Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4180

Search results for: frequency shift keying

4180 Linear Frequency Modulation-Frequency Shift Keying Radar with Compressive Sensing

Authors: Ho Jeong Jin, Chang Won Seo, Choon Sik Cho, Bong Yong Choi, Kwang Kyun Na, Sang Rok Lee

Abstract:

In this paper, a radar signal processing technique using the LFM-FSK (Linear Frequency Modulation-Frequency Shift Keying) is proposed for reducing the false alarm rate based on the compressive sensing. The LFM-FSK method combines FMCW (Frequency Modulation Continuous Wave) signal with FSK (Frequency Shift Keying). This shows an advantage which can suppress the ghost phenomenon without the complicated CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate) algorithm. Moreover, the parametric sparse algorithm applying the compressive sensing that restores signals efficiently with respect to the incomplete data samples is also integrated, leading to reducing the burden of ADC in the receiver of radars. 24 GHz FMCW signal is applied and tested in the real environment with FSK modulated data for verifying the proposed algorithm along with the compressive sensing.

Keywords: compressive sensing, LFM-FSK radar, radar signal processing, sparse algorithm

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4179 Real-Time Demonstration of Visible Light Communication Based on Frequency-Shift Keying Employing a Smartphone as the Receiver

Authors: Fumin Wang, Jiaqi Yin, Lajun Wang, Nan Chi

Abstract:

In this article, we demonstrate a visible light communication (VLC) system over 8 meters free space transmission based on a commercial LED and a receiver in connection with an audio interface of a smart phone. The signal is in FSK modulation format. The successful experimental demonstration validates the feasibility of the proposed system in future wireless communication network.

Keywords: visible light communication, smartphone communication, frequency shift keying, wireless communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
4178 Frequency-Dependent and Full Range Tunable Phase Shifter

Authors: Yufu Yin, Tao Lin, Shanghong Zhao, Zihang Zhu, Xuan Li, Wei Jiang, Qiurong Zheng, Hui Wang

Abstract:

In this paper, a frequency-dependent and tunable phase shifter is proposed and numerically analyzed. The key devices are the dual-polarization binary phase shift keying modulator (DP-BPSK) and the fiber Bragg grating (FBG). The phase-frequency response of the FBG is employed to determine the frequency-dependent phase shift. The simulation results show that a linear phase shift of the recovered output microwave signal which depends on the frequency of the input RF signal is achieved. In addition, by adjusting the power of the RF signal, the full range phase shift from 0° to 360° can be realized. This structure shows the spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) of 70.90 dB·Hz2/3 and 72.11 dB·Hz2/3 under different RF powers.

Keywords: microwave photonics, phase shifter, spurious free dynamic range, frequency-dependent

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
4177 Multi-Band Frequency Conversion Scheme with Multi-Phase Shift Based on Optical Frequency Comb

Authors: Tao Lin, Shanghong Zhao, Yufu Yin, Zihang Zhu, Wei Jiang, Xuan Li, Qiurong Zheng

Abstract:

A simple operated, stable and compact multi-band frequency conversion and multi-phase shift is proposed to satisfy the demands of multi-band communication and radar phase array system. The dual polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) modulator is employed to support the LO sideband and the optical frequency comb simultaneously. Meanwhile, the fiber is also used to introduce different phase shifts to different sidebands. The simulation result shows that by controlling the DC bias voltages and a C band microwave signal with frequency of 4.5 GHz can be simultaneously converted into other signals that cover from C band to K band with multiple phases. It also verifies that the multi-band and multi-phase frequency conversion system can be stably performed based on current manufacturing art and can well cope with the DC drifting. It should be noted that the phase shift of the converted signal also partly depends of the length of the optical fiber.

