Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3443

Search results for: hand woven fabric

3443 Investigation on Hand-Woven School Uniform Initiative and Sustainability: The Kerala Model from India

Authors: Abhilash Balan Paleri

Abstract:

Hand woven fabric embellishes an exceptional identity in the social milieu of Kerala; still, the artisans and handloom sector is undergoing crisis due to various reasons. The hand woven school uniform initiative of Govt. of Kerala launched in 2016 aims at enhancing the sector, ensuring sustainability at artisan and end-user levels. The Kerala Government already distributed 23 lakhs meters of cloth (for shirting, suiting, and skirting) woven by 4085 artisans in their traditional looms covering 4.5 lakhs of students in the public education sector which covers cover 3,701 schools in the state. The 2019-20 year production is expected to be 42 Lakhs meters of hand woven clothing catering 8.6 lakhs of students in the primary sector. This particular investigation unveils the upshots of the initiative, and the observations are derived through systematic enquiry with artisans, authorities, and end-users. The findings show a remarkable positive impact in the livelihood of artisans and the entire handloom sector.

Keywords: handloom school uniform initiative of Kerala, hand woven fabric, sustainability, handloom weavers

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3442 Effectiveness of Micania micrantha Extract on Woven Wound Dressing Materials

Authors: Md. Lutfor Rahman, Shaikh Md. Mominul Alam

Abstract:

Sometimes it causes external bleeding when human skin gets seriously injured. Natural source-based blood-clotting bandages are rarely used. The available chemically treated blood clotting materials sometimes show adverse effects and are not effective in quick recovery. Considering these facts, a new blood clotting woven wound dressing product has been developed which is a combination of Micania micrantha extract with woven fabric by absorption process. This product can be represented as an important addition to medical textiles. To develop a dressing material, Micania micrantha leaf juice was applied on bleached woven fabric, followed by sun drying. The effectiveness of this woven sample was tested on volunteers. It was observed that Micania micrantha containing woven sample has a tremendous effect over conventional wound dressing materials. This result is a milestone for the textile and medical sector.

Keywords: blood clotting, Micania micrantha, medical textiles, woven fabric

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
3441 Modification of Four Layer through the Thickness Woven Structure for Improved Impact Resistance

Authors: Muhammad Liaqat, Hafiz Abdul Samad, Syed Talha Ali Hamdani, Yasir Nawab

Abstract:

In the current research, the four layers, orthogonal through the thickness, 2D woven, 3D fabric structure was modified to improve the impact resistance of 3D fabric reinforced composites. This was achieved by imparting the auxeticity into four layers through the thickness woven structure. A comparison was made between the standard and modified four layers through the thickness woven structure in terms of auxeticity, penetration and impact resistance. It was found that the modified structure showed auxeticity in both warp and weft direction. It was also found that the penetration resistance of modified sample was less as compared to the standard structure, but impact resistance was improved up to 6.7% of modified four layers through the thickness woven structure.

Keywords: 2D woven, 3D fabrics, auxetic, impact resistance, orthogonal through the thickness

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3440 Mitigation of Size Effects in Woven Fabric Composites Using Finite Element Analysis Approach

Authors: Azeez Shaik, Yagnik Kalariya, Amit Salvi

Abstract:

High-performance requirements and emission norms were forcing the automobile industry to opt for lightweight materials which improve the fuel efficiency and absorb energy during crash applications. In such scenario, the woven fabric composites are providing better energy absorption compared to metals. Woven fabric composites have a repetitive unit cell (RUC) and the mechanical properties of these materials are highly dependent on RUC. This work investigates the importance of detailed modelling of the RUC, the size effects associated and the mitigation techniques to avoid them using Finite element analysis approach.

Keywords: repetitive unit cell, representative volume element, size effects, cohesive zone, finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
3439 Microscopic Features Influences on Textile Fabrics Self-Cleaning Ability

Authors: Ayat Adnan Atwah

Abstract:

Self-cleaning ability in textile fabrics was comprehensively investigated in the last decade. Most of these investigations have used surface roughness, and low surface energy features to establish a self-cleaning mechanism. Extensive research articles and reviews have been published to describe these processes along with their microscopic features. When these reviewed with a critical eye, it has been found that a comprehensive effort is still required to compile all these previous research, emphasizing how textile fabrics' microscopic features can influence their self-cleaning ability. No research has been conducted to explore the self-cleaning potential of microscopic geometrical features of fabric at the woven structural level. Researchers used microscopic features to increase the mechanical strength of the fabric. However, they did not change the microscopic features at a woven level to evaluate the self-cleaning ability. In the existing literature, researchers have tried to develop self-cleaning textiles with the help of coatings on the fabric. These coatings are applied to the fabrics by using spray and nanoparticle processing. The coatings create a different surface on the fabric, and hence the changes in the microscopic features of this surface control the self-cleaning ability. Instead of using an additional coating, the microscopic features of the fabric itself can also influence the surface roughness and low surface energy and provide self-cleaning ability at the woven structural level. Key microscopic features like surface roughness, porosity, and wettability of a textile fabric are still not comprehensively investigated for their influence on fabric’s self-cleaning ability. Significantly, the interdependencies between these features with overall fabric geometry at the woven level have not been explored quantitatively. Qualitative observations have been made mainly in the past literature. However, fabrics with self-cleaning ability to be produced in mass production require extensive empirical studies. These studies must involve parametric analysis on varying values of the microscopic features and their quantitative influence on the desired self-cleaning feature.

Keywords: self-cleaning ability, influence, microscopic features, textile fabrics

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
3438 Porosity and Ultraviolet Protection Ability of Woven Fabrics

Authors: Polona Dobnik Dubrovski, Abhijit Majumdar

Abstract:

The increasing awareness of negative effects of ultraviolet radiation and regular, effective protection are actual themes in many countries. Woven fabrics as clothing items can provide convenient personal protection however not all fabrics offer sufficient UV protection. Porous structure of the material has a great effect on UPF. The paper is focused on an overview of porosity in woven fabrics, including the determination of porosity parameters on the basis of an ideal geometrical model of porous structure. Our experiment was focused on 100% cotton woven fabrics in a grey state with the same yarn fineness (14 tex) and different thread densities (to achieve relative fabric density between 59 % and 87 %) and different type of weaves (plain, 4-end twill, 5-end satin). The results of the research dealing with the modelling of UPF and the influence of volume and open porosity of tested samples on UPF are exposed. The results show that open porosity should be lower than 12 % to achieve good UV protection according to AS/NZ standard of tested samples. The results also indicate that there is no direct correlation between volume porosity and UPF, moreover, volume porosity namely depends on the type of weave and affects UPF as well. Plain fabrics did not offer any UV protection, while twill and satin fabrics offered good UV protection when volume porosity was less than 64 % and 66 %, respectively.

Keywords: fabric engineering, UV radiation, porous materials, woven fabric construction, modelling

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3437 Influence of Resin Finishes on Properties of Khadi Fabric

Authors: Shivi Rastogi, Suman Pant

Abstract:

Khadi is an Indian fabric and also known by another name “Khaddar”. During pre-independence era, the movement of khadi manufacturing gained momentum. Over the years, khadi fabrics that were generally considered as the “second skin” of the Swadesh revolutionists changed its uniqueness. It underwent a metamorphosis from that of a patriot’s fabric, and a farmer’s apparel, to become a “fashion fabric”. Drape of garment is governed by draping quality of fabric used. Drape is an essential parameter to decide both appearance and handle of fabric. It is also a secondary determinant of fabric mechanical properties as influenced by the low stress properties, like bending length, formability, tensile and shear properties and compressibility of the fabric. In finishing, fabric is treated to add something to coat the fabric or fiber and thereby temporarily or permanently fix. Film forming agents such as thermoplastic and thermosetting resins and other surface deposits alter hand. In this study, resins were used to modify fabric hand. Three types of resins have been applied on the khadi fabric at three concentration. The effect of these finishes on drapeability, crease recovery, stiffness, tearing strength and smoothness of khadi fabrics were assessed. Silicone gave good results in imparting properties specially drape, smoothness and softness and hand of cotton and khadi fabric. KES result also showed that silicone treated samples enhanced THV rating amongst all treated samples when compared to the control fabric.

Keywords: crease recovery, drapeability, KES, silicone, THV

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3436 A Comparison Study of Fabric Objective Measurement (FOM) Using KES-FB and PhabrOmeter System on Warp Knitted Fabrics Handle: Smoothness, Stiffness and Softness

Authors: Ka-Yan Yim, Chi-Wai Kan

Abstract:

This paper conducts a comparison study using KES-FB and PhabrOmeter to measure 58 selected warp knitted fabric hand properties. Fabric samples were selected and measured by both KES-FB and PhabrOmeter. Results show differences between these two measurement methods. Smoothness and stiffness values obtained by KES-FB were found significant correlated (p value = 0.003 and 0.022) to the PhabrOmeter results while softness values between two measurement methods did not show significant correlation (p value = 0.828). Disagreements among these two measurement methods imply limitations on different mechanism principles when facing warp knitted fabrics. Subjective measurement methods and further studies are suggested in order to ascertain deeper investigation on the mechanisms of fabric hand perceptions.

