Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1777

Search results for: freshwater output

1777 An Experimental Investigation on Productivity and Performance of an Improved Design of Basin Type Solar Still

Authors: Mahmoud S. El-Sebaey, Asko Ellman, Ahmed Hegazy, Tarek Ghonim

Abstract:

Due to population growth, the need for drinkable healthy water is highly increased. Consequently, and since the conventional sources of water are limited, researchers devoted their efforts to oceans and seas for obtaining fresh drinkable water by thermal distillation. The current work is dedicated to the design and fabrication of modified solar still model, as well as conventional solar still for the sake of comparison. The modified still is single slope double basin solar still. The still consists of a lower basin with a dimension of 1000 mm x 1000 mm which contains the sea water, as well as the top basin that made with 4 mm acrylic, was temporarily kept on the supporting strips permanently fixed with the side walls. Equally ten spaced vertical glass strips of 50 mm height and 3 mm thickness were provided at the upper basin for the stagnancy of the water. Window glass of 3 mm was used as the transparent cover with 23° inclination at the top of the still. Furthermore, the performance evaluation and comparison of these two models in converting salty seawater into drinkable freshwater are introduced, analyzed and discussed. The experiments were performed during the period from June to July 2018 at seawater depths of 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm. Additionally, the solar still models were operated simultaneously in the same climatic conditions to analyze the influence of the modifications on the freshwater output. It can be concluded that the modified design of double basin single slope solar still shows the maximum freshwater output at all water depths tested. The results showed that the daily productivity for modified and conventional solar still was 2.9 and 1.8 dm³/m² day, indicating an increase of 60% in fresh water production.

Keywords: freshwater output, solar still, solar energy, thermal desalination

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1776 Solar Still Absorber Plate Modification and Exergy Analysis

Authors: Dudul Das, Pankaj Kalita, Sangeeta Borah

Abstract:

Freshwater availability in the world is as low as 1% of total water available and in many geographical locations dissolved fluoride and arsenic are serious problem. In India availability of freshwater will be stressed by 2025, so the availability saline water from sea is a hope for the people of Indian sub-continent, but saline water is not drinkable it need to be processed, which again require a huge amount of energy. So the most easy and handy option in such situation for all those problems is solar still, this investigation presents various scopes for improvement of its efficiency. Experiments showed that by increasing the absorber plate area through better design can increase the distillate output by two fold and by using jute wicks in the modified absorber plate increases the output up to three times that of conventional solar still available in the Department of Energy, Tezpur University. The experiment is carried out at constant water depth of 8.5 cm and glass cover inclination of 27o facing South. The exergy analysis carried out clearly resulted that with the use of jute wick and baffle plated basin the efficiency achieved more than the simple baffle plated basin. The Instantaneous exergy without jute wick ranges from 2.5% to 4.5% while using jute it ranges from 1.5% to 5.15%.

Keywords: fluoride, absorber plate, jute wick, instantaneous exergy

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
1775 An Investigation into the Potential of Industrial Low Grade Heat in Membrane Distillation for Freshwater Production

Authors: Yehia Manawi, Ahmad Kayvanifard

Abstract:

Membrane distillation is an emerging technology which has been used to produce freshwater and purify different types of aqueous mixtures. Qatar is an arid country where almost 100% of its freshwater demand is supplied through the energy-intensive thermal desalination process. The country’s need for water has reached an all-time high which stipulates finding an alternative way to augment freshwater without adding any drastic affect to the environment. The objective of this paper was to investigate the potential of using the industrial low grade waste heat to produce freshwater using membrane distillation. The main part of this work was conducting a heat audit on selected Qatari chemical industries to estimate the amounts of freshwater produced if such industrial waste heat were to be recovered. By the end of this work, the main objective was met and the heat audit conducted on the Qatari chemical industries enabled us to estimate both the amounts of waste heat which can be potentially recovered in addition to the amounts of freshwater which can be produced if such waste heat were to be recovered. By the end, the heat audit showed that around 605 Mega Watts of waste heat can be recovered from the studied Qatari chemical industries which resulted in a total daily production of 5078.7 cubic meter of freshwater. This water can be used in a wide variety of applications such as human consumption or industry. The amount of produced freshwater may look small when compared to that produced through thermal desalination plants; however, one must bear in mind that this water comes from waste and can be used to supply water for small cities or remote areas which are not connected to the water grid. The idea of producing freshwater from the two widely-available wastes (thermal rejected brine and waste heat) seems promising as less environmental and economic impacts will be associated with freshwater production which may in the near future augment the conventional way of producing freshwater currently being thermal desalination. This work has shown that low grade waste heat in the chemical industries in Qatar and perhaps the rest of the world can contribute to additional production of freshwater using membrane distillation without significantly adding to the environmental impact.