Keywords: microwave photonics, multi-band frequency conversion, multi-phase shift, conversion efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
4176 Lamb Waves Wireless Communication in Healthy Plates Using Coherent Demodulation

Authors: Rudy Bahouth, Farouk Benmeddour, Emmanuel Moulin, Jamal Assaad

Abstract:

Guided ultrasonic waves are used in Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) and Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) for inspection and damage detection. Recently, wireless data transmission using ultrasonic waves in solid metallic channels has gained popularity in some industrial applications such as nuclear, aerospace and smart vehicles. The idea is to find a good substitute for electromagnetic waves since they are highly attenuated near metallic components due to Faraday shielding. The proposed solution is to use ultrasonic guided waves such as Lamb waves as an information carrier due to their capability of propagation for long distances. In addition to this, valuable information about the health of the structure could be extracted simultaneously. In this work, the reliable frequency bandwidth for communication is extracted experimentally from dispersion curves at first. Then, an experimental platform for wireless communication using Lamb waves is described and built. After this, coherent demodulation algorithm used in telecommunications is tested for Amplitude Shift Keying, On-Off Keying and Binary Phase Shift Keying modulation techniques. Signal processing parameters such as threshold choice, number of cycles per bit and Bit Rate are optimized. Experimental results are compared based on the average Bit Error Rate. Results have shown high sensitivity to threshold selection for Amplitude Shift Keying and On-Off Keying techniques resulting a Bit Rate decrease. Binary Phase Shift Keying technique shows the highest stability and data rate between all tested modulation techniques.

Keywords: lamb waves communication, wireless communication, coherent demodulation, bit error rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
4175 Intrabody Communication Using Different Ground Configurations in Digital Door Lock

Authors: Daewook Kim, Gilwon Yoon

Abstract:

Intrabody communication (IBC) is a new way of transferring data using human body as a medium. Minute current can travel though human body without any harm. IBC can remove electrical wires for human area network. IBC can be also a secure communication network system unlike wireless networks which can be accessed by anyone with bad intentions. One of the IBC systems is based on frequency shift keying modulation where individual data are transmitted to the external devices for the purpose of secure access such as digital door lock. It was found that the quality of IBC data transmission was heavily dependent on ground configurations of electronic circuits. Reliable IBC transmissions were not possible when both of the transmitter and receiver used batteries as circuit power source. Transmission was reliable when power supplies were used as power source for both transmitting and receiving sites because the common ground was established through the grounds of instruments such as power supply and oscilloscope. This was due to transmission dipole size and the ground effects of floor and AC power line. If one site used battery as power source and the other site used the AC power as circuit power source, transmission was possible.

Keywords: frequency shift keying, ground, intrabody, communication, door lock

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4174 Enhancement of ASK and PSK Modulation Based on Coupler-Based Delay Line Filters Using OWC Channel and EDFA Amplifiers at 100 Gbit/s

Authors: Divya Sisodiya, Deepika Sipal

Abstract:

Optical wireless communication (OWC) is a relatively new technology in optical communication systems that allows for high-speed wireless optical communication. This research focuses on developing a cost-effective OWC system using a hybrid configuration of optical amplifiers. In addition to using EDFA amplifiers, a comparison study was conducted to determine which modulation technique is more effective for communication. This research examines the performance of an OWC system based on ASK and PSK modulation techniques by varying OWC parameters under various atmospheric conditions such as rain, mist, haze, and snow. Finally, the simulation results are discussed and analyzed.

Keywords: OWC, bit error rate (BER), amplitude shift keying (ASK), phase shift keying (PSK), attenuation, amplifiers

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4173 Impact of Different Modulation Techniques on the Performance of Free-Space Optics

Authors: Naman Singla, Ajay Pal Singh Chauhan

Abstract:

As the demand for providing high bit rate and high bandwidth is increasing at a rapid rate so there is a need to see in this problem and finds a technology that provides high bit rate and also high bandwidth. One possible solution is by use of optical fiber. Optical fiber technology provides high bandwidth in THz. But the disadvantage of optical fiber is of high cost and not used everywhere because it is not possible to reach all the locations on the earth. Also high maintenance required for usage of optical fiber. It puts a lot of cost. Another technology which is almost similar to optical fiber is Free Space Optics (FSO) technology. FSO is the line of sight technology where modulated optical beam whether infrared or visible is used to transfer information from one point to another through the atmosphere which works as a channel. This paper concentrates on analyzing the performance of FSO in terms of bit error rate (BER) and quality factor (Q) using different modulation techniques like non return to zero on off keying (NRZ-OOK), differential phase shift keying (DPSK) and differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK) using OptiSystem software. The findings of this paper show that FSO system based on DQPSK modulation technique performs better.

