Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1725

Search results for: green campus

1725 Overcoming the Obstacles to Green Campus Implementation in Indonesia

Authors: Mia Wimala, Emma Akmalah, Ira Irawati, M. Rangga Sururi


One way that has been aggressively implemented in creating a sustainable environment nowadays is through the implementation of green building concept. In order to ensure the success of its implementation, the support and initiation from educational institutions, especially higher education institutions are indispensable. This research was conducted to figure out the obstacles restraining the success of green campus implementation in Indonesia, as well as to propose strategies to overcome those obstacles. The data presented in this paper are mainly derived from interview and questionnaire distributed randomly to the staffs and students in 10 (ten) major institutions around Jakarta and West Java area. The data were further analyzed using ANOVA and SWOT analysis. According to 182 respondents, it is found that resistance to change, inadequate knowledge, information and understanding, no penalty for any environmental violation, lack of reward for green campus practices, lack of stringent regulations/laws, lack of management commitment, insufficient funds are the obstacles to the green campus movement in Indonesia. In addition, out of 6 criteria considered in UI GreenMetric World Ranking, education was the only criteria that had no significant difference between public and private universities in generating the green campus performance. The work concludes with recommendation of strategies to improve the implementation of green campus in the future.

Keywords: green campus, obstacles, sustainable, higher education institutions

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1724 Research on University Campus Green Renovation Design Method

Authors: Abduxukur Zayit, Guo Rui Chen


Universities play important role for develop and distribute sustainable development ideas. This research based on the current situation of large and widely distributed university campuses in China. In view of the deterioration of campus performance, the aging of function and facilities, the large consumption of energy and resources, a logic of "problem-oriented-goal-oriented- At the level, taking the problem orientation as the focus,this paper analyzes the main influencing factors of the existing characteristics of the university campuses, establishes the digital assessment methods and clarifies the key points of the rennovation. Based on the goal orientation, this paper puts forward the existing university campus design principles, builds the green transformation-carding model and sets up the post-use evaluation model. In the end, with dual guidance as the constraint, we will formulate green design standards for campus greening, construct a greening enhancement measure for campus environment, and develop and promote a green campus after-use assessment platform. It provides useful research methods and research ideas for the reconstruction of the existing campus in China, especially the urban universities.

Keywords: design method, existing university campus, green renovation, sustainable development

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1723 Research on the Strategy of Whole-Life-Cycle Campus Design from the Perspective of Sustainable Concept: A Case Study on Hangzhou Senior High School in Zhejiang

Authors: Fan Yang


With the development of social economy and the popularization of quality education, the Chinese government invests more and more funding in education. Campus constructions are experiencing a great development phase. Under the trend of sustainable development, modern green campus design needs to meet new requirements of contemporary, informational and diversified education means and adapt to future education development. Educators, designers and other participants of campus design are facing new challenges. By studying and analyzing the universal unsatisfied current situations and sustainable development requirements of Chinese campuses, this paper summarizes the strategies and intentions of the whole-life-cycle campus design. In addition, a Chinese high school in Zhejiang province is added to illustrate the design cycle in an actual case. It is aimed to make all participants of campus design, especially the designers, to realize the importance of whole-life-cycle campus design and cooperate better. Sustainable campus design is expected to come true in deed instead of becoming a slogan in this way.

Keywords: campus design, green school, sustainable development, whole-life-cycle design

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1722 Sustainable Campus Assessment Tool: Case Study of Engineering Faculty, Alexandria University

Authors: Faten Fares


Undoubtedly, the world today faces difficult environmental, financial, and social challenges. In order to change people’s lifestyle to be more sustainable, one must change people’s culture then spaces by focusing on education. Further, the higher education has a key role to play in the move toward a more sustainable world. In the overall analysis, the true sustainable university will make a significant effect. Since the sustainable campus is not only a green built environment, which aims at energy efficiency, water efficiency, waste management, and conserving resources but also it is how to implement green built environment. This implementation takes place while engaging the campus stakeholders (students, academic staff, assistants, workers, and administrators) through educating for sustainability. The main purpose of the research is to develop a tool to assess the sustainable campus and to be a framework for achieving more sustainable campuses. In the case study, the data were analyzed to know existing efforts and capabilities then measure the sustainability performance using the proposal framework at Alexandria University Engineering Campus. Finally, the findings of the research explain that campus is partially adherence with the proposal tool and need to be more sustainable in a formally implemented.

