Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21873

Search results for: high voltage application

21873 High-Quality Flavor of Black Belly Pork under Lightning Corona Discharge Using Tesla Coil for High Voltage Education

Authors: Kyung-Hoon Jang, Jae-Hyo Park, Kwang-Yeop Jang, Dongjin Kim

Abstract:

The Tesla coil is an electrical resonant transformer circuit designed by inventor Nikola Tesla in 1891. It is used to produce high voltage, low current and high frequency alternating current electricity. Tesla experimented with a number of different configurations consisting of two or sometimes three coupled resonant electric circuits. This paper focuses on development and high voltage education to apply a Tesla coil to cuisine for high quality flavor and taste conditioning as well as high voltage education under 50 kV corona discharge. The result revealed that the velocity of roasted black belly pork by Tesla coil is faster than that of conventional methods such as hot grill and steel plate etc. depending on applied voltage level and applied voltage time. Besides, carbohydrate and crude protein increased, whereas natrium and saccharides significantly decreased after lightning surge by Tesla coil. This idea will be useful in high voltage education and high voltage application.

Keywords: corona discharge, Tesla coil, high voltage application, high voltage education

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
21872 SCR-Based Advanced ESD Protection Device for Low Voltage Application

Authors: Bo Bae Song, Byung Seok Lee, Hyun young Kim, Chung Kwang Lee, Yong Seo Koo

Abstract:

This paper proposed a silicon controller rectifier (SCR) based ESD protection device to protect low voltage ESD for integrated circuit. The proposed ESD protection device has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage compared with conventional SCR-based ESD protection devices. The proposed ESD protection circuit is verified and compared by TCAD simulation. This paper verified effective low voltage ESD characteristics with low trigger voltage of 5.79V and high holding voltage of 3.5V through optimization depending on design variables (D1, D2, D3, and D4).

Keywords: ESD, SCR, holding voltage, latch-up

Procedia PDF Downloads 430
21871 SCR-Stacking Structure with High Holding Voltage for IO and Power Clamp

Authors: Hyun Young Kim, Chung Kwang Lee, Han Hee Cho, Sang Woon Cho, Yong Seo Koo

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed a novel SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier) - based ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) protection device for I/O and power clamp. The proposed device has a higher holding voltage characteristic than conventional SCR. These characteristics enable to have latch-up immunity under normal operating conditions as well as superior full chip ESD protection. The proposed device was analyzed to figure out electrical characteristics and tolerance robustness in term of individual design parameters (D1, D2, D3). They are investigated by using the Synopsys TCAD simulator. As a result of simulation, holding voltage increased with different design parameters. The holding voltage of the proposed device changes from 3.3V to 7.9V. Also, N-Stack structure ESD device with the high holding voltage is proposed. In the simulation results, 2-stack has holding voltage of 6.8V and 3-stack has holding voltage of 10.5V. The simulation results show that holding voltage of stacking structure can be larger than the operation voltage of high-voltage application.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, holding voltage, stack, power clamp

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
21870 DC-to-DC Converters for Low-Voltage High-Power Renewable Energy Systems

Authors: Abdar Ali, Rizwan Ullah, Zahid Ullah

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the study of DC-to-DC converters, which are suitable for low-voltage high-power applications. The output voltages generated by renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic arrays and fuel cell stacks are generally low and required to be increased to high voltage levels. Development of DC-to-DC converters, which provide high step-up voltage conversion ratios with high efficiencies and low voltage stresses is one of the main issues in the development of renewable energy systems. A procedure for three converters-conventional DC-to-DC converter, interleaved boost converter, and isolated flyback based converter, is illustrated for a given set of specifications. The selection among the converters for the given application is based on the voltage conversion ratio, efficiency, and voltage stresses.

