Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 5522

Search results for: fragment molecular orbital theory

5522 Variation in Orbital Elements of Mars and Jupiter Due to the Sun Oblateness by Using Secular Theory

Authors: Avaneesh Vaishwar, Badam Singh Kushvah, Devi Prasad Mishra

Abstract:

We studied the variation in orbital elements of Mars and Jupiter for a time span of 200 thousand years by using secular theory. Here we took Sun oblateness into account and considered the first two zonal gravity constants (J2 and J4) for showing the effect of Sun oblateness on the orbital elements of Mars and Jupiter. We found that in both cases (with and without Sun oblateness) the variation in orbital elements of Mars and Jupiter is periodic moreover in case of the Sun oblateness, the period of variation in orbital elements is decreasing for both the planets.

Keywords: lagrange's planetary equation, orbital elements, planetary system, secular theory

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5521 Molecular and Electronic Structure of Chromium (III) Cyclopentadienyl Complexes

Authors: Salem El-Tohami Ashoor

Abstract:

Here we show that the reduction of [Cr(ArN(CH2)3NAr)2Cl2] (1) where (Ar = 2,6-Pri2C6H3) and in presence of NaCp (2) (Cp= C5H5 = cyclopentadien), with a center coordination η5 interaction between Cp as co-ligand and chromium metal center, this was optimization by using density functional theory (DFT) and then was comparing with experimental data, also other possibility of Cp interacted with ion metal were tested like η1 ,η2 ,η3 and η4 under optimization system. These were carried out under investigation of density functional theory (DFT) calculation, and comparing together. Other methods, explicitly including electron correlation, are necessary for more accurate calculations; MB3LYP ( Becke)( Lee–Yang–Parr ) level of theory often being used to obtain more exact results. These complexes were estimated of electronic energy for molecular system, because it accounts for all electron correlation interactions. The optimised of [Cr(ArN(CH2)3NAr)2(η5-Cp)] (Ar = 2,6-Pri2C6H3 and Cp= C5H5) was found to be thermally more stable than others of chromium cyclopentadienyl. By using Dewar-Chatt-Duncanson model, as a basis of the molecular orbital (MO) analysis and showed the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest occupied molecular orbital LUMO.

Keywords: Chromium(III) cyclopentadienyl complexes, DFT, MO, HOMO, LUMO

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5520 DFT Study of Half Sandwich of Vanadium (IV) Cyclopentadienyl Complexes

Authors: Salem El-Tohami Ashoor

Abstract:

A novel new vanadium (IV) complexes incorporating the chelating diamido cyclopentadienyl {ArN(CH2)3NAr)}2-((ηn-Cp)Cp)} (Ar = 2,6-Pri2C6H3)(Cp = C5H5 and n = 1,2,3,4 and 5) have been studied with calculation of the properties of species involved in various of cyclopentadienyl reaction. These were carried out under investigation of density functional theory (DFT) calculation, and comparing together. Other methods, explicitly including electron correlation, are necessary for more accurate calculations; MB3LYP (Becke) (Lee–Yang–Parr) level of theory often being used to obtain more exact results. These complexes were estimated of electronic energy for molecular system, because it accounts for all electron correlation interactions. The optimised of [V(ArN(CH2)3NAr)2Cl(η5-Cp)] (Ar = 2,6-Pri2C6H3 and Cp= C5H5) was found to be thermally more stable than others of vanadium cyclopentadienyl. In the meantime the complex [V(ArN(CH2)3NAr)2Cl(η1-Cp)] (Ar = 2,6-Pri2C6H3 and Cp= C5H5) which is showed a low thermal stability in case of the just one carbon of cyclopentadienyl can be insertion with vanadium metal centre. By using Dewar-Chatt-Duncanson model, as a basis of the molecular orbital (MO) analysis and showed the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest occupied molecular orbital LUMO.

Keywords: vanadium (IV) cyclopentadienyl complexes, DFT, MO, HOMO, LUMO

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5519 An Ab Initio Molecular Orbital Theory and Density Functional Theory Study of Fluorous 1,3-Dion Compounds

Authors: S. Ghammamy, M. Mirzaabdollahiha

Abstract:

Quantum mechanical calculations of energies, geometries, and vibrational wavenumbers of fluorous 1,3-dion compounds are carried out using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with LANL2DZ basis sets. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs in the molecules. The thermodynamic functions of fluorous 1,3-dion compounds have been performed at B3LYP/LANL2DZ basis sets. The theoretical spectrograms for F NMR spectra of fluorous 1,3-dion compounds have also been constructed. The F NMR nuclear shieldings of fluoride ligands in fluorous 1,3-dion compounds have been studied quantum chemical.

Keywords: density function theory, natural bond orbital, HOMO, LOMO, fluorous

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5518 Topological Analysis of Hydrogen Bonds in Pyruvic Acid-Water Mixtures

Authors: Ferid Hammami

Abstract:

The molecular geometries of the possible conformations of pyruvic acid-water complexes (PA-(H₂O)ₙ = 1- 4) have been fully optimized at DFT/B3LYP/6-311G ++ (d, p) levels of calculation. Among several optimized molecular clusters, the most stable molecular arrangements obtained when one, two, three, and four water molecules are hydrogen-bonded to a central pyruvic acid molecule are presented in this paper. Apposite topological and geometrical parameters are considered as primary indicators of H-bond strength. Atoms in molecules (AIM) analysis shows that pyruvic acid can form a ring structure with water, and the molecular structures are stabilized by both strong O-H...O and C-H...O hydrogen bonds. In large clusters, classical O-H...O hydrogen bonds still exist between water molecules, and a cage-like structure is built around some parts of the central molecule of pyruvic acid. The electrostatic potential energy map (MEP) and the HOMO-LUMO molecular orbital (highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) analysis has been performed for all considered complexes.

