Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 2873

Search results for: fetal QRS detection

2873 A Quality Index Optimization Method for Non-Invasive Fetal ECG Extraction

Authors: Lucia Billeci, Gennaro Tartarisco, Maurizio Varanini


Fetal cardiac monitoring by fetal electrocardiogram (fECG) can provide significant clinical information about the healthy condition of the fetus. Despite this potentiality till now the use of fECG in clinical practice has been quite limited due to the difficulties in its measuring. The recovery of fECG from the signals acquired non-invasively by using electrodes placed on the maternal abdomen is a challenging task because abdominal signals are a mixture of several components and the fetal one is very weak. This paper presents an approach for fECG extraction from abdominal maternal recordings, which exploits the characteristics of pseudo-periodicity of fetal ECG. It consists of devising a quality index (fQI) for fECG and of finding the linear combinations of preprocessed abdominal signals, which maximize these fQI (quality index optimization - QIO). It aims at improving the performances of the most commonly adopted methods for fECG extraction, usually based on maternal ECG (mECG) estimating and canceling. The procedure for the fECG extraction and fetal QRS (fQRS) detection is completely unsupervised and based on the following steps: signal pre-processing; maternal ECG (mECG) extraction and maternal QRS detection; mECG component approximation and canceling by weighted principal component analysis; fECG extraction by fQI maximization and fetal QRS detection. The proposed method was compared with our previously developed procedure, which obtained the highest at the Physionet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2013. That procedure was based on removing the mECG from abdominal signals estimated by a principal component analysis (PCA) and applying the Independent component Analysis (ICA) on the residual signals. Both methods were developed and tuned using 69, 1 min long, abdominal measurements with fetal QRS annotation of the dataset A provided by PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2013. The QIO-based and the ICA-based methods were compared in analyzing two databases of abdominal maternal ECG available on the Physionet site. The first is the Abdominal and Direct Fetal Electrocardiogram Database (ADdb) which contains the fetal QRS annotations thus allowing a quantitative performance comparison, the second is the Non-Invasive Fetal Electrocardiogram Database (NIdb), which does not contain the fetal QRS annotations so that the comparison between the two methods can be only qualitative. In particular, the comparison on NIdb was performed defining an index of quality for the fetal RR series. On the annotated database ADdb the QIO method, provided the performance indexes Sens=0.9988, PPA=0.9991, F1=0.9989 overcoming the ICA-based one, which provided Sens=0.9966, PPA=0.9972, F1=0.9969. The comparison on NIdb was performed defining an index of quality for the fetal RR series. The index of quality resulted higher for the QIO-based method compared to the ICA-based one in 35 records out 55 cases of the NIdb. The QIO-based method gave very high performances with both the databases. The results of this study foresees the application of the algorithm in a fully unsupervised way for the implementation in wearable devices for self-monitoring of fetal health.

Keywords: fetal electrocardiography, fetal QRS detection, independent component analysis (ICA), optimization, wearable

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2872 A Machine Learning Framework Based on Biometric Measurements for Automatic Fetal Head Anomalies Diagnosis in Ultrasound Images

Authors: Hanene Sahli, Aymen Mouelhi, Marwa Hajji, Amine Ben Slama, Mounir Sayadi, Farhat Fnaiech, Radhwane Rachdi


Fetal abnormality is still a public health problem of interest to both mother and baby. Head defect is one of the most high-risk fetal deformities. Fetal head categorization is a sensitive task that needs a massive attention from neurological experts. In this sense, biometrical measurements can be extracted by gynecologist doctors and compared with ground truth charts to identify normal or abnormal growth. The fetal head biometric measurements such as Biparietal Diameter (BPD), Occipito-Frontal Diameter (OFD) and Head Circumference (HC) needs to be monitored, and expert should carry out its manual delineations. This work proposes a new approach to automatically compute BPD, OFD and HC based on morphological characteristics extracted from head shape. Hence, the studied data selected at the same Gestational Age (GA) from the fetal Ultrasound images (US) are classified into two categories: Normal and abnormal. The abnormal subjects include hydrocephalus, microcephaly and dolichocephaly anomalies. By the use of a support vector machines (SVM) method, this study achieved high classification for automated detection of anomalies. The proposed method is promising although it doesn't need expert interventions.

Keywords: biometric measurements, fetal head malformations, machine learning methods, US images

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2871 Chronic Aflatoxin Exposure During Pregnancy Is Associated With Lower Fetal Growth Trajectories: A Prospective Cohort Study in Rural Ethiopia

Authors: K. Tesfamariam, S. Gebreyesus, C. Lachat, P. Kolsteren, S. De Saeger, M. De Boevre, A. Argaw


Aflatoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus fungi, which are ubiquitously present in the food supplies of low- and middle-income countries. Studies of maternal aflatoxin exposure and fetal outcomes are mainly focused on size at birth and the effect on intrauterine fetal growth has not been assessed using repeated longitudinal fetal biometry across gestation. Therefore, this study intends to assess the association between chronic aflatoxin exposure during pregnancy and fetal growth trajectories in a rural Ethiopian setting. In a prospective cohort study, we enrolled 492 pregnant women. A phlebotomist collected 5 mL of a venous blood sample from eligible women before 28 completed weeks of gestation and aflatoxin B1-lysine concentration was determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The mean (±SD) gestational age was 19.1 (3.71) weeks at enrollment, and 28.5 (3.51) and 34.5 (2.44) weeks of gestation at the second and third rounds of ultrasound measurements, respectively. Estimated fetal weight was expressed in centiles using the INTERGROWTH-21st reference. We fitted a multivariable linear mixed-effects model to estimate the rate of fetal growth between aflatoxin-exposed (i.e., aflatoxin B1-lysine concentration above or equal to the limit of detection) and non-exposed mothers in the study. Mothers had a mean (±SD) age of 26.0 (4.58) years. The median (P25, P75) serum AFB1-lysine concentration was 12.6 (0.93, 96.9) pg/mg albumin, and aflatoxin exposure was observed in 86.6% of maternal blood samples. Eighty-five percent of the women enrolled provided at least two ultrasound measurements for analysis. On average, the aflatoxin-exposed group had a significantly lower change over time in fetal weight-for-gestational age centile than the unexposed group (ß = -1.01 centiles/week, 95% CI: -1.87, -0.15, p = 0.02). Chronic maternal AF exposure is associated with lower fetal weight gain over time. Our findings emphasize the importance of nutrition-sensitive strategies to mitigate dietary aflatoxin exposure as well as adopting food safety measures in low-income settings, particularly during the fetal period of development.

Keywords: aflatoxin, fetal growth, low-income setting, mycotoxins

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2870 Recent Advancement in Fetal Electrocardiogram Extraction

Authors: Savita, Anurag Sharma, Harsukhpreet Singh


Fetal Electrocardiogram (fECG) is a widely used technique to assess the fetal well-being and identify any changes that might be with problems during pregnancy and to evaluate the health and conditions of the fetus. Various techniques or methods have been employed to diagnose the fECG from abdominal signal. This paper describes the facile approach for the estimation of the fECG known as Adaptive Comb. Filter (ACF). The ACF can adjust according to the temporal variations in fundamental frequency by itself that used for the estimation of the quasi periodic signal of ECG signal.

Keywords: aECG, ACF, fECG, mECG

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2869 Maternal-Fetal Outcome in Pregnant Women with Ebola Virus Disease: A Systematic Review

Authors: Garba Iliyasu, Lamaran Dattijo


Introduction: Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a disease of humans and other primates caused by Ebola viruses. The most widespread epidemic of EVD in history occurred recently in several West African countries. The burden and outcome of EVD in pregnant women remains uncertain. There are very few studies to date reporting on maternal and fetal outcomes among pregnant women with EVD, hence the justification for this comprehensive review of these published studies. Methods: Published studies in English that reported on maternal and or fetal outcome among pregnant women with EVD up to May 2016 were searched in electronic databases (Google Scholar, Medline, Embase, PubMed, AJOL, and Scopus). Studies that did not satisfy the inclusion criteria were excluded. We extracted the following variables from each study: geographical location, year of the study, settings of the study, participants, maternal and fetal outcome.Result: There were 12 studies that reported on 108 pregnant women and 110 fetal outcomes. Six of the studies were case reports, 3 retrospective studies, 2 cross-sectional studies and 1 was a technical report. There were 91(84.3%) deaths out of the 108 pregnant women, while only 1(0.9%) fetal survival was reported out of 110. Survival rate among the 15 patients that had spontaneous abortion/stillbirth or induced delivery was 100%. Conclusion: There was a poor maternal and fetal outcome among pregnant women with EVD, and fetal evacuation significantly improves maternal survival.

Keywords: Africa, ebola, maternofetal, outcome

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2868 Protection against Sodium Arsenate Induced Fetal Toxicity in Albino Mice by Vitamin C and E

Authors: Fariha Qureshi, Mohammad Tahir


Epidemiological evidences indicated that arsenic contamination in drinking water increased the incidence of spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and premature babies in pregnant women. This study was designed to investigate the protective role of vitamin C&E against sodium arsenate induced fetal toxicity in albino mice. Twenty-four pregnant albino mice of BALB/c strain were randomly divided into 4 groups having 6 animals in each. Group A1 served as control and was injected with 0.1ml/kg/day distilled water I/P for 18 days. Groups A2,A3 & A4 received single I/P injection of sodium arsenate 35mg/kg on 8th gestational day, whereas groups A3 and A4 were also given Vitamin C and E by I/P injection, 9 mg/kg/day and 15 mg/kg/day respectively, starting from 8th GD and continued for the rest of the pregnancy period. The early implantation sites, fetal resorptions, weight of live fetuses and crown rump length were recorded. Gross morphological examination was carried out for malformations. Fetal kidneys were extracted for histological and micrometric analysis. Group A2 exhibited an increased incidence of abortion, fetal resorptions, significant decrease in number of litter and fetal weight; the difference of means was statistically significant among the groups (p<0.000). In group A2 fetal kidneys presented glomerulonephritis with acute tubular necrotic changes and interstitial fibrosis. Groups A3&A4 showed statistically significant improvement in these parameters. The results revealed the antioxidant potential of Vitamin C and E in protecting against arsenic induced fetal toxicity in mice.

