Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3364

Search results for: heating element

3364 Thermal-Fluid Characteristics of Heating Element in Rotary Heat Exchanger in Accordance with Fouling Phenomena

Authors: Young Mun Lee, Seon Ho Kim, Seok Min Choi, JeongJu Kim, Seungyeong Choi, Hyung Hee Cho


To decrease sulfur oxide in the flue gas from coal power plant, a flue gas de-sulfurization facility is operated. In the reactor, a chemical reaction occurs with a temperature change of the gas so that sulfur oxide is removed and cleaned air is emitted. In this process, temperature change induces a serious problem which is a cold erosion of stack. To solve this problem, the rotary heat exchanger is managed before the stack. In the heat exchanger, a heating element is equipped to increase a heat transfer area. Heat transfer and pressure loss is a big issue to improve a performance. In this research, thermal-fluid characteristics of the heating element are analyzed by computational fluid dynamics. Fouling simulation is also conducted to calculate a performance of heating element. Numerical analysis is performed on the situation where plugging phenomenon has already occurred and existed in the inlet region of the heating element. As the pressure of the rear part of the plugging decreases suddenly and the flow velocity becomes slower, it is found that the flow is gathered from both sides as it develops in the flow direction, and it is confirmed that the pressure difference due to plugging is increased.

Keywords: heating element, plugging, rotary heat exchanger, thermal fluid characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
3363 Induction Heating Process Design Using Comsol® Multiphysics Software Version 4.2a

Authors: K. Djellabi, M. E. H. Latreche


Induction heating computer simulation is a powerful tool for process design and optimization, induction coil design, equipment selection, as well as education and business presentations. The authors share their vast experience in the practical use of computer simulation for different induction heating and heat treating processes. In this paper deals with mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of induction heating furnaces with axisymmetric geometries. For the numerical solution, we propose finite element methods combined with boundary (FEM) for the electromagnetic model using COMSOL® Multiphysics Software. Some numerical results for an industrial furnace are shown with high frequency.

Keywords: numerical methods, induction furnaces, induction heating, finite element method, Comsol multiphysics software

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
3362 Simulation Model of Induction Heating in COMSOL Multiphysics

Authors: K. Djellabi, M. E. H. Latreche


The induction heating phenomenon depends on various factors, making the problem highly nonlinear. The mathematical analysis of this problem in most cases is very difficult and it is reduced to simple cases. Another knowledge of induction heating systems is generated in production environments, but these trial-error procedures are long and expensive. The numerical models of induction heating problem are another approach to reduce abovementioned drawbacks. This paper deals with the simulation model of induction heating problem. The simulation model of induction heating system in COMSOL Multiphysics is created. In this work we present results of numerical simulations of induction heating process in pieces of cylindrical shapes, in an inductor with four coils. The modeling of the inducting heating process was made with the software COMSOL Multiphysics Version 4.2a, for the study we present the temperature charts.

Keywords: induction heating, electromagnetic field, inductor, numerical simulation, finite element

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
3361 Compressive Stresses near Crack Tip Induced by Thermo-Electric Field

Authors: Thomas Jin-Chee Liu


In this paper, the thermo-electro-structural coupled-field in a cracked metal plate is studied using the finite element analysis. From the computational results, the compressive stresses reveal near the crack tip. This conclusion agrees with the past reference. Furthermore, the compressive condition can retard and stop the crack growth during the Joule heating process.

Keywords: compressive stress, crack tip, Joule heating, finite element

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
3360 Line Heating Forming: Methodology and Application Using Kriging and Fifth Order Spline Formulations

Authors: Henri Champliaud, Zhengkun Feng, Ngan Van Lê, Javad Gholipour


In this article, a method is presented to effectively estimate the deformed shape of a thick plate due to line heating. The method uses a fifth order spline interpolation, with up to C3 continuity at specific points to compute the shape of the deformed geometry. First and second order derivatives over a surface are the resulting parameters of a given heating line on a plate. These parameters are determined through experiments and/or finite element simulations. Very accurate kriging models are fitted to real or virtual surfaces to build-up a database of maps. Maps of first and second order derivatives are then applied on numerical plate models to evaluate their evolving shapes through a sequence of heating lines. Adding an optimization process to this approach would allow determining the trajectories of heating lines needed to shape complex geometries, such as Francis turbine blades.