Keywords: pyruvic acid, PA-water complex, hydrogen bonding, DFT, AIM, MEP, HOMO-LUMO

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5517 Origin of Hydrogen Bonding: Natural Bond Orbital Electron Donor-Acceptor Interactions

Authors: Mohamed Ayoub

Abstract:

We perform computational investigation using density functional theory, B3LYP with aug-cc-pVTZ basis set followed by natural bond orbital analysis (NBO), which provides best single “natural Lewis structure” (NLS) representation of chosen wavefunction (Ψ) with natural resonance theory (NRT) to provide an analysis of molecular electron density in terms of resonance structures (RS) and weights (w). We selected for the study a wide range of gas phase dimers (B…HA), with hydrogen bond dissociation energies (ΔEB…H) that span more than two orders of magnitude. We demonstrate that charge transfer from a donor Lewis-type NBO (nB:) to an acceptor non-Lewis-type NBO (σHA*) is the primary cause for H-bonding not classical electrostatic (dipole-dipole or ionic). We provide a variety of structure, and spectroscopic descriptors to support the conclusion, such as IR frequency shift (ΔνHA), H-bond penetration distance (ΔRB..H), bond order (bB..H), charge-transfer (CTB→HA) and the corresponding donor-acceptor stabilization energy (ΔE(2)).

Keywords: natural bond orbital, hydrogen bonding, electron donor, electron acceptor

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5516 A Density Functional Theory Computational Study on the Inhibiting Action of Some Derivatives of 1,8-Bis(Benzylideneamino)Naphthalene against Aluminum Corrosion

Authors: Taher S. Ababneh, Taghreed M. A. Jazzazi, Tareq M. A. Alshboul

Abstract:

The inhibiting action against aluminum corrosion by three derivatives of 1,8-bis (benzylideneamino) naphthalene (BN) Schiff base has been investigated by means of DFT quantum chemical calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory. The derivatives (CBN, NBN and MBN) were prepared from the condensation reaction of 1,8-diaminonaphthalene with substituted benzaldehyde (4-CN, 3-NO₂ and 3,4-(OMe)₂, respectively). Calculations were conducted to study the adsorption of each Schiff base on aluminum surface to evaluate its potential as a corrosion inhibitor. The computational structural features and electronic properties of each derivative such as relative energies and energies of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) have been reported. Thermodynamic functions and quantum chemical parameters such as the hardness of the inhibitor, the softness and the electrophilicity index were calculated to determine the derivative of the highest inhibition efficiency.

Keywords: corrosion, aluminum, DFT calculation, 1, 8-diaminonaphthalene, benzaldehyde

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5515 Spectroscopic, Molecular Structure and Electrostatic Potential, Polarizability, Hyperpolarizability, and HOMO–LUMO Analysis of Monomeric and Dimeric Structures of N-(2-Methylphenyl)-2-Nitrobenzenesulfonamide

Authors: A. Didaoui, N. Benhalima, M. Elkeurti, A. Chouaih, F. Hamzaoui

Abstract:

The monomer and dimer structures of the title molecule have been obtained from density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP method with 6-31G (d,p) as basis set calculations. The optimized geometrical parameters obtained by B3LYP/6-31G (d,p) method show good agreement with xperimental X-ray data. The polarizability and first order hyperpolarizabilty of the title molecule were calculated and interpreted. the intermolecular N–H•••O hydrogen bonds are discussed in dimer structure of the molecule. The vibrational wave numbers and their assignments were examined theoretically using the Gaussian 03 set of quantum chemistry codes. The predicted frontier molecular orbital energies at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method set show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The frontier molecular orbital calculations clearly show the inverse relationship of HOMO–LUMO gap with the total static hyperpolarizability. The results also show that N-(2-Methylphenyl)-2-nitrobenzenesulfonamide molecule may have nonlinear optical (NLO) comportment with non-zero values.

Keywords: DFT, Gaussian 03, NLO, N-(2-Methylphenyl)-2-nitrobenzenesulfonamide

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5514 The Spectroscopic, Molecular Structure and Electrostatic Potential, Polarizability Hyperpolarizability, and Homo–Lumo Analysis of Monomeric and Dimeric Structures of 2-Chloro-N-(2 Methylphenyl) Benzamide

Authors: N. Khelloul, N. Benhalima, A. Chouaih, F. Hamzaoui

Abstract:

The monomer and dimer structures of the title molecule have been obtained from density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP method with 6-31G (d,p) as basis set calculations. The optimized geometrical parameters obtained by B3LYP/6-31G (d,p) method shows good agreement with experimental X-ray data. The polarizability and first order hyperpolarizabilty of the title molecule were calculated and interpreted. The intermolecular N–H•••O hydrogen bonds are discussed in dimer structure of the molecule. The vibrational wave numbers and their assignments were examined theoretically using the Gaussian 09 set of quantum chemistry codes. The predicted frontier molecular orbital energies at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method set show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The frontier molecular orbital calculations clearly show the inverse relationship of HOMO–LUMO gap with the total static hyperpolarizability. The results also show that 2-Chloro-N-(2-methylphenyl) benzamide 2 molecule may have nonlinear optical (NLO) comportment with non-zero values.

