Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21895

Search results for: high frequency RF power

21895 Stability of Power System with High Penetration of Wind Energy: A Comprehensive Review

Authors: Jignesh Patel, Satish K. Joshi


This paper presents the literature review on the works done so far in the area of stability of power system with high penetration of Wind Power with other conventional power sources. Out of many problems, the voltage and frequency stability is of prime concern as it is directly related with the stable operation of power system. In this paper, different aspects of stability of power system, particularly voltage and frequency, Optimization of FACTS-Energy Storage devices is discussed.

Keywords: small singal stability, voltage stability, frequency stability, LVRT, wind power, FACTS

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
21894 The Effect of Colloidal Environments on Ultrasound-Induced Inactivation of Soy Trypsin Inhibitors: Separation, Inactivation Kinetics and Conformational Characteristics

Authors: Yue Wu, Wu Li, Enrico Colombo, Gregory J. O. Martin, Muthupandinan Ashokkumar


In this study, the impact of colloidal environments on low-frequency (20 kHz) and high-frequency (355 kHz) ultrasound-induced trypsin inhibitor (TI) inactivation was investigated. It was found that both low-frequency and high-frequency ultrasound could partly reduce the native Kunitz (KTI) and Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI). Compared to high-frequency ultrasound, low-frequency ultrasound showed better performance on the inactivation of trypsin inhibitors at higher initial concentrations (> 500 mg/L). Therefore, low-frequency ultrasound was selected for further study on the effect of power density and pH. It was observed that the trypsin inhibitor reduction was increased and then plateaued with an increase in power density. In addition, lower pH improved the low-frequency ultrasound-induced inactivation by promoting the aggregation of trypsin inhibitors. Overall, the colloidal environment was shown to affect Kunitz and Bowman-Birk inhibitor inactivation via influencing the degree of protein conformational changes and aggregation induced by low-frequency ultrasound and protein conformational changes and oxidation of methionine induced by high-frequency ultrasound.

Keywords: soy trypsin inhibitor, ultrasound, inactivation, initial concentration, PH

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21893 High-Frequency Full-Bridge Isolated DC-DC Converter for Fuel Cell Power Generation Systems

Authors: Nabil A. Ahmed


DC-DC converters are necessary to interface low-voltage fuel cell power generation systems to a higher voltage DC bus system. A system and method for generating a regulated output power from fuel cell power generation systems is proposed in this paper, this includes a soft-switching isolated DC-DC converter to reduce the idling and circulating currents. The system incorporates a high-frequency center tap transformer link DC-DC converter using secondary-side soft switching control. Snubber capacitors including the parasitic capacitance of the switching devices and the transformer leakage inductance are utilized to achieve zero-voltage switching (ZVS) in the primary side of the high-frequency transformer. Therefore, no extra resonant components are required for ZVS. The inherent soft-switching capability allows high power density, efficient power conversion, and compact packaging. A prototype rated at 6.5 kW is proposed and simulated. Simulation results confirmed a wide range of soft-switching operation and consequently high conversion efficiency will be achieved.

Keywords: secondary-side, phase-shift, high-frequency transformer, zero voltage, zero current, soft switching operation, switching losses

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
21892 Revised Tower Earthing Design in High-Voltage Transmission Network for High-Frequency Lightning Condition

Authors: Azwadi Mohamad, Pauzi Yahaya, Nadiah Hudi


Earthing system for high-voltage transmission tower is designed to protect the working personnel and equipments, and to maintain the quality of supply during fault. The existing earthing system for transmission towers in TNB’s system is purposely designed for normal power frequency (low-frequency) fault conditions that take into account the step and touch voltages. This earthing design is found to be inapt for lightning (transient) condition to a certain extent, which involves a high-frequency domain. The current earthing practice of laying the electrodes radially in straight 60 m horizontal lines under the ground, in order to achieve the specified impedance value of less than 10 Ω, was deemed ineffective in reducing the high-frequency impedance. This paper introduces a new earthing design that produces low impedance value at the high-frequency domain, without compromising the performance of low-frequency impedance. The performances of this new earthing design, as well as the existing design, are simulated for various soil resistivity values at varying frequency. The proposed concentrated earthing design is found to possess low TFR value at both low and high-frequency. A good earthing design should have a fine balance between compact and radial electrodes under the ground.

