Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17608

Search results for: hierarchical structure model

17608 A Model Based Metaheuristic for Hybrid Hierarchical Community Structure in Social Networks

Authors: Radhia Toujani, Jalel Akaichi


In recent years, the study of community detection in social networks has received great attention. The hierarchical structure of the network leads to the emergence of the convergence to a locally optimal community structure. In this paper, we aim to avoid this local optimum in the introduced hybrid hierarchical method. To achieve this purpose, we present an objective function where we incorporate the value of structural and semantic similarity based modularity and a metaheuristic namely bees colonies algorithm to optimize our objective function on both hierarchical level divisive and agglomerative. In order to assess the efficiency and the accuracy of the introduced hybrid bee colony model, we perform an extensive experimental evaluation on both synthetic and real networks.

Keywords: social network, community detection, agglomerative hierarchical clustering, divisive hierarchical clustering, similarity, modularity, metaheuristic, bee colony

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17607 Why Do We Need Hierachical Linear Models?

Authors: Mustafa Aydın, Ali Murat Sunbul


Hierarchical or nested data structures usually are seen in many research areas. Especially, in the field of education, if we examine most of the studies, we can see the nested structures. Students in classes, classes in schools, schools in cities and cities in regions are similar nested structures. In a hierarchical structure, students being in the same class, sharing the same physical conditions and similar experiences and learning from the same teachers, they demonstrate similar behaviors between them rather than the students in other classes.

Keywords: hierarchical linear modeling, nested data, hierarchical structure, data structure

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17606 Hybrid Hierarchical Clustering Approach for Community Detection in Social Network

Authors: Radhia Toujani, Jalel Akaichi


Social Networks generally present a hierarchy of communities. To determine these communities and the relationship between them, detection algorithms should be applied. Most of the existing algorithms, proposed for hierarchical communities identification, are based on either agglomerative clustering or divisive clustering. In this paper, we present a hybrid hierarchical clustering approach for community detection based on both bottom-up and bottom-down clustering. Obviously, our approach provides more relevant community structure than hierarchical method which considers only divisive or agglomerative clustering to identify communities. Moreover, we performed some comparative experiments to enhance the quality of the clustering results and to show the effectiveness of our algorithm.

Keywords: agglomerative hierarchical clustering, community structure, divisive hierarchical clustering, hybrid hierarchical clustering, opinion mining, social network, social network analysis

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17605 Discovering the Dimension of Abstractness: Structure-Based Model that Learns New Categories and Categorizes on Different Levels of Abstraction

Authors: Georgi I. Petkov, Ivan I. Vankov, Yolina A. Petrova


A structure-based model of category learning and categorization at different levels of abstraction is presented. The model compares different structures and expresses their similarity implicitly in the forms of mappings. Based on this similarity, the model can categorize different targets either as members of categories that it already has or creates new categories. The model is novel using two threshold parameters to evaluate the structural correspondence. If the similarity between two structures exceeds the higher threshold, a new sub-ordinate category is created. Vice versa, if the similarity does not exceed the higher threshold but does the lower one, the model creates a new category on higher level of abstraction.

Keywords: analogy-making, categorization, learning of categories, abstraction, hierarchical structure

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17604 Knowledge Discovery from Production Databases for Hierarchical Process Control

Authors: Pavol Tanuska, Pavel Vazan, Michal Kebisek, Dominika Jurovata


The paper gives the results of the project that was oriented on the usage of knowledge discoveries from production systems for needs of the hierarchical process control. One of the main project goals was the proposal of knowledge discovery model for process control. Specifics data mining methods and techniques was used for defined problems of the process control. The gained knowledge was used on the real production system, thus, the proposed solution has been verified. The paper documents how it is possible to apply new discovery knowledge to be used in the real hierarchical process control. There are specified the opportunities for application of the proposed knowledge discovery model for hierarchical process control.