Keywords: fabric hand, fabric objective measurement, KES-FB, PhabrOmeter

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
3435 Development of Stretchable Woven Fabrics with Auxetic Behaviour

Authors: Adeel Zulifqar, Hong Hu

Abstract:

Auxetic fabrics are a special kind of textile materials which possess negative Poisson’s ratio. Opposite to most of the conventional fabrics, auxetic fabrics get bigger in the transversal direction when stretched or get smaller when compressed. Auxetic fabrics are superior to conventional fabrics because of their counterintuitive properties, such as enhanced porosity under the extension, excellent formability to a curved surface and high energy absorption ability. Up till today, auxetic fabrics have been produced based on two approaches. The first approach involves using auxetic fibre or yarn and weaving technology to fabricate auxetic fabrics. The other method to fabricate the auxetic fabrics is by using non-auxetic yarns. This method has gained extraordinary curiosity of researcher in recent years. This method is based on realizing auxetic geometries into the fabric structure. In the woven fabric structure auxetic geometries can be realized by creating a differential shrinkage phenomenon into the fabric structural unit cell. This phenomenon can be created by using loose and tight weave combinations within the unit cell of interlacement pattern along with elastic and non-elastic yarns. Upon relaxation, the unit cell of interlacement pattern acquires a non-uniform shrinkage profile due to different shrinkage properties of loose and tight weaves in designed pattern, and the auxetic geometry is realized. The development of uni-stretch auxetic woven fabrics and bi-stretch auxetic woven fabrics by using this method has already been reported. This study reports the development of another kind of bi-stretch auxetic woven fabric. The fabric is first designed by transforming the auxetic geometry into interlacement pattern and then fabricated, using the available conventional weaving technology and non-auxetic elastic and non-elastic yarns. The tensile tests confirmed that the developed bi-stretch auxetic woven fabrics exhibit negative Poisson’s ratio over a wide range of tensile strain. Therefore, it can be concluded that the auxetic geometry can be realized into the woven fabric structure by creating the phenomenon of differential shrinkage and bi-stretch woven fabrics made of non-auxetic yarns having auxetic behavior and stretchability are possible can be obtained. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government (grant number 15205514).

Keywords: auxetic, differential shrinkage, negative Poisson's ratio, weaving, stretchable

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
3434 The Effect of Backing Layer on Adhesion Properties of Single Layer Ketoprofen Transdermal Drug Delivery System

Authors: Maryam Hamedanlou, Shahla Hajializadeh

Abstract:

The transdermal drug delivery system is one of the types of novel drug delivery system that the drug is absorbed into the skin. The major considerations for designing and producing transdermal patch are small size, suitable drug release and good adhering. In this study, drug-in-adhesive transdermal patch contained non-steroidal anti-inflammatory ketoprofen is prepared. Also, the effect of non-woven fabric and plastic backing layers on adhesion properties is assessed. The results of the test, demonstrated the use of plastic backing layer increases tack and peel rather than non-woven fabric type. The balance tack with plastic backing layer patch is 6.7 (N/mm2), and the fabric one is 3.8 (N/mm2), and their peel is 9.2 (N/25mm) and 8.3 (N/25mm) by arrangement.

Keywords: transdermal drug delivery system, single layer patch of ketoprofen, plastic layer, fabric backing layer

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
3433 Influence of Chemical Processing Treatment on Handle Properties of Worsted Suiting Fabric

Authors: Priyanka Lokhande, Ram P. Sawant, Ganesh Kakad, Avinash Kolhatkar

Abstract:

In order to evaluate the influence of chemical processing on low-stress mechanical properties and fabric hand of worsted cloth, eight worsted suiting fabric samples of balance plain and twill weave were studied. The Kawabata KES-FB system has been used for the measurement of low-stress mechanical properties of before and after chemically processed worsted suiting fabrics. Primary hand values and Total Hand Values (THV) of before and after chemically processed worsted suiting fabrics were calculated using the KES-FB test data. Upon statistical analysis, it is observed that chemical processing has considerable influence on the low-stress mechanical properties and thereby on handle properties of worsted suiting fabrics. Improvement in the Total Hand Values (THV) after chemical processing is experienced in most of fabric samples.