Keywords: sustainability, higher education, sustainable campus, sustainability teaching and research, campus participation culture, environmental improvement

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1721 Enhancing Sustainability Awareness through Social Learning Experiences on Campuses

Authors: Rashika Sharma


The campuses at tertiary institutes can act as a social environment for peer to peer connections. However, socialization is not the only aspect that campuses provide. The campus can act as a learning environment that has often been termed as the campus curriculum. Many tertiary institutes have taken steps to make their campus a ‘green campus’ whereby initiatives have been taken to reduce their impact on the environment. However, as visible as these initiatives are, it is debatable whether these have any effect on students’ and their understanding of sustainable campus operations. Therefore, research was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of sustainable campus operations in raising students’ awareness of sustainability. Students at two vocational institutes participated in this interpretive research with data collected through surveys and focus groups. The findings indicated that majority of vocational education students remained oblivious of sustainability initiatives on campuses.

Keywords: campus learning, education for sustainability, social learning, vocational education

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1720 Low Impact Development Strategies Applied in the Water System Planning in the Coastal Eco-Green Campus

Authors: Ying Li, Zaisheng Hong, Weihong Wang


With the rapid enlargement of the size of Chinese universities, newly built campuses are springing up everywhere in recent years. It is urged to build eco-green campus because the role of higher education institutions in the transition to a more sustainable society has been highlighted for almost three decades. On condition that a new campus is usually built on an undeveloped site, where the basic infrastructure is not completed, finding proper strategies in planning and design of the campus becomes a primary concern. Low Impact Development (LID) options have been proposed as an alternative approach to make better use of rainwater in planning and design of an undeveloped site. On the basis of analyzing the natural circumstance, geographic condition, and other relative information, four main LID approaches are coordinated in this study of Hebei Union University, which are ‘Storage’, ‘Retaining’, ‘Infiltration’ and ‘Purification’. ‘Storage’ refers to a big central lake in the campus for rainwater harvesting. ‘Retaining’ means rainwater gardens scattered in the campus, also being known as bioretention areas which mimic the naturally created pools of water, to decrease surface flow runoff. ‘Infiltration’ is designed of grassed swales, which also play a part of floodway channel. ‘Purification’ is known as either natural or artificial wetland to reduce pollutants such as nitrogen and phosphorous in the waterbody. With above mentioned measures dealing with the synthetic use of rainwater in the acid & alkali area in the coastal district, an eco-green campus construction and an ecological sustainability will be realized, which will give us more enlightenment and reference.

Keywords: newly built campus, low impact development, planning design, rainwater reuse

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1719 Comparison the Energy Consumption with Sustainability in Campus: Case Study of Four American Universities

Authors: Bifeng Zhu, Zhekai Wang, Chaoyang Sun, Bart Dewancker


Under the tide of promoting sustainable development in the world, American universities that have been committed to sustainable practice and innovation, not only have its sustainable campus construction been in the forefront of the world, but also have developed STARS (The Sustainability Tracking, Assessment & Rating System), which is widely used in the world and highly recognized. At the same time, in the process of global sustainable campus construction, energy problem is often regarded as one of the most important sustainable aspects, even equivalent to the sustainability of campus. Therefore, the relationship between campus energy and sustainability is worth discussing. In this study, four American universities with the highest level evaluated by STARS are selected as examples to compare and analyze the campus energy consumption and the use of new energy, GHG emissions and the overall sustainability of the campus, in order to explore the relationship between campus energy and sustainable construction. It is found that the advantages of sustainable campus construction in the United States are mainly focused on the "software" of management, education, activities, etc. Although different energy-saving measures have been taken in campus energy, the construction results are quite different. Moreover, as an important aspect of sustainable campus, energy can not fully represent the sustainability of campus, but because of the various measures it takes, it can greatly promote the sustainable construction of the whole campus. These measures and construction experiences are worthy of summary and promotion, and have positive reference significance for other universities even communities around the world.

Keywords: sustainable campus, energy consumption, STARS assessment, GHG emissions

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1718 Framing a Turkish Campus Sustainability Indicator Set