Keywords: hierarchical process control, knowledge discovery from databases, neural network, process control

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17603 The Effect of Micro/Nano Structure of Poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) Film Using a Two-Step Process (Casting/Plasma) on Cellular Responses

Authors: JaeYoon Lee, Gi-Hoon Yang, JongHan Ha, MyungGu Yeo, SeungHyun Ahn, Hyeongjin Lee, HoJun Jeon, YongBok Kim, Minseong Kim, GeunHyung Kim


One of the important factors in tissue engineering is to design optimal biomedical scaffolds, which can be governed by topographical surface characteristics, such as size, shape, and direction. Of these properties, we focused on the effects of nano- to micro-sized hierarchical surface. To fabricate the hierarchical surface structure on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) film, we employed a micro-casting technique by pressing the mold and nano-etching technique using a modified plasma process. The micro-sized topography of PCL film was controlled by sizes of the micro structures on lotus leaf. Also, the nano-sized topography and hydrophilicity of PCL film were controlled by a modified plasma process. After the plasma treatment, the hydrophobic property of the PCL film was significantly changed into hydrophilic property, and the nano-sized structure was well developed. The surface properties of the modified PCL film were investigated in terms of initial cell morphology, attachment, and proliferation using osteoblast-like-cells (MG63). In particular, initial cell attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in the hierarchical structure were enhanced dramatically compared to those of the smooth surface. We believe that these results are because of a synergistic effect between the hierarchical structure and the reactive functional groups due to the plasma process. Based on the results presented here, we propose a new biomimetic surface model that maybe useful for effectively regenerating hard tissues.

Keywords: hierarchical surface, lotus leaf, nano-etching, plasma treatment

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17602 Effects of Hierarchy on Poisson’s Ratio and Phononic Bandgaps of Two-Dimensional Honeycomb Structures

Authors: Davood Mousanezhad, Ashkan Vaziri


As a traditional cellular structure, hexagonal honeycombs are known for their high strength-to-weight ratio. Here, we introduce a class of fractal-appearing hierarchical metamaterials by replacing the vertices of the original non-hierarchical hexagonal grid with smaller hexagons and iterating this process to achieve higher levels of hierarchy. It has been recently shown that the isotropic in-plane Young's modulus of this hierarchical structure at small deformations becomes 25 times greater than its regular counterpart with the same mass. At large deformations, we find that hierarchy-dependent elastic buckling introduced at relatively early stages of deformation decreases the value of Poisson's ratio as the structure is compressed uniaxially leading to auxeticity (i.e., negative Poisson's ratio) in subsequent stages of deformation. We also show that the topological hierarchical architecture and instability-induced pattern transformations of the structure under compression can be effectively used to tune the propagation of elastic waves within the structure. We find that the hierarchy tends to shift the existing phononic bandgaps (defined as frequency ranges of strong wave attenuation) to lower frequencies while opening up new bandgaps. Deformation is also demonstrated as another mechanism for opening more bandgaps in hierarchical structures. The results provide new insights into the role of structural organization and hierarchy in regulating mechanical properties of materials at both the static and dynamic regimes.

Keywords: cellular structures, honeycombs, hierarchical structures, metamaterials, multifunctional structures, phononic crystals, auxetic structures

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17601 Identification of Wiener Model Using Iterative Schemes

Authors: Vikram Saini, Lillie Dewan


This paper presents the iterative schemes based on Least square, Hierarchical Least Square and Stochastic Approximation Gradient method for the Identification of Wiener model with parametric structure. A gradient method is presented for the parameter estimation of wiener model with noise conditions based on the stochastic approximation. Simulation results are presented for the Wiener model structure with different static non-linear elements in the presence of colored noise to show the comparative analysis of the iterative methods. The stochastic gradient method shows improvement in the estimation performance and provides fast convergence of the parameters estimates.