Keywords: deformation, kriging, fifth order spline interpolation, first, second and third order derivatives, C3 continuity, line heating, plate forming, thermal forming

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
3359 Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Temperature Distribution and Electric Field in a Natural Rubber Glove during Microwave Heating

Authors: U. Narumitbowonkul, P. Keangin, P. Rattanadecho


Both numerical and experimental investigation of the temperature distribution and electric field in a natural rubber glove (NRG) during microwave heating are studied. A three-dimensional model of NRG and microwave oven are considered in this work. The influences of position, heating time and rotation angle of NRG on temperature distribution and electric field are presented in details. The coupled equations of electromagnetic wave propagation and heat transfer are solved using the finite element method (FEM). The numerical model is validated with an experimental study at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. The results show that the numerical results closely match the experimental results. Furthermore, it is found that the temperature distribution and electric field increases with increasing heating time. The hot spot zone appears in NRG at the tip of middle finger while the maximum temperature occurs in case of rotation angle of NRG = 60 degree. This investigation provides the essential aspects for a fundamental understanding of heat transport of NRG using microwave energy in industry.

Keywords: electric field, finite element method, microwave energy, natural rubber glove

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
3358 Simulation Study on Comparison of Thermal Comfort during Heating with All-Air System and Radiant Floor System

Authors: Shiyun Liu


Radiant heating systems work fundamentally differently from air systems by taking advantage of both radiant and convective heat transfer to remove space heating load. There are rare studies on differences of heating systems between all-air system and radiant floor system. This paper uses the method of simulation based on state-space to calculate the indoor temperature and wall temperature of each system and shows how the dynamic heat transfer in rooms conditioned by a radiant system is different from an air system. Then this paper analyses the changes of indoor temperature of these two systems, finding out the differences between all-air heating system and radiant floor heating system to help the designer choose a more suitable heating system.

Keywords: radiant floor, all-air system, thermal comfort, simulation, heating system

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
3357 Fabrication of Cesium Iodide Columns by Rapid Heating Method

Authors: Chien-Wan Hun, Shao-Fu Chang, Chien-Chon Chen, Ker-Jer Huang


This study presents how to use a high-efficiency process for producing cesium iodide (CsI) crystal columns by rapid heating method. In the past, the heating rate of the resistance wire heating furnace was relatively slow and excessive iodine and CsI vapors were therefore generated during heating. Because much iodine and CsI vapors are produced during heating process, the composition of CsI crystal columns is not correct. In order to enhance the heating rate, making CsI material in the heating process can quickly reach the melting point temperature. This study replaced the traditional type of external resistance heating furnace with halogen-type quartz heater, and then, CsI material can quickly reach the melting point. Eventually, CsI melt can solidify in the anodic aluminum template forming CsI crystal columns.

Keywords: cesium iodide, high efficiency, vapor, rapid heating, crystal column

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
3356 Heating Behavior of Ni-Embedded Thermoplastic Polyurethane Adhesive Film by Induction Heating

Authors: DuckHwan Bae, YongSung Kwon, Min Young Shon, SanTaek Oh, GuNi Kim


The heating behavior of nanometer and micrometer sized Nickel particle-imbedded thermoplastic polyurethane adhesive (TPU) under induction heating is examined in present study. The effects of particle size and content, TPU film thickness on heating behaviors were examined. The correlation between heating behavior and magnetic properties of Nickel particles were also studied. From the results, heat generation increased with increase of Nickel content and film thickness. However, in terms of particle sizes, heat generation of Nickel-imbedded TPU film were in order of 70nm>1µm>20 µm>70 µm and this results can explain by increasing ration of eddy heating to hysteresis heating with increase of particle size.