Keywords: attenuation, bit rate, free space optics, link length

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
4172 Time and Wavelength Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network Comparative Analysis: Modulation Formats and Channel Spacings

Authors: A. Fayad, Q. Alqhazaly, T. Cinkler

Abstract:

In light of the substantial increase in end-user requirements and the incessant need of network operators to upgrade the capabilities of access networks, in this paper, the performance of the different modulation formats on eight-channels Time and Wavelength Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network (TWDM-PON) transmission system has been examined and compared. Limitations and features of modulation formats have been determined to outline the most suitable design to enhance the data rate and transmission reach to obtain the best performance of the network. The considered modulation formats are On-Off Keying Non-Return-to-Zero (NRZ-OOK), Carrier Suppressed Return to Zero (CSRZ), Duo Binary (DB), Modified Duo Binary (MODB), Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK), and Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (DQPSK). The performance has been analyzed by varying transmission distances and bit rates under different channel spacing. Furthermore, the system is evaluated in terms of minimum Bit Error Rate (BER) and Quality factor (Qf) without applying any dispersion compensation technique, or any optical amplifier. Optisystem software was used for simulation purposes.

Keywords: BER, DuoBinary, NRZ-OOK, TWDM-PON

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4171 High Frequency Memristor-Based BFSK and 8QAM Demodulators

Authors: Nahla Elazab, Mohamed Aboudina, Ghada Ibrahim, Hossam Fahmy, Ahmed Khalil

Abstract:

This paper presents the developed memristor based demodulators for eight circular Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) and Binary Frequency Shift Keying (BFSK) operating at relatively high frequency. In our implementations, the experimental-based ‘nonlinear’ dopant drift model is adopted along with the proposed circuits providing incorporation of all known non-idealities of practically realized memristor and gaining high operation frequency. The suggested designs leverage the distinctive characteristics of the memristor device, definitely, its changeable average memristance versus the frequency, phase and amplitude of the periodic excitation input. The proposed demodulators feature small integration area, low power consumption, and easy implementation. Moreover, the proposed QAM demodulator precludes the requirement for the carrier recovery circuits. In doing so, the designs were validated by transient simulations using the nonlinear dopant drift memristor model. The simulations results show high agreement with the theory presented.

Keywords: BFSK, demodulator, high frequency memristor applications, memristor based analog circuits, nonlinear dopant drift model, QAM

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4170 Molecular Communication Noise Effect Analysis of Diffusion-Based Channel for Considering Minimum-Shift Keying and Molecular Shift Keying Modulations

Authors: A. Azari, S. S. K. Seyyedi

Abstract:

One of the unaddressed and open challenges in the nano-networking is the characteristics of noise. The previous analysis, however, has concentrated on end-to-end communication model with no separate modelings for propagation channel and noise. By considering a separate signal propagation and noise model, the design and implementation of an optimum receiver will be much easier. In this paper, we justify consideration of a separate additive Gaussian noise model of a nano-communication system based on the molecular communication channel for which are applicable for MSK and MOSK modulation schemes. The presented noise analysis is based on the Brownian motion process, and advection molecular statistics, where the received random signal has a probability density function whose mean is equal to the mean number of the received molecules. Finally, the justification of received signal magnitude being uncorrelated with additive non-stationary white noise is provided.