Keywords: membrane distillation, desalination, heat recovery, environment

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1774 Freshwater Lens Observation: Case Study of Laura Island, Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands

Authors: Kazuhisa Koda, Tsutomu Kobayashi, Rebecca Lorennji, Alington Robert, Halston DeBrum, Julious Lucky, Paul Paul

Abstract:

Atolls are low-lying small islands with highly permeable ground that does not allow rivers and lakes to develop. As the water resources on these atolls basically rely on precipitation, groundwater becomes a very important water resource during droughts. Freshwater lenses develop as groundwater on relatively large atoll islands and play a key role in the stable water supply. Atoll islands in the Pacific Ocean sometimes suffer from drought due to El Nino. The global warming effects are noticeable, particularly on atoll islands. The Republic of the Marshall Islands in Oceania is burdened with the problems common to atoll islands. About half of its population lives in the capital, Majuro, and securing water resources for these people is a crucial issue. There is a freshwater lens on the largest, Laura Island, which serves as a water source for the downtown area. A serious drought that occurred in 1998 resulted in excessive water intake from the freshwater lens on Laura Island causing up-coning. Up-coning mixes saltwater into groundwater pumped from water-intake wells. Because up-coning makes the freshwater lens unusable, there was a need to investigate the freshwater lens on Laura Island. In this study, we observed the electrical conductivities of the groundwater at different depths in existing monitoring wells to determine the total storage volume of the freshwater lens on Laura Island from 2010 to 2013. Our results indicated that most of the groundwater that seeped into the freshwater lens had flowed out into the sea.

Keywords: Atoll islands, drought, El-Nino, freshwater lens, groundwater observation

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
1773 Cercarial Diversity in Freshwater Snails from Selected Freshwater Bodies and Its Implication for Veterinary and Public Health in Kaduna State, Nigeria

Authors: Fatima Muhammad Abdulkadir, D. B. Maikaje, Y. A. Umar

Abstract:

A study conducted to determine cercariae diversity and prevalence of trematode infection in freshwater snails from six freshwater bodies selected by systematic random sampling in Kaduna State was carried from January 2013 to December 2013. Freshwater snails and cercariae harvested from the study sites were morphologically identified. A total of 23,823 freshwater snails were collected from the six freshwater bodies: Bagoma dam, Gimbawa dam, Kangimi dam, Kubacha dam, Manchok water intake and Saminaka water intake. The observed freshwater snail species were: Melanoides tuberculata, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus globosus, Lymnaea natalensis, Physa sp., Cleopatra bulimoides, Bellamya unicolor and Lanistes varicus. The freshwater snails were exposed to artificial bright light from a 100 Watt electric bulb in the laboratory to induce cercarial shedding. Of the total freshwater snails collected, 10.55% released one or more types of cercariae. Seven morphological types of cercariae were shed by six freshwater snail species namely: Brevifurcate-apharyngeate distome, Amphistome, Gymnocephalus, Longifurcate-pharyngeate monostome, Longifurcate-pharyngeate distome, Echinostome and Xiphidio cercariae. Infection was monotype in most of the freshwater snails collected; however, Physa species presented a mixed infection with Gymnocephalus and Longifurcate-pharyngeate distome cercariae. B. globosus and B. pfeifferi were the most preferred intermediate hosts with the prevalence of 13.48% and 13.46%, respectively. The diversity and prevalence of cercariae varied among the six freshwater bodies with Manchok water intake having the highest infestation (14.3%) and the least recorded in Kangimi dam (3.9%). There was a correlation trend between the number of freshwater snails and trematode infection with Manchok exhibiting the highest and Bagoma none. The highest cercarial diversity was observed in B. pfeifferi and B. globosus with four morphotypes each, and the lowest was in M. tuberculata with one morphotype. The general distribution of freshwater snails and the trematode cercariae they shed suggests the risk of human and animals to trematodiasis in Manchok community. Public health education to raise awareness on individual and communal action that may control snail breeding sites, prevent transmission and provide access to treatment should be intensified.

Keywords: Cercariae, diversity, freshwater snails, prevalence, trematodiasis

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
1772 The Impact of Multiple Stressors on the Functioning and Resilience of Model Freshwater Ecosystems

Authors: Sajida Saqira, Anthony Chariton, Grant C. Hose

Abstract:

The Anthropocene has seen dramatic environmental changes which are affecting every ecosystem on earth. Freshwater ecosystems are particularly vulnerable as they are at risk from the many activities that go on and contaminants that are released in catchments. They are thus subject to many stressors simultaneously. Freshwater ecosystems respond to stress at all levels of biological organization, from subcellular to community structure and ecosystem functioning. The aim of this study was to examine the resistance and resilience of freshwater ecosystems to multiple stressors. Here we explored the individual and combined effects of copper as a chemical stressor and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) as a biological stressor on the health, functioning, and recovery of outdoor experimental pond ecosystems in a long-term, controlled, factorial experiment. Primary productivity, decomposition, and water and sediment quality were analysed at regular intervals for one year to understand the health and functioning of the ecosystems. Changes to benthic biota were quantified using DNA-based and traditional microscopy-based counts of invertebrates. Carp were added to the ponds to copper contaminated sediments (with controls) to explore the combined effects of copper and carp and removed after six months to explore the resilience and recovery of the system. The outcomes of this study will advance our understanding of the impacts of multiple stressors on freshwater ecosystems, and the resilience of these systems to copper and C. carpio, which are both globally significant stressors in freshwater systems.