Authors: Cansu Tari, Ute Poerschke


Sustainable campus design and planning in Higher Education requires an entire action plan and coordination of physical, educational, and social systems. Many institutions in the world are defining their sustainable development path and some are following existing green building and sustainable campus rating/ranking systems, guidelines. In the context of higher education, Turkish universities have limited academic, social and financial support related to sustainable living, building, and campus studies. While some research has been conducted in the last 60 years by farsighted academics, most of these works are based on individuals’ or small organizations’ own interests and efforts, and they are not known enough by the population of universities and possible prospective investors. Regarding the recent fast and uncontrolled growth in the Turkish Higher Education environment, setting a campus sustainability indicator set is a necessity for sustainable development of universities. The main objective of this paper is to specify the applicable sustainability indicators in the national context of Turkey, and propose a model guideline for sustainable Turkish university campuses. The analysis of Turkish legislation on environmental issues, special conditions of Turkish Higher Education system, and Turkey’s environmental risks and challenges set the backbone of the study and distinguish the set of indicators from generalized guidelines. Finally, the paper outlines some concrete suggestions for Turkish Universities to integrate sustainability efforts in their regional context. It will be useful for campus sustainability managers and planners, interested in developing action plans in their national and regional scope.

Keywords: campus sustainability, sustainability indicators, Turkish universities, national campus sustainability action plan

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1717 Smart Sustainable University Campus: Aspects on Efficient Space Utilization at National Taiwan University of Science and Technology

Authors: Wei-Hwa Chiang, Yu-Ching Cheng, Pei-Hsien Kao, Yu-Chi Lai


A smart sustainable university campus is multi-dimensional. The success requires intensive inter-disciplinary coordination among all users and the expert group and long-term optimization. This paper reported the design and realization process of the dense and campus NTUST campus where space sharing is essential. Two-phase web-based interviews with students were conducted regarding where they study between classes as well as how they move within the campus. Efficient and active utilization of public and semi-public spaces, in particular, the ones near the ground, were progressively designed and realized where lobbies, corridors, reading rooms, and classrooms not in use were considered. Most of the spaces were equipped with smart monitoring and controls in terms of access, lighting, ceiling fans, air condition, and energy use. Mobile device apps were developed regarding the management of the spaces while information about energy use, environmental quality, and the smart sustainable campus project itself were provided to stimulate the awareness of sustainability and active participation in optimizing the campus.

Keywords: smart, sustainability, campus, space utilization

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1716 Design and Implementation of Campus Wireless Networking for Sharing Resources in Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria

Authors: Hassan Abubakar


This paper will serve as a guide to good design and implementation of wireless networking for campus institutions in Nigeria. It can be implemented throughout the primary, secondary and tertiary institutions. This paper describe the some technical functions, standard configurations and layouts of the 802.11 wireless LAN(Local Area Network) that can be implemented across the campus network. The paper also touches upon the wireless infrastructure standards involved with enhanced services, such as voice over wireless and wireless guest hotspot. The paper also touch the benefits derived from implementing campus wireless network and share some lights on how to arrive at the success in increasing the performance of wireless and using the campus wireless to share resources like software applications, printer and documents.

Keywords: networking, standards, wireless local area network (WLAN), radio frequency (RF), campus

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1715 Identification and Evaluation of Landscape Mosaics of Kutlubeyyazıcılar Campus, Bartın University, Turkey

Authors: Y. Sarı Nayim, B. N. Nayim


This research proposal includes the defining and evaluation of the semi-natural and cultural ecosystems at Bartın University main campus in Turkey in terms of landscape mosaics. The ecosystem mosaic of the main campus was divided into zones based on ecological classification technique. Based on the results from the study, it was found that 6 different ecosystem mosaics should be used as a base in the planning and design of the existing and future landscape planning of Kutlubeyyazıcılar campus. The first landscape zone involves the 'social areas'. These areas include yards, dining areas, recreational areas and lawn areas. The second landscape zone is 'main vehicle and pedestrian areas'. These areas include vehicle access to the campus landscape, moving in the campus with vehicles, parking and pedestrian walk ways. The third zone is 'landscape areas with high visual landscape quality'. These areas will be the places where attractive structural and plant landscape elements will be used. Fourth zone will be 'landscapes of building borders and their surroundings.' The fifth and important zone that should be survived in the future is 'Actual semi-natural forest and bush areas'. And the last zone is 'water landscape' which brings ecological value to landscape areas. While determining the most convenient areas in the planning and design of the campus, these landscape mosaics should be taken into consideration. This zoning will ensure that the campus landscape is protected and living spaces in the campus apart from the areas where human activities are carried out will be used properly.

Keywords: campus landscape planning and design, landscape ecology, landscape mosaics, Bartın

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1714 Traffic Study and Proposal for a Bike Lane for the University of the Basque Country

Authors: Elisabete Alberdi, Irantzu Álvarez, Laura Girón


The objective of this work is to propose a cycle path or network of paths to the UPV/EHU Campus in Leioa. The proposal will be presented from the point of view of sustainability. In order to achieve this, the roads that are already built will be used, and the road or network will be proposed to be built with the least amount of money possible. To select the most suitable route for the bike lane, various sources of information have been used. Through this data, we analyse the transport infrastructure and the mobility around the UPV/EHU Campus in Leioa. This work aims to satisfy the mobility needs of users on the University Campus to contribute to the sustainability of the campus.

