Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 544

Search results for: floor insulation

544 The Effect of Floor Impact Sound Insulation Performance Using Scrambled Thermoplastic Poly Urethane and Ethylene Vinyl Acetate

Authors: Bonsoo Koo, Seong Shin Hong, Byung Kwon Lee

Abstract:

Most of apartments in Korea have wall type structure that present poor performance regarding floor impact sound insulation. In order to minimize the transmission of floor impact sound, flooring structures are used in which an insulating material, 30 mm thickness pad of EPS or EVA, is sandwiched between a concrete slab and the finished mortar. Generally, a single-material pad used for insulation has a heavyweight impact sound level of 44~47 dB with 210 mm thickness slab. This study provides an analysis of the floor impact sound insulation performance using thermoplastic poly urethane (TPU), ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), and expanded polystyrene (EPS) materials with buffering performance. Following mock-up tests the effect of lightweight impact sound turned out to be similar but heavyweight impact sound was decreased by 3 dB compared to conventional single material insulation pad.

Keywords: floor impact sound, thermoplastic poly urethane, ethylene vinyl acetate, heavyweight impact sound

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543 Long-Term Structural Behavior of Resilient Materials for Reduction of Floor Impact Sound

Authors: Jung-Yoon Lee, Jongmun Kim, Hyo-Jun Chang, Jung-Min Kim

Abstract:

People’s tendency towards living in apartment houses is increasing in a densely populated country. However, some residents living in apartment houses are bothered by noise coming from the houses above. In order to reduce noise pollution, the communities are increasingly imposing a bylaw, including the limitation of floor impact sound, minimum thickness of floors, and floor soundproofing solutions. This research effort focused on the specific long-time deflection of resilient materials in the floor sound insulation systems of apartment houses. The experimental program consisted of testing nine floor sound insulation specimens subjected to sustained load for 45 days. Two main parameters were considered in the experimental investigation: three types of resilient materials and magnitudes of loads. The test results indicated that the structural behavior of the floor sound insulation systems under long-time load was quite different from that the systems under short-time load. The loading period increased the deflection of floor sound insulation systems and the increasing rate of the long-time deflection of the systems with ethylene vinyl acetate was smaller than that of the systems with low density ethylene polystyrene.

Keywords: resilient materials, floor sound insulation systems, long-time deflection, sustained load, noise pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
542 Sound Insulation between Buildings: The Impact Noise Transmission through Different Floor Configurations

Authors: Abdelouahab Bouttout, Mohamed Amara

Abstract:

The present paper examines the impact noise transmission through some floor building assemblies. The Acoubat software numerical simulation has been used to simulate the impact noise transmission through different floor configurations used in Algerian construction mode. The results are compared with the available measurements. We have developed two experimental methods, i) field method, and ii) laboratory method using Brüel and Kjær equipments. The results show that the different cases of floor configurations need some improvement to ensure the acoustic comfort in the receiving apartment. The recommended value of the impact sound level in the receiving room should not exceed 58 dB. The important results obtained in this paper can be used as platform to improve the Algerian building acoustic regulation aimed at the construction of the multi-storey residential building.

Keywords: impact noise, building acoustic, floor insulation, resilient material

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541 Acoustic and Thermal Insulating Materials Based on Natural Fibres Used in Floor Construction

Authors: Jitka Hroudova, Jiri Zach

Abstract:

The majority of contemporary insulation materials commonly used in the building industry is made from non-renewable raw materials; furthermore, their production often brings high energy costs. A long-term trend as far as sustainable development is concerned has been the reduction of energy and material demands of building material production. One of the solutions is the possibility of using easily renewable natural raw material sources which are considerably more ecological and their production is mostly less energy-consuming compared to the production of normal insulations (mineral wool, polystyrene). The paper describes the results of research focused on the development of thermal and acoustic insulation materials based on natural fibres intended for floor constructions. Given the characteristic open porosity of natural fibre materials, the hygrothermal behaviour of the developed materials was studied. Especially the influence of relative humidity and temperature on thermal insulation properties was observed.