Keywords: low stress mechanical properties, plain and twill weave, total hand value (THV), worsted suiting fabric

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
3432 Finite Element Modelling of a 3D Woven Composite for Automotive Applications

Authors: Ahmad R. Zamani, Luigi Sanguigno, Angelo R. Maligno

Abstract:

A 3D woven composite, designed for automotive applications, is studied using Abaqus Finite Element (FE) software suite. Python scripts were developed to build FE models of the woven composite in Complete Abaqus Environment (CAE). They can read TexGen or WiseTex files and automatically generate consistent meshes of the fabric and the matrix. A user menu is provided to help define parameters for the FE models, such as type and size of the elements in fabric and matrix as well as the type of matrix-fabric interaction. Node-to-node constraints were imposed to guarantee periodicity of the deformed shapes at the boundaries of the representative volume element of the composite. Tensile loads in three axes and biaxial loads in x-y directions have been applied at different Fibre Volume Fractions (FVFs). A simple damage model was implemented via an Abaqus user material (UMAT) subroutine. Existing tools for homogenization were also used, including voxel mesh generation from TexGen as well as Abaqus Micromechanics plugin. Linear relations between homogenised elastic properties and the FVFs are given. The FE models of composite exhibited balanced behaviour with respect to warp and weft directions in terms of both stiffness and strength.

Keywords: 3D woven composite (3DWC), meso-scale finite element model, homogenisation of elastic material properties, Abaqus Python scripting

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3431 Experimental Characterization of Anisotropic Mechanical Properties of Textile Woven Fabric

Authors: Rym Zouari, Sami Ben Amar, Abdelwaheb Dogui

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental characterization of the anisotropic mechanical behavior of 4 textile woven fabrics with different weaves (Twill 3, Plain, Twill4 and Satin 4) by off-axis tensile testing. These tests are applied according seven directions oriented by 15° increment with respect to the warp direction. Fixed and articulated jaws are used. Analysis of experimental results is done through global (Effort/Elongation curves) and local scales. Global anisotropy was studied from the Effort/Elongation curves: shape, breaking load (Frup), tensile elongation (EMT), tensile energy (WT) and linearity index (LT). Local anisotropy was studied from the measurement of strain tensor components in the central area of the specimen as a function of testing orientation and effort: longitudinal strain ɛL, transverse strain ɛT and shearing ɛLT. The effect of used jaws is also analyzed.

Keywords: anisotropy, off-axis tensile test, strain fields, textile woven fabric

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
3430 Construction of Finite Woven Frames through Bounded Linear Operators

Authors: A. Bhandari, S. Mukherjee

Abstract:

Two frames in a Hilbert space are called woven or weaving if all possible merge combinations between them generate frames of the Hilbert space with uniform frame bounds. Weaving frames are powerful tools in wireless sensor networks which require distributed data processing. Considering the practical applications, this article deals with finite woven frames. We provide methods of constructing finite woven frames, in particular, bounded linear operators are used to construct woven frames from a given frame. Several examples are discussed. We also introduce the notion of woven frame sequences and characterize them through the concepts of gaps and angles between spaces.

Keywords: frames, woven frames, gap, angle

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3429 Strength Translation from Spun Yarns to Woven Fabrics

Authors: Anindya Ghosh

Abstract:

Structural parameters, yarn to yarn friction, strength of ring, rotor, air-jet and open-end friction spun yarns and the strength of fabrics made from these yarns are measured. The ratio of fabric strip strength per yarn and corresponding single yarn strength is considered as a measure of quantifying the fabric assistance. Mechanism of yarn failure inside the fabric is different as that of single yarn and the former exhibit more fibre rupture. Fabrics made from weaker yarns have higher ratio of strip strength to single yarn strength than that made from stronger yarns due to larger increase in the percentage of rupture fibres in the former. The fabric assistance also depends to some extent on the degree of gripping of the yarns that is influenced by the yarn to yarn friction, extent of yarn flattening and yarn diameter.

Keywords: fabric assistance, fabric strength, yarn diameter, yarn friction, yarn strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
3428 Effect of Non-Crimp Fabric Structure on Mechanical Properties of Laminates

Authors: Hireni R. Mankodi, D. J. Chudasama

Abstract:

The textile preforms play a key role in providing the mechanical properties and gives the idea about selection parameter of preforms to improve the quality and performance of laminates. The main objectives of this work are to study the effect of non-crimp fabric preform structure in final properties of laminates. It has been observed that the multi-axial preform give better mechanical properties of laminates as compared to woven and biaxial fabrics. This study investigated the effect of different non-crimp glass preform structure on tensile strength, bending and compression properties of glass laminates. The different woven, bi-axial and multi-axial fabrics with similar GSM used to manufacture the laminates using polyester resin. The structural and mechanical properties of preform and laminates were studied using standard methods. It has been observed that the glass fabric geometry, including type of weaves, warps and filling density and number of layer plays significant role in deciding mechanical properties of laminates.