Keywords: induction heating, thermoplastic polyurethane, nickel, composite, hysteresis loss, eddy current loss, curie temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
3355 The Effect of Choke on the Efficiency of Coaxial Antenna for Percutaneous Microwave Coagulation Therapy for Hepatic Tumor

Authors: Surita Maini


There are many perceived advantages of microwave ablation have driven researchers to develop innovative antennas to effectively treat deep-seated, non-resectable hepatic tumors. In this paper a coaxial antenna with a miniaturized sleeve choke has been discussed for microwave interstitial ablation therapy, in order to reduce backward heating effects irrespective of the insertion depth into the tissue. Two dimensional Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to simulate and measure the results of miniaturized sleeve choke antenna. This paper emphasizes the importance of factors that can affect simulation accuracy, which include mesh resolution, surface heating and reflection coefficient. Quarter wavelength choke effectiveness has been discussed by comparing it with the unchoked antenna with same dimensions.

Keywords: microwave ablation, tumor, finite element method, coaxial slot antenna, coaxial dipole antenna

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
3354 Solutions for Quality Pre-Control of Crimp Contacts

Authors: C. F. Ocoleanu, G. Cividjian, Gh. Manolea


In this paper, we present two solutions for connections quality pre-control of Crimp Contacts and to identify in the first moments the connections improperly executed, before final assembly of a electrical machines. The first solution supposed experimental determination of specific losses by calculated the initial rate of temperature rise. This can be made drawing the tangent at the origin at heating curve. The method can be used to identify bad connections by passing a current through the winding at ambient temperature and simultaneously record connections temperatures in the first few minutes since the current is setting. The second proposed solution is to apply to each element crimping a thermal indicator one level, and making a test heating with a heating current corresponding to critical temperature indicator.

Keywords: temperature, crimp contact, thermal indicator, current distribution, specific losses

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
3353 The Fabrication and Characterization of a Honeycomb Ceramic Electric Heater with a Conductive Coating

Authors: Siming Wang, Qing Ni, Yu Wu, Ruihai Xu, Hong Ye


Porous electric heaters, compared to conventional electric heaters, exhibit excellent heating performance due to their large specific surface area. Porous electric heaters employ porous metallic materials or conductive porous ceramics as the heating element. The former attains a low heating power with a fixed current due to the low electrical resistivity of metal. Although the latter can bypass the inherent challenges of porous metallic materials, the fabrication process of the conductive porous ceramics is complicated and high cost. This work proposed a porous ceramic electric heater with dielectric honeycomb ceramic as a substrate and surface conductive coating as a heating element. The conductive coating was prepared by the sol-gel method using silica sol and methyl trimethoxysilane as raw materials and graphite powder as conductive fillers. The conductive mechanism and degradation reason of the conductive coating was studied by electrical resistivity and thermal stability analysis. The heating performance of the proposed heater was experimentally investigated by heating air and deionized water. The results indicate that the electron transfer is achieved by forming the conductive network through the contact of the graphite flakes. With 30 wt% of graphite, the electrical resistivity of the conductive coating can be as low as 0.88 Ω∙cm. The conductive coating exhibits good electrical stability up to 500°C but degrades beyond 600°C due to the formation of many cracks in the coating caused by the weight loss and thermal expansion. The results also show that the working medium has a great influence on the volume power density of the heater. With air under natural convection as the working medium, the volume power density attains 640.85 kW/m3, which can be increased by 5 times when using deionized water as the working medium. The proposed honeycomb ceramic electric heater has the advantages of the simple fabrication method, low cost, and high volume power density, demonstrating great potential in the fluid heating field.

