Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2856

Search results for: food and drinks

2856 User Survey on Food and Drinks in Japanese Public Libraries

Authors: Marika Kawamoto, Keita Tsuji

Abstract:

Several decades ago, food and drinks were disallowed in most Japanese libraries. However, as discussions of “Library as a Place” have increased in recent years, the number of public and university libraries that have relaxed their policies to allow food and drinks have been increasing. This study focused on the opinions of library users on allowing food and drinks in public libraries and conducted a questionnaire survey among users of nine Japanese libraries. The results indicated that many users favored allowing food and drinks in libraries. Furthermore, it was found that users tend to frequently visit and stay longer in libraries where food and drinks are allowed.

Keywords: food and drinks, Japanese libraries, opinions of users, public libraries

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2855 Development and Characterization of Kefir Drinks from Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) and Winter Melon (Benincasa hispida)

Authors: Uthumporn Utra, Y. N. Shariffa, M. Maizura, A. S. Ruri

Abstract:

This research is to study the utilization of pumpkin and winter melon as the main substrate for kefir fermentation in the production of pumpkin and winter melon-based fermented drinks. Optimized temperature and time were chosen for fermentation of pumpkin and winter melon. Physicochemical and microbiological evaluations were conducted to the end products: P (fermented pumpkin juice) and K (fermented winter melon juice). Ethanol content was detected at low concentration of 0.9% (v/wt) in P, and 1.0% (v/wt) in K. Level of glucose and fructose increased significantly (p < 0.05) in both fermented drinks when compared to unfermented pumpkin (CP) and winter melon (CK) juices. Total phenolic content in P & K was higher than CP and CK, while %DPPH inhibition of both decreased significantly. Total Lactobacilli counts in P & K were 8.9 and 7.88 log cfu/ml respectively, while acetic acid bacteria counts were 8.62 and 7.57 log cfu/ml respectively, yeast counts were 4.71 and 5 log cfu/ml, and no E.coli was detected in all samples. Sensory evaluation yield comparable properties in P & K. This concluded that pumpkin and winter melon fermented drinks inoculated by water kefir grains could be promising source of nutrients with probiotic potency.

Keywords: fermented drinks, functional beverage, kefir, pumpkin, winter melon

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2854 Quality Assessment of Some Selected Locally Produced and Marketed Soft Drinks

Authors: Gerardette Darkwah, Gloria Ankar Brewoo, John Barimah, Gilbert Owiah Sampson, Vincent Abe-Inge

Abstract:

Soft drinks which are widely consumed in Ghana have been reported in other countries to contain toxic heavy metals beyond the acceptable limits in other countries. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the quality characteristics of selected locally produced and marketed soft drinks. Three (3) different batches of 23 soft drinks were sampled from the Takoradi markets. The samples were prescreened for the presence of reducing sugars, phosphates, alcohol and carbon dioxide. The heavy metal contents and physicochemical properties were also determined with AOAC methods. The results indicated the presence of reducing sugars, carbon dioxide and the absence of alcohol in all the selected soft drink samples. The pH, total sugars, moisture, total soluble solids (TSS) and titratable acidity ranged from 2.42 – 3.44, 3.30 – 10.44%, 85.63 – 94.85%, 5.00 – 13.33°Brix, and 0.21 – 1.99% respectively. The concentration of heavy metals were also below detection limits in all samples. The quality of the selected were within specifications prescribed by regulatory bodies.

Keywords: heavy metal contamination, locally manufactured, quality, soft drinks

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2853 Eating Patterns and Food Coping Strategy for Students of Prof. Dr. Hamka University During Covid-19 Pandemic

Authors: Chica Riska Ashari, Yoli Farradika

Abstract:

Background: Nutritional problems arise due to food security problems in the family, such as the ability of families to obtain food which is common in poor people due to lack of economic access to buy food. For this reason, it is hoped that there will be actions or behaviors that can be taken to fulfill their food or known as the Food Coping Strategy. The purpose of this study is to identify the eating patterns and Food Coping strategies of household students of prof. DR. HAMKA Muhammadiyah University Jakarta during the covid-19 pandemic. Methods: This study is a quantitative observational study with a cross-sectional approach. The dependent variable in this study is food coping strategies and eating patterns. The location of this research is Prof. DR. Hamka Muhammadiyah University. The population in this study were all students of Prof. DR. HAMKA Muhammadiyah University. The sampling technique is purposive sampling. The minimum number of samples in this study is 97 people with a response rate or drop out an estimate of 10%, so the total number of samples was 107 people. Statistical analysis with descriptive analysis. Results: The results showed that most of the food coping strategies were carried out by the students of the household of Prof. DR. HAMKA Muhammadiyah University, were buying the cheaper food (91.6%), then changing the priority of buying food (75.7%) and household members who carry out this food coping strategy are mothers (59.8%) then followed by students themselves (57, 9%). The diet of most students at the Prof. DR. HAMKA Muhammadiyah University in a day was fond of consuming sugar and foods containing sugar (candy, sugar, honey, sweet drinks) (98.1%) then eggs (97.2%). Conclusion: Food coping strategies are mostly used by households students at Prof. DR. HAMKA Muhammadiyah University who were buying the cheaper food and the member who did this behavior the most were the mothers. The diet of most students at Prof. DR. HAMKA Muhammadiyah University in a day was fond of consuming sugar and foods containing sugar (candy, sugar, honey, sweet drinks).