Keywords: carp, copper, ecosystem health, freshwater ecosystem, multiple stressors

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1771 Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Tropical Eutrophic Freshwater Wetland

Authors: Juan P. Silva, T. R. Canchala, H. J. Lubberding, E. J. Peña, H. J. Gijzen

Abstract:

This study measured the fluxes of greenhouse gases (GHGs) i.e. CO2, CH4 and N2O from a tropical eutrophic freshwater wetland (“Sonso Lagoon”) which receives input loading nutrient from several sources i.e. agricultural run-off, domestic sewage, and a polluted river. The flux measurements were carried out at four different points using the static chamber technique. CO2 fluxes ranged from -8270 to 12210 mg.m-2.d-1 (median = 360; SD = 4.11; n = 50), CH4 ranged between 0.2 and 5270 mg.m-2.d-1 (median = 60; SD = 1.27; n = 45), and N2O ranged from -31.12 to 15.4 mg N2O m-2.d-1 (median = 0.05; SD = 9.36; n = 42). Although some negative fluxes were observed in the zone dominated by floating plants i.e. Eichornia crassipes, Salvinia sp., and Pistia stratiotes L., the mean values indicated that the Sonso Lagoon was a net source of CO2, CH4 and N2O. In addition, an effect of the eutrophication on GHG emissions could be observed in the positive correlation found between CO2, CH4 and N2O generation and COD, PO4-3, NH3-N, TN and NO3-N. The eutrophication impact on GHG production highlights the necessity to limit the anthropic activities on freshwater wetlands.

Keywords: eutrophication, greenhouse gas emissions, freshwater wetlands, climate change

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1770 Hydrogeophysical Investigations of Groundwater Resources and Demarcation of Saltwater-Freshwater Interface in Kilwa Kisiwani Island, Se Tanzania

Authors: Simon R. Melchioly, Ibrahimu C. Mjemah, Isaac M. Marobhe

Abstract:

The main objective of this research was to identify new potential sources of groundwater resources using geophysical methods and also to demarcate the saltwater - freshwater interface. Kilwa Kisiwani Island geologically is covered mostly by Quaternary alluvial sediments, sand, and gravel. The geophysical techniques employed during the research include Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES), Earth Resistivity Tomography (ERT), and Transient Electromagnetics (TEM). Two-dimensional interpolated geophysical results show that there exist freshwater lenses formations that are potential aquifers on the Island with resistivity values ranging from 11.68 Ωm to 46.71 Ωm. These freshwater lenses are underlain by formation with brackish water in which the resistivity values are varying between 3.89 Ωm and 1.6 Ωm. Saltwater with resistivity less than 1 Ωm is found at the bottom being overlaid by brackish saturated formation. VES resistivity results show that 89% (16 out of 18) of the VES sites are potential for groundwater resources drilling while TEM results indicate that 75% (12 out of 16) of TEM sites are potential for groundwater borehole drilling. The recommended drilling depths for potential sites in Kilwa Kisiwani Island show that the maximum depth is 25 m and the minimum being 10 m below ground surface. The aquifer structure in Kilwa Kisiwani Island is a shallow, unconfined freshwater lenses floating above the seawater and the maximum thickness of the aquifer is 25 m for few selected VES and TEM sites while the minimum thickness being 10 m.

Keywords: groundwater, hydrogeophysical, Kilwa Kisiwani, freshwater, saltwater, resistivity

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1769 The Impact on Habitat of Reef Traps Used in the Freshwater Shrimp (Palaemonetes antennarius, H. Milne Erwards, 1837) Catch

Authors: Cenkmen R. Begburs

Abstract:

In Antalya region, freshwater shrimps are usually collected with scoops and tin traps. However, it can be catched by reef traps in some water sources. Freshwater shrimps are constantly catching for commercial reasons because of a favorite bait for angling. There are more or less damage catching fishing vehicles to the habitat. This study was carried out in the Kırkgöz spring, Antalya and examined the effect of reef traps on the Kırkgöz spring habitat. Reef traps used 18.5x23.5x25 cm perforated bricks are arranged next to each other, blocks of random dimensions are prepared in 5x10, 18x24, 7x8 meter dimensions. These blocks are constructed with two layers of bricks that are covered with various materials such as carpets and blankets. Then, freshwater shrimps enter the holes of bricks. The bricks are closed off from both sides and discharged into a container when it is desired to be caught. The reef traps built on the plants which staying on the plant for a long time have been damaging the vegetation under the reef traps. Fishermen are setting new traps on the plants to increase the fishing efficiency since the freshwater shrimps are among the water plants. As a result, this application disrupts the aquatic organisms in their habitats. It is important to use fishing gears which will cause less damage and conserve stocks for sustainable fishing.