Keywords: preform, non-crimp structure, laminates, bi-axial, multiaxial

Procedia PDF Downloads 420
3427 Quality Fabric Optimization Using Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Halimi Mohamed Taher, Kordoghli Bassem, Ben Hassen Mohamed, Sakli Faouzi

Abstract:

Textile industry has been an important part of many developing countries economies such as Tunisia. This industry is confronted with a challenging and increasing competitive environment. Good quality management in production process is the key factor for retaining existence especially in raw material exploitation. The present work aims to develop an intelligent system for fabric inspection. In the first step, we have studied the method used for fabric control which takes into account the default length and localization in woven. In the second step, we have used a method based on the fuzzy logic to minimize the Demerit point indicator with appropriate total rollers length, so that the quality problem becomes multi-objective. In order to optimize the total fabric quality, we have applied the genetic algorithm (GA).

Keywords: fabric control, Fuzzy logic, genetic algorithm, quality management

Procedia PDF Downloads 492
3426 Estimation of Twist Loss in the Weft Yarn during Air-Jet Weft Insertion

Authors: Muhammad Umair, Yasir Nawab, Khubab Shaker, Muhammad Maqsood, Adeel Zulfiqar, Danish Mahmood Baitab

Abstract:

Fabric is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibers often referred to as thread or yarn. Today fabrics are produced by weaving, braiding, knitting, tufting and non-woven. Weaving is a method of fabric production in which warp and weft yarns are interlaced perpendicular to each other. There is infinite number of ways for the interlacing of warp and weft yarn. Each way produces a different fabric structure. The yarns parallel to the machine direction are called warp yarns and the yarns perpendicular to the machine direction are called weft or filling yarns. Air jet weaving is the modern method of weft insertion and considered as high speed loom. The twist loss in air jet during weft insertion affects the strength. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of twist change in weft yarn during air-jet weft insertion. A total number of 8 samples were produced using 1/1 plain and 3/1 twill weave design with two fabric widths having same loom settings. Two different types of yarns like cotton and PC blend were used. The effect of material type, weave design and fabric width on twist change of weft yarn was measured and discussed. Twist change in the different types of weft yarn and weave design was measured and compared the twist change in the weft yarn with the yarn before weft yarn insertion and twist loss is measured. Wider fabric leads to higher twist loss in the yarn.

Keywords: air jet loom, twist per inch, twist loss, weft yarn

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
3425 Digital Art Fabric Prints: Procedure, Process and Progress

Authors: Tripti Singh

Abstract:

Digital tools are merging boundaries of different mediums as endeavoured artists exploring new areas. Digital fabric printing has motivated artists to create prints by combining images acquired by photograph, scanned images, computer graphics and microscopic imaginary etc to name few, with traditional media such as hand drawing, weaving, hand printed patterns, printing making techniques and so on. It opened whole new world of possibilities for artists to search, research and combine old and contemporary mediums for their unique art prints. As artistic medium digital art fabrics have aesthetic values which have impact and influence on not only on a personality but also interiors of a living or work space. In this way it can be worn, as fashion statement and also an interior decoration. Digital art fabric prints gives opportunity to print almost everything on any fabric with long lasting prints quality. Single edition and limited editions are possible for maintaining scarcity and uniqueness of an art form. These fabric prints fulfill today’s need, as they are eco-friendly in nature and they produce less wastage compared to traditional fabric printing techniques. These prints can be used to make unique and customized curtains, quilts, clothes, bags, furniture, dolls, pillows, framed artwork, costumes, banners and much, much more. This paper will explore the procedure, process, and progress techniques of digital art fabric printing in depth with suitable pictorial examples.

Keywords: digital art, fabric prints, digital fabric prints, new media

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3424 Synthesis, Characterization and Coating of the Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Cotton Fabric by Mechanical Thermo-Fixation Techniques to Impart Antimicrobial Activity

Authors: Imana Shahrin Tania, Mohammad Ali

Abstract:

The present study reports the synthesis, characterization and application of nano-sized zinc-oxide (ZnO) particles on a cotton fabric surface. The aim of the investigations is to impart the antimicrobial activity on textile cloth. Nanoparticle is synthesized by wet chemical method from zinc sulphate and sodium hydroxide. SEM (scanning electron micrograph) images are taken to demonstrate the surface morphology of nanoparticles. XRD analysis is done to determine the crystal size of the nanoparticle. With the conformation of nanoformation, the cotton woven fabric is treated with ZnO nanoparticle by mechanical thermo-fixation (pad-dry-cure) technique. To increase the wash durability of nano treated fabric, an acrylic binder is used as a fixing agent. The treated fabric shows up to 90% bacterial reduction for S. aureus (Staphylococcus aureus) and 87% for E. coli (Escherichia coli) which is appreciable for bacteria protective clothing.