Keywords: DFT, HOMO, LUMO, NLO

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5513 The Spectroscopic, Molecular Structure and Electrostatic Potential, Polarizability, Hyperpolarizability, and HOMO–LUMO Analysis of Monomeric and Dimeric Structures of N-(2-Methylphenyl)-2-Nitrobenzenesulfonamide

Authors: A. Didaoui, N. Benhalima, M. Elkeurti, A. Chouaih, F. Hamzaoui

Abstract:

The monomer and dimer structures of the title molecule have been obtained from density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP method with 6-31G(d,p) as basis set calculations. The optimized geometrical parameters obtained by B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method show good agreement with experimental X-ray data. The polarizability and first order hyperpolarizability of the title molecule were calculated and interpreted. The intermolecular N–H•••O hydrogen bonds are discussed in dimer structure of the molecule. The vibrational wave numbers and their assignments were examined theoretically using the Gaussian 03 set of quantum chemistry codes. The predicted frontier molecular orbital energies at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method set show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The frontier molecular orbital calculations clearly show the inverse relationship of HOMO–LUMO gap with the total static hyperpolarizability. The results also show that N-(2-Methylphenyl)-2-nitrobenzenesulfonamide molecule may have nonlinear optical (NLO) comportment with non-zero values.

Keywords: DFT, Gaussian 03, NLO, N-(2-Methylphenyl)-2-nitrobenzenesulfonamide, polarizability

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5512 Theorical Studies on the Structural Properties of 2,3-Bis(Furan-2-Yl)Pyrazino[2,3-F][1,10]Phenanthroline Derivaties

Authors: Zahra Sadeghian

Abstract:

This paper reports on the geometrical parameters optimized of the stationary point for the 2,3-Bis(furan-2-yl)pyrazino[2,3-f][1,10]phenanthroline. The calculations are performed using density functional theory (DFT) method at the B3LYP/LanL2DZ level. We determined bond lengths and bond angles values for the compound and calculate the amount of bond hybridization according to the natural bond orbital theory (NBO) too. The energy of frontier orbital (HOMO and LUMO) are computed. In addition, calculated data are accurately compared with the experimental result. This comparison show that the our theoretical data are in reasonable agreement with the experimental values.

Keywords: 2, 3-Bis(furan-2-yl)pyrazino[2, 3-f][1, 10]phenanthroline, density functional theory, theorical calculations, LanL2DZ level, B3LYP level

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5511 An Acyclic Zincgermylene: Rapid H₂ Activation

Authors: Martin Juckel

Abstract:

Probably no other field of inorganic chemistry has undergone such a rapid development in the past two decades than the low oxidation state chemistry of main group elements. This rapid development has only been possible by the development of new bulky ligands. In case of our research group, super-bulky monodentate amido ligands and β-diketiminate ligands have been used to a great success. We first synthesized the unprecedented magnesium(I) dimer [ᴹᵉˢNacnacMg]₂ (ᴹᵉˢNacnac = [(ᴹᵉˢNCMe)₂CH]-; Mes = mesityl, which has since been used both as reducing agent and also for the synthesis of new metal-magnesium bonds. In case of the zinc bromide precursor [L*ZnBr] (L*=(N(Ar*)(SiPri₃); (Ar* = C₆H₂{C(H)Ph₂}₂Me-2,6,4, the reduction with [ᴹᵉˢNacnacMg]₂ led to such a metal-magnesium bond. This [L*ZnMg(ᴹᵉˢNacnac)] compound can be seen as an ‘inorganic Grignard reagent’, which can be used to transfer the metal fragment onto other functional groups or other metal centers; just like the conventional Grignard reagent. By simple addition of (TBoN)GeCl (TBoN = N(SiMe₃){B(DipNCH)₂) to the aforesaid compound, we were able to transfer the amido-zinc fragment to the Ge center of the germylene starting material and to synthesize the first example of a germanium(II)-zinc bond: [:Ge(TBoN)(ZnL*)]. While these reactions typically led to complex product mixture, [:Ge(TBoN)(ZnL*)] could be isolated as dark blue crystals in a good yield. This new compound shows interesting reactivity towards small molecules, especially dihydrogen gas. This is of special interest as dihydrogen is one of the more difficult small molecules to activate, due to its strong (BDE = 108 kcal/mol) and non-polar bond. In this context, the interaction between H₂ σ-bond with the tetrelylene p-Orbital (LUMO), with concomitant donation of the tetrelylene lone pair (HOMO) into the H₂ σ* orbital are responsible for the activation of dihydrogen gas. Accordingly, the narrower the HOMO-LUMO gap of tertelylene, the more reactivity towards H₂ it typically is. The aim of a narrow HOMO-LUMO gap was reached by transferring electropositive substituents respectively metal substituents with relatively low Pauling electronegativity (zinc: 1.65) onto the Ge center (here: the zinc-amido fragment). In consideration of the unprecedented reactivity of [:Ge(TBoN)(ZnL*)], a computational examination of its frontier orbital energies was undertaken. The energy separation between the HOMO, which has significant Ge lone pair character, and the LUMO, which has predominantly Ge p-orbital character, is narrow (40.8 kcal/mol; cf.∆S-T= 24.8 kcal/mol), and comparable to the HOMO-LUMO gaps calculated for other literature known complexes). The calculated very narrow HOMO-LUMO gap for the [:Ge(TBoN)(ZnL*)] complex is consistent with its high reactivity, and is remarkable considering that it incorporates a π-basic amide ligand, which are known to raise the LUMO of germylenes considerably.