Keywords: reef trap, Antalya, environment, damage

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
1768 Breeding Biology and Induced Breeding Status of Freshwater Mud Eel, Monopterus cuchia

Authors: Faruque Miah, Hafij Ali, Enaya Jannat, Tanmoy Modok Shuvra, M. Niamul Naser

Abstract:

In this study, breeding biology and induced breeding of freshwater mud eel, Monopterus cuchia was observed during the experimental period from February to June, 2013. Breeding biology of freshwater mud eel, Monopterus cuchia was considered in terms of gonadosomatic index, length-weight relationship of gonad, ova diameter and fecundity. The ova diameter was recorded from 0.3 mm to 4.30 mm and the individual fecundity was recorded from 155 to 1495 while relative fecundity was found from 2.64 to 12.45. The fecundity related to body weight and length of fish was also discussed. A peak of GSI was observed 2.14±0.2 in male and 5.1 ±1.09 in female. Induced breeding of freshwater mud eel, Monopterus cuchia was also practiced with different doses of different inducing agents like pituitary gland (PG), human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and Ovuline-a synthetic hormone in different environmental conditions. However, it was observed that the artificial breeding of freshwater mud eel, Monopterus cuchia was not yet succeeded through inducing agents in captive conditions, rather the inducing agent showed negative impacts on fecundity and ovarian tissues. It was seen that mature eggs in the oviduct were reduced, absorbed and some eggs were found in spoiled condition.

Keywords: breeding biology, induced breeding, Monopterus cuchia, human chorionic gonadotropin

Procedia PDF Downloads 648
1767 Sustainable Use of Laura Lens during Drought

Authors: Kazuhisa Koda, Tsutomu Kobayashi

Abstract:

Laura Island, which is located about 50 km away from downtown, is a source of water supply in Majuro atoll, which is the capital of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Low and flat Majuro atoll has neither river nor lake. It is very important for Majuro atoll to ensure the conservation of its water resources. However, up-coning, which is the process of partial rising of the freshwater-saltwater boundary near the water-supply well, was caused by the excess pumping from it during the severe drought in 1998. Up-coning will make the water usage of the freshwater lens difficult. Thus, appropriate water usage is required to prevent up-coning in the freshwater lens because there is no other water source during drought. Numerical simulation of water usage applying SEAWAT model was conducted at the central part of Laura Island, including the water-supply well, which was affected by up-coning. The freshwater lens was created as a result of infiltration of consistent average rainfall. The lens shape was almost the same as the one in 1985. 0 of monthly rainfall and variable daily pump discharge were used to calculate the sustainable pump discharge from the water-supply well. Consequently, the total amount of pump discharge was increased as the daily pump discharge was increased, indicating that it needs more time to recover from up-coning. Thus, a pump standard to reduce the pump intensity is being proposed, which is based on numerical simulation concerning the occurrence of the up-coning phenomenon in Laura Island during the drought.

Keywords: freshwater lens, islands, numerical simulation, sustainable water use

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1766 Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Diseased Giant Freshwater Prawn in Shrimp Culture Ponds

Authors: Kusumawadee Thancharoen, Rungrat Nontawong, Thanawat Junsom

Abstract:

Pathogenic bacterial flora was isolated from giant freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Infected shrimp samples were collected from BuaBan Aquafarm in Kalasin Province, Thailand, between June and September 2018. Bacterial species were isolated by serial dilution and plated on Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt Sucrose (TCBS) agar medium. A total 89 colonies were isolated and identified using the API 20E biochemical tests. Results showed the presence of genera Aeromonas, Citrobacter, Chromobacterium, Providencia, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Vibrio. Maximum number of species was recorded in Pseudomonas (50.57%) with minimum observed in Chromobacterium and Providencia (1.12%).

Keywords: biochemical test, giant freshwater prawn, isolation, salt tolerance, shrimp diseases

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1765 Preparation of Regional Input-Output Table for Fars Province in 2011: GRIT1Method

Authors: Maryam Akbarzadeh, F. Esmaeilzadeh, A. Poostvar, M. Manuchehri

Abstract:

Preparation of regional input-output tables requires statistical methods combined with high costs and too much time. Obtained estimates by non-statistical methods have low confidence coefficient. Therefore, integrated methods for this purpose are suggested by recent input–output studies. In this study, first GRIT method is introduced as an appropriate integrated method for preparation of input-output table of Fars province. Next, input-output table is prepared for Fars province using this method. Therefore, this study is based on input-output table of national economy in 2001. Necessary modifications performed in the field of changes at level of prices and differences of regional trade compared with other areas at national level. Moreover, up to date statistics and information and technical experts view on the various economic sectors along with input-output table 33 was used in 2011 followed by investigation of general structure of the province economy based on the amounts of added value obtained from this table.