Keywords: earthing design, high-frequency, lightning, tower footing impedance

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21891 Determining Efficiency of Frequency Control System of Karkheh Power Plant in Main Network

Authors: Ferydon Salehifar, Hassan Safarikia, Hossein Boromandfar


Karkheh plant in Iran's Khuzestan province and is located in the city Andimeshk. The plant has a production capacity of 400 MW units with water and three hours. One of the important parameters of each country's power grid stability is the stability of the power grid is affected by the voltage and frequency In plants, the amount of active power frequency control is done so that when the unit is placed in the frequency control their productivity is a function of frequency and output power varies with frequency. Produced by hydroelectric power plants with the water level behind the dam has a direct relationship And to decrease and increase the water level behind the dam in order to reduce the power output increases But these changes have a different interval is due to some mechanical problems such as turbine cavitation and vibration are limited. In this study, the range of the frequency control can be Karkheh manufacturing plants have been identified and their effectiveness has been determined.

Keywords: Karkheh power, frequency control system, active power, efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 549
21890 Design and Development of Power Sources for Plasma Actuators to Control Flow Separation

Authors: Himanshu J. Bahirat, Apoorva S. Janawlekar


Plasma actuators are essential for aerodynamic flow separation control due to their lack of mechanical parts, lightweight, and high response frequency, which have numerous applications in hypersonic or supersonic aircraft. The working of these actuators is based on the formation of a low-temperature plasma between a pair of parallel electrodes by the application of a high-voltage AC signal across the electrodes, after which air molecules from the air surrounding the electrodes are ionized and accelerated through the electric field. The high-frequency operation is required in dielectric discharge barriers to ensure plasma stability. To carry out flow separation control in a hypersonic flow, the optimal design and construction of a power supply to generate dielectric barrier discharges is carried out in this paper. In this paper, it is aspired to construct a simplified circuit topology to emulate the dielectric barrier discharge and study its various frequency responses. The power supply can generate high voltage pulses up to 20kV at the repetitive frequency range of 20-50kHz with an input power of 500W. The power supply has been designed to be short circuit proof and can endure variable plasma load conditions. Its general outline is to charge a capacitor through a half-bridge converter and then later discharge it through a step-up transformer at a high frequency in order to generate high voltage pulses. After simulating the circuit, the PCB design and, eventually, lab tests are carried out to study its effectiveness in controlling flow separation.

Keywords: aircraft propulsion, dielectric barrier discharge, flow separation control, power source

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21889 Thermal Effect in Power Electrical for HEMTs Devices with InAlN/GaN

Authors: Zakarya Kourdi, Mohammed Khaouani, Benyounes Bouazza, Ahlam Guen-Bouazza, Amine Boursali


In this paper, we have evaluated the thermal effect for high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) heterostructure InAlN/GaN with a gate length 30nm high-performance. It also shows the analysis and simulated these devices, and how can be used in different application. The simulator Tcad-Silvaco software has used for predictive results good for the DC, AC and RF characteristic, Devices offered max drain current 0.67A; transconductance is 720 mS/mm the unilateral power gain of 180 dB. A cutoff frequency of 385 GHz, and max frequency 810 GHz These results confirm the feasibility of using HEMTs with InAlN/GaN in high power amplifiers, as well as thermal places.

Keywords: HEMT, Thermal Effect, Silvaco, InAlN/GaN

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21888 Inverterless Grid Compatible Micro Turbine Generator