Keywords: Green thermal and acoustic insulating materials, natural fibres, technical hemp, flax, floor construction

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540 Engineering Method to Measure the Impact Sound Improvement with Floor Coverings

Authors: Katarzyna Baruch, Agata Szelag, Jaroslaw Rubacha, Bartlomiej Chojnacki, Tadeusz Kamisinski

Abstract:

Methodology used to measure the reduction of transmitted impact sound by floor coverings situated on a massive floor is described in ISO 10140-3: 2010. To carry out such tests, the standardised reverberation room separated by a standard floor from the second measuring room are required. The need to have a special laboratory results in high cost and low accessibility of this measurement. The authors propose their own engineering method to measure the impact sound improvement with floor coverings. This method does not require standard rooms and floor. This paper describes the measurement procedure of proposed engineering method. Further, verification tests were performed. Validation of the proposed method was based on the analytical model, Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) model and empirical measurements. The received results were related to corresponding ones obtained from ISO 10140-3:2010 measurements. The study confirmed the usefulness of the engineering method.

Keywords: building acoustic, impact noise, impact sound insulation, impact sound transmission, reduction of impact sound

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
539 Insulation Properties of Rod-Plane Electrode Covered with ATH/SIR Nano-Composite in Dry-Air

Authors: Jae-Yong Sim, Jung-Hun Kwon, Ji-Sung Park, Kee-Joe Lim

Abstract:

One of the latest trends for insulation systems to improve the insulation performance is the use of eco-friendly hybrid insulation using compressed dry-air. Despite the excellent insulation performance of sulphurhexafluoride (SF6) gas, its use has been restricted due to the problems with significant global warming potential (GWP). Accordingly, lightning impulse performance of the hybrid insulation system covered with an aluminum trihydrate/silicone rubber (ATH/SIR) nanocomposite was examined in air at atmospheric pressure and in compressed air at pressures between 0.2 and 0.6 MPa. In the experiments, the most common breakdown path took place along the surface of the covered rod. The insulation reliability after several discharges should be guaranteed in hybrid insulation. On the other hand, the surface of the covered rod was carbonized after several discharges. Therefore, nanoscale ATH can be used as a reinforcement of covered dielectrics to inhibit carbonization on the surface of a covered rod. The results were analyzed in terms of the surface resistivity of the cover dielectrics.

Keywords: nanocomposite, hybrid insulation, ATH, dry-air

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538 Development of Prediction Tool for Sound Absorption and Sound Insulation for Sound Proof Properties

Authors: Yoshio Kurosawa, Takao Yamaguchi

Abstract:

High frequency automotive interior noise above 500 Hz considerably affects automotive passenger comfort. To reduce this noise, sound insulation material is often laminated on body panels or interior trim panels. For a more effective noise reduction, the sound reduction properties of this laminated structure need to be estimated. We have developed a new calculate tool that can roughly calculate the sound absorption and insulation properties of laminate structure and handy for designers. In this report, the outline of this tool and an analysis example applied to floor mat are introduced.

Keywords: automobile, acoustics, porous material, transfer matrix method

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537 The Influence of Cage versus Floor Pen Management of Broilers

Authors: Hanan Al-Khalifa

Abstract:

There has been an interest in raising poultry in environmentally controlled cages rather than on floor, because poultry raised on floor are more susceptible to environmental stress including pathogens and heat stress. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of managerial environmental conditions on body weight gain of Cobb 500 broiler breed. Broilers were raised in cages and on floor in two separate rooms. Body weight at different ages of the broilers was monitored. It was found that body weight at slaughter age (5weeks) for boilers raised in batteries were significantly higher than those raised on the floor.