Keywords: nanoparticle, zinc oxide, cotton fabric, antibacterial activity, binder

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
3423 A Study on Low Stress Mechanical Properties of Denim Fabric for Hand Evaluation

Authors: S. P. Raut, S. K. Soni, A. W. Kolhatkar

Abstract:

Denim is widely used by every age of people all over the world. As the use of denim is increasing progressively, till now the handle properties of denim fabric not reported at significant level. In the present study, five commercial denim fabric samples were used. Denim samples, weighing from 8.5oz/sq yds to 14.5 oz/sq yds, were processed as per standard commercial procedure for denim finishing. These finished denim samples were tested on Kawabata Evaluation System(KES) for low stress mechanical properties. The results of KES values are used for calculation of Total Hand value(THV) using equation for summer suit. The obtained result for THV using equation for summer suit for denim samples is in the range from 1.62 to 3.30. These values of low stress mechanical properties values given by KES, can be used to engineer the denim fabric for bottom wear.

Keywords: denim, handle value, Kawabata evaluation system, objective evaluation

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3422 Substantiate the Effects of Reactive Dyes and Aloe Vera on the Ultra Violet Protective Properties on Cotton Woven and Knitted Fabrics

Authors: Neha Singh

Abstract:

The incidence of skin cancer has been rising worldwide due to excessive exposure to sun light. Climatic changes and depletion of ozone layer allow the easy entry of UV rays on earth, resulting skin damages such as sunburn, premature skin ageing, allergies and skin cancer. Researches have suggested many modes for protection of human skin against ultraviolet radiation; avoidance to outdoor activities, using textiles for covering the skin, sunscreen and sun glasses. However, this paper gives an insight about how textile material specially woven and knitted cotton can be efficiently utilized for protecting human skin from the harmful ultraviolet radiations by combining reactive dyes with Aloe Vera. Selection of the fabric was based on their utility and suitability as per the climate condition of the country for the upper and lower garment. A standard dyeing process was used, and Aloe Vera molecules were applied by in-micro encapsulation technique. After combining vat dyes with Aloe Vera excellent UPF (Ultra violet Protective Factor) was observed. There is a significant change in the UPF of vat dyed cotton fabric after treatment with Aloe Vera.

Keywords: UV protection, aloe vera, protective clothing, reactive dyes, cotton, woven and knits

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
3421 Seersucker Fabrics Development Using Single Warp Beam

Authors: Khubab Shaker, Yasir Nawab, Muhammad Usman Javed, Muhammad Umair, Muhammad Maqsood

Abstract:

Seersucker is a thin and puckered fabric commonly striped or chequered, used to make clothing for spring and woven in such a way that some threads bunch together, giving the fabric a wrinkled appearance in places. Due to use of two warp beams, such fabrics were not possible to weave on conventional weaving machines. Objective of this study was to weave a seersucker fabric on conventional looms using single warp beam. This objective was achieved using two types of yarns, forming stripes in weft: one being 100% cotton yarn and the other core spun elastane yarn with sheath of cotton (95.7% cotton and 4.3% elastane). Stress-strain behaviour of the produced fabric samples were tested and explained.

Keywords: seersucker fabrics, elastane yarns, single warp beam, weaving

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3420 Development and Characterisation of Nonwoven Fabrics for Apparel Applications

Authors: Muhammad Cheema, Tahir Shah, Subhash Anand

Abstract:

The cost of making apparel fabrics for garment manufacturing is very high because of their conventional manufacturing processes and new methods/processes are being constantly developed for making fabrics by unconventional methods. With the advancements in technology and the availability of the innovative fibres, durable nonwoven fabrics by using the hydroentanglement process that can compete with the woven fabrics in terms of their aesthetic and tensile properties are being developed. In the work reported here, the hydroentangled nonwoven fabrics were developed through a hybrid nonwoven manufacturing processes by using fibrillated Tencel® and bi-component (sheath/core) polyethylene/polyester (PE/PET) fibres, in which the initial nonwoven fabrics were prepared by the needle-punching method followed by hydroentanglement process carried out at optimal pressures of 50 to 250bars. The prepared fabrics were characterized according to the British Standards (BS 3356:1990, BS 9237:1995, BS 13934-1:1999) and the attained results were compared with those for a standard plain-weave cotton, polyester woven fabric and commercially available nonwoven fabric (Evolon®). The developed hydroentangled fabrics showed better drape properties owing to their flexural rigidity of 252 mg.cm in the machine direction, while the corresponding commercial hydroentangled fabric displayed a value of 1340 mg.cm in the machine direction. The tensile strength of the developed hydroentangled fabrics showed an approximately 200% increase than the commercial hydroentangled fabrics. Similarly, the developed hydroentangled fabrics showed higher properties in term of air permeability, such as the developed hydroentangled fabric exhibited 448 mm/sec and Evolon fabric exhibited 69 mm/sec at 100 Pa pressure. Thus for apparel fabrics, the work combining the existing methods of nonwoven production, provides additional benefits in terms of cost, time and also helps in reducing the carbon footprint for the apparel fabric manufacture.