Authors: S. Ozeri, D. Shmilovitz


Micro‐Turbine Generators (MTG) are small size power plants that consist of a high speed, gas turbine driving an electrical generator. MTGs may be fueled by either natural gas or kerosene and may also use sustainable and recycled green fuels such as biomass, landfill or digester gas. The typical ratings of MTGs start from 20 kW up to 200 kW. The primary use of MTGs is for backup for sensitive load sites such as hospitals, and they are also considered a feasible power source for Distributed Generation (DG) providing on-site generation in proximity to remote loads. The MTGs have the compressor, the turbine, and the electrical generator mounted on a single shaft. For this reason, the electrical energy is generated at high frequency and is incompatible with the power grid. Therefore, MTGs must contain, in addition, a power conditioning unit to generate an AC voltage at the grid frequency. Presently, this power conditioning unit consists of a rectifier followed by a DC/AC inverter, both rated at the full MTG’s power. The losses of the power conditioning unit account to some 3-5%. Moreover, the full-power processing stage is a bulky and costly piece of equipment that also lowers the overall system reliability. In this study, we propose a new type of power conditioning stage in which only a small fraction of the power is processed. A low power converter is used only to program the rotor current (i.e. the excitation current which is substantially lower). Thus, the MTG's output voltage is shaped to the desired amplitude and frequency by proper programming of the excitation current. The control is realized by causing the rotor current to track the electrical frequency (which is related to the shaft frequency) with a difference that is exactly equal to the line frequency. Since the phasor of the rotation speed and the phasor of the rotor magnetic field are multiplied, the spectrum of the MTG generator voltage contains the sum and the difference components. The desired difference component is at the line frequency (50/60 Hz), whereas the unwanted sum component is at about twice the electrical frequency of the stator. The unwanted high frequency component can be filtered out by a low-pass filter leaving only the low-frequency output. This approach allows elimination of the large power conditioning unit incorporated in conventional MTGs. Instead, a much smaller and cheaper fractional power stage can be used. The proposed technology is also applicable to other high rotation generator sets such as aircraft power units.

Keywords: gas turbine, inverter, power multiplier, distributed generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
21887 Novel Approach to Design of a Class-EJ Power Amplifier Using High Power Technology

Authors: F. Rahmani, F. Razaghian, A. R. Kashaninia


This article proposes a new method for application in communication circuit systems that increase efficiency, PAE, output power and gain in the circuit. The proposed method is based on a combination of switching class-E and class-J and has been termed class-EJ. This method was investigated using both theory and simulation to confirm ~72% PAE and output power of > 39 dBm. The combination and design of the proposed power amplifier accrues gain of over 15dB in the 2.9 to 3.5 GHz frequency bandwidth. This circuit was designed using MOSFET and high power transistors. The load- and source-pull method achieved the best input and output networks using lumped elements. The proposed technique was investigated for fundamental and second harmonics having desirable amplitudes for the output signal.

Keywords: power amplifier (PA), high power, class-J and class-E, high efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 415
21886 Control Methods Used to Minimize Losses in High-Speed Electrical Machines

Authors: Mohammad Hedar


This paper presents selected topics from the area of high-speed electrical machine control with a focus on loss minimization. It focuses on pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) set-up in order to minimize the inrush current peak. An overview of these machines and the control topologies that have been used with these machines are reported. The critical problem that happens when controlling a high-speed electrical motor is the high current peak in the start-up process, which will cause high power-losses. The main goal of this paper is to clarify how the inrush current peak can be minimized in the start-up process. PAM control method is proposed to use in the frequency inverter, simulation results for PAM & PWM control method, and steps to improve the PAM control are reported. The simulations were performed with data for PMSM (nominal speed: 25 000 min-1, power: 3.1 kW, load: 1.2 Nm).

Keywords: control topology, frequency inverter, high-speed electrical machines, PAM, power losses, PWM

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21885 High-Frequency Half Bridge Inverter Applied to Induction Heating

Authors: Amira Zouaoui, Hamed Belloumi, Ferid Kourda


This paper presents the analysis and design of a DC–AC resonant converter applied to induction heating. The proposed topology based on the series-parallel half-bridge resonant inverter is described. It can operate with Zero-Voltage Switching (ZVS). At the resonant frequency, the secondary current is amplified over the heating coil with small switching angle, which keeps the reactive power low and permits heating with small current through the resonant inductor and the transformer. The operation and control principle of the proposed high frequency inverter is described and verified through simulated and experimental results.