Keywords: cycle lane, sustainability, accessibility, transport, agenda 2030

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1713 Assessing the Walkability and Urban Design Qualities of Campus Streets

Authors: Zhehao Zhang


Walking has become an indispensable and sustainable way of travel for college students in their daily lives; campus street is an important carrier for students to walk and take part in a variety of activities, improving the walkability of campus streets plays an important role in optimizing the quality of campus space environment, promoting the campus walking system and inducing multiple walking behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect of campus layout, facility distribution, and location site selection on the walkability of campus streets, and assess the street design qualities from the elements of imageability, enclosure, complexity, transparency, and human scale, and further examines the relationship between street-level urban design perceptual qualities and walkability and its effect on walking behavior in the campus. Taking Tianjin University as the research object, this paper uses the optimized walk score method based on walking frequency, variety, and distance to evaluate the walkability of streets from a macro perspective and measures the urban design qualities in terms of the calculation of street physical environment characteristics, as well as uses behavior annotation and street image data to establish temporal and spatial behavior database to analyze walking activity from the microscopic view. In addition, based on the conclusions, the improvement and design strategy will be presented from the aspects of the built walking environment, street vitality, and walking behavior.

Keywords: walkability, streetscapes, pedestrian activity, walk score

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1712 A Reading Attempt of the Urban Memory of Jordan University of Science and Technology Campus by Cognitive Mapping

Authors: Bsma Adel Bany Mohammad


The University campuses are a small city containing basic city functions such as educational spaces, accommodations, services and transportation. They are spaces of functional and social life with different activities, different occupants. The campus designed and transformed like cities so both experienced and memorized in same way. Campus memory is the ability of individuals to maintain and reveal the spatial components of designed physical spaces, which form the understandings, experiences, sensations of the environment in all. ‘Cognitive mapping’ is used to decode the physical interaction and emotional relationship between individuals and the city; Cognitive maps are created graphically using geometric and verbal elements on paper by remembering the images of the Urban Environment. In this study, to determine the emotional urban identity belonging to Jordan University of science and technology Campus, architecture students Asked to identify the areas they interact with in the campus by drawing a cognitive map. ‘Campus memory items’ are identified by analyzing the cognitive maps of the campus, then the spatial identity result of such data. The analysis based on the five basic elements of Lynch: paths, districts, edges, nodes, and landmarks. As a result of this analysis, it found that Spatial Identity constructed by the shared elements of the maps. The memory of most students listed the gates structure- which is a large desirable structure, located at the main entrances within the campus defined as major landmarks, then the square spaces defined as nodes, in addition to both stairs and corridors defined as paths. Finally, the districts, edges of educational buildings and service spaces are listed correspondingly in cognitive maps. Findings suggest that the spatial identity of the campus design is related mainly to the gates structures, squares and stairs.

Keywords: cognitive maps, university campus, urban memory, identity

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1711 Green Construction in EGYPT

Authors: Hanan A. Anwar


This paper introduces green building construction in Egypt with different concepts and practices. The following study includes green building applied definition, guidelines, regulations and Standards. Evaluation of cost/benefit of green construction methods and green construction rating systems are presented. Relevant case studies will be reviewed. Four sites will be included.

Keywords: green construction, ecofreindly, self-sufficient town, carbon neutral atmosphere

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1710 Biogas Production from University Canteen Waste: Effect of Organic Loading Rate and Retention Time

Authors: Khamdan Cahyari, Gumbolo Hadi Susanto, Pratikno Hidayat, Sukirman


University canteen waste was used as raw material to produce biogas in Faculty of Industrial Technology, Islamic University of Indonesia. This faculty was home to more than 3000 students and lecturers who work and study for 5 days/week (8 hours/day). It produced approximately 85 ton/year organic fraction of canteen waste. Yet, this waste had been dumped for years in landfill area which cause severe environmental problems. It was proposed to utilize the waste as raw material for producing renewable energy source of biogas. This research activities was meant to investigate the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) and retention time (RT) of continuous anaerobic digestion process for 200 days. Organic loading rate was set at value 2, 3, 4 and 5 g VS/l/d whereas the retention time was adjusted at 30, 24, 18 and 14.4 days. Optimum condition was achieved at OLR 4 g VS/l/d and RT 24 days with biogas production rate between 0.75 to 1.25 liter/day (40-60% CH4). This indicated that the utilization of canteen waste to produce biogas was promising method to mitigate environmental problem of university canteen waste. Furthermore, biogas could be used as alternative energy source to supply energy demand at the university. This implementation is simultaneous solution for both waste and energy problems to achieve green campus.