Keywords: activation of dihydrogen gas, narrow HOMO-LUMO gap, first germanium(II)-zinc bond, inorganic Grignard reagent

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5510 Membrane Permeability of Middle Molecules: A Computational Chemistry Approach

Authors: Sundaram Arulmozhiraja, Kanade Shimizu, Yuta Yamamoto, Satoshi Ichikawa, Maenaka Katsumi, Hiroaki Tokiwa

Abstract:

Drug discovery is shifting from small molecule based drugs targeting local active site to middle molecules (MM) targeting large, flat, and groove-shaped binding sites, for example, protein-protein interface because at least half of all targets assumed to be involved in human disease have been classified as “difficult to drug” with traditional small molecules. Hence, MMs such as peptides, natural products, glycans, nucleic acids with various high potent bioactivities become important targets for drug discovery programs in the recent years as they could be used for ‘undruggable” intracellular targets. Cell membrane permeability is one of the key properties of pharmacodynamically active MM drug compounds and so evaluating this property for the potential MMs is crucial. Computational prediction for cell membrane permeability of molecules is very challenging; however, recent advancement in the molecular dynamics simulations help to solve this issue partially. It is expected that MMs with high membrane permeability will enable drug discovery research to expand its borders towards intracellular targets. Further to understand the chemistry behind the permeability of MMs, it is necessary to investigate their conformational changes during the permeation through membrane and for that their interactions with the membrane field should be studied reliably because these interactions involve various non-bonding interactions such as hydrogen bonding, -stacking, charge-transfer, polarization dispersion, and non-classical weak hydrogen bonding. Therefore, parameters-based classical mechanics calculations are hardly sufficient to investigate these interactions rather, quantum mechanical (QM) calculations are essential. Fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method could be used for such purpose as it performs ab initio QM calculations by dividing the system into fragments. The present work is aimed to study the cell permeability of middle molecules using molecular dynamics simulations and FMO-QM calculations. For this purpose, a natural compound syringolin and its analogues were considered in this study. Molecular simulations were performed using NAMD and Gromacs programs with CHARMM force field. FMO calculations were performed using the PAICS program at the correlated Resolution-of-Identity second-order Moller Plesset (RI-MP2) level with the cc-pVDZ basis set. The simulations clearly show that while syringolin could not permeate the membrane, its selected analogues go through the medium in nano second scale. These correlates well with the existing experimental evidences that these syringolin analogues are membrane-permeable compounds. Further analyses indicate that intramolecular -stacking interactions in the syringolin analogues influenced their permeability positively. These intramolecular interactions reduce the polarity of these analogues so that they could permeate the lipophilic cell membrane. Conclusively, the cell membrane permeability of various middle molecules with potent bioactivities is efficiently studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Insight of this behavior is thoroughly investigated using FMO-QM calculations. Results obtained in the present study indicate that non-bonding intramolecular interactions such as hydrogen-bonding and -stacking along with the conformational flexibility of MMs are essential for amicable membrane permeation. These results are interesting and are nice example for this theoretical calculation approach that could be used to study the permeability of other middle molecules. This work was supported by Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED) under Grant Number 18ae0101047.

Keywords: fragment molecular orbital theory, membrane permeability, middle molecules, molecular dynamics simulation

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5509 New Teaching Tools for a Modern Representation of Chemical Bond in the Course of Food Science

Authors: Nicola G. G. Cecca

Abstract:

In Italian IPSSEOAs, high schools that give a vocational education to students that will work in the field of Enogastronomy and Hotel Management, the course of Food Science allows the students to start and see food as a mixture of substances that they will transform during their profession. These substances are characterized not only by a chemical composition but also by a molecular structure that makes them nutritionally active. But the increasing number of new products proposed by Food Industry, the modern techniques of production and transformation, the innovative preparations required by customers have made many information reported in the most wide spread Food Science textbooks not up-to-date or too poor for the people who will work in catering sector. Often Authors offer information aged to Bohr’s Atomic Model and to the ‘Octet Rule’ proposed by G.N. Lewis to describe the Chemical Bond, without giving any reference to new as Orbital Atomic Model and Molecular Orbital Theory that, in the meantime, start to be old themselves. Furthermore, this antiquated information precludes an easy understanding of a wide range of properties of nutritive substances and many reactions in which the food constituents are involved. In this paper, our attention is pointed out to use GEOMAG™ to represent the dynamics with which the chemical bond is formed during the synthesis of the molecules. GEOMAG™ is a toy, produced by the Swiss Company Geomagword S.A., pointed to stimulate in children, aged between 6-10 years, their fantasy and their handling ability and constituted by metallic spheres and metallic magnetic bars coated by coloured plastic materials. The simulation carried out with GEOMAG™ is based on the similitude existing between the Coulomb’s force and the magnetic attraction’s force and in particular between the formulae with which they are calculated. The electrostatic force (F in Newton) that allows the formation of the chemical bond can be calculated by mean Fc = kc q1 q2/d2 where: q1 e q2 are the charge of particles [in Coulomb], d is the distance between the particles [in meters] and kc is the Coulomb’s constant. It is surprising to observe that the attraction’s force (Fm) acting between the magnetic extremities of GEOMAG™ used to simulate the chemical bond can be calculated in the same way by using the formula Fm = km m1 m2/d2 where: m1 e m2 represent the strength of the poles [A•m], d is the distance between the particles [m], km = μ/4π in which μ is the magnetic permeability of medium [N•A-2]. The magnetic attraction can be tested by students by trying to keep the magnetic elements of GEOMAG™ separate by hands or trying to measure by mean an appropriate dynamometric system. Furthermore, by using a dynamometric system to measure the magnetic attraction between the GEOMAG™ elements is possible draw a graphic F=f(d) to verify that the curve obtained during the simulation is very similar to that one hypnotized, around the 1920’s by Linus Pauling to describe the formation of H2+ in according with Molecular Orbital Theory.