Keywords: induction heating, inverter, high frequency, resonant

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
21884 High-Voltage Resonant Converter with Extreme Load Variation: Design Criteria and Applications

Authors: Jose A. Pomilio, Olavo Bet, Mateus P. Vieira


The power converter that feeds high-frequency, high-voltage transformers must be carefully designed due to parasitic components, mainly the secondary winding capacitance and the leakage inductance, that introduces resonances in relatively low-frequency range, next to the switching frequency. This paper considers applications in which the load (resistive) has an unpredictable behavior, changing from open to short-circuit condition faster than the output voltage control loop could react. In this context, to avoid over voltage and over current situations, that could damage the converter, the transformer or the load, it is necessary to find an operation point that assure the desired output voltage in spite of the load condition. This can done adjusting the frequency response of the transformer adding an external inductance, together with selecting the switching frequency to get stable output voltage independently of the load.

Keywords: high-voltage transformer, resonant converter, soft-commutation, external inductance

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
21883 Development of PSS/E Dynamic Model for Controlling Battery Output to Improve Frequency Stability in Power Systems

Authors: Dae-Hee Son, Soon-Ryul Nam


The power system frequency falls when disturbance such as rapid increase of system load or loss of a generating unit occurs in power systems. Especially, increase in the number of renewable generating units has a bad influence on the power system because of loss of generating unit depending on the circumstance. Conventional technologies use frequency droop control battery output for the frequency regulation and balance between supply and demand. If power is supplied using the fast output characteristic of the battery, power system stability can be further more improved. To improve the power system stability, we propose battery output control using ROCOF (Rate of Change of Frequency) in this paper. The bigger the power difference between the supply and the demand, the bigger the ROCOF drops. Battery output is controlled proportionally to the magnitude of the ROCOF, allowing for faster response to power imbalances. To simulate the control method of battery output system, we develop the user defined model using PSS/E and confirm that power system stability is improved by comparing with frequency droop control.

Keywords: PSS/E user defined model, power deviation, frequency droop control, ROCOF (rate of change of frequency)

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
21882 Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Field; An Invisible Risk Association between High Power Transmission Lines and Childhood Leukemia and Adult Brain Cancer: Literature Review

Authors: Ali Azeem, Seung-Cheol Hong


This study focuses on the epidemiological association between childhood leukaemia & adult brain cancer to offer strong evidence that extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) produced from power lines caused cancer. It also gives a comprehensive literature review on epidemiological studies of ELF-MF risk associated with HVTL and childhood leukaemia & adult brain cancer. From the literature review, it is concluded that there is a weak association present between ELF-MF and childhood leukaemia. No consistent association was present between brain cancer and ELF-MF. This study is done on Scielo data and PubMed using the terms extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF+cancer), adult brain cancer, high power transmission lines, etc., for the past 10 years.

Keywords: childhood leukaemia, high voltage transmission lines, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, power lines

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
21881 A New Resonance Solution to Suppress the Voltage Stresses in the Forward Topology Used in a Switch Mode Power Supply

Authors: Maamar Latroch, Mohamed Bourahla


Forward topology used in switch mode power supply (SMPS) is one of the most famous configuration feeding DC systems such as telecommunication systems and other specific applications where the galvanic isolation is required. This configuration benefits of the high frequency feature of the transformer to provide a small size and light weight of the over all system. However, the stresses existing on the power switch during an ON/OFF commutation limit the transmitted power to the DC load. This paper investigates the main causes of the stresses in voltage existing during a commutation cycle and suggest a low cost solution that eliminates the overvoltage. As a result, this configuration will yield the possibility of the use of this configuration in higher power applications. Simulation results will show the efficiency of the presented method.

Keywords: switch mode power supply, forward topology, resonance topology, high frequency commutation

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
21880 Performance Analysis of 180 nm Low Voltage Low Power CMOS OTA for High Frequency Application

Authors: D. J. Dahigaonkar, D. G. Wakde


The performance analysis of low voltage low power CMOS OTA is presented in this paper. The differential input single output OTA is simulated in 180nm CMOS process technology. The simulation results indicate high bandwidth of the order of 7.04GHz with 0.766mW power consumption and transconductance of -71.20dB. The total harmonic distortion for 100mV input at a frequency of 1MHz is found to be 2.3603%. In addition to this, to establish comparative analysis of designed OTA and analyze effect of technology scaling, the differential input single output OTA is further simulated using 350nm CMOS process technology and the comparative analysis is presented in this paper.