Keywords: broilers, cages, floor, poultry

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536 An Enhanced Floor Estimation Algorithm for Indoor Wireless Localization Systems Using Confidence Interval Approach

Authors: Kriangkrai Maneerat, Chutima Prommak

Abstract:

Indoor wireless localization systems have played an important role to enhance context-aware services. Determining the position of mobile objects in complex indoor environments, such as those in multi-floor buildings, is very challenging problems. This paper presents an effective floor estimation algorithm, which can accurately determine the floor where mobile objects located. The proposed algorithm is based on the confidence interval of the summation of online Received Signal Strength (RSS) obtained from the IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). We compare the performance of the proposed algorithm with those of other floor estimation algorithms in literature by conducting a real implementation of WSN in our facility. The experimental results and analysis showed that the proposed floor estimation algorithm outperformed the other algorithms and provided highest percentage of floor accuracy up to 100% with 95-percent confidence interval.

Keywords: floor estimation algorithm, floor determination, multi-floor building, indoor wireless systems

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535 Influence of Insulation System Methods on Dissipation Factor and Voltage Endurance

Authors: Farzad Yavari, Hamid Chegini, Saeed Lotfi

Abstract:

This paper reviews the comparison of Resin Rich (RR) and Vacuum Pressure Impregnation (VPI) insulation system qualities for stator bar of rotating electrical machines. Voltage endurance and tangent delta are two diagnostic tests to determine the quality of insulation systems. The paper describes the trend of dissipation factor while performing voltage endurance test for different stator bar samples made with RR and VPI insulation system methods. Some samples were made with the same strands and insulation thickness but with different main wall material to prove the influence of insulation system methods on stator bar quality. Also, some of the samples were subjected to voltage at the temperature of their insulation class, and their dissipation factor changes were measured and studied.

Keywords: VPI, resin rich, insulation, stator bar, dissipation factor, voltage endurance

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534 Change of the Thermal Conductivity of Polystyrene Insulation in term of Temperature at the Mid Thickness of the Insulation Material: Impact on the Cooling Load

Authors: M. Khoukhi

Abstract:

Accurate prediction of the cooling/heating load and consequently, the sizing of the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning equipment require precise calculation of the heat transfer mainly by conduction through envelope components of a building. The thermal resistance of most thermal insulation materials depends on the operating temperature. The temperature to which the insulation materials are exposed varies, depending on the thermal resistance of the materials, the location of the insulation layer within the assembly system, and the effective temperature which depends on the amount of solar radiation received on the surface of the assembly. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the change of the thermal conductivity of polystyrene insulation material in terms of the temperature at the mid-thickness of the material and its effect on the cooling load required by the building.

Keywords: operating temperature, polystyrene insulation, thermal conductivity, cooling load

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533 Development of Water-Based Thermal Insulation Paints Using Silica Aerogel

Authors: Lu Yanru, Handojo Djati Utomo, Yin Xi Jiang, Li Xiaodong

Abstract:

Insulation plays a key role in the sustainable building due to the contribution of energy consumption reduction. Without sufficient insulation, a great amount of the energy used to heat or cool a building will be lost to the outdoors. In this study, we developed a highly efficient thermal insulation paint with the incorporation of silica aerogel. Silica aerogel, with a low thermal conductivity of 0.01 W/mK, has been successfully prepared from the solid waste from the incineration plants. It has been added into water-based paints to increase its thermal insulation properties. To investigate the thermal insulation performance of silica aerogel additive, the paint samples were mixed with silica aerogel at different sizes and with various portions. The thermal conductivity, water resistance, thermal stability and adhesion strength of the samples were tested and evaluated. The thermal diffusivity measurements proved that adding silica aerogel additive could improve the thermal insulation properties of the paint significantly. Up to 5 ˚C reductions were observed after applying paints with silica aerogel additive compare to the one without it. The results showed that the developed thermal insulation paints have great potential for an application in green and sustainable building.