Keywords: hard non-linearity, least square, parameter estimation, stochastic approximation gradient, Wiener model

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17600 A Bayesian Hierarchical Poisson Model with an Underlying Cluster Structure for the Analysis of Measles in Colombia

Authors: Ana Corberan-Vallet, Karen C. Florez, Ingrid C. Marino, Jose D. Bermudez


In 2016, the Region of the Americas was declared free of measles, a viral disease that can cause severe health problems. However, since 2017, measles has reemerged in Venezuela and has subsequently reached neighboring countries. In 2018, twelve American countries reported confirmed cases of measles. Governmental and health authorities in Colombia, a country that shares the longest land boundary with Venezuela, are aware of the need for a strong response to restrict the expanse of the epidemic. In this work, we apply a Bayesian hierarchical Poisson model with an underlying cluster structure to describe disease incidence in Colombia. Concretely, the proposed methodology provides relative risk estimates at the department level and identifies clusters of disease, which facilitates the implementation of targeted public health interventions. Socio-demographic factors, such as the percentage of migrants, gross domestic product, and entry routes, are included in the model to better describe the incidence of disease. Since the model does not impose any spatial correlation at any level of the model hierarchy, it avoids the spatial confounding problem and provides a suitable framework to estimate the fixed-effect coefficients associated with spatially-structured covariates.

Keywords: Bayesian analysis, cluster identification, disease mapping, risk estimation

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17599 Hierarchical Tree Long Short-Term Memory for Sentence Representations

Authors: Xiuying Wang, Changliang Li, Bo Xu


A fixed-length feature vector is required for many machine learning algorithms in NLP field. Word embeddings have been very successful at learning lexical information. However, they cannot capture the compositional meaning of sentences, which prevents them from a deeper understanding of language. In this paper, we introduce a novel hierarchical tree long short-term memory (HTLSTM) model that learns vector representations for sentences of arbitrary syntactic type and length. We propose to split one sentence into three hierarchies: short phrase, long phrase and full sentence level. The HTLSTM model gives our algorithm the potential to fully consider the hierarchical information and long-term dependencies of language. We design the experiments on both English and Chinese corpus to evaluate our model on sentiment analysis task. And the results show that our model outperforms several existing state of the art approaches significantly.

Keywords: deep learning, hierarchical tree long short-term memory, sentence representation, sentiment analysis

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17598 Energy Planning Analysis of an Agritourism Complex Based on Energy Demand Simulation: A Case Study of Wuxi Yangshan Agritourism Complex

Authors: Li Zhu, Binghua Wang, Yong Sun


China is experiencing the rural development process, with the agritourism complex becoming one of the significant modes. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the energy performance of agritourism complex. This study focuses on a typical case of the agritourism complex and simulates the energy consumption performance on condition of the regular energy system. It was found that HVAC took 90% of the whole energy demand range. In order to optimize the energy supply structure, the hierarchical analysis was carried out on the level of architecture with three main factors such as construction situation, building types and energy demand types. Finally, the energy planning suggestion of the agritourism complex was put forward and the relevant results were obtained.

Keywords: agritourism complex, energy planning, energy demand simulation, hierarchical structure model

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17597 An Exploratory Sequential Design: A Mixed Methods Model for the Statistics Learning Assessment with a Bayesian Network Representation

Authors: Zhidong Zhang


This study established a mixed method model in assessing statistics learning with Bayesian network models. There are three variants in exploratory sequential designs. There are three linked steps in one of the designs: qualitative data collection and analysis, quantitative measure, instrument, intervention, and quantitative data collection analysis. The study used a scoring model of analysis of variance (ANOVA) as a content domain. The research study is to examine students’ learning in both semantic and performance aspects at fine grain level. The ANOVA score model, y = α+ βx1 + γx1+ ε, as a cognitive task to collect data during the student learning process. When the learning processes were decomposed into multiple steps in both semantic and performance aspects, a hierarchical Bayesian network was established. This is a theory-driven process. The hierarchical structure was gained based on qualitative cognitive analysis. The data from students’ ANOVA score model learning was used to give evidence to the hierarchical Bayesian network model from the evidential variables. Finally, the assessment results of students’ ANOVA score model learning were reported. Briefly, this was a mixed method research design applied to statistics learning assessment. The mixed methods designs expanded more possibilities for researchers to establish advanced quantitative models initially with a theory-driven qualitative mode.