Keywords: Operational Transconductance Amplifier, Total Harmonic Distortions, low voltage/low power, power dissipation

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
21879 High Frequency Memristor-Based BFSK and 8QAM Demodulators

Authors: Nahla Elazab, Mohamed Aboudina, Ghada Ibrahim, Hossam Fahmy, Ahmed Khalil


This paper presents the developed memristor based demodulators for eight circular Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) and Binary Frequency Shift Keying (BFSK) operating at relatively high frequency. In our implementations, the experimental-based ‘nonlinear’ dopant drift model is adopted along with the proposed circuits providing incorporation of all known non-idealities of practically realized memristor and gaining high operation frequency. The suggested designs leverage the distinctive characteristics of the memristor device, definitely, its changeable average memristance versus the frequency, phase and amplitude of the periodic excitation input. The proposed demodulators feature small integration area, low power consumption, and easy implementation. Moreover, the proposed QAM demodulator precludes the requirement for the carrier recovery circuits. In doing so, the designs were validated by transient simulations using the nonlinear dopant drift memristor model. The simulations results show high agreement with the theory presented.

Keywords: BFSK, demodulator, high frequency memristor applications, memristor based analog circuits, nonlinear dopant drift model, QAM

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21878 Study of Fork Marks on Sapphire Wafers in Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Tool

Authors: Qiao Pei Wen, Ng Seng Lee, Sae Tae Veera, Chiu Ah Fong, Loke Weng Onn


Thin film thickness uniformity is crucial to get consistent film etch rate and device yield across the wafer. In the capacitive-coupled parallel plate PECVD system; the film thickness uniformity can be affected by many factors such as the heater temperature uniformity, the spacing between top and bottom electrode, RF power, pressure, gas flows and etc. In this paper, we studied how the PECVD SiN film thickness uniformity is affected by the substrate electrical conductivity and the RF power coupling efficiency. PECVD SiN film was deposited on 150-mm sapphire wafers in 200-mm Lam Sequel tool, fork marks were observed on the wafers. On the fork marks area SiN film thickness is thinner than that on the non-fork area. The forks are the wafer handler inside the process chamber to move the wafers from one station to another. The sapphire wafers and the ceramic forks both are insulator. The high resistivity of the sapphire wafers and the forks inhibits the RF power coupling efficiency during PECVD deposition, thereby reducing the deposition rate. Comparing between the high frequency and low frequency RF power (HFRF and LFRF respectively), the LFRF power coupling effect on the sapphire wafers is more dominant than the HFRF power on the film thickness. This paper demonstrated that the SiN thickness uniformity on sapphire wafers can be improved by depositing a thin TiW layer on the wafer before the SiN deposition. The TiW layer can be on the wafer surface, bottom or any layer before SiN deposition.

Keywords: PECVD SiN deposition, sapphire wafer, substrate electrical conductivity, RF power coupling, high frequency RF power, low frequency RF power, film deposition rate, thickness uniformity

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
21877 Thickness Dependence of AC Conductivity in Plasma Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Thin Films

Authors: S. Yakut, D. Deger, K. Ulutas, D. Bozoglu


Plasma poly(ethylene oxide) (pPEO) thin films were deposited between Aluminum (Al) electrodes on glass substrates by plasma assisted physical vapor deposition (PAPVD). The deposition was operated inside Argon plasma under 10⁻³ Torr and the thicknesses of samples were determined as 20, 100, 250, 500 nm. The plasma was produced at 5 W by magnetron connected to RF power supply. The capacitance C and dielectric loss factor tan δ were measured by Novovontrol Alpha-A high frequency empedance analyzer at freqquency and temperature intervals of 0,1 Hz and 1MHz, 193-353K, respectively. AC conductivity was derived from these values. AC conductivity results exhibited three different conductivity regions except for 20 nm. These regions can be classified as low, mid and high frequency regions. Low frequency region is observed at around 10 Hz and 300 K while mid frequency region is observed at around 1 kHz and 300 K. The last one, high frequency region, is observed at around 1 kHz and 200 K. There are some coinciding definitions for conduction regions, because these regions shift depending on temperature. Low frequency region behaves as DC-like conductivity while mid and high frequency regions show conductivities corresponding to mechanisms such as classical hopping, tunneling, etc. which are observed for amorphous materials. Unlike other thicknesses, for 20 nm sample low frequency region can not be detected in the investigated freuency range. It is thought that this is arised because of the presence of dead layer behavior.