Keywords: conductive coating, honeycomb ceramic electric heater, high specific surface area, high volume power density

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3352 Impact of Iron Doping on Induction Heating during Spark Plasma Sintering

Authors: Hua Tan, David Salamon


In this study, γ-Al2O3 powders doped with various amounts of iron were sintered via SPS process. Two heating modes – auto and manual mode were applied to observe the role of electrical induction on heating. Temperature, electric current, and pulse pattern were experimented with grade iron γ-Al2O3 powders. Phase transformation of γ to α -Al2O3 serves as a direct indicator of internal temperature, independently on measured outside temperature. That pulsing in SPS is also able to induce internal heating due to its strong electromagnetic field when dopants are conductive metals (e.g., iron) is proofed during SPS. Density and microstructure were investigated to explain the mechanism of induction heating. In addition, the role of electric pulsing and strong electromagnetic field on internal heating (induction heating) were compared and discussed. Internal heating by iron doping within electrically nonconductive samples is able to decrease sintering temperature and save energy, furthermore it is one explanation for unique features of this material fabrication technology.

Keywords: spark plasma sintering, induction heating, alumina, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
3351 Technical Analysis of Combined Solar Water Heating Systems for Cold Climate Regions

Authors: Hossein Lotfizadeh, André McDonald, Amit Kumar


Renewable energy resources, which can supplement space and water heating for residential buildings, can have a noticeable impact on natural gas consumption and air pollution. This study considers a technical analysis of a combined solar water heating system with evacuated tube solar collectors for different solar coverage, ranging from 20% to 100% of the total roof area of a typical residential building located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The alternative heating systems were conventional (non-condensing) and condensing tankless water heaters and condensing boilers that were coupled to solar water heating systems. The performance of the alternative heating systems was compared to a traditional heating system, consisting of a conventional boiler, applied to houses of various gross floor areas. A comparison among the annual natural gas consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation, and emissions for the various house sizes indicated that the combined solar heating system can reduce the natural gas consumption and CO2 emissions, and increase CO2 mitigation for all the systems that were studied. The results suggest that solar water heating systems are potentially beneficial for residential heating system applications in terms of energy savings and CO2 mitigation.

Keywords: CO2 emissions, CO2 mitigation, natural gas consumption, solar water heating system

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
3350 Synthesis and Characterization of CaZrTi2O7 from Tartrate Precursor Employing Microwave Heating Technique

Authors: B. M. Patil, S. R. Dharwadkar


Zirconolite (CaZrTi2O7) is one of the three major phases in the synthetic ceramic 'SYNROC' which is used for immobilization of high-level nuclear waste and also acts as photocatalytic and photophysical properties. In the present work the nanocrystalline CaZrTi2O7 was synthesized from Calcium Zirconyl Titanate tartrate precursor (CZTT) employing two different heating techniques such as Conventional heating (Muffle furnace) and Microwave heating (Microwave Oven). Thermal decomposition of the CZTT precursors in air yielded nanocrystalline CaZrTi2O7 powder as the end product. The products obtained by annealing the CZTT precursor using both heating method were characterized using simultaneous TG-DTA, FTIR, XRD, SEM, TEM, NTA and thermodilatometric study. The physical characteristics such as crystallinity, morphology and particle size of the product obtained by heating the CZTT precursor at the different temperatures in a Muffle furnace and Microwave oven were found to be significantly different. The microwave heating technique considerably lowered the synthesis temperature of CaZrTi2O7. The influence of microwave heating was more pronounced as compared to Muffle furnace heating. The details of the synthesis of CaZrTi2O7 from CZTT precursor are discussed.