Keywords: molecular, noise, diffusion, channel

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4169 Bit Error Rate (BER) Performance of Coherent Homodyne BPSK-OCDMA Network for Multimedia Applications

Authors: Morsy Ahmed Morsy Ismail

Abstract:

In this paper, the structure of a coherent homodyne receiver for the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) network is introduced based on the Multi-Length Weighted Modified Prime Code (ML-WMPC) for multimedia applications. The Bit Error Rate (BER) of this homodyne detection is evaluated as a function of the number of active users and the signal to noise ratio for different code lengths according to the multimedia application such as audio, voice, and video. Besides, the Mach-Zehnder interferometer is used as an external phase modulator in homodyne detection. Furthermore, the Multiple Access Interference (MAI) and the receiver noise in a shot-noise limited regime are taken into consideration in the BER calculations.

Keywords: OCDMA networks, bit error rate, multiple access interference, binary phase-shift keying, multimedia

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4168 Design of Low Power FSK Receiver

Authors: M. Aeysha Parvin, J. Asha, J. Jenifer

Abstract:

This letter presents a novel frequency-shift keying(FSK) receiver using PLL-based FSK demodulator, thereby achieving high sensitivity and low power consumption. The proposed receiver comprises a power amplifier, mixer, 3-stage ring oscillator, PLL based demodulator. Moreover, the proposed receiver is fabricated using 0.12µm CMOS process and consumes 0.7Mw. Measurement results demonstrate that the proposed receiver has a sensitivity of -93dbm with 1Mbps data rate in receiving a 2.4 GHz FSK signal.

Keywords: CMOS FSK receiver, phase locked loop (PLL), 3-stage ring oscillator, FSK signal

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4167 The Effectiveness of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing as Modulation Technique

Authors: Mohamed O. Babana

Abstract:

In wireless channel multipath is the propagation phenomena where the transmitted signal arrive at the receiver side with many of paths, the signal at these paths arrive with different time delay the results is random signal fading due to intersymbols interference(ISI). This paper deals with identification of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technology, and how it is used to overcome intersymbol interference due to multipath. Also investigates the effect of Additive White Gaussian Noise Channel (AWGN) on OFDM using multi-level modulation of Phase Shift Keying (PSK), computer simulation to calculate the bit error rate (BER) under AWGN channel is applied. A comparison study is carried out to obtain the Bit Error Rate performance for OFDM to identify the best multi-level modulation of PSK.

Keywords: intersymbol interference(ISI), bit error rate(BER), modulation, multiplexing, simulation

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4166 Vibration of Gamma Graphyne with an Attached Mass

Authors: Win-Jin Chang, Haw-Long Lee, Yu-Ching Yang

Abstract:

Atomic finite element simulation is applied to investigate the vibration frequency of a single-layer gamma graphyne with an attached mass for the CCCC, SSSS, CFCF, SFSF boundary conditions using the commercial code ANSYS. The fundamental frequencies of the graphyne sheet are compared with the results of the previous study. The results of the comparison are very good in all considered cases. The attached mass causes a shift in the resonant frequency of the graphyne. The frequencies of the single-layer gamma graphyne with an attached mass for different boundary conditions are obtained, and the order based on the boundary condition is CCCC >SSSS > CFCF> SFSF. The highest frequency shift is obtained when the attached mass is located at the center of the graphyne sheet. This is useful for the design of a highly sensitive graphyne-based mass sensor.

Keywords: graphyne, finite element analysis, vibration analysis, frequency shift

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4165 Analysis of Interpolation Factor in Pulse Shaping Filter on MRC for CDMA 2000 Systems

Authors: Pankaj Verma, Gagandeep Singh Walia, Padma Devi, H. P. Singh

Abstract:

Code Division Multiple Access 2000 operates on various RF channel bandwidths 1.2288 or 3.6864 Mcps. CDMA offers high bandwidth and wireless broadband services but the efficiency gets decreased because of many interfering factors like fading, interference, scattering, diffraction, refraction, reflection etc. To reduce the spectral bandwidth is one of the major concerns in modern day technology and this is achieved by pulse shaping filter. This paper investigates the effect of diversity (MRC), interpolation factor in Root Raised Cosine (RRC) filter for the QPSK and BPSK modulation schemes. It is made possible to send information with minimum inter symbol interference and within limited bandwidth with proper pulse shaping technique. Bit error rate (BER) performance is analyzed by applying diversity technique by varying the interpolation factor for Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) and Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK). Interpolation factor increases the original sampling rate of a sequence to a higher rate and reduces the interference and diversity reduces the fading.