Keywords: flyback converter, interleaved boost, photovoltaic array, fuel cell, switch stress, voltage conversion ratio, renewable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 491
21869 A Study on ESD Protection Circuit Applying Silicon Controlled Rectifier-Based Stack Technology with High Holding Voltage

Authors: Hee-Guk Chae, Bo-Bae Song, Kyoung-Il Do, Jeong-Yun Seo, Yong-Seo Koo

Abstract:

In this study, an improved Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protection circuit with low trigger voltage and high holding voltage is proposed. ESD has become a serious problem in the semiconductor process because the semiconductor density has become very high these days. Therefore, much research has been done to prevent ESD. The proposed circuit is a stacked structure of the new unit structure combined by the Zener Triggering (SCR ZTSCR) and the High Holding Voltage SCR (HHVSCR). The simulation results show that the proposed circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage. And the stack technology is applied to adjust the various operating voltage. As the results, the holding voltage is 7.7 V for 2-stack and 10.7 V for 3-stack.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, latch-up, power clamp, holding voltage

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
21868 A Silicon Controlled Rectifier-Based ESD Protection Circuit with High Holding Voltage and High Robustness Characteristics

Authors: Kyoung-il Do, Byung-seok Lee, Hee-guk Chae, Jeong-yun Seo Yong-seo Koo

Abstract:

In this paper, a Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR)-based Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protection circuit with high holding voltage and high robustness characteristics is proposed. Unlike conventional SCR, the proposed circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage and provides effective ESD protection with latch-up immunity. In addition, the TCAD simulation results show that the proposed circuit has better electrical characteristics than the conventional SCR. A stack technology was used for voltage-specific applications. Consequentially, the proposed circuit has a trigger voltage of 17.60 V and a holding voltage of 3.64 V.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, latch-up, power clamp, holding voltage

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
21867 New Series Input Parallel Output LLC DC/DC Converter with the Input Voltage Balancing Capacitor for the Electric System of Electric Vehicles

Authors: Kang Hyun Yi

Abstract:

This paper presents a new parallel output LLC DC/DC converter for electric vehicle. The electric vehicle has two batteries. One is a high voltage battery for the powertrain of the vehicle and the other is a low voltage battery for the vehicle electric system. The low voltage is charged from the high voltage battery and the high voltage input and the high current output DC/DC converter is needed. Therefore, the new LLC converter with the input voltage compensation is proposed for the high voltage input and the low voltage output DC/DC converter. The proposed circuit has two LLC converters with the series input voltage from the battery for the powertrain and the parallel output low battery voltage for the vehicle electric system because the battery voltage for the powertrain and the electric power for the vehicle become high. Also, the input series voltage compensation capacitor is used for balancing the input current in the two LLC converters. The proposed converter has an equal electric stress of the semiconductor parts and the reactive components, high efficiency and good heat dissipation.

Keywords: electric vehicle, LLC DC/DC converter, input voltage balancing, parallel output

Procedia PDF Downloads 507
21866 Fast High Voltage Solid State Switch Using Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor for Discharge-Pumped Lasers

Authors: Nur Syarafina Binti Othman, Tsubasa Jindo, Makato Yamada, Miho Tsuyama, Hitoshi Nakano

Abstract:

A novel method to produce a fast high voltage solid states switch using Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) is presented for discharge-pumped gas lasers. The IGBTs are connected in series to achieve a high voltage rating. An avalanche transistor is used as the gate driver. The fast pulse generated by the avalanche transistor quickly charges the large input capacitance of the IGBT, resulting in a switch out of a fast high-voltage pulse. The switching characteristic of fast-high voltage solid state switch has been estimated in the multi-stage series-connected IGBT with the applied voltage of several tens of kV. Electrical circuit diagram and the mythology of fast-high voltage solid state switch as well as experimental results obtained are presented.