Keywords: behavior, eating patterns, food coping strategies, food security, students

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2852 Association of Caffeine Consumption in Coffee, Tea and Soft Drinks with Age of Menopause

Authors: Julita D. L. Nainggolan, Cindy Novita Ongkowijoyo, Veli Sungono, Dyana Safitri Velies, Ernestine Vivie Sadeli, Jimmy

Abstract:

Introduction: Normal menstrual cycle in women ranges from 21-34 days. Menopause is defined as the time when there have been no menstrual periods for 12 consecutive months and no other biological or physiological cause can be identified. Caffeine might increase the estradiol in the early of follicular phase and possibly increase the progesterone and shorten menstruation cycle. Women with shorter menstrual cycle, (below 26 days) would likely get to menopause 1.4 years earlier than those who are normal, and 2.2 years earlier than women with longer menstrual cycle. Purpose: To study the association of caffeine consumption in coffee, tea, and soft drinks with the age of menopause. Design Study: A cross-sectional study using purposive sampling of 132 menopause women from elderly nursing, hospitals and students’ relatives from August 2015-December 2015. The mean difference of age of menopause among the caffeine intake was analyzed by using the unpaired t-test and logistic regression. Results: Mean current age of the respondents are 61.4 years ± SD 9.8; and age of menopause was 47.7 years ± SD 4.2. There are 49.6% who drink coffee, 62.6% of tea and 7.6% of soft drinks. The analysis of t-test showed no significant mean difference in age of menopause among women who drink coffee, tea and soft drinks, mean age of 47.63 ± 4.3 in coffee with p=0.392, mean age of 47.8 ± 4 in tea with p=0.373; and mean age of 46 ± 5.5 with p=0.083 after adjustment of smoking history. Conclusion: Consumption of caffeine among women who drink coffee, tea, and soft drinks did not show significant mean difference in age of menopause.

Keywords: caffeine, menopause, coffee, tea, soda, soft drinks

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2851 Positioning Food Safety in Halal Assurance

Authors: Marin Neio Demirci, Jan Mei Soon, Carol A. Wallace

Abstract:

Muslims follow the religion of Islam and the food they eat should be Halal, meaning lawful or permissible. Muslims are allowed to eat halal and wholesome food that has been provided for them. However, some of the main prohibitions are swine flesh, blood, carrion, animals not slaughtered according to Islamic laws and alcoholic drinks. At present Halal assurance is in a complicated state, with various Halal standards differing from each other without gaining mutual acceptance. The world is starting to understand the need for an influential globally accepted standard that would open doors to global markets and gain consumer confidence. This paper discusses issues mainly related to food safety in Halal assurance. The aim was to discover and describe the approach to food safety requirements in Halal food provision and how this is incorporated in the Halal assurance systems. The position of food safety regulation within Halal requirements or Halal standards’ requirements for food safety is still unclear. This review also considers whether current Halal standards include criteria in common with internationally accepted food hygiene standards and emphasizes the potential of using the HACCP system for Halal assurance.

Keywords: certification, GHP, HACCP, Halal standard

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2850 Using Human-Digestive Simulator to Harbor Encapsulated Lactobacillus casei 01 along with Pasteurized-Purple-Rice Drinks for Examination of the Health-Promoting Effects

Authors: Srivilai Worametrachanon, Arunee Apichartsrangkoon, Jiranat Techarang, Boonrak Phanchaisri

Abstract:

A human-digestive simulator consisted of four colon compartments, i.e., stomach, small intestine, proximal colon and distal colon used to harbor L. casei 01 plus either pasteurized ordinary-purple-rice drinks or germinated-purple-rice drinks. Accordingly, three treatment compositions had been set up and the effects of treatments on colon bacterial communities including their by-products were thoroughly examined. L. casei 01 plus purple-rice drinks gave rise to significantly high formation (P ≤ 0.05) of short-chain-fatty acids (SCFA) of which highest acetic acid was found followed by propionic and butyric acids, while the germinated-rice drink showed the greatest impact. Moreover, the effect was more pronounced upon prolonged fermentation. In addition, the influence of treatments on colon microbes was also demonstrated. Accordingly, desirable bacteria including colon Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria were significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) in both colons in comparison with the control and the effect was more prominent after adding purple-rice drink. On the other hand, undesirable Clostridia and coliforms were apparently diminished by the influence of treatment conditions, in which both compartments exhibited similar results.

Keywords: human-digestive simulator, Lactobacillus casei 01, Pasteurized-purple-rice drinks

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2849 Designing an Automatic Mechanical System to Prevent Cancers Caused by Drinks

Authors: Ghasem Yazadani, Hamidreza Ahmadi, Masoud Ahmadi, Sajad Rezazadeh

Abstract:

In this paper with designing and proposing a compound of a heating and cooling system has been tried to show effect of this system on preventing esophagus cancer that can be caused by hot and cold drinks such as tea, coffee and ice water. This system has been simulated mechanically by fluent software and also has been validated by experimental way and a comprehensive result has been presented. Both of solution ways show that this system can reduce or increase temperature of drink to safe very dramatically and it can be a huge step toward consuming drinks safely and also it can be efficient about time issues. The system consists of a temperature sensor and an electronic controller that has a computer program to act automatically this task. Also this system has been presented after many different simulations and has been tried to find the best one in the point view of velocity of heating and cooling.