Keywords: CDMA2000, root raised cosine, roll off factor, ISI, diversity, interference, fading

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4164 Peculiarities of the Clinical Course of the Osteoarthritis in Shift-Workers: Analysis of Clinical Data and Questionnaries

Authors: Oksana Mykytyuk

Abstract:

Chronic desynchronosis is an important factor of progression of osteoarthritis in shift workers. 80 patients with primary osteoarthritis (female:male ratio = 3:1, average age: 57.6 years, average disease duration: 6.4 years, radiological stage: II-III) were examined, 42% reported systematic night shift-work for more than two years. Full clinical examination was performed, all patients filled in SF-36, WOMAC questonnaries, marked visual analog scales for estimation of pain intensity and general well-being. Patients who had been exposed to night work had significantly worse clinical course of osteoarthritis marked by more (27.5%, p < 0.05) extensive pain syndrome, especially at night hours, (10.00 pm-2.00 am period) and estimated life quality as poorer comparing those working at day time. Osteoarthritis initiation occurred at earlier age in them comparing those who worked in non-shifted regimen. They showed a trend to generalized affliction of bigger quantity of joint groups, higher frequency of synovitis as well. Shift-workers administered higher doses of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and estimated their effect as lower (39.6% average daily relief vs 62.5% in non-shift workers after 10 days of regular application of therapy). Frequency of chronic NSAID-induced gastropathy was 25% higher among night-workers. Shift-workers are predisposed to worse course of osteoarthritis with marked clinical symptoms, requiring higher doses on NSAIDs and with inclination towards bigger frequency of complication. That should be kept in mind while developing individual treatment and secondary prophylaxis strategy.

Keywords: desynchronosis, osteoarthritis, questionnaries, shift-work

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4163 Statistical Modeling of Mobile Fading Channels Based on Triply Stochastic Filtered Marked Poisson Point Processes

Authors: Jihad S. Daba, J. P. Dubois

Abstract:

Understanding the statistics of non-isotropic scattering multipath channels that fade randomly with respect to time, frequency, and space in a mobile environment is very crucial for the accurate detection of received signals in wireless and cellular communication systems. In this paper, we derive stochastic models for the probability density function (PDF) of the shift in the carrier frequency caused by the Doppler Effect on the received illuminating signal in the presence of a dominant line of sight. Our derivation is based on a generalized Clarke’s and a two-wave partially developed scattering models, where the statistical distribution of the frequency shift is shown to be consistent with the power spectral density of the Doppler shifted signal.

Keywords: Doppler shift, filtered Poisson process, generalized Clark’s model, non-isotropic scattering, partially developed scattering, Rician distribution

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4162 An Alternative Proof for the Topological Entropy of the Motzkin Shift

Authors: Fahad Alsharari, Mohd Salmi Md. Noorani

Abstract:

A Motzkin shift is a mathematical model for constraints on genetic sequences. In terms of the theory of symbolic dynamics, the Motzkin shift is nonsofic, and therefore, we cannot use the Perron-Frobenius theory to calculate its topological entropy. The Motzkin shift M(M,N) which comes from language theory, is defined to be the shift system over an alphabet A that consists of N negative symbols, N positive symbols and M neutral symbols. For an x in the full shift AZ, x is in M(M,N) if and only if every finite block appearing in x has a non-zero reduced form. Therefore, the constraint for x cannot be bounded in length. K. Inoue has shown that the entropy of the Motzkin shift M(M,N) is log(M + N + 1). In this paper, we find a new method of calculating the topological entropy of the Motzkin shift M(M,N) without any measure theoretical discussion.