Keywords: hydroentanglement, nonwoven apparel, durable nonwoven, wearable nonwoven

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
3419 Modeling of Void Formation in 3D Woven Fabric During Resin Transfer Moulding

Authors: Debabrata Adhikari, Mikhail Matveev, Louise Brown, Jan Kočí, Andy Long

Abstract:

Resin transfer molding (RTM) is increasingly used for manufacturing high-quality composite structures due to its additional advantages over prepregs of low-cost out-of-autoclave processing. However, to retain the advantages, it is critical to reduce the void content during the injection. Reinforcements commonly used in RTM, such as woven fabrics, have dual-scale porosity with mesoscale pores between the yarns and the micro-scale pores within the yarns. Due to the fabric geometry and the nature of the dual-scale flow, the flow front during injection creates a complicated fingering formation which leads to void formation. Analytical modeling of void formation for woven fabrics has been widely studied elsewhere. However, there is scope for improvement to the reduction in void formation in 3D fabrics wherein the in-plane yarn layers are confined by additional through-thickness binder yarns. In the present study, the structural morphology of the tortuous pore spaces in the 3D fabric has been studied and implemented using open-source software TexGen. An analytical model for the void and the fingering formation has been implemented based on an idealized unit cell model of the 3D fabric. Since the pore spaces between the yarns are free domains, the region is treated as flow-through connected channels, whereas intra-yarn flow has been modeled using Darcy’s law with an additional term to account for capillary pressure. Later the void fraction has been characterised using the criterion of void formation by comparing the fill time for inter and intra yarn flow. Moreover, the dual-scale two-phase flow of resin with air has been simulated in the commercial CFD solver OpenFOAM/ANSYS to predict the probable location of voids and validate the analytical model. The use of an idealised unit cell model will give the insight to optimise the mesoscale geometry of the reinforcement and injection parameters to minimise the void content during the LCM process.

Keywords: 3D fiber, void formation, RTM, process modelling

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3418 Concept of Using an Indicator to Describe the Quality of Fit of Clothing to the Body Using a 3D Scanner and CAD System

Authors: Monika Balach, Iwona Frydrych, Agnieszka Cichocka

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to develop an algorithm, taking into account material type and body type that will describe the fabric properties and quality of fit of a garment to the body. One of the objectives of this research is to develop a new algorithm to simulate cloth draping within CAD/CAM software. Existing virtual fitting does not accurately simulate fabric draping behaviour. Part of the research into virtual fitting will focus on the mechanical properties of fabrics. Material behaviour depends on many factors including fibre, yarn, manufacturing process, fabric weight, textile finish, etc. For this study, several different fabric types with very different mechanical properties will be selected and evaluated for all of the above fabric characteristics. These fabrics include woven thick cotton fabric which is stiff and non-bending, woven with elastic content, which is elastic and bends on the body. Within the virtual simulation, the following mechanical properties can be specified: shear, bending, weight, thickness, and friction. To help calculate these properties, the KES system (Kawabata) can be used. This system was originally developed to calculate the mechanical properties of fabric. In this research, the author will focus on three properties: bending, shear, and roughness. This study will consider current research using the KES system to understand and simulate fabric folding on the virtual body. Testing will help to determine which material properties have the largest impact on the fit of the garment. By developing an algorithm which factors in body type, material type, and clothing function, it will be possible to determine how a specific type of clothing made from a particular type of material will fit on a specific body shape and size. A fit indicator will display areas of stress on the garment such as shoulders, chest waist, hips. From this data, CAD/CAM software can be used to develop garments that fit with a very high degree of accuracy. This research, therefore, aims to provide an innovative solution for garment fitting which will aid in the manufacture of clothing. This research will help the clothing industry by cutting the cost of the clothing manufacturing process and also reduce the cost spent on fitting. The manufacturing process can be made more efficient by virtual fitting of the garment before the real clothing sample is made. Fitting software could be integrated into clothing retailer websites allowing customers to enter their biometric data and determine how the particular garment and material type would fit their body.