Keywords: fluent, heat transfer, controller, esophagus cancer

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
2848 The Influence of Advertising in the Respect of the Right to Adequate Food: Some Notes regarding the Portuguese Legal Framework

Authors: Susana Almeida

Abstract:

The right to adequate food is a human right protected under several international human rights treaties of universal or regional application. In addition, this social right is – as we intend to demonstrate – guaranteed under the Portuguese Constitution. Therefore, in order to assure the protection of this right, the Portuguese State must not only abstain from interfering with this human right (negative obligation) but also take action to secure the human right to adequate food (positive obligation). In this context, the Portuguese State has developed several governmental policies, such as taxing sugary drinks, setting the maximum amount of salt in the bread or creating the National Program for the Promotion of Healthy Food. Nevertheless, we intend to demonstrate that special attention should be given to advertising, as advertisements have an extreme influence on the consumers' decisions and hence on the food decisions. In this paper, besides explaining the cross construction of the human right to adequate food, we aim to examine the Advertising Portuguese Code and to study the several provisions that could be held by the Portuguese consumer to challenge some advertisements due to the violation of the right to health and the right to adequate food. Moreover, having in mind the influence of advertising on the food decisions and the serious problems that unhealthy food may bring (e.g., child obesity), one should ask if this legal framework should not be reviewed in order to lay out some restrictions on advertising, namely setting advices like in alcohol advertisements.

Keywords: advertising code, consumer law, right to adequate food, social human right

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2847 High Phosphate-Containing Foods and Beverages: Perceptions of the Future Healthcare Providers on Their Harmful Effect in Excessive Consumption

Authors: ATM Emdadul Haque

Abstract:

Phosphorus is an essential nutrient which is regularly consumed with food and exists in the body as phosphate. Phosphate is an important component of cellular structures and needed for bone mineralization. Excessive accumulation of phosphate is an important driving factor of mortality in chronic renal failure patients; of relevance, these patients are usually provided health care by doctors, nurses, and pharmacists. Hence, this study was planned to determine the level of awareness of the future healthcare providers about the phosphate-containing foods and beverages and to access their knowledge on the harmful effects of excess phosphate consumption. A questionnaire was developed and distributed among the year-1 medical, nursing and pharmacy students. 432 medical, nursing and pharmacy students responded with age ranging from 18-24 years. About 70% of the respondents were female with a majority (90.7%) from Malay ethnicity. Among the respondents, 29.9% were medical, 35.4% were the pharmacy and 34.7% were nursing students. 79.2% students knew that phosphate was an important component of the body, but only 61.8% knew that consuming too much phosphate could be harmful to the body. Despite 97% of the students knew that carbonated soda contained high sugar, surprisingly 77% of them did not know the presence of high phosphate in the same soda drinks; in the similar line of observation, 67% did not know the presence of it in the fast food. However, it was encouraging that 94% of the students wanted to know more about the effects of phosphate consumption, 74.3% were willing to give up drinking soda and eating fast food, and 52% considered taking green coconut water instead of soda drinks. It is, therefore, central to take an educational initiative to increase the awareness of the future healthcare providers about phosphate-containing food and its harmful effects in excessive consumptions.

Keywords: high phosphate containing foods and beverages, excessive consumption, future health care providers, phosphorus

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2846 Designing of Almond Drink with Phytonutrients Assigned for Pro-Health Oriented Consumers

Authors: Gramza-Michalowska Anna, Skrety Joanna, Kobus-Cisowska Joanna, Kmiecik Dominik, Korczak Jozef, Anna Zywica

Abstract:

Background: Recent research presented many evidences confirming that food besides its basic nutritional function, possess significant therapeutic and prophylactic potential. Conscious consumer is aware of diet habits and well being lifestyle influencing a proper functioning that is why there is a need of new pro-health products. Objective: Proposition of the technology of unsweetened almond drinks enriched with plant extracts for pro-health oriented individuals. Research investigated the influence of selected plant extracts addition on antioxidative activity and consumer’s acceptance of drinks as all day diet product representatives. Methods: The analysis of the basic composition and antioxidant properties of the almond drink was conducted. Research included analysis of basic composition (protein, lipids and fiber content) and antioxidant capacity of drink (DPPH, ABTS, ORAC value, and FRAP). Proposed drink was also characterized with sensory analysis, including color, aroma, taste, consistency, and overall acceptance. Results: Results showed that addition of plant extracts into an almond drink allowed to improve its antioxidant capacity and sensory value of the drinks. Profitable composition and pro-health properties of designed drink permits offering healthy product for all day consumption. Conclusion: Designed almond drink would be a significant supplement for pro-healthy life style of the consumers. Results showed that plant extracts enriched almond drink would be a good source of antioxidants and accepted by the consumers.