Keywords: canteen waste, biogas, anaerobic digestion, university, green campus

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1709 The Application of Green Technology to Residential Architecture in Hangzhou

Authors: Huiru Chen, Xuran Zhang


At present, the residential architecture in China are still causing high energy consumption and high pollution during their whole life cycle, which can be backward compared with the developed countries. The aim of this paper is to discuss the application of green technology to residential architecture in Hangzhou. This article will start with the development of green buildings, then analyzes the use status of green technology in Hangzhou from several specific measures. Analysis of the typical existing green residential buildings in Hangzhou is an attempt to form a preliminary Hangzhou’s green technology application strategy system. Through research, it has been found that the application of green technology in Hangzhou has changed from putting green to the facade, to the combination of the preservation of the traditional green concept and the modern green technology.

Keywords: application, green technology, Hangzhou, residential architecture

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1708 Energy Consumption, Emission Absorption and Carbon Emission Reduction on Semarang State University Campus

Authors: Dewi Liesnoor Setyowati, Puji Hardati, Tri Marhaeni Puji Astuti, Muhammad Amin


Universitas Negeri Semarang (UNNES) is a university with a vision of conservation. The impact of the UNNES conservation is the existence of a positive response from the community for the effort of greening the campus and the planting of conservation value in the academic community. But in reality,  energy consumption in UNNES campus tends to increase. The objectives of the study were to analyze the energy consumption in the campus area, to analyze the absorption of emissions by trees and the awareness of UNNES citizens in reducing emissions. Research focuses on energy consumption, carbon emissions, and awareness of citizens in reducing emissions. Research subjects in this study are UNNES citizens (lecturers, students and employees). The research area covers 6 faculties and one administrative center building. Data collection is done by observation, interview and documentation. The research used a quantitative descriptive method to analyze the data. The number of trees in UNNES is 10,264. Total emission on campus UNNES is 7.862.281.56 kg/year, the tree absorption is 6,289,250.38 kg/year. In UNNES campus area there are still 1,575,031.18 kg/year of emissions, not yet absorbed by trees. There are only two areas of the faculty whose trees are capable of absorbing emissions. The awareness of UNNES citizens in reducing energy consumption is seen in change the habit of: using energy-saving equipment (65%); reduce energy consumption per unit (68%); do energy literacy for UNNES citizens (74%). UNNES leaders always provide motivation to the citizens of UNNES, to reduce and change patterns of energy consumption.

Keywords: energy consumption, carbon emission absorption, emission reduction, energy literation

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1707 Coordinated Community Response to Intimate Partner Violence on College Campuses

Authors: Robert D. Hanser, Gina M. Hanser


This paper provides an overview of Coordinated Community Response Teams (CCRT) to Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). The CCRT, as a partnership and collaborative effort between multiple agencies is highlighted. This paper is a legal analysis that showcases new legislation and legal requirements in the United States for investigating, processing, and reporting to acts of victimization have transformed the role of the university’s CCRT on campus, making its mission all the more important, both internal and external to the campus. As a specific example, discussion of the CCRT in Northeast Louisiana at the University of Louisiana at Monroe is provided as an example of involvement in this initiative, where federal grant funding has allowed a micro version of the region’s CCRT to be implemented on that campus. Simultaneously, university personnel also work with external agencies throughout the community in intimate partner violence response. Amidst this, the result is a genuine partnership between practitioners and researchers who work together to provide public awareness, prevention, first-responder, and intervention services in a comprehensive manner throughout Northeast Louisiana.