Keywords: high voltage, IGBT, solid state switch, bipolar transistor

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
21865 Low-Voltage Multiphase Brushless DC Motor for Electric Vehicle Application

Authors: Mengesha Mamo Wogari

Abstract:

In this paper, low voltage multiphase brushless DC motor with square wave air-gap flux distribution for electric vehicle application is proposed. Ten-phase, 5 kW motor, has been designed and simulated by finite element methods demonstrating the desired high torque capability at low speed and flux weakening operation for high-speed operations. The motor torque is proportional to number of phases for a constant phase current and air-gap flux. The concept of vector control and simple space vector modulation technique is used on MATLAB to control the motor demonstrating simple switching pattern for selected number of phases. The low voltage DC and inverter output AC are desired characteristics to avoid any electric shock in the vehicle, accidentally and during abnormal conditions. The switching devices for inverter are of low-voltage rating and cost effective though their number is equal to twice the number of phases.

Keywords: brushless DC motors, electric Vehicle, finite element methods, Low-voltage inverter, multiphase

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
21864 Analysis of SCR-Based ESD Protection Circuit on Holding Voltage Characteristics

Authors: Yong Seo Koo, Jong Ho Nam, Yong Nam Choi, Dae Yeol Yoo, Jung Woo Han

Abstract:

This paper presents a silicon controller rectifier (SCR) based ESD protection circuit for IC. The proposed ESD protection circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage compared with conventional SCR ESD protection circuit. Electrical characteristics of the proposed ESD protection circuit are simulated and analyzed using TCAD simulator. The proposed ESD protection circuit verified effective low voltage ESD characteristics with low trigger voltage and high holding voltage.

Keywords: electro-static discharge (ESD), silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), holding voltage, protection circuit

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
21863 High Precision 65nm CMOS Rectifier for Energy Harvesting using Threshold Voltage Minimization in Telemedicine Embedded System

Authors: Hafez Fouad

Abstract:

Telemedicine applications have very low voltage which required High Precision Rectifier Design with high Sensitivity to operate at minimum input Voltage. In this work, we targeted 0.2V input voltage using 65 nm CMOS rectifier for Energy Harvesting Telemedicine application. The proposed rectifier which designed at 2.4GHz using two-stage structure found to perform in a better case where minimum operation voltage is lower than previous published paper and the rectifier can work at a wide range of low input voltage amplitude. The Performance Summary of Full-wave fully gate cross-coupled rectifiers (FWFR) CMOS Rectifier at F = 2.4 GHz: The minimum and maximum output voltages generated using an input voltage amplitude of 2 V are 490.9 mV and 1.997 V, maximum VCE = 99.85 % and maximum PCE = 46.86 %. The Performance Summary of Differential drive CMOS rectifier with external bootstrapping circuit rectifier at F = 2.4 GHz: The minimum and maximum output voltages generated using an input voltage amplitude of 2V are 265.5 mV (0.265V) and 1.467 V respectively, maximum VCE = 93.9 % and maximum PCE= 15.8 %.

Keywords: energy harvesting, embedded system, IoT telemedicine system, threshold voltage minimization, differential drive cmos rectifier, full-wave fully gate cross-coupled rectifiers CMOS rectifier

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
21862 High-Voltage Resonant Converter with Extreme Load Variation: Design Criteria and Applications

Authors: Jose A. Pomilio, Olavo Bet, Mateus P. Vieira

Abstract:

The power converter that feeds high-frequency, high-voltage transformers must be carefully designed due to parasitic components, mainly the secondary winding capacitance and the leakage inductance, that introduces resonances in relatively low-frequency range, next to the switching frequency. This paper considers applications in which the load (resistive) has an unpredictable behavior, changing from open to short-circuit condition faster than the output voltage control loop could react. In this context, to avoid over voltage and over current situations, that could damage the converter, the transformer or the load, it is necessary to find an operation point that assure the desired output voltage in spite of the load condition. This can done adjusting the frequency response of the transformer adding an external inductance, together with selecting the switching frequency to get stable output voltage independently of the load.