Keywords: silica aerogel, thermal insulation, water-based paints, water resistant

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532 [Keynote Talk]: Thermal Performance of Common Building Insulation Materials: Operating Temperature and Moisture Effect

Authors: Maatouk Khoukhi

Abstract:

An accurate prediction of the heat transfer through the envelope components of building is required to achieve an accurate cooling/heating load calculation which leads to precise sizing of the hvac equipment. This also depends on the accuracy of the thermal conductivity of the building insulation material. The proper use of thermal insulation in buildings (k-value) contribute significantly to reducing the HVAC size and consequently the annual energy cost. The first part of this paper presents an overview of building thermal insulation and their applications. The second part presents some results related to the change of the polystyrene insulation thermal conductivity with the change of the operating temperature and the moisture. Best-fit linear relationship of the k-value in term of the operating temperatures and different percentage of moisture content by weight has been established. The thermal conductivity of the polystyrene insulation material increases with the increase of both operating temperature and humidity content.

Keywords: building insulation material, moisture content, operating temperature, thermal conductivity

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531 The Effect of Fe₂O₃ and Sum of Alkalis Elements on Monocotora Tile

Authors: Fatemeh Ansarniya, Fatemeh Mirjalili, Hamid Reza Abedini, Shabnam Salari, M. Horasht

Abstract:

The study of this research is the effect of using Fe₂O₃ and sum of alkalis elements in the floor tile production. At first, raw materials of floor tile with the same formulation of original sample was prepared and sintered for 39 minutes at 1130˚C in roller kiln and finally, physical properties of the sintered bodies based on floor tile standard process was investigated. The results showed that there was the possibility of production of floor tile containing different percentages of Fe₂O₃ and sum of Na₂O+ K₂O. With increasing the Fe₂O₃ and sum of Na₂O+ K₂O elements, the percentages of water absorption and raw, dry and sintered strengths were decreased, but the percentages of shrinkage were increased which caused the decreasing the percentages of expansion.

Keywords: floor tile, physical properties, Na2O+ K2O, Fe2O3

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530 CFD Analysis of Solar Floor Radiant Heating System with ‎PCM

Authors: Mohammad Nazififard, Reihane Faghihi

Abstract:

This paper is aimed at understanding convective heat transfer of enclosed phase change material (PCM) in the solar and low-temperature hot water radiant floor heating geometry. In order to obtain the best performance of PCM, a radiant heating structure of the energy storage floor is designed which places heat pipes in the enclosed phase change material (PCM) layer, without concrete in it. The governing equations are numerically solved. The PCM thermal storage time is considered in relation to the floor surface temperature under different hot water temperatures. Moreover the PCM thermal storage time is numerically estimated under different supply water temperatures and flow rate. Results show the PCM floor heating system has a potential of making use of the daytime solar energy for heating at night efficiently.

Keywords: solar floor, heating system, phase change material, computational fluid dynamics

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529 Upgrading of Old Large Turbo Generators

Authors: M. Shadmand, T. Enayaty Ahangar, S. Kazemi

Abstract:

Insulation system of electrical machineries is the most critical point for their durability. Depending on generator nominal voltage, its insulation system is designed. In this research, a new stator insulation system is designed by new type of mica tapes which will consequently enables us to decrease the nominal ground-wall insulation thickness for the same voltage level. By keeping constant the slot area, it will be possible to increase the copper value in stator bars which will consequently able us to increase the nominal output current of turbo-generator. This will affect the cooling capability of machinery to some extent. But by considering the thermal conductivity of new insulating system which is improved, it is possible to increase the output power of generator up to 6% more. This research is done practically on a 200 MVA and 15.75 kV turbo-generators which its insulating system is Resin Rich (RR).