Keywords: interperaonal violence, sexual assault, dating violence, campus violence

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1706 Sustainability from Ecocity to Ecocampus: An Exploratory Study on Spanish Universities' Water Management

Authors: Leyla A. Sandoval Hamón, Fernando Casani


Sustainability has been integrated into the cities’ agenda due to the impact that they generate. The dimensions of greater proliferation of sustainability, which are taken as a reference, are economic, social and environmental. Thus, the decisions of management of the sustainable cities search a balance between these dimensions in order to provide environment-friendly alternatives. In this context, urban models (where water consumption, energy consumption, waste production, among others) that have emerged in harmony with the environment, are known as Ecocity. A similar model, but on a smaller scale, is ‘Ecocampus’ that is developed in universities (considered ‘small cities’ due to its complex structure). So, sustainable practices are being implemented in the management of university campus activities, following different relevant lines of work. The universities have a strategic role in society, and their activities can strengthen policies, strategies, and measures of sustainability, both internal and external to the organization. Because of their mission in knowledge creation and transfer, these institutions can promote and disseminate more advanced activities in sustainability. This model replica also implies challenges in the sustainable management of water, energy, waste, transportation, among others, inside the campus. The challenge that this paper focuses on is the water management, taking into account that the universities consume big amounts of this resource. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the sustainability experience, with emphasis on water management, of two different campuses belonging to two different Spanish universities - one urban campus in a historic city and the other a suburban campus in the outskirts of a large city. Both universities are in the top hundred of international rankings of sustainable universities. The methodology adopts a qualitative method based on the technique of in-depth interviews and focus-group discussions with administrative and academic staff of the ‘Ecocampus’ offices, the organizational units for sustainability management, from the two Spanish universities. The hypotheses indicate that sustainable policies in terms of water management are best in campuses without big green spaces and where the buildings are built or rebuilt with modern style. The sustainability efforts of the university are independent of the kind of (urban – suburban) campus but an important aspect to improve is the degree of awareness of the university community about water scarcity. In general, the paper suggests that higher institutions adapt their sustainability policies depending on the location and features of the campus and their engagement with the water conservation. Many Spanish universities have proposed policies, good practices, and measures of sustainability. In fact, some offices or centers of Ecocampus have been founded. The originality of this study is to learn from the different experiences of sustainability policies of universities.

Keywords: ecocampus, ecocity, sustainability, water management

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1705 An Empirical Analysis on the Evolution Characteristics and Textual Content of Campus Football Policy in China

Authors: Shangjun Zou, Zhiyuan Wang, Songhui You


Introduction In recent years, the Chinese government has issued several policies to promote the institutional reform and innovation of the development of campus football, but many problems have been exposed in the process of policy implementation. Therefore, this paper attempts to conduct an empirical analysis of the campus football policy texts to reveal the dynamic development of the microsystem in the process of policy evolution. Methods The selected policy contents are coded by constructing a two-dimensional analysis framework of campus football policy tool-policy objective. Specifically, the X dimension consists of three oriented policy tools: environment, supply and demand, while the Y dimension is divided into six aspects of policy objectives, including institution, competition, player teaching, coach training, resource guarantee and popularization. And the distribution differences of textual analysis units on X and Y dimensions are tested by using SPSS22.0 so as to evaluate the characteristics and development trend of campus football policy on respective subjects. Results 1) In the policy evolution process of campus football stepping into the 2.0 Era, there were no significant differences in the frequency distribution of policy tools(p=0.582) and policy objectives(p=0.603). The collaborative governance of multiple participants has become the primary trend, and the guiding role of Chinese Football Association has gradually become prominent. 2) There were significant differences in the distribution of policy tools before the evolution at a 95% confidence level(p=0.041). With environmental tools always maintaining the dominant position, the overall synergy of policy tools increased slightly. 3) There were significant differences in the distribution of policy objectives after the evolution at a 90% confidence level(p=0.069). The competition system of policy objective has not received enough attention while the construction of institution and resource guarantee system has been strengthened. Conclusion The upgraded version of campus football should adhere to the education concept of health first, promote the coordinated development of youth cultural learning and football skills, and strive to achieve more solid popularization, more scientific institution, more comprehensive resource guarantee and adequate integration. At the same time, it is necessary to strengthen the collaborative allocation of policy tools and reasonable planning of policy objectives so as to promote the high quality and sustainable development of campus football in the New Era. Endnote The policy texts selected in this paper are “Implementation Opinions on Accelerating the Development of Youth Campus Football” and “Action Plans for the Construction of Eight Systems of National Youth Campus Football”, which were promulgated on August 13, 2015 and September 25, 2020 respectively.