Keywords: entropy, Motzkin shift, mathematical model, theory

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4161 Miniaturization of I-Slot Antenna with Improved Efficiency and Gain

Authors: Mondher Labidi, Fethi Choubani

Abstract:

In this paper, novel miniaturization technique of antenna is proposed using I-slot. Using this technique, gain of antenna can increased for 4dB (antenna only) to 6.6dB for the proposed I-slot antenna and a frequency shift of about 0.45 GHz to 1 GHz is obtained. Also a reduction of the shape size of the antenna is achieved (about 38 %) to operate in the Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz) band.RF Moreover the frequency shift can be controlled by changing the place or the length of the I-slot. Finally the proposed miniature antenna with an improved radiation efficiency and gain was built and tested.

Keywords: slot antenna, miniaturization, RF, electrical equivalent circuit (EEC)

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
4160 Design of Wireless Readout System for Resonant Gas Sensors

Authors: S. Mohamed Rabeek, Mi Kyoung Park, M. Annamalai Arasu

Abstract:

This paper presents a design of a wireless read out system for tracking the frequency shift of the polymer coated piezoelectric micro electromechanical resonator due to gas absorption. The measure of this frequency shift indicates the percentage of a particular gas the sensor is exposed to. It is measured using an oscillator and an FPGA based frequency counter by employing the resonator as a frequency determining element in the oscillator. This system consists of a Gas Sensing Wireless Readout (GSWR) and an USB Wireless Transceiver (UWT). GSWR consists of an oscillator based on a trans-impedance sustaining amplifier, an FPGA based frequency readout, a sub 1GHz wireless transceiver and a micro controller. UWT can be plugged into the computer via USB port and function as a wireless module to transfer gas sensor data from GSWR to the computer through its USB port. GUI program running on the computer periodically polls for sensor data through UWT - GSWR wireless link, the response from GSWR is logged in a file for post processing as well as displayed on screen.

Keywords: gas sensor, GSWR, micromechanical system, UWT, volatile emissions

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4159 An Efficient Digital Baseband ASIC for Wireless Biomedical Signals Monitoring

Authors: Kah-Hyong Chang, Xin Liu, Jia Hao Cheong, Saisundar Sankaranarayanan, Dexing Pang, Hongzhao Zheng

Abstract:

A digital baseband Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is developed for a microchip transponder to transmit signals and temperature levels from biomedical monitoring devices. The transmission protocol is adapted from the ISO/IEC 11784/85 standard. The module has a decimation filter that employs only a single adder-subtractor in its datapath. The filtered output is coded with cyclic redundancy check and transmitted through backscattering Load Shift Keying (LSK) modulation to a reader. Fabricated using the 0.18-μm CMOS technology, the module occupies 0.116 mm² in chip area (digital baseband: 0.060 mm², decimation filter: 0.056 mm²), and consumes a total of less than 0.9 μW of power (digital baseband: 0.75 μW, decimation filter: 0.14 μW).

Keywords: biomedical sensor, decimation filter, radio frequency integrated circuit (RFIC) baseband, temperature sensor

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4158 Investigation of Fire Damaged Concrete Using Nonlinear Resonance Vibration Method

Authors: Kang-Gyu Park, Sun-Jong Park, Hong Jae Yim, Hyo-Gyung Kwak

Abstract:

This paper attempts to evaluate the effect of fire damage on concrete by using nonlinear resonance vibration method, one of the nonlinear nondestructive method. Concrete exhibits not only nonlinear stress-strain relation but also hysteresis and discrete memory effect which are contained in consolidated materials. Hysteretic materials typically show the linear resonance frequency shift. Also, the shift of resonance frequency is changed according to the degree of micro damage. The degree of the shift can be obtained through nonlinear resonance vibration method. Five exposure scenarios were considered in order to make different internal micro damage. Also, the effect of post-fire-curing on fire-damaged concrete was taken into account to conform the change in internal damage. Hysteretic non linearity parameter was obtained by amplitude-dependent resonance frequency shift after specific curing periods. In addition, splitting tensile strength was measured on each sample to characterize the variation of residual strength. Then, a correlation between the hysteretic non linearity parameter and residual strength was proposed from each test result.