Keywords: insulation system, resin rich, VPI, upgrading

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528 Improvement of GVPI Insulation System Characteristics by Curing Process Modification

Authors: M. Shadmand

Abstract:

The curing process of insulation system for electrical machines plays a determinative role for its durability and reliability. Polar structure of insulating resin molecules and used filler of insulation system can be taken as an occasion to leverage it to enhance overall characteristics of insulation system, mechanically and electrically. The curing process regime for insulating system plays an important role for its mechanical and electrical characteristics by arranging the polymerization of chain structure for resin. In this research, the effect of electrical field application on in-curing insulating system for Global Vacuum Pressurized Impregnation (GVPI) system for traction motor was considered by performing the dissipation factor, polarization and de-polarization current (PDC) and voltage endurance (aging) measurements on sample test objects. Outcome results depicted obvious improvement in mechanical strength of the insulation system as well as higher electrical characteristics with routing and long-time (aging) electrical tests. Coming together, polarization of insulation system during curing process would enhance the machine life time. 

Keywords: insulation system, GVPI, PDC, aging

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527 Prediction of Heavy-Weight Impact Noise and Vibration of Floating Floor Using Modified Impact Spectrum

Authors: Ju-Hyung Kim, Dae-Ho Mun, Hong-Gun Park

Abstract:

When an impact is applied to a floating floor, noise and vibration response of high-frequency range is reduced effectively, while amplifies the response at low-frequency range. This means floating floor can make worse noise condition when heavy-weight impact is applied. The amplified response is the result of interaction between finishing layer (mortar plate) and concrete slab. Because an impact force is not directly delivered to concrete slab, the impact force waveform or spectrum can be changed. In this paper, the changed impact spectrum was derived from several floating floor vibration tests. Based on the measured data, numerical modeling can describe the floating floor response, especially at low-frequency range. As a result, heavy-weight impact noise can be predicted using modified impact spectrum.

Keywords: floating floor, heavy-weight impact, prediction, vibration

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526 Experimental Investigation of Cold-Formed Steel-Timber Board Composite Floor Systems

Authors: Samar Raffoul, Martin Heywood, Dimitrios Moutaftsis, Michael Rowell

Abstract:

This paper comprises an experimental investigation into the structural performance of cold formed steel (CFS) and timber board composite floor systems. The tests include a series of small-scale pushout tests and full-scale bending tests carried out using a refined loading system to simulate uniformly distributed constant load. The influence of connection details (screw spacing and adhesives) on floor performance was investigated. The results are then compared to predictions from relevant existing models for composite floor systems. The results of this research demonstrate the significant benefits of considering the composite action of the boards in floor design. Depending on connection detail, an increase in flexural stiffness of up to 40% was observed in the floor system, when compared to designing joists individually.

Keywords: cold formed steel joists, composite action, flooring systems, shear connection

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525 Assessing the Risk of Condensation and Moisture Accumulation in Solid Walls: Comparing Different Internal Wall Insulation Options

Authors: David Glew, Felix Thomas, Matthew Brooke-Peat

Abstract:

Improving the thermal performance of homes is seen as an essential step in achieving climate change, fuel security, fuel poverty targets. One of the most effective thermal retrofits is to insulate solid walls. However, it has been observed that applying insulation to the internal face of solid walls reduces the surface temperature of the inner wall leaf, which may introduce condensation risk and may interrupt seasonal moisture accumulation and dissipation. This research quantifies the extent to which the risk of condensation and moisture accumulation in the wall increases (which can increase the risk of timber rot) following the installation of six different types of internal wall insulation. In so doing, it compares how risk is affected by both the thermal resistance, thickness, and breathability of the insulation. Thermal bridging, surface temperatures, condensation risk, and moisture accumulation are evaluated using hygrothermal simulation software before and after the thermal upgrades. The research finds that installing internal wall insulation will always introduce some risk of condensation and moisture. However, it identifies that risks were present prior to insulation and that breathable materials and insulation with lower resistance have lower risks than alternative insulation options. The implications of this may be that building standards that encourage the enhanced thermal performance of solid walls may be introducing moisture risks into homes.