Keywords: campus football, content analysis, evolution characteristics, policy objective, policy tool

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1704 Multi Campus Universities: Exploring Structures and Administrative Relationships:; A Comparative Study of Eight Universities in UK and Five in Pakistan

Authors: Laila Akbarali


In the small scale study, an attempt is made to explore the structure and administrative relationships adopted by Multi Campus Universities [MCU] in UK and Pakistan and how these universities deal with some selected issues with respect to student related functions. For this study, literature on multi-site, divisionalized and other complex organizations related to business and Industry was consulted and an attempt was made to empirically test the normative models in the literature with respect to centralized , deconcentrated and decentralized structures. A questionnaire was used to gather data for this study. Purposive sampling was used. The findings of this study are somewhat different for UK and Pakistan. Contrary to a substantial body of organization theory, the results show that deconcentrated and decentralized universities in the UK are prone to delays in decision making and tend not to sensitive to local needs. In Pakistan on the other hand, deconcentrated and decentralized universities are more sensitive to local needs and there are less delays in decision making. The findings suggest that distance and reporting relationships could perhaps be responsible for the contradiction. The results also suggest that there is better coordination when the subsidiary campus sub-registrar reports to the registrar. The findings also highlight, that in both contexts, leadership at the campus level remains an issue. The results suggest that there may be factors other than structure that allow universities to keep their identity intact. The study highlights that MCU are inclined to use Information Technology and develop broad policies within which they allow their campuses to operate.

Keywords: administrative relationships, Multi-Campus, organization structure, registrar

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1703 Investigation on the Physical Conditions of Façade Systems of Campus Buildings by Infrared Thermography Tests

Authors: N. Türkmenoğlu Bayraktar, E. Kishalı


Campus buildings are educational facilities where various amount of energy consumption for lighting, heating, cooling and ventilation occurs. Some of the new universities in Turkey, where this investigation takes place, still continue their educational activities in existing buildings primarily designed for different architectural programs and converted to campus buildings via changes of function, space organizations and structural interventions but most of the time without consideration of appropriate micro climatic conditions. Reducing energy consumption in these structures not only contributes to the national economy but also mitigates the negative effects on environment. Furthermore, optimum thermal comfort conditions should be provided during the refurbishment of existing campus structures and their building envelope. Considering this issue, the first step is to investigate the climatic performance of building elements regarding refurbishment process. In the context of the study Kocaeli University, Faculty of Design and Architecture building constructed in 1980s in Anıtpark campus located in the central part of Kocaeli, Turkey was investigated. Climatic factors influencing thermal conditions; the deteriorations on building envelope; temperature distribution; heat losses from façade elements observed by thermography were presented in order to improve strategies for retrofit process for the building envelope. Within the scope of the survey, refurbishment strategies towards providing optimum climatic comfort conditions, increasing energy efficiency of building envelope were proposed.

Keywords: building envelope, IRT, refurbishment, non-destructive test

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1702 Customer Service Marketing Mix: A Survey of Small Business around Campus, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Chonlada Choovanichchanon


This research paper was aimed to investigate a relationship between the customer service marketing mix and the level of customers’ satisfaction from purchasing goods and service from small business around campus, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand. Based on the survey of 200 customers who frequently purchased goods and service around campus, the level of satisfaction for each factor of marketing mix was reached. An accidental random sampling was applied by using questionnaire in collecting the data. The findings revealed that the means values can help to rank these variables from high to low mean as follows: 1) forms and system of service, 2) physical environment of service center, 3) service from staff and employee, 4) product quality and service, 5) market channel and distribution, 6) market price, and 7) market promotion and distribution.

Keywords: service marketing mix, satisfaction, small business, survey

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1701 Web-Based Paperless Campus: An Approach to Reduce the Cost and Complexity of Education Administration

Authors: Yekini N. Asafe, Haastrup A. Victor, Lawal N. Olawale, Okikiola F. Mercy


Recent increase in access to personal computer and networking systems have made it feasible to perform much of cumbersome and costly paper-based administration in all organization. Desktop computers, networking systems, high capacity storage devices and telecommunications system is currently allowing the transfer of various format of data to be processed, stored and dissemination for the purpose of decision making. Going paperless is more of benefits compare to full paper-based office. This paper proposed a model for design and implementation of e-administration system (paperless campus) for an institution of learning. If this model is design and implemented it will reduced cost and complexity of educational administration also eliminate menaces and environmental hazards attributed to paper-based administration within schools and colleges.

Keywords: e-administration, educational administration, paperless campus, paper-based administration

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1700 Agriroofs and Agriwalls: Applications of Food Production in Green Roofs and Green Walls

Authors: Eman M. Elmazek


Green roofs and walls are a rising technology in the global sustainable architectural industry. The idea takes great steps towards the future of sustainable design due to its many benefits. However, there are many barriers and constraints. Economical, structural, and knowledge barriers prevent the spread of the usage of green roofs and living walls. Understanding the benefits and expanding them will spread the idea. Benefits provided by these green spots interrupt and maintain the current urban cover. Food production is one of the benefits of green roofs. It can save money and energy spent in food transportation. The goal of this paper is to put a better understanding of implementing green systems. The paper aims to identify gains versus challenges facing the technology. It surveys with case studies buildings with green roofs and walls used for food production.