Keywords: nonlinear resonance vibration method, non linearity parameter, splitting tensile strength, micro damage, post-fire-curing, fire damaged concrete

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4157 Pressure Angle and Profile Shift Factor Effects on the Natural Frequency of Spur Tooth Design

Authors: Ali Raad Hassan

Abstract:

In this paper, an (irregular) case relating to base circle, root circle, and pressure angle has been discussed and a computer programme has been developed to simulate and plot spur gear tooth profile, including involute and trochoid curves based on the formulation of rack cutter using different values of pressure angle and profile shift factor and it gave the values of all important geometric parameters. The results showed the flexibility of this approach and versatility of the programme to draw many different cases of spur gear teeth of any module, pressure angle, profile shift factor, number of teeth and rack cutter tip radius. The procedure developed can be extended to produce finite element models of heretofore intractable geometrical forms, to exploring fabrication of nonstandard tooth forms also. Finite elements model of these irregular cases have been built using above programme, and modal analysis has been done using ANSYS software, and natural frequencies of these selected cases have been obtained and discussed.

Keywords: involute, trochoid, pressure angle, profile shift factor, natural frequency

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4156 Optical Signal-To-Noise Ratio Monitoring Based on Delay Tap Sampling Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Feng Wang, Shencheng Ni, Shuying Han, Shanhong You

Abstract:

With the development of optical communication, optical performance monitoring (OPM) has received more and more attentions. Since optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) is directly related to bit error rate (BER), it is one of the important parameters in optical networks. Recently, artificial neural network (ANN) has been greatly developed. ANN has strong learning and generalization ability. In this paper, a method of OSNR monitoring based on delay-tap sampling (DTS) and ANN has been proposed. DTS technique is used to extract the eigenvalues of the signal. Then, the eigenvalues are input into the ANN to realize the OSNR monitoring. The experiments of 10 Gb/s non-return-to-zero (NRZ) on–off keying (OOK), 20 Gb/s pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) and 20 Gb/s return-to-zero (RZ) differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) systems are demonstrated for the OSNR monitoring based on the proposed method. The experimental results show that the range of OSNR monitoring is from 15 to 30 dB and the root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) for 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK, 20 Gb/s PAM4 and 20 Gb/s RZ-DPSK systems are 0.36 dB, 0.45 dB and 0.48 dB respectively. The impact of chromatic dispersion (CD) on the accuracy of OSNR monitoring is also investigated in the three experimental systems mentioned above.

Keywords: artificial neural network (ANN), chromatic dispersion (CD), delay-tap sampling (DTS), optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR)

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4155 Mixed Frequency Excitation of an Electrostatically Actuated Resonator

Authors: Abdallah H. Ramini, Alwathiqbellah I. Ibrahim, Mohammad I. Younis

Abstract:

We investigate experimentally and theoretically the dynamics of a capacitive resonator under mixed frequency excitation of two AC harmonic signals. The resonator is composed of a proof mass suspended by two cantilever beams. Experimental measurements are conducted using a laser Doppler Vibrometer to reveal the interesting dynamics of the system when subjected to two-source excitation. A nonlinear single-degree-of-freedom model is used for the theoretical investigation. The results reveal combination resonances of additive and subtractive type, which are shown to be promising to increase the bandwidth of the resonator near primary resonance frequency. Our results also demonstrate the ability to shift the combination resonances to much lower or much higher frequency ranges. We also demonstrate the dynamic pull-in instability under mixed frequency excitation.