Keywords: condensation risk, hygrothermal simulation, internal wall insulation, thermal bridging

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524 Offline High Voltage Diagnostic Test Findings on 15MVA Generator of Basochhu Hydropower Plant

Authors: Suprit Pradhan, Tshering Yangzom

Abstract:

Even with availability of the modern day online insulation diagnostic technologies like partial discharge monitoring, the measurements like Dissipation Factor (tanδ), DC High Voltage Insulation Currents, Polarization Index (PI) and Insulation Resistance Measurements are still widely used as a diagnostic tools to assess the condition of stator insulation in hydro power plants. To evaluate the condition of stator winding insulation in one of the generators that have been operated since 1999, diagnostic tests were performed on the stator bars of 15 MVA generators of Basochhu Hydropower Plant. This paper presents diagnostic study done on the data gathered from the measurements which were performed in 2015 and 2016 as part of regular maintenance as since its commissioning no proper aging data were maintained. Measurement results of Dissipation Factor, DC High Potential tests and Polarization Index are discussed with regard to their effectiveness in assessing the ageing condition of the stator insulation. After a brief review of the theoretical background, the strengths of each diagnostic method in detecting symptoms of insulation deterioration are identified. The interesting results observed from Basochhu Hydropower Plant is taken into consideration to conclude that Polarization Index and DC High Voltage Insulation current measurements are best suited for the detection of humidity and contamination problems and Dissipation Factor measurement is a robust indicator of long-term ageing caused by oxidative degradation.

Keywords: dissipation Factor (tanδ), polarization Index (PI), DC High Voltage Insulation Current, insulation resistance (IR), Tan Delta Tip-Up, dielectric absorption ratio

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523 Mineral Thermal Insulation Materials Based on Sodium Liquid Glass

Authors: Zin Min Htet, Tikhomirova Irina Nikolaevna, Karpenko Marina A.

Abstract:

In this paper, thermal insulation materials based on sodium liquid glass with light fillers as foam glass granules with different sizes and wollastonite - M325 (U.S.A production) were studied. Effective mineral thermal insulation materials are in demand in many industries because of their incombustibility and durability. A method for the preparation of such materials based on mechanically foamed sodium liquid glass and light mineral fillers is proposed. The thermal insulation properties depend on the type, amount of filler and on the foaming factor, which is determined by the concentration of the foaming agent. The water resistance of the material is provided by using an additive to neutralize the glass and transfer it to the silica gel.

Keywords: thermal insulation material, sodium liquid glass, foam glass granules, foaming agent, hardener, thermal conductivity, apparent density, compressive strength

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522 Economical Analysis of Optimum Insulation Thickness for HVAC Duct

Authors: D. Kumar, S. Kumar, A. G. Memon, R. A. Memon, K. Harijan

Abstract:

A considerable amount of energy is usually lost due to compression of insulation in Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) duct. In this paper, the economic impact of compression of insulation is estimated. Relevant mathematical models were used to estimate the optimal thickness at the points of compression. Furthermore, the payback period is calculated for the optimal thickness at the critical parts of supply air duct (SAD) and return air duct (RAD) considering natural gas (NG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as fuels for chillier operation. The mathematical model is developed using preliminary data obtained for an HVAC system of a pharmaceutical company. The higher heat gain and cooling loss, due to compression of thermal insulation, is estimated using relevant heat transfer equations. The results reveal that maximum energy savings (ES) in SAD is 34.5 and 40%, while in RAD is 22.9% and 29% for NG and LPG, respectively. Moreover, the minimum payback period (PP) for SAD is 2 and 1.6years, while in RAD is 4.3 and 2.7years for NG and LPG, respectively. The optimum insulation thickness (OIT) corresponding to maximum ES and minimum PP is estimated to be 35 and 42mm for SAD, while 30 and 38mm for RAD in case of NG and LPG, respectively.