Keywords: high-voltage transformer, resonant converter, soft-commutation, external inductance

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
21861 Transient Signal Generator For Fault Indicator Testing

Authors: Mohamed Shaban, Ali Alfallah

Abstract:

This paper describes an application for testing of a fault indicator but it could be used for other network protection testing. The application is created in the LabVIEW environment and consists of three parts. The first part of the application is determined for transient phenomenon generation and imitates voltage and current transient signal at ground fault originate. The second part allows to set sequences of trend for each current and voltage output signal, up to six trends for each phase. The last part of the application generates harmonic signal with continuously controllable amplitude of current or voltage output signal and phase shift of each signal can be changed there. Further any sub-harmonics and upper harmonics can be added to selected current output signal

Keywords: signal generator-fault indicator, harmonic signal generator, voltage output

Procedia PDF Downloads 420
21860 Modular Harmonic Cancellation in a Multiplier High Voltage Direct Current Generator

Authors: Ahmad Zahran, Ahmed Herzallah, Ahmad Ahmad, Mahran Quraan

Abstract:

Generation of high DC voltages is necessary for testing the insulation material of high voltage AC transmission lines with long lengths. The harmonic and ripple contents of the output DC voltage supplied by high voltage DC circuits require the use of costly capacitors to smooth the output voltage after rectification. This paper proposes a new modular multiplier high voltage DC generator with embedded Cockcroft-Walton circuits that achieve a negligible harmonic and ripple contents of the output DC voltage without the need for costly filters to produce a nearly constant output voltage. In this new topology, Cockcroft-Walton modules are connected in series to produce a high DC output voltage. The modules are supplied by low input AC voltage sources that have the same magnitude and frequency and shifted from each other by a certain angle to eliminate the harmonics from the output voltage. The small ripple factor is provided by the smoothing column capacitors and the phase shifted input voltages of the cascaded modules. The constituent harmonics within each module are determined using Fourier analysis. The viability of the proposed DC generator for testing purposes and the effectiveness of the cascaded connection are confirmed by numerical simulations using MATLAB/Simulink.

Keywords: Cockcroft-Walton circuit, harmonics, ripple factor, HVDC generator

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
21859 Performance Analysis of Transformerless DC-DC Boost Converter

Authors: Nidhi Vijay, A. K. Sharma

Abstract:

Many industrial applications require power from dc source. DC-DC boost converters are now being used all over the world for rapid transit system. Although these provide high efficiency, smooth control, fast response and regeneration, conventional DC-DC boost converters are unable to provide high step up voltage gain due to effect of power switches, rectifier diodes and equivalent series resistance of inductor and capacitor. This paper proposes new transformerless dc-dc converters to achieve high step up voltage gain as compared to the conventional converter without an extremely high duty ratio. Only one power stage is used in this converter. Steady-state analysis of voltage gain is discussed in brief. Finally, a comparative analysis is given in order to verify the results.

Keywords: MATLAB, DC-DC boost converter, voltage gain, voltage stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
21858 Study on Breakdown Voltage Characteristics of Different Types of Oils with Contaminations

Authors: C. Jouhar, B. Rajesh Kamath, M. K. Veeraiah, M. Z. Kurian

Abstract:

Since long time ago, petroleum-based mineral oils have been used for liquid insulation in high voltage equipments. Mineral oils are widely used as insulation for transmission and distribution power transformers, capacitors and other high voltage equipment. Petroleum-based insulating oils have excellent dielectric properties such as high electric field strength, low dielectric losses and good long-term performance. Due to environmental consideration, an attempt to search the alternate liquid insulation is required. The influence of particles on the voltage breakdown in insulating oil and other liquids has been recognized for many years. Particles influence both AC and DC voltage breakdown in insulating oil. Experiments are conducted under AC voltage. The breakdown process starts with a microscopic bubble, an area of large distance where ions or electrons initiate avalanches. Insulating liquids drive their dielectric strength from the much higher density compare to gases. Experiments are carried out under High Voltage AC (HVAC) in different types of oils namely castor oil, vegetable oil and mineral oil. The Breakdown Voltage (BDV) with presence of moisture and particle contamination in different types of oils is studied. The BDV of vegetable oil is better when compared to other oils without contamination. The BDV of mineral oil is better when compared to other types of oils in presence of contamination.