Keywords: CZTT, CaZrTi2O7, microwave, SYNROC, zirconolite

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
3349 Thermal Comfort Characteristics in an Enclosure with a Radiant Ceiling Heating and Floor Air Heating System

Authors: Seung-Ho Yoo, Jong-Ryeul Sohn


An environmental friendly or efficient heating & cooling systems attract a great attention, due to the energy or environmental problems. Especially the heat balance of human body is about 50% influenced by radiation exchange in built environment. Therefore, a thermal comfort characteristics in a radiant built environment need to be accessed through the development of an efficient evaluation method. Almost of Korean housings use traditionally the radiant floor heating system. A radiant cooling system attracts also many attention nowadays in the viewpoint of energy conservation and comfort. Thermal comfort characteristics in an enclosure with a radiant heating and cooling system are investigated by experiment, thermal sensation vote analysis and mean radiant temperature simulation. Asymmetric radiation between radiant heating ceiling and air heating system in 9 points of room is compared with each other.

Keywords: radiant heating and cooling ceiling, asymmetric radiation, thermal comfort, thermal sensation vote

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
3348 Modeling Thin Shell Structures by a New Flat Shell Finite Element

Authors: Djamal Hamadi, Ashraf Ayoub, Ounis Abdelhafid, Chebili Rachid


In this paper, a new computationally-efficient rectangular flat shell finite element named 'ACM_RSBEC' is presented. The formulated element is obtained by superposition of a new rectangular membrane element 'RSBEC' based on the strain approach and the well known plate bending element 'ACM'. This element can be used for the analysis of thin shell structures, no matter how the geometrical shape might be. Tests on standard problems have been examined. The convergence of the new formulated element is also compared to other types of quadrilateral shell elements. The presented shell element ‘ACM_RSBEC’ has been demonstrated to be effective and useful in analysing thin shell structures.

Keywords: finite element, flat shell element, strain based approach, static condensation

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
3347 Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Effectiveness of a Corrugated Rectangular Waveguide for a Microwave Conveyor-Belt Drier

Authors: Sang-Hyeon Bae, Sung-Yeon Kim, Min-Gyo Jeong, Ji-Hong Kim, Wang-Sang Lee


Traditional heating methods such as electric ovens or steam heating are slow and not very efficient. For continuously heating the objects, a microwave conveyor-belt drier is widely used in the industrial microwave heating systems. However, there is a problem in which electromagnetic wave leaks toward outside of the heating cavity through the insertion opening. To achieve the prevention of the leakage of microwaves and improved heating characteristics, the corrugated rectangular waveguide at the entrance and exit openings of a microwave conveyor-belt drier is proposed and its electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness is analyzed and verified. The corrugated waveguides in the proposed microwave heating system achieve at least 20 dB shielding effectiveness while ensuring a sufficient height of the openings.

Keywords: corrugated, electromagnetic wave, microwave conveyor-belt drier, rectangular waveguide, shielding effectiveness

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
3346 High-Frequency Half Bridge Inverter Applied to Induction Heating

Authors: Amira Zouaoui, Hamed Belloumi, Ferid Kourda


This paper presents the analysis and design of a DC–AC resonant converter applied to induction heating. The proposed topology based on the series-parallel half-bridge resonant inverter is described. It can operate with Zero-Voltage Switching (ZVS). At the resonant frequency, the secondary current is amplified over the heating coil with small switching angle, which keeps the reactive power low and permits heating with small current through the resonant inductor and the transformer. The operation and control principle of the proposed high frequency inverter is described and verified through simulated and experimental results.

Keywords: induction heating, inverter, high frequency, resonant

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
3345 Production and Evaluation of Mango Pulp by Using Ohmic Heating Process

Authors: Sobhy M. Mohsen, Mohamed M. El-Nikeety, Tarek G. Mohamed, Michael Murkovic