Keywords: optimum insulation thickness, life cycle cost analysis, payback period, HVAC system

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521 Numeric Modeling of Condensation of Water Vapor from Humid Air in a Room

Authors: Nguyen Van Que, Nguyen Huy The

Abstract:

This paper presents combined natural and forced convection of humid air flow. The film condensation of water vapour on a cold floor was investigated using ANSYS Fluent software. User-defined Functions(UDFs) were developed and added to address the issue of film condensation at the surface of the floor. Those UDFs were validated by analytical results on a flat plate. The film condensation model based on mass transfer was used to solve phase change. On the floor, condensation rate was obtained by mass fraction change near the floor. The study investigated effects of inlet velocity, inlet relative humidity and cold floor temperature on the condensation rate. The simulations were done in both 2D and 3D models to show the difference and need for 3D modeling of condensation.

Keywords: heat and mass transfer, convection, condensation, relative humidity, user-defined functions

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520 Influence of Nano-ATH on Electrical Performance of LSR for HVDC Insulation

Authors: Ju-Na Hwang, Min-Hae Park, Kee-Joe Lim

Abstract:

Many studies have been conducted on DC transmission. Of power apparatus for DC transmission, High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) cable systems are being evaluated because of the increase in power demand and transmission distance. Therefore, dc insulation characteristics of Liquid Silicone Rubber (LSR), which has various advantages such as short curing time and the ease of maintenance, were investigated to assess its performance as a HVDC insulation material for cable joints. The electrical performance of LSR added to Nano-Aluminum Trihydrate (ATH) was confirmed by measurements of the breakdown strength and electrical conductivity. In addition, field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) was used as a means of confirmation of nano-filler dispersion state. The LSR nano-composite was prepared by compounding LSR filled nano-sized ATH filler. The DC insulation properties of LSR added to nano-sized ATH fillers were found to be superior to those of the LSR without filler.

Keywords: liquid silicone rubber, nano-composite, HVDC insulation, cable joints

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519 Hygrothermal Assessment of Internally Insulated Prefabricated Concrete Wall in Polish Climatic Condition

Authors: D. Kaczorek

Abstract:

Internal insulation of external walls is often problematic due to increased moisture content in the wall and interstitial or surface condensation risk. In this paper, the hygrothermal performance of prefabricated, concrete, large panel, external wall typical for WK70 system, commonly used in Poland in the 70’s, with inside, additional insulation was investigated. Thermal insulation board made out of hygroscopic, natural materials with moisture buffer capacity and extruded polystyrene (EPS) board was used as interior insulation. Experience with this natural insulation is rare in Poland. The analysis was performed using WUFI software. First of all, the impact of various standard boundary conditions on the behavior of the different wall assemblies was tested. The comparison of results showed that the moisture class according to the EN ISO 13788 leads to too high values of total moisture content in the wall since the boundary condition according to the EN 15026 should be usually applied. Then, hygrothermal 1D-simulations were conducted by WUFI Pro for analysis of internally added insulation, and the weak point like the joint of the wall with the concrete ceiling was verified using 2D simulations. Results showed that, in the Warsaw climate and the indoor conditions adopted in accordance with EN 15026, in the tested wall assemblies, regardless of the type of interior insulation, there would not be any problems with moisture - inside the structure and on the interior surface.

Keywords: concrete large panel wall, hygrothermal simulation, internal insulation, moisture related issues

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518 Assessment of Solid Insulating Material Using Partial Discharge Characteristics

Authors: Qasim Khan, Furkan Ahmad, Asfar A. Khan, M. Saad Alam, Faiz Ahmad

Abstract:

In this paper, partial discharge analysis is performed in cavities artificially created in insulation. The setup is according with Cigre-II Method. Circular Samples created from Perspex Sheet with different configuration with changing number of cavities. Assessment of insulation health can be performed by Partial Discharge measurement as this has been found to be important means of condition monitoring. The experiments are done using MPD 540, which is a modern partial discharge measurement system. By analyzing the PD activity obtained for various voids/cavities, it is observed that the PD voltages show variation for cavity’s diameter, depth even for its ratios. This can be employed for scrutiny of insulation system.