Keywords: plasma polymers, dead layer, dielectric spectroscopy, AC conductivity

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21876 A Simple and Efficient Method for Accurate Measurement and Control of Power Frequency Deviation

Authors: S. J. Arif


In the presented technique, a simple method is given for accurate measurement and control of power frequency deviation. The sinusoidal signal for which the frequency deviation measurement is required is transformed to a low voltage level and passed through a zero crossing detector to convert it into a pulse train. Another stable square wave signal of 10 KHz is obtained using a crystal oscillator and decade dividing assemblies (DDA). These signals are combined digitally and then passed through decade counters to give a unique combination of pulses or levels, which are further encoded to make them equally suitable for both control applications and display units. The developed circuit using discrete components has a resolution of 0.5 Hz and completes measurement within 20 ms. The realized circuit is simulated and synthesized using Verilog HDL and subsequently implemented on FPGA. The results of measurement on FPGA are observed on a very high resolution logic analyzer. These results accurately match the simulation results as well as the results of same circuit implemented with discrete components. The proposed system is suitable for accurate measurement and control of power frequency deviation.

Keywords: digital encoder for frequency measurement, frequency deviation measurement, measurement and control systems, power systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
21875 Selection of Wind Farms to Add Virtual Inertia Control to Assist the Power System Frequency Regulation

Authors: W. Du, X. Wang, Jun Cao, H. F. Wang


Due to the randomness and uncertainty of wind energy, modern power systems integrating large-scale wind generation will be significantly impacted in terms of system performance and technical challenges. System inertia with high wind penetration is decreasing when conventional thermal generators are gradually replaced by wind turbines, which do not naturally contribute to inertia response. The power imbalance caused by wind power or demand fluctuations leads to the instability of system frequency. Accordingly, the need to attach the supplementary virtual inertia control to wind farms (WFs) strongly arises. When multi-wind farms are connected to the grid simultaneously, the selection of which critical WFs to install the virtual inertia control is greatly important to enhance the stability of system frequency. By building the small signal model of wind power systems considering frequency regulation, the installation locations are identified by the geometric measures of the mode observability of WFs. In addition, this paper takes the impacts of grid topology and selection of feedback control signals into consideration. Finally, simulations are conducted on a multi-wind farms power system and the results demonstrate that the designed virtual inertia control method can effectively assist the frequency regulation.

Keywords: frequency regulation, virtual inertia control, installation locations, observability, wind farms

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
21874 A Case Study of Limited Dynamic Voltage Frequency Scaling in Low-Power Processors

Authors: Hwan Su Jung, Ahn Jun Gil, Jong Tae Kim


Power management techniques are necessary to save power in the microprocessor. By changing the frequency and/or operating voltage of processor, DVFS can control power consumption. In this paper, we perform a case study to find optimal power state transition for DVFS. We propose the equation to find the optimal ratio between executions of states while taking into account the deadline of processing time and the power state transition delay overhead. The experiment is performed on the Cortex-M4 processor, and average 6.5% power saving is observed when DVFS is applied under the deadline condition.

Keywords: deadline, dynamic voltage frequency scaling, power state transition

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
21873 Comprehensive Analysis of Power Allocation Algorithms for OFDM Based Communication Systems

Authors: Rakesh Dubey, Vaishali Bahl, Dalveer Kaur


The spiralling urge for high rate data transmission over wireless mediums needs intelligent use of electromagnetic resources considering restrictions like power ingestion, spectrum competence, robustness against multipath propagation and implementation intricacy. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a capable technique for next generation wireless communication systems. For such high rate data transfers there is requirement of proper allocation of resources like power and capacity amongst the sub channels. This paper illustrates various available methods of allocating power and the capacity requirement with the constraint of Shannon limit.