Keywords: phytonutrients, pro-health, almond, wellbeing, antioxidant potential, sensory value

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2845 A Study for Turkish Underwater Sports Federation Athletes: Evaluation of the Street Foods Consumption

Authors: Su Tezel

Abstract:

The paper deals with licensed athletes affiliated with the Turkish Underwater Sports Federation to assess the consumption status of street food. The aim of the paper is the frequency of training during competition preparatory training or season periods, the athletes' economic situation, social life, work-life or education situations are the directs them to street food? Also to evaluate the importance that athletes attach to their nutritional status. Data were collected with survey method. 141 underwater sports athletes participated in the survey. Empirical findings on 141 respondents are related to athletes' demographic information, which underwater sports branch they doing (underwater hockey, underwater rugby and free diving), with whom they live, training hours and frequency, street food consumption frequency and preferences, which type drinks they prefer drink with or without street foods and other similar things. Most of the athletes were male (64.5%), female (35.5%) and the most athletes from the sports branches included in the survey belong to underwater hockey (95.7%). 93.7% of athletes have a training time between 08:00 pm to 00:00 am and the frequency of consuming street food after training is 88%. As a remarkable result, 48% of the reasons for consuming street food easy access to street foods after training. Statistical analyzes were made with the data obtained and the status of street food consumption of athletes, whether they were suitable for professional athlete nutrition and their attitudes were evaluated.

Keywords: nutrition, street foods, underwater hockey, underwater sport

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2844 Designing of Oat Drink with Phytonutrients Assigned for Pro-Health Oriented Consumers

Authors: Gramza-Michalowska Anna, Skrety Joanna, Anna Zywica, Kobus-Cisowska Joanna, Kmiecik Dominik, Korczak Jozef

Abstract:

Background: Modern consumer highly appreciates the positive influence of consumed products on well-being and overall health. High acceptance of new food is a result of intensified research showing many proofs confirming that food offers significant prophylactic and therapeutic potential, next to its basic nutritional function. Objective: Proposition of the technology of unsweetened oat drinks enriched with plant extracts for pro-health oriented individuals. We investigated the effects of selected plant extracts addition on antioxidative capacity and consumer’s acceptance of drinks as representative of all day diet product. Methods: The analysis of the basic composition and antioxidant properties of the drinking product was conducted. Basic composition included protein, lipids and fiber content. Antioxidant capacity of drink was evaluated with use radical scavenging methods (DPPH, ABTS), ORAC value and FRAP. Proposed drink as new product was also characterized with sensory analysis, which included color, aroma, taste, consistency and overall acceptance. Results: Results showed that addition of plant extracts into a oat drink allowed to enhance its antioxidant potential and influenced significantly its sensory values. The preferred composition and properties of designed beverage permit claim that it can have a positive impact on the health of the consumers. Conclusion: Designed oat drink would be an answer for pro-healthy life style of the consumers. Results showed that product with plant extracts addition would be accepted by the consumers and because of its antioxidative potential could be an important factor in prevention of free radicals influence on human organism.

Keywords: phytonutrients, pro-health, well-being, antioxidant potential, sensory value

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2843 Development and Evaluation of a Nutraceutical Herbal Summer Drink

Authors: Munish Garg, Vinni Ahuja

Abstract:

In the past few years, the high consumption of soft drinks has attracted negative attention world-wide due to its possible adverse effects, leading the health conscious people to find alternative nutraceutical or herbal health drinks. In the present study, a nutraceutical soft drink was developed utilizing some easily available and well known traditional herbs having nutritional potential. The key ingredients were selected as bael, amla, lemon juice, ashwagandha and poppy seeds based on their household routine use in the summer with proven refreshing, cooling and energetic feeling since ages. After several trials made, the final composition of nutraceutical summer soft drink was selected as most suitable combination based on the taste, physicochemical, microbial and organoleptic point of view. The physicochemical analysis of the prepared drink found to contain optimum level of titratable acidity, total soluble solids and pH which were in accordance of the commercial recommendations. There were no bacterial colonies found in the product therefore found within limits. During the nine point’s hedonic scale sensory evaluation, the drink was strongly liked for colour, taste, flavour and texture. The formulation was found to contain flavonoids (80mg/100ml), phenolics (103mg/100ml), vitamin C (250mg/100ml) and has antioxidant potential (75.52%) apart from providing several other essential vitamins, minerals and healthy components. The developed nutraceutical drink provides an economical and feasible option for the consumers with very good taste combined with potential health benefits. The present drink is potentially capable to replace the synthetic soft drinks available in the market.

Keywords: herbal drink, summer drink, nutraceuticals, soft drink

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2842 Food Package Design To Preserve The Food Temperature

Authors: Sugiono, Wuwus Ardiatna, Himma Firdaus, Nanang Kusnandar, Bayu Utomo, Jimmy Abdel Kadar

Abstract:

This study was aimed to explore the best design of single-used hot food packaging through various package designs. It examined how designed packages keep some local hot food reasonably longer than standard packages. The food packages were realized to consist of the outer and the inner layers of food-grade materials. The packages were evaluated to keep the hot food decreased to the minimum temperature of safe food. This study revealed a significant finding that the transparent plastic box with thin film aluminum foil is the best package.

