcement in the adhesive materials, have been utilized to improve shear strength of lap joint of the adhesively bonded FML layers. Both the simulation and experimental results showed that lap joint with spews and shoulders configuration have better properties due to stress distribution over a large area at the corner of the joint. The introduction of carbon nanotubes has also shown a positive effect on shear stress and joint strength as they act as reinforcement in the adhesive bond material.

Keywords: adhesive joint, Carbon Reinforced Aluminium Laminate (CARALL), fiber metal laminates, spews

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
835 Evaluation the Influence of Trunk Bracing in Joint Contact Forces in Subjects with Scoliosis

Authors: Azadeh Jafari, Mohammad Taghi Karimi, Azadeh Nadi


Background: Scoliosis is the lateral curvature of the spine which may influence the abilities of the subjects during standing and walking. Most of the scoliotic subjects use orthosis to reduce the curve and to decrease the risk of curve progression. There was lack of information regarding the effects of orthosis on kinematic and joint contact force. Therefore, this research was done to highlight the effects of orthosis on the aforementioned parameters. Method: 5 scoliotic subjects were recruited in this study, with single curve less than 40 (females with age 13.2 ± 1.7). They were asked to walk with and without orthosis. The kinematic of the joints, force applied on the legs, moments transmitted through the joints and joint contact forces were evaluated in this study. Moreover, the lengths of muscles were determined by use of computer muscle control approach in OpenSim. Results: There was a significant difference between the second peak of vertical ground reaction force while walking with and without orthosis (p-value < 0.05). There was no difference between spatiotemporal gait parameters while walking with and without orthosis (P-value > 0.05). The mean values of joint contact forces (vertical component) increased by the use of orthosis, but the difference was not significant (p-value > 0.05). Conclusion: Although the kinematic of most of the body joints was not influenced by the use of orthosis, the joint contact force may be increased by orthosis. The increase in joint contact force may be due to the performance of orthosis which restricts the motions of pelvic and increases compensatory mechanism used by the subjects to decrease the side effects of the orthosis.

Keywords: scoliosis, joint contact force, kinetic, kinematic

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834 Micro-Study of Dissimilar Welded Materials

Authors: Ezzeddin Anawa, Abdol-Ghane Olabi


The dissimilar joint between aluminum /titanium alloys (Al 6082 and Ti G2) alloys were successfully achieved by CO2 laser welding with a single pass and without filler material using the overlap joint design. Laser welding parameters ranges combinations were experimentally determined using Taguchi approach with the objective of producing welded joint with acceptable welding profile and high quality of mechanical properties. In this study a joining of dissimilar Al 6082 / Ti G2 was result in three distinct regions fusion area (FA), heat-affected zone (HAZ), and the unaffected base metal (BM) in the weldment. These regions are studied in terms of its microstructural characteristics and microhardness which are directly affecting the welding quality. The weld metal was mainly composed of martensite alpha prime. In two different metals in the two different sides of joint HAZ, grain growth was detected. The microhardness of the joint distribution also has shown microhardness increasing in the HAZ of two base metals and a varying microhardness in fusion zone.

Keywords: microharness , microstructure, laser welding and dissimilar jointed materials.

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