Keywords: exploratory sequential design, ANOVA score model, Bayesian network model, mixed methods research design, cognitive analysis

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17596 Exploring the Activity Fabric of an Intelligent Environment with Hierarchical Hidden Markov Theory

Authors: Chiung-Hui Chen


The Internet of Things (IoT) was designed for widespread convenience. With the smart tag and the sensing network, a large quantity of dynamic information is immediately presented in the IoT. Through the internal communication and interaction, meaningful objects provide real-time services for users. Therefore, the service with appropriate decision-making has become an essential issue. Based on the science of human behavior, this study employed the environment model to record the time sequences and locations of different behaviors and adopted the probability module of the hierarchical Hidden Markov Model for the inference. The statistical analysis was conducted to achieve the following objectives: First, define user behaviors and predict the user behavior routes with the environment model to analyze user purposes. Second, construct the hierarchical Hidden Markov Model according to the logic framework, and establish the sequential intensity among behaviors to get acquainted with the use and activity fabric of the intelligent environment. Third, establish the intensity of the relation between the probability of objects’ being used and the objects. The indicator can describe the possible limitations of the mechanism. As the process is recorded in the information of the system created in this study, these data can be reused to adjust the procedure of intelligent design services.

Keywords: behavior, big data, hierarchical hidden Markov model, intelligent object

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17595 Spatial Econometric Approaches for Count Data: An Overview and New Directions

Authors: Paula Simões, Isabel Natário


This paper reviews a number of theoretical aspects for implementing an explicit spatial perspective in econometrics for modelling non-continuous data, in general, and count data, in particular. It provides an overview of the several spatial econometric approaches that are available to model data that are collected with reference to location in space, from the classical spatial econometrics approaches to the recent developments on spatial econometrics to model count data, in a Bayesian hierarchical setting. Considerable attention is paid to the inferential framework, necessary for structural consistent spatial econometric count models, incorporating spatial lag autocorrelation, to the corresponding estimation and testing procedures for different assumptions, to the constrains and implications embedded in the various specifications in the literature. This review combines insights from the classical spatial econometrics literature as well as from hierarchical modeling and analysis of spatial data, in order to look for new possible directions on the processing of count data, in a spatial hierarchical Bayesian econometric context.

Keywords: spatial data analysis, spatial econometrics, Bayesian hierarchical models, count data

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17594 Finding Related Scientific Documents Using Formal Concept Analysis

Authors: Nadeem Akhtar, Hira Javed


An important aspect of research is literature survey. Availability of a large amount of literature across different domains triggers the need for optimized systems which provide relevant literature to researchers. We propose a search system based on keywords for text documents. This experimental approach provides a hierarchical structure to the document corpus. The documents are labelled with keywords using KEA (Keyword Extraction Algorithm) and are automatically organized in a lattice structure using Formal Concept Analysis (FCA). This groups the semantically related documents together. The hierarchical structure, based on keywords gives out only those documents which precisely contain them. This approach open doors for multi-domain research. The documents across multiple domains which are indexed by similar keywords are grouped together. A hierarchical relationship between keywords is obtained. To signify the effectiveness of the approach, we have carried out the experiment and evaluation on Semeval-2010 Dataset. Results depict that the presented method is considerably successful in indexing of scientific papers.