Keywords: chemical bond, molecular orbital theory, magnetic attraction force, GEOMAG™

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5508 Theoretical Studies on the Formation Constant, Geometry, Vibrational Frequencies and Electronic Properties Dinuclear Molybdenum Complexes

Authors: Mahboobeh Mohadeszadeh, Behzad Padidaran Moghaddam

Abstract:

In order to measuring dinuclear molybdenum complexes formation constant First,the reactants and the products were optimized separately and then, their frequencies were measured. In next level , with using Hartree-fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) methods ,Theoretical studies on the geometrical parameters, electronic properties and vibrational frequencies of dinuclear molybdenum complexes [C40H44Mo2N2O20] were investigated . These calculations were performed with the B3LYP, BPV86, B3PW91 and HF theoretical method using the LANL2DZ (for Mo’s) + 6-311G (for others) basis sets. To estimate the error rate between theoretical data and experimental data, RSquare , SError and RMS values that according with the theoretical and experimental parameters found out DFT methods has more integration with experimental data compare to HF methods. In addition, through electron specification of compounds, the percentage of atomic orbital’s attendance in making molecular orbital’s, atoms electrical charge, the sustainable energy resulting and also HOMO and LUMO orbital’s energy achieved.

Keywords: geometrical parameters, hydrogen bonding, electronic properties, vibrational frequencies

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5507 Radiologic Assessment of Orbital Dimensions Among Omani Subjects: Computed Tomography Imaging-Based Study

Authors: Marwa Al-Subhi, Eiman Al-Ajmi, Mallak Al-Maamari, Humood Al-Dhuhli, Srinivasa Rao

Abstract:

The orbit and its contents are affected by various pathologies and craniofacial anomalies. Sound knowledge of the normal orbital dimensions is clinically essential for successful surgical outcomes and also in the field of forensic anthropology. Racial, ethnic, and regional variations in the orbital dimensions have been reported. This study sought to determine the orbital dimensions of Omani subjects who had been referred for computed tomography (CT) images at a tertiary care hospital. A total of 273 patients’ CT images were evaluated retrospectively by using an electronic medical records database. The orbital dimensions were recorded using both axial and sagittal planes of CT images. The mean orbital index (OI) was found to be 83.25±4.83 and the prevalent orbital type was categorized as mesoseme. The mean orbital index was 83.34±5.05 and 83.16±4.57 in males and females, respectively, with their difference being statistically not significant (p=0.76). A statistically significant association was observed between the right and left orbits with regard to horizontal distance (p<0.05) and vertical distance (p<0.01) of orbit and OI (p<0.05). No significant difference between the OI and age groups was observed in both males and females. The mean interorbital distance and interzygomatic distance were found to be 19.45±1.52 mm and 95.59±4.08 mm, respectively. Both of these parameters were significantly higher in males (p<0.05). Results of the present study provide reference values of orbital dimensions in Omani subjects. The prevalent orbital type of Omani subjects is mesoseme, which is a hallmark of the white race.

Keywords: orbit, orbital index, mesoseme, ethnicity, variation

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5506 The Current And Prospective Legal Regime of Non-Orbital Flights

Authors: Olga Koutsika

Abstract:

The paper deals primarily with the question of the legal framework of non-orbital flights. The submission is based upon two pillars, starting with the ill-defined current legal regime and proceeding to further recommendations for the prospective legal regime for non-orbital flights. For this reason, the paper focuses on certain key legal aspects of the topic, including among other things liability, responsibility, jurisdiction, registration and authorisation. Furthermore, taking into consideration the hybrid nature of both the craft conducting non-orbital flights and of the flights themselves, which exit airspace but do not enter an orbit in outer space, the paper addresses each legal question from the perspective of both air law and space law and concludes to a number of recommendations regarding the applicability of each legal regime for each legal question individually.

Keywords: current regime, legal framework, non-orbital flights, prospective regime

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5505 Structural Properties, Natural Bond Orbital, Theory Functional Calculations (DFT), and Energies for Fluorous Compounds: C13H12F7ClN2O

Authors: Shahriar Ghammamy, Masomeh Shahsavary

Abstract:

In this paper, the optimized geometries and frequencies of the stationary point and the minimum energy paths of C13H12F7ClN2O are calculated by using the DFT (B3LYP) methods with LANL2DZ basis sets. B3LYP/ LANL2DZ calculation results indicated that some selected bond length and bond angles values for the C13H12F7ClN2O.