The present work aimed to study the use of ohmic heating in the processing of mango pulp comparing to conventional method. Mango pulp was processed by using ohmic heating under the studied suitable conditions. Physical, chemical and microbiological properties of mango pulp were studied. The results showed that processing of mango pulp by using either ohmic heating or conventional method caused a decrease in the contents of TSS, total carbohydrates, total acidity, total sugars (reducing and non-reducing sugar) and an increase in phenol content, ascorbic acid and carotenoids compared to the conventional process. The increase in electric conductivity of mango pulp during ohmic heating was due to the addition of some electrolytes (salts) to increase the ions and enhance the process. The results also indicate that mango pulp processed by ohmic heating contained more phenols, carbohydrates and vitamin C and less HMF compared to that produced by conventional one. Total pectin and its fractions had slightly reduced by ohmic heating compared to conventional method. Enzymatic activities showed a reduction in poly phenoloxidase (PPO) and polygalacturonase (PG) activity in mango pulp processed by conventional method. However, ohmic heating completely inhibited PPO and PG activities.

Keywords: ohmic heating, mango pulp, phenolic, sarotenoids

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
3344 Numerical Simulation of the Coal Spontaneous Combustion Dangerous Area in Composite Long-Wall Gobs

Authors: Changshan Zhang, Zhijin Yu, Shixing Fan


A comprehensive hazard evaluation for coal self-heating in composite long-wall gobs is heavily dependent on computational simulation. In this study, the spatial distributions of cracks which caused significant air leakage were simulated by universal distinct element code (UDEC) simulation. Based on the main routes of air leakage and characteristics of coal self-heating, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was conducted to model the coal spontaneous combustion dangerous area in composite long-wall gobs. The results included the oxygen concentration distributions and temperature profiles showed that the numerical approach is validated by comparison with the test data. Furthermore, under the conditions of specific engineering, the major locations where some techniques for extinguishing and preventing long-wall gob fires need to be put into practice were also examined.

Keywords: computational simulation, UDEC simulation, coal self-heating, CFD modeling, long-wall gobs

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
3343 A Platform to Analyze Controllers for Solar Hot Water Systems

Authors: Aziz Ahmad, Guillermo Ramirez-Prado


Governments around the world encourage the use of solar water heating in residential houses due to the low maintenance requirements and efficiency of the solar collector water heating systems. The aim of this work is to study a domestic solar water heating system in a residential building to develop a model of the entire solar water heating system including flat-plate solar collector and storage tank. The proposed model is adaptable to any households and location. The model can be used to test different types of controllers and can provide efficiency as well as economic analysis. The proposed model is based on the heat and mass transfer equations along with assumptions applied in the model which can be modified for a variety of different solar water heating systems and sizes. Simulation results of the model were compared with the actual system which shows similar trends.

Keywords: solar thermal systems, solar water heating, solar collector model, hot water tank model, solar controllers

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
3342 Solar System with Plate Heat Exchanger

Authors: Christer Frennfelt


Solar heating is the most environmentally friendly way to heat water. Brazed Plate Heat Exchangers (BPHEs) are a key component in many solar heating applications for harvesting solar energy into accumulator tanks, producing hot tap water, and heating pools. The combination of high capacity in a compact format, efficient heat transfer, and fast response makes the BPHE the ideal heat exchanger for solar thermal systems. Solar heating is common as a standalone heat source, and as an add-on heat source for boilers, heat pumps, or district heating systems. An accumulator provides the possibility to store heat, which enables combination of different heat sources to a larger extent. In turn this works as protection to reduced access to energy or increased energy prices. For example heat from solar panels is preferably stored during the day for use at night.

Keywords: district heating and cooling, thermal storage, brazed plate heat exchanger, solar domestic hot water and combisystems

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
3341 Developing Wearable EMG Sensor Designed for Parkinson's Disease (PD) Monitoring, and Treatment