Keywords: grit, input-output, table, regional

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
1764 Input-Output Analysis in Laptop Computer Manufacturing

Authors: H. Z. Ulukan, E. Demircioğlu, M. Erol Genevois

Abstract:

The scope of this paper and the aim of proposed model were to apply monetary Input –Output (I-O) analysis to point out the importance of reusing know-how and other requirements in order to reduce the production costs in a manufacturing process for a laptop computer. I-O approach using the monetary input-output model is employed to demonstrate the impacts of different factors in a manufacturing process. A sensitivity analysis showing the correlation between these different factors is also presented. It is expected that the recommended model would have an advantageous effect in the cost minimization process.

Keywords: input-output analysis, monetary input-output model, manufacturing process, laptop computer

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
1763 The Output Fallacy: An Investigation into Input, Noticing, and Learners’ Mechanisms

Authors: Samantha Rix

Abstract:

The purpose of this research paper is to investigate the cognitive processing of learners who receive input but produce very little or no output, and who, when they do produce output, exhibit a similar language proficiency as do those learners who produced output more regularly in the language classroom. Previous studies have investigated the benefits of output (with somewhat differing results); therefore, the presentation will begin with an investigation of what may underlie gains in proficiency without output. Consequently, a pilot study was designed and conducted to gain insight into the cognitive processing of low-output language learners looking, for example, at quantity and quality of noticing. This will be carried out within the paradigm of action classroom research, observing and interviewing low-output language learners in an intensive English program at a small Midwest university. The results of the pilot study indicated that autonomy in language learning, specifically utilizing strategies such self-monitoring, self-talk, and thinking 'out-loud', were crucial in the development of language proficiency for academic-level performance. The presentation concludes with an examination of pedagogical implication for classroom use in order to aide students in their language development.

Keywords: cognitive processing, language learners, language proficiency, learning strategies

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1762 Measuring Output Multipliers of Energy Consumption and Manufacturing Sectors in Malaysia during the Global Financial Crisis

Authors: Hussain Ali Bekhet, Tuan Ab. Rashid Bin Tuan Abdullah, Tahira Yasmin

Abstract:

The strong relationship between energy consumption and economic growth is widely recognised. Most countries’ energy demand declined during the economic depression known as the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) of 2008–2009. The objective of the current study is to investigate the energy consumption and performance of Malaysia’s manufacturing sectors during the GFC. We applied the output multiplier approach, which is based on the input-output model. Two input-output tables of Malaysia covering 2005 and 2010 were used. The results indicate significant changes in the output multipliers of the manufacturing sectors between 2005 and 2010. Moreover, the energy-to-manufacturing sectors’ output multipliers also decreased during the GFC due to a decline in export-oriented industries during the crisis. The increasing importance of the manufacturing sector to the development of Malaysian trade resulted in a noticeable decrease in the consumption of each energy sector’s output, especially the electricity and gas sector. Based on the research findings, the Malaysian government released several policy implementations in the form of stimulus packages to enhance these sectors’ performance and generally improve the Malaysian economy.

Keywords: global financial crisis, input-output model, manufacturing, output multipliers, energy, Malaysia

Procedia PDF Downloads 593
1761 Conditions for Model Matching of Switched Asynchronous Sequential Machines with Output Feedback

Authors: Jung–Min Yang

Abstract:

Solvability of the model matching problem for input/output switched asynchronous sequential machines is discussed in this paper. The control objective is to determine the existence condition and design algorithm for a corrective controller that can match the stable-state behavior of the closed-loop system to that of a reference model. Switching operations and correction procedures are incorporated using output feedback so that the controlled switched machine can show the desired input/output behavior. A matrix expression is presented to address reachability of switched asynchronous sequential machines with output equivalence with respect to a model. The presented reachability condition for the controller design is validated in a simple example.

Keywords: asynchronous sequential machines, corrective control, model matching, input/output control

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
1760 The Effect of the Thermal Temperature and Injected Current on Laser Diode 808 nm Output Power

Authors: Hassan H. Abuelhassan, M. Ali Badawi, Abdelrahman A. Elbadawi, Adam A. Elbashir

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of the injected current and temperature into the output power of the laser diode module operating at 808nm were applied, studied and discussed. Low power diode laser was employed as a source. The experimental results were demonstrated and then the output power of laser diode module operating at 808nm was clearly changed by the thermal temperature and injected current. The output power increases by the increasing the injected current and temperature. We also showed that the increasing of the injected current results rising in heat, which also, results into decreasing of the laser diode output power during the highest temperature as well. The best ranges of characteristics made by diode module operating at 808nm were carefully handled and determined.