Keywords: fetal toxicity, fetal resorptions, interstitial fibrosis, tocopherol

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2867 Measurement of Qashqaeian Sheep Fetus Parameters by Ultrasonography

Authors: Aboozar Dehghan, S. Sharifi, S. A. Dehghan, Ali Aliabadi, Arash Esfandiari


Ultrasonography is a safe, available and particular method in diagnostic imaging science. In ultrasonography most of body soft tissue imaged in B mode display. Iranian Qashqaeian sheep is an old and domestic breed in Zagros mountain area in central plateau of Iran. Population of this breed in Fars state (study location) is 250000 animals. Gestation age detection in sheep was performed by ultarasonography in Kivircik breed in 2010 in turkey. In this study 5 adult, clinically healthy, Iranian ewes and 1 Iranian ram were selected. We measured biparital diameter that thickened part of fetal skull include (BPD), trunk diameter (TD), fetal heart diameter(FHD), intercostals space of fetus (ICS) and fetal heart rate per minute (FHR) weekly after day 60 after pregnancy. Inguinal area in both sides shaved and cleaned by alcohol 70 degree and covered by enough copulating gel. Trans abdominal Ultarasonography was performed by a convex multi frequency transducer with 2.5-5 MHz frequency. Data were collected and analyzed by on way Annova method in Spss15 software. Mean of BPD, TD, FHD and ICS in day 60 were 14.58, 25.92, 3.53, 2.3mm. FHR can measure on day 109 to 150. TD after day 109 cannot displayed in 1 frame in scanning. Ultrasonography in sheep pregnancy is a particular method. Using this study can help in theriogeniologic disease that affected fetal growth. Differentiating between various sheep breed is a functional result of this study.

Keywords: qashqaeian sheep, fetometry, ultrasonography

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2866 Screening of Congenital Heart Diseases with Fetal Phonocardiography

Authors: F. Kovács, K. Kádár, G. Hosszú, Á. T. Balogh, T. Zsedrovits, N. Kersner, A. Nagy, Gy. Jeney


The paper presents a novel screening method to indicate congenital heart diseases (CHD), which otherwise could remain undetected because of their low level. Therefore, not belonging to the high-risk population, the pregnancies are not subject to the regular fetal monitoring with ultrasound echocardiography. Based on the fact that CHD is a morphological defect of the heart causing turbulent blood flow, the turbulence appears as a murmur, which can be detected by fetal phonocardiography (fPCG). The proposed method applies measurements on the maternal abdomen and from the recorded sound signal a sophisticated processing determines the fetal heart murmur. The paper describes the problems and the additional advantages of the fPCG method including the possibility of measurements at home and its combination with the prescribed regular cardiotocographic (CTG) monitoring. The proposed screening process implemented on a telemedicine system provides an enhanced safety against hidden cardiac diseases.

Keywords: cardiac murmurs, fetal phonocardiography, screening of CHDs, telemedicine system

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2865 UEMG-FHR Coupling Analysis in Pregnancies Complicated by Pre-Eclampsia and Small for Gestational Age

Authors: Kun Chen, Yan Wang, Yangyu Zhao, Shufang Li, Lian Chen, Xiaoyue Guo, Jue Zhang, Jing Fang


The coupling strength between uterine electromyography (UEMG) and Fetal heart rate (FHR) signals during peripartum reflects the fetal biophysical activities. Therefore, UEMG-FHR coupling characterization is instructive in assessing placenta function. This study introduced a physiological marker named elevated frequency of UEMG-FHR coupling (E-UFC) and explored its predictive value for pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia and small for gestational age (SGA). Placental insufficiency patients (n=12) and healthy volunteers (n=24) were recruited and participated. UEMG and FHR were recorded non-invasively by a trans-abdominal device in women at term with singleton pregnancy (32-37 weeks) from 10:00 pm to 8:00 am. The product of the wavelet coherence and the wavelet cross-spectral power between UEMG and FHR was used to weight these two effects in order to quantify the degree of the UEMG-FHR coupling. E-UFC was exacted from the resultant spectrogram by calculating the mean value of the high-coherence (r > 0.5) frequency band. Results showed the high-coherence between UEMG and FHR was observed in the frequency band (1/512-1/16Hz). In addition, E-UFC in placental insufficiency patients was weaker compared to healthy controls (p < 0.001) at group level. These findings suggested the proposed approach could be used to quantitatively characterize the fetal biophysical activities, which is beneficial for early detection of placental insufficiency and reduces the occurrence of adverse pregnancy.

Keywords: uterine electromyography, fetal heart rate, coupling analysis, wavelet analysis

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2864 Rapid Fetal MRI Using SSFSE, FIESTA and FSPGR Techniques

Authors: Chen-Chang Lee, Po-Chou Chen, Jo-Chi Jao, Chun-Chung Lui, Leung-Chit Tsang, Lain-Chyr Hwang


Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a challenge task because the fetal movements could cause motion artifact in MR images. The remedy to overcome this problem is to use fast scanning pulse sequences. The Single-Shot Fast Spin-Echo (SSFSE) T2-weighted imaging technique is routinely performed and often used as a gold standard in clinical examinations. Fast spoiled gradient-echo (FSPGR) T1-Weighted Imaging (T1WI) is often used to identify fat, calcification and hemorrhage. Fast Imaging Employing Steady-State Acquisition (FIESTA) is commonly used to identify fetal structures as well as the heart and vessels. The contrast of FIESTA image is related to T1/T2 and is different from that of SSFSE. The advantages and disadvantages of these two scanning sequences for fetal imaging have not been clearly demonstrated yet. This study aimed to compare these three rapid MRI techniques (SSFSE, FIESTA, and FSPGR) for fetal MRI examinations. The image qualities and influencing factors among these three techniques were explored. A 1.5T GE Discovery 450 clinical MR scanner with an eight-channel high-resolution abdominal coil was used in this study. Twenty-five pregnant women were recruited to enroll fetal MRI examination with SSFSE, FIESTA and FSPGR scanning. Multi-oriented and multi-slice images were acquired. Afterwards, MR images were interpreted and scored by two senior radiologists. The results showed that both SSFSE and T2W-FIESTA can provide good image quality among these three rapid imaging techniques. Vessel signals on FIESTA images are higher than those on SSFSE images. The Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) of FIESTA is lower than that of the others two techniques, but it is prone to cause banding artifacts. FSPGR-T1WI renders lower Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) because it severely suffers from the impact of maternal and fetal movements. The scan times for these three scanning sequences were 25 sec (T2W-SSFSE), 20 sec (FIESTA) and 18 sec (FSPGR). In conclusion, all these three rapid MR scanning sequences can produce high contrast and high spatial resolution images. The scan time can be shortened by incorporating parallel imaging techniques so that the motion artifacts caused by fetal movements can be reduced. Having good understanding of the characteristics of these three rapid MRI techniques is helpful for technologists to obtain reproducible fetal anatomy images with high quality for prenatal diagnosis.

Keywords: fetal MRI, FIESTA, FSPGR, motion artifact, SSFSE

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2863 Pregnant Women’s Views on a Trial of Posture for Fetal Malposition

Authors: Jennifer A. Barrowclough, Caroline A. Crowther, Bridget Kool


Fetal malposition in labour is associated with adverse maternal and infant health outcomes. Evidence for effective interventions for fetal malposition is inconclusive. The feasibility and design of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of maternal posture to improve maternal and infant outcomes of malposition should be considered, based on the hypothesis that gravity corrects malposition. The aim was to assess pregnant women’s views on the acceptability of a future trial of maternal posture for fetal malposition in labour, and the enablers and barriers of participation. Method: An online anonymous survey of pregnant women was conducted in Auckland during 2020. Descriptive summaries of quantitative data used chi-square to assess differences in proportions. The influence of maternal characteristics on women’s responses was assessed using cross-tabulation. Free text responses were analysed thematically. Results: Respondents (n=206) were mostly aged26-35 years (75%), of 29-38 weeks gestation (71%), of European (40%) or Asian (36%) ethnicity, were evenly nulliparous or multiparous. Most women (76%) had heard of fetal malposition in labour however only 28% were aware of the use of maternal posture to correct this. Most women (86%) were interested in labour research. Although 37% indicated they would participate in a future RCT of posture for fetal malposition, nearly half (47%) were unsure and a further quarter (15%) indicated they would not participate. Comfort was the predominant concern (22%). Almost half of the respondents (49%) indicated they would consult their partner before deciding on participation in an RCT. Conclusions: Participation in a trial of maternal posture in labour can be enabled through measures to enhance maternal comfort, increased awareness of malposition and the role of posture, and the involvement of partners during trial counselling and recruitment.

Keywords: pregnant women, labour, presentation, posture, randomized controlled trial, survey

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2862 Edge Detection and Morphological Image for Estimating Gestational Age Based on Fetus Length Automatically

Authors: Retno Supriyanti, Ahmad Chuzaeri, Yogi Ramadhani, A. Haris Budi Widodo


The use of ultrasonography in the medical world has been very popular including the diagnosis of pregnancy. In determining pregnancy, ultrasonography has many roles, such as to check the position of the fetus, abnormal pregnancy, fetal age and others. Unfortunately, all these things still need to analyze the role of the obstetrician in the sense of image raised by ultrasonography. One of the most striking is the determination of gestational age. Usually, it is done by measuring the length of the fetus manually by obstetricians. In this study, we developed a computer-aided diagnosis for the determination of gestational age by measuring the length of the fetus automatically using edge detection method and image morphology. Results showed that the system is sufficiently accurate in determining the gestational age based image processing.

Keywords: computer aided diagnosis, gestational age, and diameter of uterus, length of fetus, edge detection method, morphology image

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2861 Organ Dose Calculator for Fetus Undergoing Computed Tomography

Authors: Choonsik Lee, Les Folio


Pregnant patients may undergo CT in emergencies unrelated with pregnancy, and potential risk to the developing fetus is of concern. It is critical to accurately estimate fetal organ doses in CT scans. We developed a fetal organ dose calculation tool using pregnancy-specific computational phantoms combined with Monte Carlo radiation transport techniques. We adopted a series of pregnancy computational phantoms developed at the University of Florida at the gestational ages of 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 38 weeks (Maynard et al. 2011). More than 30 organs and tissues and 20 skeletal sites are defined in each fetus model. We calculated fetal organ dose-normalized by CTDIvol to derive organ dose conversion coefficients (mGy/mGy) for the eight fetuses for consequential slice locations ranging from the top to the bottom of the pregnancy phantoms with 1 cm slice thickness. Organ dose from helical scans was approximated by the summation of doses from multiple axial slices included in the given scan range of interest. We then compared dose conversion coefficients for major fetal organs in the abdominal-pelvis CT scan of pregnancy phantoms with the uterine dose of a non-pregnant adult female computational phantom. A comprehensive library of organ conversion coefficients was established for the eight developing fetuses undergoing CT. They were implemented into an in-house graphical user interface-based computer program for convenient estimation of fetal organ doses by inputting CT technical parameters as well as the age of the fetus. We found that the esophagus received the least dose, whereas the kidneys received the greatest dose in all fetuses in AP scans of the pregnancy phantoms. We also found that when the uterine dose of a non-pregnant adult female phantom is used as a surrogate for fetal organ doses, root-mean-square-error ranged from 0.08 mGy (8 weeks) to 0.38 mGy (38 weeks). The uterine dose was up to 1.7-fold greater than the esophagus dose of the 38-week fetus model. The calculation tool should be useful in cases requiring fetal organ dose in emergency CT scans as well as patient dose monitoring.