Keywords: formal concept analysis, keyword extraction algorithm, scientific documents, lattice

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17593 Hierarchical Control Structure to Control the Power Distribution System Components in Building Systems

Authors: Hamed Sarbazy, Zohre Gholipour Haftkhani, Ali Safari, Pejman Hosseiniun


Scientific and industrial progress in the past two decades has resulted in energy distribution systems based on power electronics, as an enabling technology in various industries and building management systems can be considered. Grading and standardization module power electronics systems and its use in a distributed control system, a strategy for overcoming the limitations of using this system. The purpose of this paper is to investigate strategies for scheduling and control structure of standard modules is a power electronic systems. This paper introduces the classical control methods and disadvantages of these methods will be discussed, The hierarchical control as a mechanism for distributed control structure of the classification module explains. The different levels of control and communication between these levels are fully introduced. Also continue to standardize software distribution system control structure is discussed. Finally, as an example, the control structure will be presented in a DC distribution system.

Keywords: application management, hardware management, power electronics, building blocks

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17592 Digital Geography and Geographic Information System in Schools: Towards a Hierarchical Geospatial Approach

Authors: Mary Fargher


This paper examines the opportunities of using a more hierarchical approach to geospatial enquiry in using GIS in school geography. A case is made that it is not just the lack of teacher technological knowledge that is stopping some teachers from using GIS in the classroom but that there is a gap in their understanding of how to link GIS use more specifically to the pedagogy of teaching geography with GIS. Using a hierarchical approach to geospatial enquiry as a theoretical framework, the analysis shows clearly how concepts of spatial distribution, interaction, relation, comparison, and temporal relationships can be used by teachers more explicitly to capitalise on the analytical power of GIS and to construct what can be interpreted as powerful geographical knowledge. An exemplar illustrating this approach on the topic of geo-hazards is then presented for critical analysis and discussion. Recommendations are then made for a model of progression for geography teacher education with GIS through hierarchical geospatial enquiry that takes into account beginner, intermediate, and more advanced users.

Keywords: digital geography, GIS, education, hierarchical geospatial enquiry, powerful geographical knowledge

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17591 Direct Electrophoretic Deposition of Hierarchical Structured Electrode Supercapacitor Application

Authors: Jhen-Ting Huang, Chia-Chia Chang, Hu-Cheng Weng, An-Ya Lo


In this study, Co3O4-CNT-Graphene composite electrode was deposited by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method, where micro polystyrene spheres (PSs) were added for co-deposition. Applied with heat treatment, a hierarchical porosity is left in the electrode which is beneficial for supercapacitor application. In terms of charge and discharge performance, we discussed the optimal CNT/Graphene ratio, macroporous ratio, and the effect of Co3O4 addition on electrode capacitance. For materials characterization, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction, and BET were applied, while cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronopotentiometry (CP) measurements, and Ragone plot were applied as in-situ analyses. Based on this, the effects of PS amount on the structure, porosity and their effect on capacitance of the electrodes were investigated. Finally, the full device performance was examined with charge-discharge and electron impedance spectrum (EIS) methods. The results show that the EPD coating with hierarchical porosity was successfully demonstrated in this study. As a result, the capacitance was greatly enhanced by 2.6 times with the hierarchical structure.

Keywords: supercapacitor, nanocarbon tub, graphene, metal oxide

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17590 Meta-Learning for Hierarchical Classification and Applications in Bioinformatics

Authors: Fabio Fabris, Alex A. Freitas


Hierarchical classification is a special type of classification task where the class labels are organised into a hierarchy, with more generic class labels being ancestors of more specific ones. Meta-learning for classification-algorithm recommendation consists of recommending to the user a classification algorithm, from a pool of candidate algorithms, for a dataset, based on the past performance of the candidate algorithms in other datasets. Meta-learning is normally used in conventional, non-hierarchical classification. By contrast, this paper proposes a meta-learning approach for more challenging task of hierarchical classification, and evaluates it in a large number of bioinformatics datasets. Hierarchical classification is especially relevant for bioinformatics problems, as protein and gene functions tend to be organised into a hierarchy of class labels. This work proposes meta-learning approach for recommending the best hierarchical classification algorithm to a hierarchical classification dataset. This work’s contributions are: 1) proposing an algorithm for splitting hierarchical datasets into new datasets to increase the number of meta-instances, 2) proposing meta-features for hierarchical classification, and 3) interpreting decision-tree meta-models for hierarchical classification algorithm recommendation.