Keywords: partial discharges, condition monitoring, insulation defects, degradation and corrosion, PMMA

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517 Simulation Study on Comparison of Thermal Comfort during Heating with All-Air System and Radiant Floor System

Authors: Shiyun Liu

Abstract:

Radiant heating systems work fundamentally differently from air systems by taking advantage of both radiant and convective heat transfer to remove space heating load. There are rare studies on differences of heating systems between all-air system and radiant floor system. This paper uses the method of simulation based on state-space to calculate the indoor temperature and wall temperature of each system and shows how the dynamic heat transfer in rooms conditioned by a radiant system is different from an air system. Then this paper analyses the changes of indoor temperature of these two systems, finding out the differences between all-air heating system and radiant floor heating system to help the designer choose a more suitable heating system.

Keywords: radiant floor, all-air system, thermal comfort, simulation, heating system

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516 Suitability of Alternative Insulating Fluid for Power Transformer: A Laboratory Investigation

Authors: S. N. Deepa, A. D. Srinivasan, K. T. Veeramanju, R. Sandeep Kumar, Ashwini Mathapati

Abstract:

Power transformer is a vital element in a power system as it continuously regulates power flow, maintaining good voltage regulation. The working of transformer much depends on the oil insulation, the oil insulation also decides the aging of transformer and hence its reliability. The mineral oil based liquid insulation is globally accepted for power transformer insulation; however it is potentially hazardous due to its non-biodegradability. In this work efficient alternative biodegradable insulating fluid is presented as a replacement to conventional mineral oil. Dielectric tests are performed as distinct alternating fluid to evaluate the suitability for transformer insulation. The selection of the distinct natural esters for an insulation system is carried out by the laboratory investigation of Breakdown voltage, Oxidation stability, Dissipation factor, Permittivity, Viscosity, Flash and Fire point. It is proposed to study and characterize the properties of natural esters to be used in power transformer. Therefore for the investigation of the dielectric behavior rice bran oil, sesame oil, and sunflower oil are considered for the study. The investigated results have been compared with the mineral oil to validate the dielectric behavior of natural esters.

Keywords: alternative insulating fluid, dielectric properties, natural esters, power transformers

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515 A Case Study on the Effectiveness of the Physical Therapy Home Exercise Program for Pelvic Floor Muscle Training in a Middle-Aged Female Post- Surgical Repair of Stage III Pelvic Organ Prolapse

Authors: Iwona Kasior

Abstract:

Purpose: Pelvic organ prolapse is the descent of pelvic organs into the vaginal opening. Currently, few trials have been conducted to determine the influence of pelvic floor muscle training in decreasing stage or symptoms associated with pelvic organ prolapse. The purpose of this case study is to determine whether pelvic floor muscle training can decrease the stage of pelvic organ prolapse and related symptoms. Case Presentation: This is the case of a 55-year-old female; recently diagnosed with midline cystocele, stage three. She has undergone corrective surgery that failed. She has now resorted to managing the condition with a home exercise regimen of voluntary pelvic floor muscle contractions, topical vaginal crème prescribed by her gynecologist, and slight lifestyle modifications. Methods: The patient was treated by a physical therapist for evaluation, vaginal exam, and educated in the ‘knack’ maneuver, lifestyle modifications, and proper technique of performing pelvic floor muscle contractions. The subject continued with a home exercise program with a specific regimen of pelvic floor muscle contractions and topical vaginal crème. Outcome: As determined by her physical therapist and the subject, her pelvic floor muscle strength had increased following the pelvic floor muscle training regimen and the use of the ‘knack’ maneuver. The subject reported a small decrease in the size of bulging prolapse and related symptoms of dryness, odor, vaginal discomfort, and the sensation of descent. Conclusion: Pelvic floor muscle training helped to lessen the degree of the prolapse, but not significantly enough to decrease the diagnosed stage.

Keywords: Kegel exercises, pelvic floor, pelvic organ prolapse, physical therapy

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