Keywords: computed tomography, fetal dose, pregnant women, radiation dose

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2860 Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticide and Fetal Growth

Authors: Yi-Shuan ShaoShao, Yen-An Tsai, Chia-Huang Chang, Kai-Wei Liao, Ming-Song Tsai, Mei-Lien Chen


Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) is an environmental hormone with proven endocrine-disrupting effects that may affect the growth and development in human. A large amount of organophosphate pesticides (OPs) is used throughout Taiwan, and human may be exposed through dietary intake or residential use. During pregnancy, OPs can be transferred to the blood stream reaching the fetus through the placenta. The aim of this study was to explore the association between maternal OPs exposure levels and fetal developments and birth outcomes. A birth cohort was follow-up. Maternal urine sample were collected at the first, second, and third gestational trimester. Fetal growth characteristics were measured by ultrasonic scan and birth outcomes were assessed by pediatrician. Urinary metabolite of organophosphate pesticides were assessed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The analytes included dimethylphosphate (DMP), dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP), dimethyldithiophosphates (DMDTP), diethylphosphate (DEP), diethylthiophosphate (DETP), and diethyldithiophosphate (DEDTP). We found that all of urine samples in each trimester were detected at least one metabolite for dialkyl phosphate (DAP). The detection rate range of OP urinary metabolites were from the lowest 22% DEDTP to the highest 100% DMP and DMTP. And to compared geometric means (GM) of urinary metabolites with three trimesters, that third trimester had the highest concentration for DMPs, DEPs, and DAPs in pregnant women were 368.01, 169.85 and 543.75 nmol/g creatinine, respectively. We observed that DAPs concentration in first and second trimester were significantly negative association with head circumference. DMPs in first trimester was significantly negative association with thoracic circumference (p=0.05) by spearman correlation. Our results support associations with prenatal OPs exposure with fetal head circumference and thoracic circumference. It provided that maternal OPs exposure might affect birth outcomes. Thus, prenatal exposure to OPs and health risk worthy of attention and concern.

Keywords: DAPs, birth outcomes, organophosphate pesticides, prenatal

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2859 Motor Vehicle Accidents During Pregnancy: Analysis of Maternal and Fetal Outcome at a University Hospital

Authors: Manjunath Attibele, Alsawafi Manal, Al Dughaishi Tamima


Introduction: The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and types of mechanisms of injuries caused by Motor vehicle accidents (MVA) during pregnancy. To analyze the patterns of accidents during pregnancy and its adverse consequences on both maternal and fetal outcome. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study on pregnant patients who met with MVAs The study period was from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2019. All relevant data were retrieved from electronic patients’ records from the hospital information system and from the antenatal ward admission register Results: Out of 168 women who had motor vehicle accidents during the study period, of which, 39 (23.2%) women during pregnancy. Twenty-one (53.8%) women were over 30 years old. Thirty-five (89.7%) women were Omanis, and 27 (69.2%) were in their third trimester. Twenty-three (59%) of accidents happened at night, and 31 (79.5%) of them happened on a weekday. Twenty-two (56.4%) of women were driving themselves, and 24 (61.5%) of them were not using any seatbelt. Accident related abdominal & back pain was seen in 23(59%) women. Regarding the outcome of pregnancy, 23 (74.2%) had a normal vaginal delivery. The mean accident to delivery interval was 7 weeks. Thirty (96.7%) of involved newborns were relatively healthy. One woman (3.2%) had a ruptured uterusleading to fetal death (3.2%). Conclusion: This study showed that the incidence of motor vehicle accidents during pregnancy is around 23.2% . Majority had trauma-associated pain. One serious injury to a woman causing a ruptured uterus which lead to fetal death. Majority of involved newborns were relatively healthy. No reported maternal death.