Keywords: 3D scanning, fabric mechanical properties, quality of fit, virtual fitting

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3417 Preparation Non-Woven Nanofiber Structures for Uniform and Rapid Drug Releasing Applications Using an Electrospinning Process

Authors: Cho-Liang Chung

Abstract:

Uniform and rapid drug release are important for trauma dressing application. Low glass transition polymer system and non-woven nanofiber structures as the designs conduct rapid-release characteristics. In this study, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polysulfone, and polystyrene were dissolved in dimethylformamide to form precursor solution. These solutions were blended with vitamin C to form the electrospinning solutions. The non-woven nanofibers structures were successfully prepared using an electrospinning process. The following instruments were used to analyze the characteristics of non-woven nanofibers structures: Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The AFM was used to scan the nanofibers. 3D Graphics were applied to explore the surface morphology of nanofibers. FE-SEM was used to explore the morphology of non-woven structures. XRD was used to identify crystal structures in the non-woven structures. The evolution of morphology of non-woven structures was changed dramatically in different durations, because of the moisture absorption and decreasing glass transition temperature; the non-woven nanofiber structures can be applied to uniform and rapid drug release for trauma dressing application.

Keywords: nanofibers, non-woven, electrospinning process, rapid drug releasing

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3416 Fabrication of Textile-Based Radio Frequency Metasurfaces

Authors: Adria Kajenski, Guinevere Strack, Edward Kingsley, Shahriar Khushrushahi, Alkim Akyurtlu

Abstract:

Radio Frequency (RF) metasurfaces are arrangements of subwavelength elements interacting with electromagnetic radiation. These arrangements affect polarization state, amplitude, and phase of impinged radio waves; for example, metasurface designs are used to produce functional passband and stopband filters. Recent advances in additive manufacturing techniques have enabled the low-cost, rapid fabrication of ultra-thin metasurface elements on flexible substrates such as plastic films, paper, and textiles. Furthermore, scalable manufacturing processes promote the integration of fabric-based RF metasurfaces into the market of sensors and devices within the Internet of Things (IoT). The design and fabrication of metasurfaces on textiles require a multidisciplinary team with expertise in i) textile and materials science, ii) metasurface design and simulation, and iii) metasurface fabrication and testing. In this presentation, we will discuss RF metasurfaces on fabric with an emphasis on how the materials, including fabric and inks, along with fabrication techniques, affect the RF performance. We printed metasurfaces using a direct-write approach onto various woven and non-woven fabrics, as well as on fabrics coated with either thermoplastic or thermoset coatings. Our team also performed a range of tests on the printed structures, including different inks and their curing parameters, wash durability, abrasion resistance, and RF performance over time.

Keywords: electronic textiles, metasurface, printed electronics, flexible

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
3415 Seam Slippage of Light Woven Fabrics with Regards to Sewing Parameters

Authors: Mona Shawky, Khaled M. Elsheikh, Heba M. Darwish, Eman Abd El Elsamea

Abstract:

Seams are the basic component in the structure of any apparel. The seam quality of the garment is a term that indicates both the aesthetic and functional performance of the garment. Seam slippage is one of the important properties that determine garment performance. Lightweight fabrics are preferred for their aesthetic properties. Since seam slippage is one of the most occurable faults for woven garments, in this study, a design of experiment of the following sewing parameters (three levels of needle size, three levels of stitch density, three levels of the seam allowance, two levels of sewing thread count, and two fabric types) was used to obtain the effect of the interaction between different sewing parameters on-seam slippage force. Two lightweight polyester woven fabrics with different constructions were used with lock stitch 301 to perform this study. Regression equations which can predict seam slippage force in both warp and weft directions were concluded. It was found that fabric type has a significant positive effect on seam slippage force in the warp direction, while it has a significant negative effect on seam slippage force on weft direction. Also, the interaction between needle size and stitch density has a significant positive effect on seam slippage force on warp direction, while the interaction between stitch density and seam allowance has a negative effect on seam slippage force in the weft direction.

Keywords: needle size, regression equation, seam allowance, seam slippage, stitch density

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3414 A Method for Measurement and Evaluation of Drape of Textiles

Authors: L. Fridrichova, R. Knížek, V. Bajzík

Abstract:

Drape is one of the important visual characteristics of the fabric. This paper is introducing an innovative method of measurement and evaluation of the drape shape of the fabric. The measuring principle is based on the possibility of multiple vertical strain of the fabric. This method more accurately simulates the real behavior of the fabric in the process of draping. The method is fully automated, so the sample can be measured by using any number of cycles in any time horizon. Using the present method of measurement, we are able to describe the viscoelastic behavior of the fabric.

Keywords: drape, drape shape, automated drapemeter, fabric

Procedia PDF Downloads 550