Keywords: breakdown voltage, high voltage AC, insulating oil, oil breakdown

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
21857 Low Trigger Voltage Silicon Controlled Rectifier Stacking Structure with High Holding Voltage for High Voltage Applications

Authors: Kyoung-Il Do, Jun-Geol Park, Hee-Guk Chae, Jeong-Yun Seo, Yong-Seo Koo

Abstract:

A SCR stacking structure is proposed to have improved Latch-up immunity. In comparison with conventional SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier), the proposed Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protection circuit has a lower trigger characteristic by using the LVTSCR (Low Voltage Trigger) structure. Also the proposed ESD protection circuit has improved Holding Voltage Characteristic by using N-stack technique. These characteristics enable to have latch-up immunity in operating conditions. The simulations are accomplished by using the Synopsys TCAD. It has a trigger voltage of 8.9V and a holding voltage of 1.8V in a single structure. And when applying the stack technique, 2-stack has the holding voltage of 3.8V and 3-stack has the holding voltage of 5.1 V.

Keywords: electrostatic discharge (ESD), low voltage trigger silicon controlled rectifier (LVTSCR), MVTSCR, power clamp, silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), latch-up

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
21856 Analysis of a Power Factor Correction Converter for Light Emitting Diode Driver Application

Authors: Edwina G. Rodrigues, S. J. Bindhu, A. V. Rajesh

Abstract:

This paper proposes a switched capacitor based driver circuit for high power light emitting diodes with a front end rectifier. LEDs are low-voltage light sources, requiring a constant DC voltage or current to operate optimally. LEDs, therefore, require a device that can convert incoming AC power to the proper DC voltage, and regulate the current flowing through the LED during operation. Proposed topology has a front end converter. It is an AC-DC rectifier that works on bridgeless boost topology which shapes the input current waveform. The front end converter is followed by a DC-DC converter which provides a constant DC voltage across the LEDs. A 12V AC input is given to the input of frontend converter which rectifies and boost the voltage to 24v DC and gives it to the DC-DC converter. The DC-DC converter converts the 24V DC and regulates this constant DC voltage across the LEDs.

Keywords: bridgeless rectifier, power factor correction(PFC), SC converter, total harmonic distortion (THD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
21855 Proposed Fault Detection Scheme on Low Voltage Distribution Feeders

Authors: Adewusi Adeoluwawale, Oronti Iyabosola Busola, Akinola Iretiayo, Komolafe Olusola Aderibigbe

Abstract:

The complex and radial structure of the low voltage distribution network (415V) makes it vulnerable to faults which are due to system and the environmental related factors. Besides these, the protective scheme employed on the low voltage network which is the fuse cannot be monitored remotely such that in the event of sustained fault, the utility will have to rely solely on the complaint brought by customers for loss of supply and this tends to increase the length of outages. A microcontroller based fault detection scheme is hereby developed to detect low voltage and high voltage fault conditions which are common faults on this network. Voltages below 198V and above 242V on the distribution feeders are classified and detected as low voltage and high voltages respectively. Results shows that the developed scheme produced a good response time in the detection of these faults.

Keywords: fault detection, low voltage distribution feeders, outage times, sustained faults

Procedia PDF Downloads 461
21854 Field Experience with Sweep Frequency Response Analysis for Power Transformer Diagnosis

Authors: Ambuj Kumar, Sunil Kumar Singh, Shrikant Singh, Zakir Husain, R. K. Jarial

Abstract:

Sweep frequency response analysis has been turning out a powerful tool for investigation of mechanical as well as electrical integration of transformers. In this paper various aspect of practical application of SFRA has been studied. Open circuit and short circuit measurement were done on different phases of high voltage and low voltage winding. A case study was presented for the transformer of rating 31.5 MVA for various frequency ranges. A clear picture was presented for sub- frequency ranges for HV as well as LV winding. The main motive of work is to investigate high voltage short circuit response. The theoretical concept about SFRA responses is validated with expert system software results.