Keywords: motor vehicle accidents, pregnancy, maternal outcome, fetal outcome

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2858 The Exposure to Endocrine Disruptors during Pregnancy and Relation to Steroid Hormones

Authors: L. Kolatorova, J. Vitku, K. Adamcova, M. Simkova, M. Hill, A. Parizek, M. Duskova


Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are substances leaching from various industrial products, which are able to interfere with the endocrine system. Their harmful effects on human health are generally well-known, and exposure during fetal development may have lasting effects. Fetal exposure and transplacental transport of bisphenol A (BPA) have been recently studied; however, less is known about alternatives such as bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol AF (BPAF), which have started to appear in consumer products. The human organism is usually exposed to the mixture of EDs, out of which parabens are otherwise known to transfer placenta. The usage of many cosmetic, pharmaceutical and consumer products during the pregnancy that may contain parabens and bisphenols has led to the need for investigation. The aim of the study was to investigate the transplacental transport of BPA, its alternatives, and parabens, and to study their relation to fetal steroidogenesis. BPA, BPS, BPF, BPAF, methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben, benzylparaben and 15 steroids including estrogens, corticoids, androgens and immunomodulatory ones were determined in 27 maternal (37th week of gestation) and cord plasma samples using liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry methods. The statistical evaluation of the results showed significantly higher levels of BPA (p=0.0455) in cord plasma compared to maternal plasma. The results from multiple regression models investigated that in cord plasma, methylparaben, propylparaben and the sum of all measured parabens were inversely associated with testosterone levels. To our best knowledge, this study is the first attempt to determine the levels of alternative bisphenols in the maternal and cord blood, and also the first study reporting the simultaneous detection of bisphenols, parabens, and steroids in these biological fluids. Our study confirmed the transplacental transport of BPA, with likely accumulation in the fetal compartment. The negative association of cord blood parabens and testosterone levels highlights their possible risks, especially for the development of male fetuses. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the project MH CR 17-30528 A from the Czech Health Research Council, MH CZ - DRO (Institute of Endocrinology - EÚ, 00023761) and by the MEYS CR (OP RDE, Excellent research - ENDO.CZ).

Keywords: bisphenol, endocrine disruptor, paraben, pregnancy, steroid

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2857 The Effect of Fetal Movement Counting on Maternal Antenatal Attachment

Authors: Esra Güney, Tuba Uçar


Aim: This study has been conducted for the purpose of determining the effects of fetal movement counting on antenatal maternal attachment. Material and Method: This research was conducted on the basis of the real test model with the pre-test /post-test control groups. The study population consists of pregnant women registered in the six different Family Health Centers located in the central Malatya districts of Yeşilyurt and Battalgazi. When power analysis is done, the sample size was calculated for each group of at least 55 pregnant women (55 tests, 55 controls). The data were collected by using Personal Information Form and MAAS (Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale) between July 2015-June 2016. Fetal movement counting training was given to pregnant women by researchers in the experimental group after the pre-test data collection. No intervention was applied to the control group. Post-test data for both groups were collected after four weeks. Data were evaluated with percentage, chi-square arithmetic average, chi-square test and as for the dependent and independent group’s t test. Result: In the MAAS, the pre-test average of total scores in the experimental group is 70.78±6.78, control group is also 71.58±7.54 and so there was no significant difference in mean scores between the two groups (p>0.05). MAAS post-test average of total scores in the experimental group is 78.41±6.65, control group is also is 72.25±7.16 and so the mean scores between groups were found to have statistically significant difference (p<0.05). Conclusion: It was determined that fetal movement counting increases the maternal antenatal attachments.

Keywords: antenatal maternal attachment, fetal movement counting, pregnancy, midwifery

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2856 Effect of Cistanche tinctoria Methanolic Extract on the Maternal-Fetal Outcome and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Amina Bouzitouna, Kheireddine Ouali, Sandra Amri, Houria Rahmoun, Mourad Bensouilah


Aim of this study: To evaluate the effect of Cisthanche tinctoria treatment on maternal-fetal outcome and antioxidant systems of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and methods: Virgin female Wistar rats were injected with 50 mg/kg streptozotocin before mating. Oral administration of an methanolic extract of Cistanche tinctoria was given to non-diabetic and diabetic pregnant rats at doses of 200 mg/kg from 0 to 19th day of pregnancy. At day 20 of pregnancy the rats were killed and a maternal blood sample was collected for the determination Vitamin C (Vit C) and malonaldehyde (MDA). The gravid uterus was weighed with its contents and fetuses were analyzed. Results and conclusion: The data showed that the diabetic dams presented an increased glycemic level, resorption, placental weight, placental index, and fetal anomalies, and reduced VIT C and MDA determinations, live fetuses, maternal weight gain, gravid uterine weight, and fetal weight. It was also verified that Cisthanche tictoria treatment had no hypoglycemic effect, did not improve maternal outcomes in diabetic rats, but it contributed to maintain GSH concentration similarly to non-diabetic groups, suggesting relation with the decreased incidence of visceral anomalies.

Keywords: cistanche tinctoria, diabetes, pregnancy, reproductive outcome, anomaly, orobanchacées

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2855 Efficient Signal Detection Using QRD-M Based on Channel Condition in MIMO-OFDM System

Authors: Jae-Jeong Kim, Ki-Ro Kim, Hyoung-Kyu Song


In this paper, we propose an efficient signal detector that switches M parameter of QRD-M detection scheme is proposed for MIMO-OFDM system. The proposed detection scheme calculates the threshold by 1-norm condition number and then switches M parameter of QRD-M detection scheme according to channel information. If channel condition is bad, the parameter M is set to high value to increase the accuracy of detection. If channel condition is good, the parameter M is set to low value to reduce complexity of detection. Therefore, the proposed detection scheme has better trade off between BER performance and complexity than the conventional detection scheme. The simulation result shows that the complexity of proposed detection scheme is lower than QRD-M detection scheme with similar BER performance.