Keywords: hot food, local food, one used, packaging, aluminum foil

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2841 Antihyperlipidemia Combination of Simvastatin and Herbal Drink (Conventional Drug Interaction Potential Study and Herbal As Prevention Adverse Effect on Combination Therapy Hyperlipidemia)

Authors: Gesti Prastiti, Maylina Adani, Yuyun darma A. N., M. Khilmi F., Yunita Wahyu Pratiwi

Abstract:

Combination therapy may allow interaction on two drugs or more that can give adverse effects on patients. Simvastatin is a drug of antihyperlipidemia it can interact with drugs which work on cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 because it can interfere the performance of simvastatin. Flavonoid found in plants can inhibit the cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 if taken with simvastatin and can increase simvastatin levels in the body and increases the potential side effects of simvastatin such as myopati and rhabdomyolysis. Green tea leaves and mint are herbal medicine which has the effect of antihiperlipidemia. This study aims to determine the potential interaction of simvastatin with herbal drinks (green tea leaves and mint). This research method are experimental post-test only control design. Test subjects were divided into 5 groups: normal group, negative control group, simvastatin group, a combination of green tea group and the combination group mint leaves. The study was conducted over 32 days and total cholesterol levels were analyzed by enzymatic colorimetric test method. Results of this study is the obtainment of average value of total cholesterol in each group, the normal group (65.92 mg/dL), the negative control group the average total cholesterol test in the normal group was (69.86 mg/dL), simvastatin group (58.96 mg/dL), the combination of green tea group (58.96 mg/dL), and the combination of mint leaves (63.68 mg/dL). The conclusion is between simvastatin combination therapy with herbal drinks have the potential for pharmacodynamic interactions with a synergistic effect, antagonist, and a powerful additive, so the combination therapy are no more effective than a single administration of simvastatin therapy.

Keywords: hyperlipidemia, simvastatin, herbal drinks, green tea leaves, mint leaves, drug interactions

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2840 Sustainable Food Systems and the Importance of Food Safety in Ensuring Sustainability

Authors: Özlem Turan, Şule Turhan

Abstract:

About 1 billion people in the world are suffering from hunger. Approximately 1.3 billion tons of produced food is wasted each year as well. While the waste of industrialized countries is 670 million tons per year, the waste per year in developing countries is estimated as 630 million tons. When evaluated in this respect, the importance of sustainability and food security can be seen clearly. Food safety is defined as taking the necessary measures and eliminating all risk arising from food. The goal of sustainable food security is, protection of consumer health, development of safe food and beverages trade nationally and internationally and to ensure reliable fair trade schemes. In this study, this study will focus on sustainable food systems and food security, by examining the food wastage and losses from environmental and economic point of views and the precautions that need to be taken will be discussed.

Keywords: food, food safety, food systems, sustainability

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2839 Determination of Cadmium , Lead, Nickel, and Zinc in Some Green Tea Samples Collected from Libyan Markets

Authors: Jamal A. Mayouf, Hashim Salih Al Bayati

Abstract:

Green tea is one of the most common drinks in all cities of Libyan. Heavy metal contents such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) were determined in four green tea samples collected from Libyan market and their tea infusions by using atomic emission spectrophotometry after acid digestion. The results obtained indicate that the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni, and Zn in tea infusions samples ranged from 0.07-0.12, 0.19-0.28, 0.09-0.15, 0.18-0.43 mg/l after boiling for 5 min., 0.06-0.08, 0.18-0.23, 0.08-0.14, 0.17-0.27 mg/l after boiling for 10 min., 0.07-0.11, 0.18-0.24, 0.08-0.14, 0.21-0.34 mg/l after boiling for 15 min. respectively. On the other hand, the concentrations of the same element mentioned above obtained in tea leaves ranged from 6.0-18.0, 36.0-42.0, 16.0-20.0, 44.0-132.0 mg/kg respectively. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn in tea leaves samples were higher than Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) limit and World Health Organization(WHO) permissible limit.

Keywords: tea, infusion, metals, Libya

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2838 Re-Defining Food Waste and Food Waste Management in the Food Service Sector: A Case Study in a University Food Service Unit

Authors: Boineelo P. Lefadola, Annemarie T. Viljoen, Gerrie E. Du Rand

Abstract:

The food service sector wastes staggering quantities of food. More than one-third of food produced today gets wasted. This is both perplexing and daunting given that not all that is wasted is accounted for when measuring food waste. It is recognised that the present food waste definitions are ambiguous and do not really take into account all food waste generated. The contention is that food waste in the food service sector can be prevented or reduced if we have an explicit food waste definition in the context of food service. This study, therefore, explores the definition of the concept of food waste in the food service sector and its implications on sustainable food waste management strategies. An ethnographic research approach was adopted. A university food service unit was selected as a research site. Data collection techniques employed included document analyses, participant observations, focus group discussions with front-of-house and back-of-house staff, and one-on-one interviews with staff on managerial positions. A grounded theory approach was applied to analyse data. The concept of food waste was constructed differently by different levels of staff. Whereas managers raised discussion from a financial perspective, BOH and FOH staff drew upon socio-cultural implications. This study lays the foundation for a harmonised definition of the concept of food waste in food service.