Authors: Bulcha Belay Etana


Electromyography is used to measure the electrical activity of muscles for various health monitoring applications using surface electrodes or needle electrodes. Recent developments in electromyogram signal acquisition using textile electrodes open the door for wearable health monitoring which enables patients to monitor and control their health issues outside of traditional healthcare facilities. The aim of this research is therefore to develop and analyze wearable textile electrodes for the acquisition of electromyography signals for Parkinson’s patients and apply an appropriate thermal stimulus to relieve muscle cramping. In order to achieve this, textile electrodes are sewn with a silver-coated thread in an overlapping zigzag pattern into an inextensible fabric, and stainless steel knitted textile electrodes attached to a sleeve were prepared and its electrical characteristics including signal to noise ratio were compared with traditional electrodes. To relieve muscle cramping, a heating element using stainless steel conductive yarn Sewn onto a cotton fabric, coupled with a vibration system were developed. The system was integrated using a microcontroller and a Myoware muscle sensor so that when muscle cramping occurs, measured by the system activates the heating elements and vibration motors. The optimum temperature considered for treatment was 35.50c, so a Temperature measurement system was incorporated to deactivate the heating system when the temperature reaches this threshold, and the signals indicating muscle cramping have subsided. The textile electrode exhibited a signal to noise ratio of 6.38dB while the signal to noise ratio of the traditional electrode was 7.05dB. The rise time of the developed heating element was about 6 minutes to reach the optimum temperature using a 9volt power supply. The treatment of muscle cramping in Parkinson's patients using heat and muscle vibration simultaneously with a wearable electromyography signal acquisition system will improve patients’ livelihoods and enable better chronic pain management.

Keywords: electromyography, heating textile, vibration therapy, parkinson’s disease, wearable electronic textile

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
3340 Optimization of Floor Heating System in the Incompressible Turbulent Flow Using Constructal Theory

Authors: Karim Farahmandfar, Hamidolah Izadi, Mohammadreza Rezaei, Amin Ardali, Ebrahim Goshtasbi Rad, Khosro Jafarpoor


Statistics illustrates that the higher amount of annual energy consumption is related to surmounting the demand in buildings. Therefore, it is vital to economize the energy consumption and also find the solution with regard to this issue. One of the systems for the sake of heating the building is floor heating. As a matter of fact, floor heating performance is based on convection and radiation. Actually, in addition to creating a favorable heating condition, this method leads to energy saving. It is the goal of this article to outline the constructal theory and introduce the optimization method in branch networks for floor heating. There are several steps in order to gain this purpose. First of all, the pressure drop through the two points of the network is calculated. This pressure drop is as a function of pipes diameter and other parameters. After that, the amount of heat transfer is determined. Consequently, as a result of the combination of these two functions, the final function will be determined. It is necessary to mention that flow is laminar.

Keywords: constructal theory, optimization, floor heating system, turbulent flow

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3339 CFD Analysis of Solar Floor Radiant Heating System with ‎PCM

Authors: Mohammad Nazififard, Reihane Faghihi


This paper is aimed at understanding convective heat transfer of enclosed phase change material (PCM) in the solar and low-temperature hot water radiant floor heating geometry. In order to obtain the best performance of PCM, a radiant heating structure of the energy storage floor is designed which places heat pipes in the enclosed phase change material (PCM) layer, without concrete in it. The governing equations are numerically solved. The PCM thermal storage time is considered in relation to the floor surface temperature under different hot water temperatures. Moreover the PCM thermal storage time is numerically estimated under different supply water temperatures and flow rate. Results show the PCM floor heating system has a potential of making use of the daytime solar energy for heating at night efficiently.

Keywords: solar floor, heating system, phase change material, computational fluid dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
3338 Strength Investigation of Liquefied Petroleum Gas Cylinders: Dynamic Loads