Keywords: transformer winding, SFRA, OCT & SCT, frequency deviation

Procedia PDF Downloads 744
21853 Sliding Mode Control and Its Application in Custom Power Device: A Comprehensive Overview

Authors: Pankaj Negi

Abstract:

Nowadays the demand for receiving the high quality electrical energy is being increasing as consumer wants not only reliable but also quality power. Custom power instruments are of the most well-known compensators of power quality in distributed network. This paper present a comprehensive review of compensating custom power devices mainly DSTATCOM (distribution static compensator),DVR (dynamic voltage restorer), and UPQC (unified power quality compensator) and also deals with sliding mode control and its applications to custom power devices. The sliding mode control strategy provides robustness to custom power device and enhances the dynamic response for compensating voltage sag, swell, voltage flicker, and voltage harmonics. The aim of this paper is to provide a broad perspective on the status of compensating devices in electric power distribution system and sliding mode control strategies to researchers and application engineers who are dealing with power quality and stability issues.

Keywords: active power filters(APF), custom power device(CPD), DSTATCOM, DVR, UPQC, sliding mode control (SMC), power quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
21852 A High Step-Up DC-DC Converter for Renewable Energy System Applications

Authors: Sopida Vacharasukpo, Sudarat Khwan-On

Abstract:

This paper proposes a high step-up DC-DC converter topology for renewable energy system applications. The proposed converter employs only a single power switch instead of using several switches. Compared to the conventional DC-DC step-up converters the higher voltage gain with small output ripples can be achieved by using the proposed high step-up DC-DC converter topology. It can step up the low input voltage (20-50Vdc) generated from the photovoltaic modules to the high output voltage level approximately 600Vdc in order to supply the three-phase inverter fed the three-phase motor drive. In this paper, the operating principle of the proposed converter topology and its control strategy under the continuous conduction mode (CCM) are described. Finally, simulation results are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed high step-up DC-DC converter with its control strategy to increase the voltage step-up conversion ratio.

Keywords: DC-DC converter, high step-up ratio, renewable energy, single switch

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
21851 Performance Analysis of 180 nm Low Voltage Low Power CMOS OTA for High Frequency Application

Authors: D. J. Dahigaonkar, D. G. Wakde

Abstract:

The performance analysis of low voltage low power CMOS OTA is presented in this paper. The differential input single output OTA is simulated in 180nm CMOS process technology. The simulation results indicate high bandwidth of the order of 7.04GHz with 0.766mW power consumption and transconductance of -71.20dB. The total harmonic distortion for 100mV input at a frequency of 1MHz is found to be 2.3603%. In addition to this, to establish comparative analysis of designed OTA and analyze effect of technology scaling, the differential input single output OTA is further simulated using 350nm CMOS process technology and the comparative analysis is presented in this paper.

Keywords: Operational Transconductance Amplifier, Total Harmonic Distortions, low voltage/low power, power dissipation

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
21850 A Digital Pulse-Width Modulation Controller for High-Temperature DC-DC Power Conversion Application

Authors: Jingjing Lan, Jun Yu, Muthukumaraswamy Annamalai Arasu

Abstract:

This paper presents a digital non-linear pulse-width modulation (PWM) controller in a high-voltage (HV) buck-boost DC-DC converter for the piezoelectric transducer of the down-hole acoustic telemetry system. The proposed design controls the generation of output signal with voltage higher than the supply voltage and is targeted to work under high temperature. To minimize the power consumption and silicon area, a simple and efficient design scheme is employed to develop the PWM controller. The proposed PWM controller consists of serial to parallel (S2P) converter, data assign block, a mode and duty cycle controller (MDC), linearly PWM (LPWM) and noise shaper, pulse generator and clock generator. To improve the reliability of circuit operation at higher temperature, this design is fabricated with the 1.0-μm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) CMOS process. The implementation results validated that the proposed design has the advantages of smaller size, lower power consumption and robust thermal stability.