Keywords: laser diode, light amplification, injected current, output power

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
1759 Effects of Manufacture and Assembly Errors on the Output Error of Globoidal Cam Mechanisms

Authors: Shuting Ji, Yueming Zhang, Jing Zhao

Abstract:

The output error of the globoidal cam mechanism can be considered as a relevant indicator of mechanism performance, because it determines kinematic and dynamical behavior of mechanical transmission. Based on the differential geometry and the rigid body transformations, the mathematical model of surface geometry of the globoidal cam is established. Then we present the analytical expression of the output error (including the transmission error and the displacement error along the output axis) by considering different manufacture and assembly errors. The effects of the center distance error, the perpendicular error between input and output axes and the rotational angle error of the globoidal cam on the output error are systematically analyzed. A globoidal cam mechanism which is widely used in automatic tool changer of CNC machines is applied for illustration. Our results show that the perpendicular error and the rotational angle error have little effects on the transmission error but have great effects on the displacement error along the output axis. This study plays an important role in the design, manufacture and assembly of the globoidal cam mechanism.

Keywords: globoidal cam mechanism, manufacture error, transmission error, automatic tool changer

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
1758 Environmental Impacts and Ecological Utilization of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in the Niger Delta Fresh Ecosystem

Authors: Seiyaboh E. I.

Abstract:

Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was introduced into many parts of the world, including Africa, as an ornamental garden pond plant because of its beauty. However, it is considered a dangerous pest today because when not controlled, water hyacinth will cover rivers, lakes and ponds entirely; this dramatically impacts water flow, blocks sunlight from reaching native aquatic plants, and starves the water of oxygen, often killing fish and other aquatic organisms. In the Niger Delta region, water hyacinth is considered a nuisance because of its very obvious devastating environmental impacts in the region. However, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) constitutes a very important part of an aquatic ecosystem. It possesses specialized growth habits, physiological characteristics and reproductive strategies that allow for rapid growth and spread in freshwater environments and this explains its very rapid spread in the Niger Delta freshwater ecosystem. This paper therefore focuses on the environmental consequences of the proliferation of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in the Niger Delta freshwater ecosystem, extent of impact, and options available for its ecological utilization which will help mitigate proliferation, restore effective freshwater ecosystem utilization and balance. It concludes by recommending sustainable practices outlining the beneficial uses of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) rather than control.

Keywords: environmental impacts, ecological utilization, Niger Delta, water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
1757 Higher Freshwater Fish and Sea Fish Intake Is Inversely Associated with Liver Cancer in Patients with Hepatitis B

Authors: Maomao Cao

Abstract:

Background and aims While the association between higher consumption of fish and lower liver cancer risk has been confirmed, however, the association between specific fish intake and liver cancer risk remains unknown. We aimed to identify the association between specific fish consumption and the risk of liver cancer. Methods: Based on a community-based seropositive hepatitis B cohort involving 18404 individuals, face to face interview was conducted by a standardized questionnaire to acquire baseline information. Three common fish types in this study were analyzed, including freshwater fish, sea fish, and small fish (shrimp, crab, conch, and shell). All participants received liver cancer screening, and possible cases were identified by CT or MRI. Multivariable logistic models were applied to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Multivariate multiple imputations were utilized to impute observations with missing values. Results: 179 liver cancer cases were identified. Consumption of freshwater fish and sea fish at least once a week had a strong inverse association with liver cancer risk compared with the lowest intake level, with an adjusted OR of 0.53 (95% CI, 0.38-0.75) and 0.38 (95% CI, 0.19-0.73), respectively. This inverse association was also observed after the imputation. There was no statistically significant association between intake of small fish and liver cancer risk (OR=0.58, 95%, CI 0.32-1.08). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that consumption of freshwater fish and sea fish at least once a week could reduce liver cancer risk.

Keywords: cross-sectional study, fish intake, liver cancer, risk factor

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1756 Timing and Impacts of Megafloods in the North Pacific as Recorded by Freshwater Diatoms

Authors: Cristina Lopes, Alan C. Mix

Abstract:

The timing and extension of large discharges from glacial lakes, known as megafloods, into the oceans have been of key importance. This type of events can influence the oceanic/land interactions and even be related with climate changes. While the impact of such floods has been fairly studied in the North Atlantic, the impact of analog floods in the North Pacific remains debatable and relatively unknown. Here we will show records of the Missoula floods that have carved the Northwest landscape and have entered the North Pacific through the Columbia River. These records are given by the presence of high (more than 40%) percentages of freshwater diatoms in marine sediments. A regression equation using these percentages allows to estimate by how much the salinities decreased. The timing and impact of North Pacific megafloods recorded in three marine cores of Oregon and California for the past 25000 years (B.P.) will be presented. These records show that the volume of freshwater that entered the North Pacific reached as far as 600 Km south of the Columbia River Mouth, decreasing the salinities by as much as 4 units.