Keywords: food service, food waste, food waste management, sustainability

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2837 Determination of Lead , Cadmium, Nickel and Zinc in Some Green Tea Samples Collected from Libyan Markets

Authors: Jamal A. Mayouf, Hashim Salih Al Bayati, Eltayeb M. Emmima

Abstract:

Green tea is one of the most common drinks in all cities of Libyan. Heavy metal contents such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) were determined in four green tea samples collected from Libyan market and their tea infusions by using atomic emission spectrophotometry after acid digestion. The results obtained indicate that the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn in tea infusions samples ranged from 0.07-0.12, 0.19-0.28, 0.09-0.15, 0.18-0.43 mg/l after boiling for 5 min., 0.06-0.08, 0.18-0.23, 0.08-0.14, 0.17-0.27 mg/l after boiling for 10 min., 0.07-0.11, 0.18-0.24, 0.08-0.14, 0.21-0.34 mg/l after boiling for 15 min. respectively. On the other hand, the concentrations of the same element mentioned above obtained in tea leaves ranged from 6.0-18.0, 36.0-42.0, 16.0-20.0, 44.0-132.0 mg/kg respectively. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn in tea leaves samples were higher than Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) limit and World Health Organization(WHO) permissible limit.

Keywords: boiling, infusion, metals, tea

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2836 Knowledge of Risk Factors and Health Implications of Fast Food Consumption among Undergraduate in Nigerian Polytechnic

Authors: Adebusoye Michael, Anthony Gloria, Fasan Temitope, Jacob Anayo

Abstract:

Background: The culture of fast food consumption has gradually become a common lifestyle in Nigeria especially among young people in urban areas, in spite of the associated adverse health consequences. The adolescent pattern of fast foods consumption and their perception of this practice, as a risk factor for Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs), have not been fully explored. This study was designed to assess fast food consumption pattern and the perception of it as a risk factor for NCDs among undergraduates of Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. Methodology: The study was descriptive cross-sectional in design. One hundred and eighty-five students were recruited using systematic random sampling method from the two halls of residence. A structured questionnaire was used to assess the consumption pattern of fast foods. Data collected from the questionnaires were analysed using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 16. Simple descriptive statistics, such as frequency counts and percentages were used to interpret the data. Results: The age range of respondents was 18-34 years, 58.4% were males, 93.5% singles and 51.4% of their parents were employed. The majority (100%) were aware of fast foods and (75%) agreed to its implications as NCD. Fast foods consumption distribution included meat pie (4.9%), beef roll/ sausage (2.7%), egg roll (13.5%), doughnut (16.2%), noodles(18%) and carbonated drinks (3.8%). 30.3% consumed thrice in a week and 71% attached workload to high consumption of fast food. Conclusion: It was revealed that a higher social pressure from peers, time constraints, class pressure and school programme had the strong influence on high percentages of higher institutions’ students consume fast foods and therefore nutrition educational campaigns for campus food outlets or vendors and behavioural change communication on healthy nutrition and lifestyles among young people are hereby advocated.

Keywords: fast food consumption, Nigerian polytechnic, risk factors, undergraduate

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
2835 The Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior of Beverage in Retail Stores Chiang Mai Province

Authors: Winita Kitisak, Boontarika Panyomoon, Siriyakorn Nilpoun, Nithit Yosit, Peeraya Somsak

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The purpose of this study will affect the marketing mix that influences the consumers’ behavior towards beverage purchasing from retail stores. It aims to study the consumers and to better understand their behaviors and factors influencing their decision making on buying beverage in retail stores. We study the example of 400 consumers in Chiang Mai. The study shows that most of the respondents were male, 50 percent is 20-30 year old, and 36.66 percent is 31-40 year old, only 2.66 percent is upper 50 years old, bachelor’s degree holders, working in business field and student with 10,001-15,000 Baht income. Most buyers spend 4-6 times a week buying cheap beverage from retail stores. The consumer bought alcoholic beverages, green tea drinks, and soft drinks, but the mainly purchased product was beer. The results indicate that the brand of the product motivates more on consumers’ demand. While shelf displays, products presentation, and sales promotion affect the most on the consumers’ decision to purchase from the retail stores, the promotions moderately impact the consumers’ decision on purchasing from retail stores.

Keywords: consumer behavior, beverage, retail stores, convenience store

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2834 Development of Milky Products Leavend by Kefir Grains with Reduced Lactose and Flavored with Tropical Fruit

Authors: A. L. Balieiro, D. S. Silveira, R. A. Santos, L. S. Freitas, O. L. S. De Alsina, A. S. Lima, C. M. F. Soares

Abstract:

The state of Sergipe has been emerging in milk production, mainly in the dairy basin located in the northeast of the state of the Brazil. However, this area concentrates the production of dairy, developing diverse products with higher aggregated value and scent and regional flavours. With this goal the present wok allows the development of dairy drinks with reduced lactose index, using kefir grains flavored with mangaba pulp. Initially, the removal of milk lactose was evaluated in adsorption columns completed with silica particles obtained by molecular impression technique, using sol ? gel method with the presence and absence of lactose biomolecule, molecular imprinted polymer (PIM) or pure matrix (MP), respectively. Then kefir grains were used for the development of dairy drinks flavored with regional fruits (mangaba). The products were analyzed sensorially, evaluated the probiotic potential and the removal of the lactose. Among the products obtained, the one that present best result in the sensorially was to the drink with removal PIM flavored of mangaba, for which around 60% of the testers indicated that would buy the new product.