Keywords: C13H12F7ClN2O, vatural bond orbital, fluorous compounds, functional calculations

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5504 Hohmann Transfer and Bi-Elliptic Hohmann Transfer in TRAPPIST-1 System

Authors: Jorge L. Nisperuza, Wilson Sandoval, Edward. A. Gil, Johan A. Jimenez

Abstract:

In orbital mechanics, an active research topic is the calculation of interplanetary trajectories efficient in terms of energy and time. In this sense, this work concerns the calculation of the orbital elements for sending interplanetary probes in the extrasolar system TRAPPIST-1. Specifically, using the mathematical expressions of the circular and elliptical trajectory parameters, expressions for the flight time and the orbital transfer rate increase between orbits, the orbital parameters and the graphs of the trajectories of Hohmann and Hohmann bi-elliptic for sending a probe from the innermost planet to all the other planets of the studied system, are obtained. The relationship between the orbital transfer rate increments and the relationship between the flight times for the two transfer types is found. The results show that, for all cases under consideration, the Hohmann transfer results to be the least energy and temporary cost, a result according to the theory associated with Hohmann and Hohmann bi-elliptic transfers. Saving in the increase of the speed reaches up to 87% was found, and it happens for the transference between the two innermost planets, whereas the time of flight increases by a factor of up to 6.6 if one makes use of the bi-elliptic transfer, this for the case of sending a probe from the innermost planet to the outermost.

Keywords: bi-elliptic Hohmann transfer, exoplanet, extrasolar system, Hohmann transfer, TRAPPIST-1

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5503 Identification of Mx Gene Polymorphism in Indragiri Hulu duck by PCR-RFLP

Authors: Restu Misrianti

Abstract:

The amino acid variation of Asn (allele A) at position 631 in Mx gene was specific to positive antiviral to avian viral desease. This research was aimed at identifying polymorphism of Mx gene in duck using molecular technique. Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was used to select the genotype of AA, AG and GG. There were thirteen duck from Indragiri Hulu regency (Riau Province) used in this experiment. DNA amplification results showed that the Mx gene in duck is found in a 73 bp fragment. Mx gene in duck did not show any polymorphism. The frequency of the resistant allele (AA) was 0%, while the frequency of the susceptible allele (GG) was 100%.

Keywords: duck, Mx gene, PCR, RFLP

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5502 Development of Orbital TIG Welding Robot System for the Pipe

Authors: Dongho Kim, Sung Choi, Kyowoong Pee, Youngsik Cho, Seungwoo Jeong, Soo-Ho Kim

Abstract:

This study is about the orbital TIG welding robot system which travels on the guide rail installed on the pipe, and welds and tracks the pipe seam using the LVS (Laser Vision Sensor) joint profile data. The orbital welding robot system consists of the robot, welder, controller, and LVS. Moreover we can define the relationship between welding travel speed and wire feed speed, and we can make the linear equation using the maximum and minimum amount of weld metal. Using the linear equation we can determine the welding travel speed and the wire feed speed accurately corresponding to the area of weld captured by LVS. We applied this orbital TIG welding robot system to the stainless steel or duplex pipe on DSME (Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co. Ltd.,) shipyard and the result of radiographic test is almost perfect. (Defect rate: 0.033%).

Keywords: adaptive welding, automatic welding, pipe welding, orbital welding, laser vision sensor, LVS, welding D/B

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5501 Normal Coordinate Analysis, Molecular Structure, Vibrational, Electronic Spectra, and NMR Investigation of 4-Amino-3-Phenyl-1H-1,2,4-Triazole-5(4H)-Thione by Ab Initio HF and DFT Method

Authors: Khaled Bahgat

Abstract:

In the present work, the characterization of 4-Amino-3-phenyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thione (APTT) molecule was carried out by quantum chemical method and vibrational spectral techniques. The FT-IR (4000–400 cm_1) and FT-Raman (4000–100 cm_1) spectra of APTT were recorded in solid phase. The UV–Vis absorption spectrum of the APTT was recorded in the range of 200–400 nm. The molecular geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies and bonding features of APTT in the ground state have been calculated by HF and DFT methods using 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The complete vibrational frequency assignments were made by normal coordinate analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force field methodology (SQMF). The molecular stability and bond strength were investigated by applying the natural bond orbital analysis (NBO) and natural localized molecular orbital (NLMO) analysis. The electronic properties, such as excitation energies, absorption wavelength, HOMO and LUMO energies were performed by time depended DFT (TD-DFT) approach. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shift of the molecule were calculated using the gauge-including atomic orbital (GIAO) method and compared with experimental results. Finally, the calculation results were analyzed to simulate infrared, FT-Raman and UV spectra of the title compound which shows better agreement with observed spectra.