Keywords: diatoms, megafloods, Missoula, North Pacific

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1755 Effect of Sugar Mill Effluent on Growth, Yield and Soil Properties of Ratoon Cane in Cauvery Command Area

Authors: G. K. Madhu, S. Bhaskar, M. S. Dinesh, R. Manii, C. A. Srinivasamurthy

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted in the premises of M/s Sri Chamundeshwari Sugars Ltd., Bharathinagar, Mandya District Pvt. Ltd., during 2014 to study the effect of sugar mill effluent (SME) on growth, yield and soil properties of ratoon cane with eight treatments replicated thrice using RCBD design. Significantly higher growth parameters like cane height (249.77 cm) and number of tillers per clump (12.22) were recorded in treatment which received cycle of 3 irrigations with freshwater + 1 irrigation with sugar mill effluent + RDF as compared to other treatments. Significantly lower growth attributes were recorded in treatment which received irrigation with sugar mill effluent alone. Significantly higher cane yield (104. 93 t -1) was recorded in treatment which received cycle of 3 irrigations with freshwater + 1 irrigation with sugar mill effluent + RDF as compared to other treatments. Significantly lower cane yield (87.40 t ha-1) was observed in treatment which received irrigation with sugar mill effluent alone. Soil properties like pH (7.84) was higher in treatment receiving Alternate irrigation with freshwater and sugar mill effluent + RDF. But EC was significantly higher in treatment which received Cycle of1 irrigation with freshwater + 2 irrigations with sugar mill effluent + RDF as compared to other treatments.

Keywords: sugar mill effluent, sugarcane, irrigation, cane yield

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1754 Effectiveness Evaluation of a Machine Design Process Based on the Computation of the Specific Output

Authors: Barenten Suciu

Abstract:

In this paper, effectiveness of a machine design process is evaluated on the basis of the specific output calculus. Concretely, a screw-worm gear mechanical transmission is designed by using the classical and the 3D-CAD methods. Strength analysis and drawing of the designed parts is substantially aided by employing the SolidWorks software. Quality of the design process is assessed by manufacturing (printing) the parts, and by computing the efficiency, specific load, as well as the specific output (work) of the mechanical transmission. Influence of the stroke, travelling velocity and load on the mechanical output, is emphasized. Optimal design of the mechanical transmission becomes possible by the appropriate usage of the acquired results.

Keywords: mechanical transmission, design, screw, worm-gear, efficiency, specific output, 3D-printing

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1753 Bacteria Flora in the Gut and Respiratory Organs of Clarias gariepinus in Fresh and Brackish Water Habitats of Ondo State, South/West Nigeria

Authors: Nelson R. Osungbemiro, Rafiu O. Sanni, Rotimi F. Olaniyan, Abayomi O. Olajuyigbe

Abstract:

Bacteria flora of Clarias gariepinus collected from two natural habitats namely Owena River (freshwater) and Igbokoda lagoon (brackish water) were examined using standard microbiological procedures. Thirteen bacterial species were identified. The result indicated that from the identified bacteria isolated, Vibrio sp, Proteus sp. Shigella sp. and E. coli were present in both habitats (fresh and brackish waters). Others were habitat-selective such as Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas sp, Enterococcus sp, Staphylococcus sp. that were found only in freshwater habitat. While Branhamella sp, Streptococcus sp. and Micrococcus sp. were found in brackish water habitat. Bacteria load from Owena river (freshwater) was found to be the highest load recorded at 6.21 x 104cfu. T-test analysis also revealed that there was a marked significant difference between bacterial load in guts of sampled Clarias from fresh water and brackish water habitats.

Keywords: bacteria flora, gut, Clarias gariepinus, Owena river

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1752 SME Credit Financing, Financial Development and Economic Growth: A VAR Approach to the Nigerian Economy

Authors: A. Bolaji Adesoye, Alimi Olorunfemi

Abstract:

This paper examines the impact of small and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) credit financing and financial market development and their shocks on the output growth of Nigeria. The study estimated a VAR model for Nigeria using 1970-2013 annual data series. Unit root tests and cointegration are carried out. The study also explores IRFs and FEVDs in a system that includes output, commercial bank loan to SMEs, domestic credit to private sector by banks, money supply, lending rate and investment. Findings suggest that shocks in commercial bank credit to SMEs has a major impact on the output changes of Nigeria. Money supply shocks also have a sizeable impact on output growth variations amidst other financial instruments. Lastly, neutrality of investment does not hold in Nigeria as it also has impact on output fluctuations.