Keywords: algorithm recommendation, meta-learning, bioinformatics, hierarchical classification

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17589 A Survey on Taxpayer's Compliance in Prospect Theory Structure Using Hierarchical Bayesian Approach

Authors: Sahar Dehghan, Yeganeh Mousavi Jahromi, Ghahraman Abdoli


Since tax revenues are one of the most important sources of government revenue, it is essential to consider increasing taxpayers' compliance. One of the factors that can affect the taxpayers' compliance is the structure of the crimes and incentives envisaged in the tax law. In this research, by using the 'prospect theory', the effects of changes in the rate of crimes and the tax incentive in the direct tax law on the taxpayer’s compliance behavior have been investigated. To determine the preferences and preferences of taxpayer’s in the business sector and their degree of sensitivity to fines and incentives, a questionnaire with mixed gamble structure is designed. Estimated results using the Hierarchical Bayesian method indicate that the taxpayer’s that have been tested in this study are more sensitive to the incentives in the direct tax law, and the tax administration can use this to increase the level of collected tax and increase the level of compliance.

Keywords: tax compliance, prospect theory, value function, mixed gamble

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17588 Forecasting Models for Steel Demand Uncertainty Using Bayesian Methods

Authors: Watcharin Sangma, Onsiri Chanmuang, Pitsanu Tongkhow


A forecasting model for steel demand uncertainty in Thailand is proposed. It consists of trend, autocorrelation, and outliers in a hierarchical Bayesian frame work. The proposed model uses a cumulative Weibull distribution function, latent first-order autocorrelation, and binary selection, to account for trend, time-varying autocorrelation, and outliers, respectively. The Gibbs sampling Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is used for parameter estimation. The proposed model is applied to steel demand index data in Thailand. The root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and mean absolute error (MAE) criteria are used for model comparison. The study reveals that the proposed model is more appropriate than the exponential smoothing method.

Keywords: forecasting model, steel demand uncertainty, hierarchical Bayesian framework, exponential smoothing method

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17587 Development of Antibacterial Surface Based on Bio-Inspired Hierarchical Surface

Authors: M.Ayazi, N. Golshan Ebrahimi


The development of antibacterial surface has devoted extensive researches and important field due to the growing antimicrobial resistance strains. The superhydrophobic surface has raised attention because of reducing bacteria adhesion in the absence of antibiotic agents. Evaluating the current development antibacterial surface has to be investigating to consider the potential of applying superhydrophobic surface to reduce bacterial adhesion or role of patterned surfaces on it. In this study, we present different samples with bio-inspired hierarchical and microstructures to consider their ability in reducing bacterial adhesion. The structures have inspired from rice-like pattern and lotus-leaf that developed on the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polypropylene (PP). The results of the attachment behaviors have considered on two bacteria strains of gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria and gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The reduction of bacteria adhesion on these roughness surfaces demonstrated the effectiveness of rinsing ability on removing bacterial cells on structured plastic surfaces. Results have also offered the important role of bacterial species, material chemistry and hierarchical structure to prevent bacterial adhesion.

Keywords: hierarchical structure, self-cleaning, lotus-effect, bactericidal

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17586 3D Linear and Cyclic Homo-Peptide Crystals Forged by Supramolecular Swelling Self-Assembly