Keywords: 4-amino-3-phenyl-1H-1, 2, 4-triazole-5(4H)-thione, vibrational assignments, normal coordinate analysis, quantum mechanical calculations

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5500 Molecular Electrostatic Potential in Z-3N(2-Ethoxyphenyl), 2-N'(2-Ethoxyphenyl) Imino Thiazolidin-4-one Molecule by Ab Initio and DFT Methods

Authors: Manel Boulakoud, Abdelkader Chouaih, Fodil Hamzaoui

Abstract:

In the present work we are interested in the determination of the Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) in Z-3N(2-Ethoxyphenyl), 2-N’(2-Ethoxyphenyl) imino thiazolidin-4-one molecule by ab initio and Density Functional Theory (DFT) in the ground state. The MEP is related to the electronic density and is a very useful descriptor in understanding sites for electrophilic attack and nucleophilic reactions as well as hydrogen bonding interactions. First, geometry optimization was carried out using Hartree–Fock (HF) and DFT methods with 6-311G(d,p) basis set. In order to get more information on the molecule, its stability has been analyzed by natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Mulliken population analyses have been calculated. Finally, the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and HOMO-LUMO energy levels have been performed. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show also the charge transfer within the molecule. The energy gap obtained is about 4 eV which explain the stability of the studied compound. The obtained molecular electrostatic potential from the two methods confirms the nature of the electron charge transfer at the molecular shell and locate the electropositive part and the electronegative part in molecular scale of the title compound.

Keywords: DFT, ab initio, HOMO-LUMO, organic compounds

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5499 Quantum Chemical Calculations Synthesis and Corrosion Inhibition Efficiency of Nonionic Surfactants on API X65 Steel Surface under H2s Environment

Authors: E. G. Zaki, M. A. Migahed, A. M. Al-Sabagh, E. A. Khamis

Abstract:

Inhibition effect of four novel nonionic surfactants based on sulphonamide, of linear alkyl benzene sulphonic acid (LABS), was reacted with 1 mole triethylenetetramine, tetraethylenepentamine then Ethoxylation of amide X 65 type carbon steel in oil wells formation water under H2S environment was investigated by electrochemical measurements. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersion X-ray (EDX) were used to characterize the steel surface. The results showed that these surfactants act as a corrosion inhibitor in and their inhibition efficiencies depend on the ethylene oxide content in the system. The obtained results showed that the percentage inhibition efficiency (η%) was increased by increasing the inhibitor concentration until the critical micelle concentration (CMC) reached The quantum chemistry calculations were carried out to study the molecular geometry and electronic structure of obtained derivatives. The energy gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital has been calculated using the theoretical computations to reflect the chemical reactivity and kinetic stability of compounds.

Keywords: corrosion, surfactants, steel surface, quantum

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5498 Calculation of Orbital Elements for Sending Interplanetary Probes

Authors: Jorge Lus Nisperuza Toledo, Juan Pablo Rubio Ospina, Daniel Santiago Umana, Hector Alejandro Alvarez

Abstract:

This work develops and implements computational codes to calculate the optimal launch trajectories for sending a probe from the earth to different planets of the Solar system, making use of trajectories of the Hohmann and No-Hohmann type and gravitational assistance in intermediate steps. Specifically, the orbital elements, the graphs and the dynamic simulations of the trajectories for sending a probe from the Earth towards the planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn are obtained. A detailed study was made of the state vectors of the position and orbital velocity of the considered planets in order to determine the optimal trajectories of the probe. For this purpose, computer codes were developed and implemented to obtain the orbital elements of the Mariner 10 (Mercury), Magellan (Venus), Mars Global Surveyor (Mars) and Voyager 1 (Jupiter and Saturn) missions, as an exercise in corroborating the algorithms. This exercise gives validity to computational codes, allowing to find the orbital elements and the simulations of trajectories of three future interplanetary missions with specific launch windows.

Keywords: gravitational assistance, Hohmann’s trajectories, interplanetary mission, orbital elements

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5497 Yarkovsky Effect on the Orbital Dynamics of the Asteroid (101955) Bennu

Authors: Sanjay Narayan Deo, Badam Singh Kushvah

Abstract:

Bennu(101955) is a half kilometer potentially hazardous near-Earth asteroid. We analyze the influence of Yarkovsky effect and relativistic effect of the Sun on the motion of the asteroid Bennu. The transverse model is used to compute Yarkovsky force on asteroid Bennu. Our dynamical model includes Newtonian perturbations of eight planets, the Moon, the Sun and three massive asteroid (1Ceres, 2Palas and 4Vesta). We showed the variation in orbital elements of nominal orbit of the asteroid. In the presence of Yarkovsky effect, the Semi-major axis of the orbit of the asteroid is decreases by 350 m over one period of orbital motion. The magnitude of Yarkovsky force is computed. We find that maximum magnitude of Yarkovsky force is 0.09 N at the perihelion . We also found that the magnitude of the Sun relativity effect is greater than the Yarkovsky effect on the motion the asteroid Bennu.