Keywords: Additive White Gaussian Noise, Multi-Carrier Modulation, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), Water Filling

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21872 Experimental Demonstration of an Ultra-Low Power Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser for Optical Power Generation

Authors: S. Nazhan, Hassan K. Al-Musawi, Khalid A. Humood


This paper reports on an experimental investigation into the influence of current modulation on the properties of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a direct square wave modulation. The optical output power response, as a function of the pumping current, modulation frequency, and amplitude, is measured for an 850 nm VCSEL. We demonstrate that modulation frequency and amplitude play important roles in reducing the VCSEL’s power consumption for optical generation. Indeed, even when the biasing current is below the static threshold, the VCSEL emits optical power under the square wave modulation. The power consumed by the device to generate light is significantly reduced to > 50%, which is below the threshold current, in response to both the modulation frequency and amplitude. An operating VCSEL device at low power is very desirable for less thermal effects, which are essential for a high-speed modulation bandwidth.

Keywords: vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, VCSELs, optical power generation, power consumption, square wave modulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
21871 Field Experience with Sweep Frequency Response Analysis for Power Transformer Diagnosis

Authors: Ambuj Kumar, Sunil Kumar Singh, Shrikant Singh, Zakir Husain, R. K. Jarial


Sweep frequency response analysis has been turning out a powerful tool for investigation of mechanical as well as electrical integration of transformers. In this paper various aspect of practical application of SFRA has been studied. Open circuit and short circuit measurement were done on different phases of high voltage and low voltage winding. A case study was presented for the transformer of rating 31.5 MVA for various frequency ranges. A clear picture was presented for sub- frequency ranges for HV as well as LV winding. The main motive of work is to investigate high voltage short circuit response. The theoretical concept about SFRA responses is validated with expert system software results.

Keywords: transformer winding, SFRA, OCT & SCT, frequency deviation

Procedia PDF Downloads 745
21870 Release of Calcein from Liposomes Using Low and High Frequency Ultrasound

Authors: Ghaleb A. Husseini, Salma E. Ahmed, Hesham G. Moussa, Ana M. Martins, Mohammad Al-Sayah, Nasser Qaddoumi


This abstract aims to investigate the use of targeted liposomes as anticancer drug carriers in vitro in combination with ultrasound applied as drug trigger; in order to reduce the side effects caused by traditional chemotherapy. Pegylated liposomes were used to encapsulate calcein and then release this model drug when 20-kHz, 40-kHz, 1-MHz and 3-MHz ultrasound were applied at different acoustic power densities. Fluorescence techniques were then used to measure the percent drug release of calcein from these targeted liposomes. Results showed that as the power density increases, at the four frequencies studied, the release of calcein also increased. Based on these results, we believe that ultrasound can be used to increase the rate and amount of chemotherapeutics release from liposomes.

Keywords: liposomes, calcein release, high frequency ultrasound, low frequency ultrasound, fluorescence techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
21869 Joint Discrete Hartley Transform-Clipping for Peak to Average Power Ratio Reduction in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing System

Authors: Selcuk Comlekci, Mohammed Aboajmaa


Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is promising technique for the modern wireless communications systems due to its robustness against multipath environment. The high peak to average power ratio (PAPR) of the transmitted signal is one of the major drawbacks of OFDM system, PAPR degrade the performance of bit error rate (BER) and effect on the linear characteristics of high power amplifier (HPA). In this paper, we proposed DHT-Clipping reduction technique to reduce the high PAPR by the combination between discrete Hartley transform (DHT) and Clipping techniques. From the simulation results, we notified that DHT-Clipping technique offers better PAPR reduction than DHT and Clipping, as well as DHT-Clipping introduce improved BER performance better than clipping.