Keywords: molecular imprinted polymer, milk, lactose, kefir

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2833 Legal Issues of Food Security in Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: G. T. Aigarinova

Abstract:

This article considers the legal issues of food security as a major component of national security of the republic. The problem of food security is the top priority of the economic policy strategy of any state, the effectiveness of this solution influences social, political, and ethnic stability in society. Food security and nutrition is everyone’s business. Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. By analyzing the existing legislation in the area of food security, the author identifies weaknesses and gaps, suggesting ways to improve it.

Keywords: food security, national security, agriculture, public resources, economic security

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
2832 Reducing the Risk of Alcohol Relapse after Liver-Transplantation

Authors: Rebeca V. Tholen, Elaine Bundy

Abstract:

Background: Liver transplantation (LT) is considered the only curative treatment for end-stage liver disease Background: Liver transplantation (LT) is considered the only curative treatment for end-stage liver disease (ESLD). The effects of alcoholism can cause irreversible liver damage, cirrhosis and subsequent liver failure. Alcohol relapse after transplant occurs in 20-50% of patients and increases the risk for recurrent cirrhosis, organ rejection, and graft failure. Alcohol relapse after transplant has been identified as a problem among liver transplant recipients at a large urban academic transplant center in the United States. Transplantation will reverse the complications of ESLD, but it does not treat underlying alcoholism or reduce the risk of relapse after transplant. The purpose of this quality improvement project is to implement and evaluate the effectiveness of a High-Risk Alcoholism Relapse (HRAR) Scale to screen and identify patients at high-risk for alcohol relapse after receiving an LT. Methods: The HRAR Scale is a predictive tool designed to determine the severity of alcoholism and risk of relapse after transplant. The scale consists of three variables identified as having the highest predictive power for early relapse including, daily number of drinks, history of previous inpatient treatment for alcoholism, and the number of years of heavy drinking. All adult liver transplant recipients at a large urban transplant center were screened with the HRAR Scale prior to hospital discharge. A zero to two ordinal score is ranked for each variable, and the total score ranges from zero to six. High-risk scores are between three to six. Results: Descriptive statistics revealed 25 patients were newly transplanted and discharged from the hospital during an 8-week period. 40% of patients (n=10) were identified as being high-risk for relapse and 60% low-risk (n=15). The daily number of drinks were determined by alcohol content (1 drink = 15g of ethanol) and number of drinks per day. 60% of patients reported drinking 9-17 drinks per day, and 40% reported ≤ 9 drinks. 50% of high-risk patients reported drinking ≥ 25 years, 40% for 11-25 years, and 10% ≤ 11 years. For number of inpatient treatments for alcoholism, 50% received inpatient treatment one time, 20% ≥ 1, and 30% reported never receiving inpatient treatment. Findings reveal the importance and value of a validated screening tool as a more efficient method than other screening methods alone. Integration of a structured clinical tool will help guide the drinking history portion of the psychosocial assessment. Targeted interventions can be implemented for all high-risk patients. Conclusions: Our findings validate the effectiveness of utilizing the HRAR scale to screen and identify patients who are a high-risk for alcohol relapse post-LT. Recommendations to help maintain post-transplant sobriety include starting a transplant support group within the organization for all high-risk patients. (ESLD). The effects of alcoholism can cause irreversible liver damage, cirrhosis and subsequent liver failure. Alcohol relapse after transplant occurs in 20-50% of patients, and increases the risk for recurrent cirrhosis, organ rejection, and graft failure. Alcohol relapse after transplant has been identified as a problem among liver transplant recipients at a large urban academic transplant center in the United States. Transplantation will reverse the complications of ESLD, but it does not treat underlying alcoholism or reduce the risk of relapse after transplant. The purpose of this quality improvement project is to implement and evaluate the effectiveness of a High-Risk Alcoholism Relapse (HRAR) Scale to screen and identify patients at high-risk for alcohol relapse after receiving a LT. Methods: The HRAR Scale is a predictive tool designed to determine severity of alcoholism and risk of relapse after transplant. The scale consists of three variables identified as having the highest predictive power for early relapse including, daily number of drinks, history of previous inpatient treatment for alcoholism, and the number of years of heavy drinking. All adult liver transplant recipients at a large urban transplant center were screened with the HRAR Scale prior to hospital discharge. A zero to two ordinal score is ranked for each variable, and the total score ranges from zero to six. High-risk scores are between three to six. Results: Descriptive statistics revealed 25 patients were newly transplanted and discharged from the hospital during an 8-week period. 40% of patients (n=10) were identified as being high-risk for relapse and 60% low-risk (n=15). The daily number of drinks were determined by alcohol content (1 drink = 15g of ethanol) and number of drinks per day. 60% of patients reported drinking 9-17 drinks per day, and 40% reported ≤ 9 drinks. 50% of high-risk patients reported drinking ≥ 25 years, 40% for 11-25 years, and 10% ≤ 11 years. For number of inpatient treatments for alcoholism, 50% received inpatient treatment one time, 20% ≥ 1, and 30% reported never receiving inpatient treatment. Findings reveal the importance and value of a validated screening tool as a more efficient method than other screening methods alone. Integration of a structured clinical tool will help guide the drinking history portion of the psychosocial assessment. Targeted interventions can be implemented for all high-risk patients. Conclusions: Our findings validate the effectiveness of utilizing the HRAR scale to screen and identify patients who are a high-risk for alcohol relapse post-LT. Recommendations to help maintain post-transplant sobriety include starting a transplant support group within the organization for all high-risk patients.