Keywords: electrostatically actuated resonator, multi-frequency excitation, nonlinear dynamics, AC harmonic signals

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4154 Finite Element Analysis of Resonance Frequency Shift of Laminated Composite Beam

Authors: Cheng Yang Kwa, Yoke Rung Wong

Abstract:

Laminated composite materials are widely employed in automotive, aerospace, and other industries. These materials provide distinct benefits due to their high specific strength, high specific modulus, and ability to be customized for a specific function. However, delamination of laminated composite materials is one of the main defects which can occur during manufacturing, regular operations, or maintenance. Delamination can bring about considerable internal damage, unobservable by visual check, that causes significant loss in strength and stability, leading to composite structure catastrophic failure. Structural health monitoring (SHM) is known to be the automated method for monitoring and evaluating the condition of a monitored object. There are several ways to conduct SHM in aerospace. One of the effective methods is to monitor the natural frequency shift of structure due to the presence of defect. This study investigated the mechanical resonance frequency shift of a multi-layer composite cantilever beam due to interlaminar delamination. ANSYS Workbench® was used to create a 4-plies laminated composite cantilever finite element model with [90/0]s fiber setting. Epoxy Carbon UD (230GPA) Prepreg was chosen, and the thickness was 2.5mm for each ply. The natural frequencies of the finite element model with various degree of delamination were simulated based on modal analysis and then validated by using literature. It was shown that the model without delamination had natural frequency of 40.412 Hz, which was 1.55% different from the calculated result (41.050 Hz). Thereafter, the various degree of delamination was mimicked by changing the frictional conditions at the middle ply-to-ply interface. The results suggested that delamination in the laminated composite cantilever induced a change in its stiffness which alters its mechanical resonance frequency.

Keywords: structural health monitoring, NDT, cantilever, laminate

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4153 Sensing Mechanism of Nano-Toxic Ions Using Quartz Crystal Microbalance

Authors: Chanho Park, Juneseok You, Kuewhan Jang, Sungsoo Na

Abstract:

Detection technique of nanotoxic materials is strongly imperative, because nano-toxic materials can harmfully influence human health and environment as their engineering applications are growing rapidly in recent years. In present work, we report the DNA immobilized quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) based sensor for detection of nano-toxic materials such as silver ions, Hg2+ etc. by using functionalization of quartz crystal with a target-specific DNA. Since the mass of a target material is comparable to that of an atom, the mass change caused by target binding to DNA on the quartz crystal is so small that it is practically difficult to detect the ions at low concentrations. In our study, we have demonstrated fast and in situ detection of nanotoxic materials using quartz crystal microbalance. We report the label-free and highly sensitive detection of silver ion for present case, which is a typical nano-toxic material by using QCM and silver-specific DNA. The detection is based on the measurement of frequency shift of Quartz crystal from constitution of the cytosine-Ag+-cytosine binding. It is shown that the silver-specific DNA measured frequency shift by QCM enables the capturing of silver ions below 100pM. The results suggest that DNA-based detection opens a new avenue for the development of a practical water-testing sensor.

Keywords: nano-toxic ions, quartz crystal microbalance, frequency shift, target-specific DNA

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4152 Differential Signaling Spread-Spectrum Modulation of the In-Door LED Visible Light Wireless Communications using Mobile-Phone Camera

Authors: Shih-Hao Chen, Chi-Wai Chow

Abstract:

Visible light communication combined with spread spectrum modulation is demonstrated in this study. Differential signaling method also ensures the proposed system that can support high immunity to ambient light interference. Experiment result shows the proposed system has 6 dB gain comparing with the original On-Off Keying modulation scheme.

Keywords: Visible Light Communication (VLC), Spread Spectrum Modulation (SSM), On-Off Keying, visible light communication

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4151 An Alternative Concept of Green Screen Keying

Authors: Jin Zhi

Abstract:

This study focuses on a green screen keying method developed especially for film visual effects. There are a series of ways of using existing tools for creating mattes from green or blue screen plates. However, it is still a time-consuming process, and the results vary especially when it comes to retaining tiny details, such as hair and fur. This paper introduces an alternative concept and method for retaining edge details of characters on a green screen plate, also, a number of connected mathematical equations are explored. At the end of this study, a simplified process of applying this method in real productions is also introduced.

Keywords: green screen, visual effects, compositing, matte

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