Authors: Moudar Zgoul, Hashem Alkhaldi


A large number of transportable LPG cylinders are manufactured annually for domestic use. These LPG cylinders are manufactured from mild steel and filled maximally with 12.5 kg liquefied gas under internal pressure of 0.6 N/mm² at a temperature of 50°C. Many millions of such LPG cylinders are in daily use mainly, for purposes of space heating, water heating, and cooking. Thereby, they are imposed to severe conditions leading to their failure. Each year not less than 5000 of these LPG cylinders fail, some of those failures cause damage and loss in lives and properties. In this work, LPG cylinders were investigated; Stress calculations and deformations under dynamic (impact) loadings were carried out to simulate the effects of such loads on the cylinders while in service. Analysis of the LPG cylinders was carried out using the finite element method; shell and cylindrical elements were used at the top, bottom, and in middle (weld region), permitting elastic-plastic analysis for a thin-walled LPG cylinder. Variables such as maximum stresses and maximum deflections under the effect of impact loading were investigated in this work. Results showed that the maximum stresses reach 680 MPa when dropped from 3m-height. The maximum radial deformation occurs at the cylinder’s top in case of the top-position impact. This information should be useful for enhancing the strength of such cylinders and to for prolonging their service life.

Keywords: dynamic analysis, finite element method, impact load, LPG cylinders

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
3337 Effect of Heating Rate on Microstructural Developments in Cold Heading Quality Steel Used for Automotive Applications

Authors: Shahid Hussain Abro, F. Mufadi, A. Boodi


Microstructural study and phase transformation in steels is a basic and important step during the design of structural steel. There are huge efforts and study has been done so far on phase transformations, due to so many steel grades available commercially the phase development in steel has different consequences. In the present work an effort has been made to study the effect of heating rate on microstructural features of cold heading quality steel. The SEM, optical microscopy, and heat treatment techniques have been applied to observe the microstructural features in the experimental steel. It was observed that heating rate has the strong influence on phase transformation of CHQ steel under investigation. Heating rate increases the austenite formation kinetics with respect to holding time, and this austenite has been transformed to martensite upon cooling. Heating rate also plays a vital role on nucleation sites of austenite formation in the experimental steel.

Keywords: CHQ steel, austenite formation, heating rate, nucleation

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
3336 Numerical Simulation of Heating Characteristics in a Microwave T-Prong Antenna for Cancer Therapy

Authors: M. Chaichanyut, S. Tungjitkusolmun


This research is presented with microwave (MW) ablation by using the T-Prong monopole antennas. In the study, three-dimensional (3D) finite-element methods (FEM) were utilized to analyse: the tissue heat flux, temperature distributions (heating pattern) and volume destruction during MW ablation in liver cancer tissue. The configurations of T-Prong monopole antennas were considered: Three T-prong antenna, Expand T-Prong antenna and Arrow T-Prong antenna. The 3D FEMs solutions were based on Maxwell and bio-heat equations. The microwave power deliveries were 10 W; the duration of ablation in all cases was 300s. Our numerical result, heat flux and the hotspot occurred at the tip of the T-prong antenna for all cases. The temperature distribution pattern of all antennas was teardrop. The Arrow T-Prong antenna can induce the highest temperature within cancer tissue. The microwave ablation was successful when the region where the temperatures exceed 50°C (i.e. complete destruction). The Expand T-Prong antenna could complete destruction the liver cancer tissue was maximized (6.05 cm³). The ablation pattern or axial ratio (Widest/length) of Expand T-Prong antenna and Arrow T-Prong antenna was 1, but the axial ratio of Three T-prong antenna of about 1.15.

Keywords: liver cancer, T-Prong antenna, finite element, microwave ablation

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
3335 A 3D Eight Nodes Brick Finite Element Based on the Strain Approach

Authors: L. Belounar, K. Gerraiche, C. Rebiai, S. Benmebarek


This paper presents the development of a new three dimensional brick finite element by the use of the strain based approach for the linear analysis of plate bending behavior. The developed element has the three essential external degrees of freedom (U, V and W) at each of the eight corner nodes. The displacements field of the developed element is based on assumed functions for the various strains satisfying the compatibility and the equilibrium equations. The performance of this element is evaluated on several problems related to thick and thin plate bending in linear analysis. The obtained results show the good performances and accuracy of the present element.

Keywords: brick element, strain approach, plate bending, civil engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 364