Keywords: MIMO-OFDM, QRD-M, channel condition, BER

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2854 Reduced Complexity of ML Detection Combined with DFE

Authors: Jae-Hyun Ro, Yong-Jun Kim, Chang-Bin Ha, Hyoung-Kyu Song


In multiple input multiple output-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) systems, many detection schemes have been developed to improve the error performance and to reduce the complexity. Maximum likelihood (ML) detection has optimal error performance but it has very high complexity. Thus, this paper proposes reduced complexity of ML detection combined with decision feedback equalizer (DFE). The error performance of the proposed detection scheme is higher than the conventional DFE. But the complexity of the proposed scheme is lower than the conventional ML detection.

Keywords: detection, DFE, MIMO-OFDM, ML

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2853 Automated Classification of Hypoxia from Fetal Heart Rate Using Advanced Data Models of Intrapartum Cardiotocography

Authors: Malarvizhi Selvaraj, Paul Fergus, Andy Shaw


Uterine contractions produced during labour have the potential to damage the foetus by diminishing the maternal blood flow to the placenta. In order to observe this phenomenon labour and delivery are routinely monitored using cardiotocography monitors. An obstetrician usually makes the diagnosis of foetus hypoxia by interpreting cardiotocography recordings. However, cardiotocography capture and interpretation is time-consuming and subjective, often lead to misclassification that causes damage to the foetus and unnecessary caesarean section. Both of these have a high impact on the foetus and the cost to the national healthcare services. Automatic detection of foetal heart rate may be an objective solution to help to reduce unnecessary medical interventions, as reported in several studies. This paper aim is to provide a system for better identification and interpretation of abnormalities of the fetal heart rate using RStudio. An open dataset of 552 Intrapartum recordings has been filtered with 0.034 Hz filters in an attempt to remove noise while keeping as much of the discriminative data as possible. Features were chosen following an extensive literature review, which concluded with FIGO features such as acceleration, deceleration, mean, variance and standard derivation. The five features were extracted from 552 recordings. Using these features, recordings will be classified either normal or abnormal. If the recording is abnormal, it has got more chances of hypoxia.

Keywords: cardiotocography, foetus, intrapartum, hypoxia

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2852 Factors Contributing to Adverse Maternal and Fetal Outcome in Patients with Eclampsia

Authors: T. Pradhan, P. Rijal, M. C. Regmi


Background: Eclampsia is a multisystem disorder that involves vital organs and failure of these may lead to deterioration of maternal condition and hypoxia and acidosis of fetus resulting in high maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Thus, evaluation of the contributing factors for this condition and its complications leading to maternal deaths should be the priority. Formulating the plan and protocol to decrease these losses should be our goal. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the risk factors associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcome in patients with eclampsia and to correlate the risk factors associated with maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Methods: All patients with eclampsia admitted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences were enrolled after informed consent from February 2013 to February 2014. Questions as per per-forma were asked to patients, and attendants like Antenatal clinic visits, parity, number of episodes of seizures, duration from onset of seizure to magnesium sulfate and the patients were followed as per the hospital protocol, the mode of delivery, outcome of baby, post partum maternal condition like maternal Intensive Care Unit admission, neurological impairment and mortality were noted before discharge. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 11). Mean and percentage were calculated for demographic variables. Pearson’s correlation test and chi-square test were applied to find the relation between the risk factors and the outcomes. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: There were 10,000 antenatal deliveries during the study period. Fifty-two patients with eclampsia were admitted. All of the patients were unbooked for our institute. Thirty-nine patients were antepartum eclampsia. Thirty-one patients required mechanical ventilator support. Twenty-four patients were delivered by emergency c-section and 21 babies were Low Birth Weight and there were 9 stillbirths. There was one maternal mortality and 45 patients were discharged with improvement but 3 patients had neurological impairment. Mortality was significantly related with number of seizure episodes and time interval between seizure onset and administration of magnesium sulphate. Conclusion: Early detection and management of hypertensive complicating pregnancy during antenatal clinic check up. Early hospitalization and management with magnesium sulphate for eclampsia can help to minimize the maternal and fetal adverse outcomes.

Keywords: eclampsia, maternal mortality, perinatal mortality, risk factors

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2851 An Architecture for New Generation of Distributed Intrusion Detection System Based on Preventive Detection

Authors: H. Benmoussa, A. A. El Kalam, A. Ait Ouahman


The design and implementation of intrusion detection systems (IDS) remain an important area of research in the security of information systems. Despite the importance and reputation of the current intrusion detection systems, their efficiency and effectiveness remain limited as they should include active defense approach to allow anticipating and predicting intrusions before their occurrence. Consequently, they must be readapted. For this purpose we suggest a new generation of distributed intrusion detection system based on preventive detection approach and using intelligent and mobile agents. Our architecture benefits from mobile agent features and addresses some of the issues with centralized and hierarchical models. Also, it presents advantages in terms of increasing scalability and flexibility.

Keywords: Intrusion Detection System (IDS), preventive detection, mobile agents, distributed architecture

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2850 Video Based Ambient Smoke Detection By Detecting Directional Contrast Decrease

Authors: Omair Ghori, Anton Stadler, Stefan Wilk, Wolfgang Effelsberg


Fire-related incidents account for extensive loss of life and material damage. Quick and reliable detection of occurring fires has high real world implications. Whereas a major research focus lies on the detection of outdoor fires, indoor camera-based fire detection is still an open issue. Cameras in combination with computer vision helps to detect flames and smoke more quickly than conventional fire detectors. In this work, we present a computer vision-based smoke detection algorithm based on contrast changes and a multi-step classification. This work accelerates computer vision-based fire detection considerably in comparison with classical indoor-fire detection.