Keywords: DC-DC power conversion, digital control, high temperatures, pulse-width modulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
21849 UV Enhanced Hydrophilicity of the Anodized Films Formed at Low Current Density and Low Voltage

Authors: Phanawan Whangdee, Tomoaki Watanabe, Viritpon Srimaneepong, Dujreutai Pongkao Kashima

Abstract:

The anodized films formed at high current density or high voltage have been widely prepared for dental implant because it can improve the hydrophilicity to the film. Our attempt is exploring whether low current density and low voltage could enhance the good hydrophilicity to the anodized films or not. Furthermore, UV irradiation would be one of the key factor to enhance their hydrophilicity. The anodized films were performed at low current density of 2 mA/cm2 in 1M H3PO4, 1 mA/cm2 in 1M MCPM and low voltage of 6 V in either 1M H3PO4 or 1M MCPM. All samples were treated with UV for various times up to 24 h. After UV irradiation, the contact angle decreased, the chemical species changed. The Ti 2p and O 1s peaks increased, while the C 1s peak decreased which might be due to removal of hydrocarbon. The functional groups of the films shown as the change of OH groups appeared at wave number 3700 cm-1 and 2900-3000 cm-1, however, the peak of H2O at 1630 cm-1disappeared. It is indicated that UV irradiation might change the stretching modes of OH groups coordinated to surface Ti4+ cation but UV did not affect to the changes in surface morphologies. The surface energies increased after UV irradiation resulting in improving of the hydrophilicity. The anodized films formed at low current density or low voltage after UV irradiation showed a low contact angle as well as the film formed at high current density or high voltage.

Keywords: hydrophilicity, low current density, low voltage, UV irradiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 430
21848 Control Algorithm Design of Single-Phase Inverter For ZnO Breakdown Characteristics Tests

Authors: Kashif Habib, Zeeshan Ayyub

Abstract:

ZnO voltage dependent resistor was widely used as components of the electrical system for over-voltage protection. It has a wide application prospect in superconducting energy-removal, generator de-excitation, overvoltage protection of electrical & electronics equipment. At present, the research for the application of ZnO voltage dependent resistor stop, it uses just in the field of its nonlinear voltage current characteristic and overvoltage protection areas. There is no further study over the over-voltage breakdown characteristics, such as the combustion phenomena and the measure of the voltage/current when it breakdown, and the affect to its surrounding equipment. It is also a blind spot in its application. So, when we do the feature test of ZnO voltage dependent resistor, we need to design a reasonable test power supply, making the terminal voltage keep for sine wave, simulating the real use of PF voltage in power supply conditions. We put forward the solutions of using inverter to generate a controllable power. The paper mainly focuses on the breakdown characteristic test power supply of nonlinear ZnO voltage dependent resistor. According to the current mature switching power supply technology, we proposed power control system using the inverter as the core. The power mainly realize the sin-voltage output on the condition of three-phase PF-AC input, and 3 control modes (RMS, Peak, Average) of the current output. We choose TMS320F2812M as the control part of the hardware platform. It is used to convert the power from three-phase to a controlled single-phase sin-voltage through a rectifier, filter, and inverter. Design controller produce SPWM, to get the controlled voltage source via appropriate multi-loop control strategy, while execute data acquisition and display, system protection, start logic control, etc. The TMS320F2812M is able to complete the multi-loop control quickly and can be a good completion of the inverter output control.

Keywords: ZnO, multi-loop control, SPWM, non-linear load

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
21847 The Design of PFM Mode DC-DC Converter with DT-CMOS Switch

Authors: Jae-Chang Kwak, Yong-Seo Koo

Abstract:

The high efficiency power management IC (PMIC) with switching device is presented in this paper. PMIC is controlled with PFM control method in order to have high power efficiency at high current level. Dynamic Threshold voltage CMOS (DT-CMOS) with low on-resistance is designed to decrease conduction loss. The threshold voltage of DT-CMOS drops as the gate voltage increase, resulting in a much higher current handling capability than standard MOSFET. PFM control circuits consist of a generator, AND gate and comparator. The generator is made to have 1.2MHz oscillation voltage. The DC-DC converter based on PFM control circuit and low on-resistance switching device is presented in this paper.