Keywords: green roof, green walls, urban farming, roof herb garden

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1699 Integrated Evaluation of Green Design and Green Manufacturing Processes Using a Mathematical Model

Authors: Yuan-Jye Tseng, Shin-Han Lin


In this research, a mathematical model for integrated evaluation of green design and green manufacturing processes is presented. To design a product, there can be alternative options to design the detailed components to fulfill the same product requirement. In the design alternative cases, the components of the product can be designed with different materials and detailed specifications. If several design alternative cases are proposed, the different materials and specifications can affect the manufacturing processes. In this paper, a new concept for integrating green design and green manufacturing processes is presented. A green design can be determined based the manufacturing processes of the designed product by evaluating the green criteria including energy usage and environmental impact, in addition to the traditional criteria of manufacturing cost. With this concept, a mathematical model is developed to find the green design and the associated green manufacturing processes. In the mathematical model, the cost items include material cost, manufacturing cost, and green related cost. The green related cost items include energy cost and environmental cost. The objective is to find the decisions of green design and green manufacturing processes to achieve the minimized total cost. In practical applications, the decision-making can be made to select a good green design case and its green manufacturing processes. In this presentation, an example product is illustrated. It shows that the model is practical and useful for integrated evaluation of green design and green manufacturing processes.

Keywords: supply chain management, green supply chain, green design, green manufacturing, mathematical model

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1698 Using a GIS-Based Method for Green Infrastructure Accessibility of Different Socio-Economic Groups in Auckland, New Zealand

Authors: Jing Ma, Xindong An


Green infrastructure, the most important aspect of improving the quality of life, has been a crucial element of the liveability measurement. With demanding of more liveable urban environment from increasing population in city area, access to green infrastructure in walking distance should be taken into consideration. This article exemplifies the study on accessibility measurement of green infrastructure in central Auckland (New Zealand), using network analysis tool on the basis of GIS, to verify the accessibility levels of green infrastructure. It analyses the overall situation of green infrastructure and draws some conclusions on the city’s different levels of accessibility according to the categories and facilities distribution, which provides valuable references and guidance for the future facility improvement in planning strategies.

Keywords: quality of life, green infrastructure, GIS, accessibility

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1697 A Framework for Green Use and Disposal of Information Communication Technology Devices

Authors: Frezer Alem Kebede


The notion of viewing ICT as merely support for the business process has shifted towards viewing ICT as a critical business enabler. As such, the need for ICT devices has increased, contributing to high electronic equipment acquisition and disposal. Hence, its use and disposal must be seen in light of environmental sustainability, i.e., in terms of green use and disposal. However, there are limited studies on green Use and Disposal framework to be used as guiding lens by organizations in developing countries. And this study endeavors to address that need taking one of the largest multinational ICT intensive company in the country. The design and development of this framework passed through several stages, initially factors affecting green use and disposal were identified after quantitative and qualitative data analysis then there were multiple brainstorming sessions for the design enhancement as participative modelling was employed. Given the difference in scope and magnitude of the challenges identified, the proposed framework approaches green use and disposal in four imperatives; strategically, tactically, operationally and through continuous improvement.

Keywords: energy efficiency, green disposal, green ICT, green use, green use and disposal framework, sustainability

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1696 Research on the Transformation of Bottom Space in the Teaching Area of Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University

Authors: Jia Xu


There is a lot of bottom space in the teaching area of Zijingang Campus of Zhejiang University, which benefits to the ventilation, heat dissipation, circulation, partition of quiet and noisy areas and diversification of spaces. Hangzhou is hot in summer but cold in winter, so teachers and students spend much less time in the bottom space of buildings in winter than in summer. Recently, depending on the teachers and students’ proposals, the school transformed the bottom space in the teaching area to provide space for relaxing, chatting and staying in winter. Surveying and analyzing the existing ways to transform, the paper researches deeply on the transformation projects of bottom space in the teaching buildings. It is believed that this paper can be a salutary lesson to make the bottom space in the teaching areas of universities richer and bring more diverse activities for teachers and students.

Keywords: bottom space, teaching area, transformation, Zijingang Campus of Zhejiang University

Procedia PDF Downloads 279