Keywords: alcoholism, liver transplant, quality improvement, substance abuse

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
2831 Food Safety Management in Riyadh’s Ministry of Health Hospitals

Authors: A. Alrasheed, I. Connerton

Abstract:

Providing patients with safe meals on a daily basis is one of the challenges in the healthcare sector. In Saudi Arabia matters related to food safety and hygiene have been the heart of the Ministry of Health (MOH) and Saudi Food and Drugs Authority (SFDA). The aim of this study is to examine the causes of inadequate implementation of food safety management systems such as HACCP in Riyadh’s MOH hospitals. By the law, food safety must be managed using a documented, HACCP based approach, and food handlers must be appropriately trained in food safety. Food handlers in Saudi Arabia are not required to provide a certificate or attend a food handling training course even in healthcare sectors. Since food safety and hygiene issues are of increasing importance for Saudi Arabian health decision makers, the SFDA has been established to apply food hygiene requirements in all food operations. It should be pointed out that the implications of food outbreaks on the whole society may potentially go beyond individual health impacts but also impact on the Nation’s health and bring about economic repercussions.

Keywords: food safety, patient, hospital, HACCP

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2830 Household Food Wastage Assessment: A Case Study in South Africa

Authors: Fhumulani R. Ramukhwatho, Roelien du Plessis, Suzan H. H. Oelofse

Abstract:

There are a growing number of scientific papers, journals and reports on household food waste, the reason being that food waste has become a significant global issue that is costing billions of Rands in resources. To reduce food waste in a sustainable manner, it requires an understanding of the generation of food waste. This paper assesses household food wastage in the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality (CTMM). A total of 210 interviewed participants using face-to-face interviews based on a structured questionnaire and the actual weighing of households’ food wasted was quantified using a weighing kitchen scale. Fifty-nine percent of respondents agreed that they wasted food, while 41% thought they did not waste food at all. Households wasted an average total of 6 kg of food waste per week per household. The study concluded that households buy and prepare more food that ends up wasted.

Keywords: assessment, developing country, food waste, household

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
2829 The Environmental Effects of Amalgam Tooth Fillings

Authors: Abdulsalam I. Rafida, Abdulhmid M. Alkout, Abdultif M. Alroba

Abstract:

This study investigates the heavy metal content in the saliva of persons with amalgam tooth fillings. For this purpose, samples of saliva have been collected based on two factors i.e. the number of amalgam fillings in the mouth (one, two or three fillings), and the time factor i.e. the time since the fillings have been in place (less than a year and more than a year). Samples of saliva have also been collected from persons with no amalgam tooth fillings for control. The samples that have been collected so far, have been examined for the basic heavy metal content featuring amalgam, which include mercury (Hg) and silver (Ag). However, all the above mentioned elements have been detected in the samples of saliva of the persons with amalgam tooth fillings, though with varying amounts depending on the number of fillings. Thus, for persons with only one filling the average quantities were found to be 0.00061 ppm and 0.033 ppm for Hg and Ag respectively. On the other hand for persons with two fillings the average quantities were found to be 0.0012 ppm and 0.029 ppm for each of the two elements respectively. However, in order to understand the chemical reactions associated with amalgam tooth fillings in the mouth, the material have been treated outside the mouth using some nutrient media. Those media included drinking water, fizzy drinks and hot tea. All three media have been found to contain the three elements after amalgam treatment. Yet, the fizzy drink medium was found to contain the highest levels of those elements.

Keywords: amalgam, mercury, silver, fizzy drinks, media

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2828 The Effect of Fast Food Globalisation on Students’ Food Choice

Authors: Ijeoma Chinyere Ukonu

Abstract:

This research seeks to investigate how the globalisation of fast food has affected students’ food choice. A mixed method approach was used in this research; basically involving quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative method uses a self-completion questionnaire to randomly sample one hundred and four students; while the qualitative method uses a semi structured interview technique to survey four students on their knowledge and choice to consume fast food. A cross tabulation of variables and the Kruskal Wallis nonparametric test were used to analyse the quantitative data; while the qualitative data was analysed through deduction of themes, and trends from the interview transcribe. The findings revealed that globalisation has amplified the evolution of fast food, popularising it among students. Its global presence has affected students’ food choice and preference. Price, convenience, taste, and peer influence are some of the major factors affecting students’ choice of fast food. Though, students are familiar with the health effect of fast food and the significance of using food information labels for healthy choice making, their preference of fast food is more than homemade food.

Keywords: fast food, food choice, globalisation, students

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
2827 Prevalence and Inequality of Food Insecurity among U.S. Households During the Covid-19 Pandemic

Authors: Julia Yi

Abstract:

Using the Household Pulse Survey conducted by the U.S Census Bureau, this study finds that the pandemic increased the prevalence and inequality of food insecurity among US households. About 28% of households were food secure, which doubled the 2019 level. Hispanic and black, low-income households, households lost income, and households with children were impacted most. Food banks provided most free groceries and meals. This study recommends mobilizing emergency food organizations, improving food assistance programs and supply chains, and creating innovative community support.

Keywords: covid-19 pandemic, food insecurity, US, inequality

Procedia PDF Downloads 41