Authors: Wenliang Song, Yu Zhang, Hua Jin, Il Kim


The self-assembly of the polypeptide (PP) into well-defined structures at different length scales is both biomimetic relevant and fundamentally interesting. Although there are various reports of nanostructures fabricated by the self-assembly of various PPs, directed self-assembly of PP into three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structure has proven to be difficult, despite their importance for biological applications. Herein, an efficient method has been developed through living polymerization of phenylalanine N-Carboxy anhydride (NCA) towards the linear and cyclic polyphenylalanine, and the new invented swelling methodology can form diverse hierarchical polypeptide crystals. The solvent-dependent self-assembly behaviors of these homopolymers were characterized by high-resolution imaging tools such as atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscope. The linear and cyclic polypeptide formed 3D nano hierarchical shapes, such as a sphere, cubic, stratiform and hexagonal star in different solvents. Notably, a crystalline packing model was proposed to explain the formation of 3D nanostructures based on the various diffraction patterns, looking forward to give an insight for their dissimilar shape inflection during the self-assembly process.

Keywords: self-assembly, polypeptide, bio-polymer, crystalline polymer

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17585 Detection of Change Points in Earthquakes Data: A Bayesian Approach

Authors: F. A. Al-Awadhi, D. Al-Hulail


In this study, we applied the Bayesian hierarchical model to detect single and multiple change points for daily earthquake body wave magnitude. The change point analysis is used in both backward (off-line) and forward (on-line) statistical research. In this study, it is used with the backward approach. Different types of change parameters are considered (mean, variance or both). The posterior model and the conditional distributions for single and multiple change points are derived and implemented using BUGS software. The model is applicable for any set of data. The sensitivity of the model is tested using different prior and likelihood functions. Using Mb data, we concluded that during January 2002 and December 2003, three changes occurred in the mean magnitude of Mb in Kuwait and its vicinity.

Keywords: multiple change points, Markov Chain Monte Carlo, earthquake magnitude, hierarchical Bayesian mode

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17584 Application of the Tripartite Model to the Link between Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Risk

Authors: Ashley Wei-Ting Wang, Wen-Yau Hsu


Objectives: The current study applies and expands the Tripartite Model to elaborate the link between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behavior. We propose a structural model of NSSI and suicidal risk, in which negative affect (NA) predicts both anxiety and depression, positive affect (PA) predicts depression only, anxiety is linked to NSSI, and depression is linked to suicidal risk. Method: Four hundreds and eighty seven undergraduates participated. Data were collected by administering self-report questionnaires. We performed hierarchical regression and structural equation modeling to test the proposed structural model. Results: The results largely support the proposed structural model, with one exception: anxiety was strongly associated with NSSI and to a lesser extent with suicidal risk. Conclusions: We conclude that the co-occurrence of NSSI and suicidal risk is due to NA and anxiety, and suicidal risk can be differentiated by depression. Further theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Keywords: non-suicidal self-injury, suicidal risk, anxiety, depression, the tripartite model, hierarchical relationship

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17583 Hierarchical Clustering Algorithms in Data Mining

Authors: Z. Abdullah, A. R. Hamdan


Clustering is a process of grouping objects and data into groups of clusters to ensure that data objects from the same cluster are identical to each other. Clustering algorithms in one of the areas in data mining and it can be classified into partition, hierarchical, density based, and grid-based. Therefore, in this paper, we do a survey and review for four major hierarchical clustering algorithms called CURE, ROCK, CHAMELEON, and BIRCH. The obtained state of the art of these algorithms will help in eliminating the current problems, as well as deriving more robust and scalable algorithms for clustering.

Keywords: clustering, unsupervised learning, algorithms, hierarchical

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17582 Regular or Irregular: An Investigation of Medicine Consumption Pattern with Poisson Mixture Model