Keywords: ISI, cyclic prefix, BER, PAPR, HPA, DHT, subcarrier

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
21868 Assessment Power and Oscillation Damping Using the POD Controller and Proposed FOD Controller

Authors: Tohid Rahimi, Yahya Naderi, Babak Yousefi, Seyed Hossein Hoseini


Today’s modern interconnected power system is highly complex in nature. In this, one of the most important requirements during the operation of the electric power system is the reliability and security. Power and frequency oscillation damping mechanism improve the reliability. Because of power system stabilizer (PSS) low speed response against of major fault such as three phase short circuit, FACTs devise that can control the network condition in very fast time, are becoming popular. However, FACTs capability can be seen in a major fault present when nonlinear models of FACTs devise and power system equipment are applied. To realize this aim, the model of multi-machine power system with FACTs controller is developed in MATLAB/SIMULINK using Sim Power System (SPS) blockiest. Among the FACTs device, Static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) due to high speed changes its reactance characteristic inductive to capacitive, is effective power flow controller. Tuning process of controller parameter can be performed using different method. However, Genetic Algorithm (GA) ability tends to use it in controller parameter tuning process. In this paper, firstly POD controller is used to power oscillation damping. But in this station, frequency oscillation dos not has proper damping situation. Therefore, FOD controller that is tuned using GA is using that cause to damp out frequency oscillation properly and power oscillation damping has suitable situation.

Keywords: power oscillation damping (POD), frequency oscillation damping (FOD), Static synchronous series compensator (SSSC), Genetic Algorithm (GA)

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
21867 Erectile Function and Heart Rate Variability in Men under 40 Years Old

Authors: Rui Miguel Costa, Jose Pestana, David Costa, Paula Mangia, Catarina Correia, Mafalda Pinto Coelho


There is lack of studies examining the relation of different heart rate variability (HRV) parameters with the risk of erectile dysfunction (ED) in younger men. Thus, the present study aimed at examining, in a nonclinical sample of men aged 19-39 years old (mean age = 23.98 years, SD = 4.90), the relations of risk of ED with the standard deviation of the heart rate (SD of HR), high and low frequency power of HRV, and low-to-high frequency HRV ratio. Eighty-three heterosexual Portuguese men completed the 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and HRV parameters were calculated from a 5-minute resting period. Risk of ED was determined by IIEF-5 scores of 21 or less. Fifteen men (18.1%) reported symptoms of ED (14 with mild and one with mild to moderate symptoms). Univariate analyses of variance revealed that risk of ED was related to lesser SD of HR and lesser low-frequency power, the two HRV parameters that express a coupling of higher vagal and sympathetic tone. Risk of ED was unrelated to high-frequency power and low-to-high frequency HRV ratio. Further, in a logistic regression, the risk of ED was independently predicted by older age and lower SD of HR, but not by low-frequency power, having a regular sexual partner, and cohabiting. The results provide preliminary evidence that, in younger men, a coupling of higher vagal and sympathetic tone, as indexed by the SD of HR, is important for erections. Greater resting SD of HR might reflect better vascular and interpersonal function via vagal tone coupled with greater motor mobilization to pursue sexual intercourse via sympathetic tone. Many interventions can elevate HRV; future research is warranted on how they can be tailored to treat ED in younger men.

Keywords: erectile dysfunction, heart rate variability, standard deviation of the heart rate, younger men

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21866 Investigation of the Unbiased Characteristic of Doppler Frequency to Different Antenna Array Geometries

Authors: Somayeh Komeylian


Array signal processing techniques have been recently developing in a variety application of the performance enhancement of receivers by refraining the power of jamming and interference signals. In this scenario, biases induced to the antenna array receiver degrade significantly the accurate estimation of the carrier phase. Owing to the integration of frequency becomes the carrier phase, we have obtained the unbiased doppler frequency for the high precision estimation of carrier phase. The unbiased characteristic of Doppler frequency to the power jamming and the other interference signals allows achieving the highly accurate estimation of phase carrier. In this study, we have rigorously investigated the unbiased characteristic of Doppler frequency to the variation of the antenna array geometries. The simulation results have efficiently verified that the Doppler frequency remains also unbiased and accurate to the variation of antenna array geometries.

Keywords: array signal processing, unbiased doppler frequency, GNSS, carrier phase, and slowly fluctuating point target

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