Keywords: SMEs financing, financial development, investment, output, Nigeria

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1751 The Effect of Macroeconomic Policies on Cambodia's Economy: ARDL and VECM Model

Authors: Siphat Lim

Abstract:

This study used Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach to cointegration. In the long-run the general price level and exchange rate have a positively significant effect on domestic output. The estimated result further revealed that fiscal stimulus help stimulate domestic output in the long-run, but not in the short-run, while monetary expansion help to stimulate output in both short-run and long-run. The result is complied with the theory which is the macroeconomic policies, fiscal and monetary policy; help to stimulate domestic output in the long-run. The estimated result of the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) has indicated more clearly that the consumer price index has a positive effect on output with highly statistically significant. Increasing in the general price level would increase the competitiveness among producers than increase in the output. However, the exchange rate also has a positive effect and highly significant on the gross domestic product. The exchange rate depreciation might increase export since the purchasing power of foreigners has increased. More importantly, fiscal stimulus would help stimulate the domestic output in the long-run since the coefficient of government expenditure is positive. In addition, monetary expansion would also help stimulate the output and the result is highly significant. Thus, fiscal stimulus and monetary expansionary would help stimulate the domestic output in the long-run in Cambodia.

Keywords: fiscal policy, monetary policy, ARDL, VECM

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1750 Maori Primary Industries Responses to Climate Change and Freshwater Policy Reforms in Aotearoa New Zealand

Authors: Tanira Kingi, Oscar Montes Oca, Reina Tamepo

Abstract:

The introduction of the Climate Change Response (Zero Carbon) Amendment Act (2019) and the National Policy Statement for Freshwater Management (2020) both contain underpinning statements that refer to the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi and cultural concepts of stewardship and environmental protection. Maori interests in New Zealand’s agricultural, forestry, fishing and horticultural sectors are significant. The organizations that manage these investments do so on behalf of extended family groups that hold inherited interests based on genealogical connections (whakapapa) to particular tribal units (iwi and hapu) and areas of land (whenua) and freshwater bodies (wai). This paper draws on the findings of current research programmes funded by the New Zealand Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Research Centre (NZAGRC) and the Our Land & Water National Science Challenge (OLW NSC) to understand the impact of cultural knowledge and imperatives on agricultural GHG and freshwater mitigation and land-use change decisions. In particular, the research outlines mitigation and land-use change scenario decision support frameworks that model changes in emissions profiles (reductions in biogenic methane, nitrous oxide and nutrient emissions to freshwater) of agricultural and forestry production systems along with impacts on key economic indicators and socio-cultural factors. The paper also assesses the effectiveness of newly introduced partnership arrangements between Maori groups/organizations and key government agencies on policy co-design and implementation, and in particular, decisions to adopt mitigation practices and to diversify land use.

Keywords: co-design and implementation of environmental policy, indigenous environmental knowledge, Māori land tenure and agribusiness, mitigation and land use change decision support frameworks

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1749 Carbon Di Oxide Sequestration by Freshwater Microalgae Isolated from River Noyyal, India and Its Biomass for Biofuel Production

Authors: K. R. Mohanapriya, D. Geetharamani

Abstract:

In last few decades, global atmospheric concentrations of green house gases have been frequently increased because of carbon di oxide (CO2) emission from combustion of fossil fuels. This green house gas emission leads to global warming. In order to reduce green house gas emission, cultivation of microalgae has received attention due to their feasibility of CO2 sequestration. Microalgae can grow and multiply in short period because of their photosynthetic simple unicellular structures and can grow using water unsuitable for human consumption with nutrients that are available at low cost. In the present study, freshwater microalgae were isolated from Noyyal river in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. The isolated strains were screened for CO2 sequestration potential. The efficient isolate namely Klebsormidium sp was subjected to further study. Quantitative determination of CO2 sequestration potential of the isolate under study has been done. The biomass of the isolate thus obtained was subjected to triglyceride and fatty acid analysis to study the potential application of the isolate for biodiesel production.

Keywords: CO2 sequestration, freshwater microalgae, Klebsormidium sp, biodiesel

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
1748 Optimization and Retrofitting for an Egyptian Refinery Water Network

Authors: Mohamed Mousa

Abstract:

Sacristies in the supply of freshwater, strict regulations on discharging wastewater and the support to encourage sustainable development by water minimization techniques leads to raise the interest of water reusing, regeneration, and recycling. Water is considered a vital element in chemical industries. In this study, an optimization model will be developed to determine the optimal design of refinery’s water network system via source interceptor sink that involves several network alternatives, then a Mixed-Integer Non-Linear programming (MINLP) was used to obtain the optimal network superstructure based on flowrates, the concentration of contaminants, etc. The main objective of the model is to reduce the fixed cost of piping installation interconnections, reducing the operating cots of all streams within the refiner’s water network, and minimize the concentration of pollutants to comply with the environmental regulations. A real case study for one of the Egyptian refineries was studied by GAMS / BARON global optimization platform, and the water network had been retrofitted and optimized, leading to saving around 195 m³/ hr. of freshwater with a total reduction reaches to 26 %.

Keywords: freshwater minimization, modelling, GAMS, BARON, water network design, wastewater reudction

Procedia PDF Downloads 9