Keywords: Bennu, orbital elements, relativistic effect, Yarkovsky effect

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5496 A Density Function Theory Based Comparative Study of Trans and Cis - Resveratrol

Authors: Subhojyoti Chatterjee, Peter J. Mahon, Feng Wang

Abstract:

Resveratrol (RvL), a phenolic compound, is a key ingredient in wine and tomatoes that has been studied over the years because of its important bioactivities such as anti-oxidant, anti-aging and antimicrobial properties. Out of the two isomeric forms of resveratrol i.e. trans and cis, the health benefit is primarily associated with the trans form. Thus, studying the structural properties of the isomers will not only provide an insight into understanding the RvL isomers, but will also help in designing parameters for differentiation in order to achieve 99.9% purity of trans-RvL. In the present study, density function theory (DFT) study is conducted, using the B3LYP/6-311++G** model to explore the through bond and through space intramolecular interactions. Properties such as vibrational spectroscopy (IR and Raman), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, excess orbital energy spectrum (EOES), energy based decomposition analyses (EDA) and Fukui function are calculated. It is discovered that the structure of trans-RvL, although it is C1 non-planar, the backbone non-H atoms are nearly in the same plane; whereas the cis-RvL consists of two major planes of R1 and R2 that are not in the same plane. The absence of planarity gives rise to a H-bond of 2.67Å in cis-RvL. Rotation of the C(5)-C(8) single bond in trans-RvL produces higher energy barriers since it may break the (planar) entire conjugated structure; while such rotation in cis-RvL produces multiple minima and maxima depending on the positions of the rings. The calculated FT-IR spectrum shows very different spectral features for trans and cis-RvL in the region 900 – 1500 cm-1, where the spectral peaks at 1138-1158 cm-1 are split in cis-RvL compared to a single peak at 1165 cm-1 in trans-RvL. In the Raman spectra, there is significant enhancement of cis-RvL in the region above 3000cm-1. Further, the carbon chemical environment (13C NMR) of the RvL molecule exhibit a larger chemical shift for cis-RvL compared to trans-RvL (Δδ = 8.18 ppm) for the carbon atom C(11), indicating that the chemical environment of the C group in cis-RvL is more diverse than its other isomer. The energy gap between highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest occupied molecular orbital (LUMO) is 3.95 eV for trans and 4.35 eV for cis-RvL. A more detailed inspection using the recently developed EOES revealed that most of the large energy differences i.e. Δεcis-trans > ±0.30 eV, in their orbitals are contributed from the outer valence shell. They are MO60 (HOMO), MO52-55 and MO46. The active sites that has been captured by Fukui function (f + > 0.08) are associated with the stilbene C=C bond of RvL and cis-RvL is more active at these sites than in trans-RvL, as cis orientation breaks the large conjugation of trans-RvL so that the hydroxyl oxygen’s are more active in cis-RvL. Finally, EDA highlights the interaction energy (ΔEInt) of the phenolic compound, where trans is preferred over the cis-RvL (ΔΔEi = -4.35 kcal.mol-1) isomer. Thus, these quantum mechanics results could help in unwinding the diversified beneficial activities associated with resveratrol.

Keywords: resveratrol, FT-IR, Raman, NMR, excess orbital energy spectrum, energy decomposition analysis, Fukui function

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5495 DFT Study of Hoogsteen-Type Base Pairs

Authors: N. Amraoui, D. Hammoutene

Abstract:

We have performed a theoretical study using dispersion-corrected Density Functional Methods to evaluate a variety of artificial nucleobases as candidates for metal-mediated Hoogsteen-type base pairs. We focus on A-M-T Hoogsteen-type base pair with M=Co(II), Ru(I), Ni(I). All calculations are performed using (ADF 09) program. Metal-mediated Hoogsteen-type base pairs are studied as drug candidates, their geometry optimizations are performed at ZORA/TZ2P/BLYP-D level. The molecular geometries and different energies as total energies, coordination energies, Pauli interactions, orbital interactions and electrostatic energies are determined.

Keywords: chemistry, biology, density functional method, orbital interactions

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5494 PMEL Marker Identification of Dark and Light Feather Colours in Local Canary

Authors: Mudawamah Mudawamah, Muhammad Z. Fadli, Gatot Ciptadi, Aulanni’am

Abstract:

Canary breeders have spread throughout Indonesian regions for the low-middle society and become an income source for them. The interesting phenomenon of the canary market is the feather colours become one of determining factor for the price. The advantages of this research were contributed to the molecular database as a base of selection and mating for the Indonesia canary breeder. The research method was experiment with the genome obtained from canary blood isolation. The genome did the PCR amplification with PMEL marker followed by sequencing. Canaries were used 24 heads of light and dark colour feathers. Research data analyses used BioEdit and Network 4.6.0.0 software. The results showed that all samples were amplification with PMEL gene with 500 bp fragment length. In base sequence of 40 was found Cytosine(C) in the light colour canaries, while the dark colour canaries was obtained Thymine (T) in same base sequence. Sequence results had 286-415 bp fragment and 10 haplotypes. The conclusions were the PMEL gene (gene of white pigment) was likely to be used PMEL gene to detect molecular genetic variation of dark and light colour feather.

Keywords: canary, haplotype, PMEL, sequence

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5493 Some Aspects on Formation Initialization and Its Maintenance of Leo Satellites

Authors: Y. Johnson

Abstract:

Study of multi-satellite formation flight systems has drawn wide attention recently due to so many potential advantages. The present work aims to model the relative motion dynamics in terms of change in classical orbital parameters between the two satellites-chief and deputy- under Earth’s oblateness effect. The required impulsive thrust control is calculated to minimize these orbital parameter changes. The formation configuration is initialized by selecting a set of orbital parameters for the chief and deputy satellites such that bounded motion is maintained for a long time in a J_2-invariant relative non-circular orbit between the satellites. The solution of J_2-modified Hill’s equations is also derived in this paper.

Keywords: satellite, formation flight, j2 effect, control

Procedia PDF Downloads 201