Keywords: DT-CMOS, PMIC, PFM, DC-DC converter

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
21846 Inactivation of Rhodotorula spp. 74 with Cold Atmospheric Plasma

Authors: Zoran Herceg, Višnja Stulić, Tomislava Vukušić, Anet Režek Jambrak

Abstract:

High voltage electrical discharge is a new technology used for inactivation of pathogen microorganisms. Pathogen yeasts can cause diseases in humans if they are ingested. Nowadays new technologies have become the focus of researching all over the world. Rhodotorula is known as yeast that can cause diseases in humans. The aim of this study was to examine whether the high voltage electrical discharge treatment generated in gas phase has an influence on yeast reduction and recovery of Rhodotorula spp 74 in pure culture. Rhodotorula spp. 74 was treated in 200 mL of model solution. Treatment time (5 and 10 min), frequency (60 and 90 Hz) and injected gas (air or argon 99,99%) were changed. Titanium high voltage needle was used as high voltage electrode (positive polarity) through which air or argon was injected at the gas flow of 0.6 L/min. Experimental design and statistical analyses were obtained by Statgraphics Centurion software (StatPoint Technologies, Inc., VA, USA). The best inactivation rate 1.7 log10 reduction was observed after the 10 min of treatment, frequency of 90 Hz and injected air. Also with a longer treatment time inactivation rate was higher. After the 24 h recovery of treated samples was observed. Therefore the further optimization of method is needed to understand the mechanism of yeasts inactivation and cells recovery after the treatment. Acknowledgements: The authors would like to acknowledge the support by Croatian Science Foundation and research project ‘Application of electrical discharge plasma for preservation of liquid foods’.

Keywords: rhodotorula spp. 74, electrical discharge plasma, inactivation, stress response

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
21845 A Continuous Switching Technique for a Single Phase Bridgeless and Transformer-Less Active Rectifier with High Power Factor and Voltage Stabilization

Authors: Rahul Ganpat Mapari, D. G. Wakde

Abstract:

In this paper, a proposed approach to improve the power factor of single-phase rectifiers and to regulate the output voltage against the change in grid voltage and load is presented. This converter topology is evaluated on the basis of performance and its salient features like simplicity, low cost and high performance are discussed to analyze its applicability. The proposed control strategy is bridgeless, transformer-less and output current sensor-less and consists of only two Bi-directional IGBTs and two diodes. The voltage regulation is achieved by a simple voltage divider to communicate to a controller to control the duty cycles of PWM. A control technique and operational procedure are also developed, both theoretically and experimentally. The experimental results clearly verify the theoretical analysis from the prototype connected to grid unity.

Keywords: Active Rectifier (AC-DC), power factor, single phase, voltage regulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
21844 Application of Fuzzy Logic in Voltage Regulation of Radial Feeder with Distributed Generators

Authors: Anubhav Shrivastava, Lakshya Bhat, Shivarudraswamy

Abstract:

Distributed Generation is the need of the hour. With current advancements in the DG technology, there are some major issues that need to be tackled in order to make this method of generation of energy more efficient and feasible. Among other problems, the control in voltage is the major issue that needs to be addressed. This paper focuses on control of voltage using reactive power control of DGs with the help of fuzzy logic. The membership functions have been defined accordingly and the control of the system is achieved. Finally, with the help of simulation results in Matlab, the control of voltage within the tolerance limit set (+/- 5%) is achieved. The voltage waveform graphs for the IEEE 14 bus system are obtained by using simple algorithm with MATLAB and then with fuzzy logic for 14 bus system. The goal of this project was to control the voltage within limits by controlling the reactive power of the DG using fuzzy logic.

Keywords: distributed generation, fuzzy logic, matlab, newton raphson, IEEE 14 bus, voltage regulation, radial network

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