Authors: Lichung Jen, Yi Chun Liu, Kuan-Wei Lee


Fruitful data has been accumulated in database nowadays and is commonly used as support for decision-making. In the healthcare industry, hospital, for instance, ordering pharmacy inventory is one of the key decision. With large drug inventory, the current cost increases and its expiration dates might lead to future issue, such as drug disposal and recycle. In contrast, underestimating demand of the pharmacy inventory, particularly standing drugs, affects the medical treatment and possibly hospital reputation. Prescription behaviour of hospital physicians is one of the critical factor influencing this decision, particularly irregular prescription behaviour. If a drug’s usage amount in the month is irregular and less than the regular usage, it may cause the trend of subsequent stockpiling. On the contrary, if a drug has been prescribed often than expected, it may result in insufficient inventory. We proposed a hierarchical Bayesian mixture model with two components to identify physicians’ regular/irregular prescription patterns with probabilities. Heterogeneity of hospital is considered in our proposed hierarchical Bayes model. The result suggested that modeling the prescription patterns of physician is beneficial for estimating the order quantity of medication and pharmacy inventory management of the hospital. Managerial implication and future research are discussed.

Keywords: hierarchical Bayesian model, poission mixture model, medicines prescription behavior, irregular behavior

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17581 Unseen Classes: The Paradigm Shift in Machine Learning

Authors: Vani Singhal, Jitendra Parmar, Satyendra Singh Chouhan


Unseen class discovery has now become an important part of a machine-learning algorithm to judge new classes. Unseen classes are the classes on which the machine learning model is not trained on. With the advancement in technology and AI replacing humans, the amount of data has increased to the next level. So while implementing a model on real-world examples, we come across unseen new classes. Our aim is to find the number of unseen classes by using a hierarchical-based active learning algorithm. The algorithm is based on hierarchical clustering as well as active sampling. The number of clusters that we will get in the end will give the number of unseen classes. The total clusters will also contain some clusters that have unseen classes. Instead of first discovering unseen classes and then finding their number, we directly calculated the number by applying the algorithm. The dataset used is for intent classification. The target data is the intent of the corresponding query. We conclude that when the machine learning model will encounter real-world data, it will automatically find the number of unseen classes. In the future, our next work would be to label these unseen classes correctly.

Keywords: active sampling, hierarchical clustering, open world learning, unseen class discovery

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17580 Morpheme Based Parts of Speech Tagger for Kannada Language

Authors: M. C. Padma, R. J. Prathibha


Parts of speech tagging is the process of assigning appropriate parts of speech tags to the words in a given text. The critical or crucial information needed for tagging a word come from its internal structure rather from its neighboring words. The internal structure of a word comprises of its morphological features and grammatical information. This paper presents a morpheme based parts of speech tagger for Kannada language. This proposed work uses hierarchical tag set for assigning tags. The system is tested on some Kannada words taken from EMILLE corpus. Experimental result shows that the performance of the proposed system is above 90%.

Keywords: hierarchical tag set, morphological analyzer, natural language processing, paradigms, parts of speech

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17579 Estimation of Transition and Emission Probabilities

Authors: Aakansha Gupta, Neha Vadnere, Tapasvi Soni, M. Anbarsi


Protein secondary structure prediction is one of the most important goals pursued by bioinformatics and theoretical chemistry; it is highly important in medicine and biotechnology. Some aspects of protein functions and genome analysis can be predicted by secondary structure prediction. This is used to help annotate sequences, classify proteins, identify domains, and recognize functional motifs. In this paper, we represent protein secondary structure as a mathematical model. To extract and predict the protein secondary structure from the primary structure, we require a set of parameters. Any constants appearing in the model are specified by these parameters, which also provide a mechanism for efficient and accurate use of data. To estimate these model parameters there are many algorithms out of which the most popular one is the EM algorithm or called the Expectation Maximization Algorithm. These model parameters are estimated with the use of protein datasets like RS126 by using the Bayesian Probabilistic method (data set being categorical). This paper can then be extended into comparing the efficiency of EM algorithm to the other algorithms for estimating the model parameters, which will in turn lead to an efficient component for the Protein Secondary Structure Prediction. Further this paper provides a scope to use these parameters for predicting secondary structure of proteins using machine learning techniques like neural networks and fuzzy logic. The ultimate objective will be to obtain greater accuracy better than the previously achieved.

Keywords: model parameters, expectation maximization algorithm, protein secondary structure prediction, bioinformatics

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