Keywords: contrast analysis, early fire detection, video smoke detection, video surveillance

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2849 Effect of Prophylactic Oxytocin Therapy on Duration of Retained Fetal Membrane (RFM) in Periparturient Dairy Cows

Authors: Hamid Ghasemzadeh- Nava, Maziar Kaveh Baghbadorani, Amin Tamadon


Considering response of uterus to ecbolic effect of oxytocin near the time of parturition, this study was done for investigating the effect of prophylactic administration of this hormone on duration of fetal membrane retention, time interval to first detectable estrus, time interval to first service, and conception rate at first service in cases of both normal parturition and dystocia. For this reason cows with (n=18) and without (n=18) dystocia assigned randomly to treatment (n=12) or control (n=6) groups and received intramuscular injection of 100 IU of oxytocin or 10 mL of normal saline respectively. Further observations and investigations indicate that duration of fetal retention is significantly shorter in treatment group cows compared to control groups, regardless of having dystocia (P=0.002) or normal spontaneous calving (P=0.001). The same trend exists for conception rate at first service in which cows in treatment groups had significantly higher conception rate (CR) in comparison to cows in control groups with (P=0.0003) or without dystocia (P=0.017). The time interval to first detected heat and first service didn’t show any difference between groups.

Keywords: conception rate, oxytocin, RFM, time to first service

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2848 Intrusion Detection Techniques in NaaS in the Cloud: A Review

Authors: Rashid Mahmood


The network as a service (NaaS) usage has been well-known from the last few years in the many applications, like mission critical applications. In the NaaS, prevention method is not adequate as the security concerned, so the detection method should be added to the security issues in NaaS. The authentication and encryption are considered the first solution of the NaaS problem whereas now these are not sufficient as NaaS use is increasing. In this paper, we are going to present the concept of intrusion detection and then survey some of major intrusion detection techniques in NaaS and aim to compare in some important fields.

Keywords: IDS, cloud, naas, detection

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2847 An Electron Microscopic Study of Developing Human Fetal Pancreas

Authors: Gupta Renu, T. S. Roy


Introduction: For the prospect of successful replacement therapies in treatment of Diabetes mallitus it is necessary to know events occurring during normal human pancreas development. Literature of human pancreas development are few in number as well as mainly related to first trimester because of ethical and technical difficulties. So the study was conducted on 12 fetuses from 12 gestational weeks (GW) to 5 months of infant to know normal development of exocrine and endocrine part of human pancreas. Material and Methods: Human fetalpancreases were screened by haematoxyline and eosin staining and done electron microscopy for suitable specimens to know ultrastructural detail of fetal pancreas. Results:It was observed arborized tubules, the cells budding out from these tubules differentiated into primitive acini and islets in 12thGW. At 14 weeks scanty granules were observed in the endocrine cells which coincided with the capillary invasion of the islets. The ducts and acini were surrounded by well-organized connective tissue. The acinihad elongated cells, small amount of cytoplasm and large open face euchromatic nuclei with single nucleolus. The mature form of islets of Langerhans was observed close to the acini and duct in 20 GW fetus. Connective tissue around the duct was well organized.No significant developmental change was observed early postnatal, infant. Conclusion: The development of both component exocrine as well as endocrine part of human fetal pancreas was studied by light and electron microscopy. Observations suggested that the fetal pancreas contained mainly ducts, few acini, many centroacinar cells, and large undifferentiated tissue.

Keywords: gestational weeks (GW), acini, islets of Langerhans, ducts

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2846 Securing Web Servers by the Intrusion Detection System (IDS)

Authors: Yousef Farhaoui


An IDS is a tool which is used to improve the level of security. We present in this paper different architectures of IDS. We will also discuss measures that define the effectiveness of IDS and the very recent works of standardization and homogenization of IDS. At the end, we propose a new model of IDS called BiIDS (IDS Based on the two principles of detection) for securing web servers and applications by the Intrusion Detection System (IDS).

Keywords: intrusion detection, architectures, characteristic, tools, security, web server

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
2845 Fetal Movement Study Using Biomimics of the Maternal March

Authors: V. Diaz, B. Pardo , D. Villegas


In premature births most babies have complications at birth, these complications can be reduced, if an atmosphere of relaxation is provided and is also similar to intrauterine life, for this, there are programs where their mothers lull and sway them; however, the conditions in which they do so and the way in they do it may not be the indicated. Here we describe an investigation based on the biomimics of the kinematics of human fetal movement, which consists of determining the movements that the fetus experiences and the deformations of the components that surround the fetus during a gentle walk at week 32 of the gestation stage. This research is based on a 3D model that has the anatomical structure of the pelvis, fetus, muscles, uterus and its most important supporting elements (ligaments). Normal load conditions are applied to this model according to the stage of gestation and the kinematics of a gentle walk of a pregnant mother, which focuses on the pelvic bone, this allows to receive a response from the other elements of the model. To accomplish this modeling and subsequent simulation Solidworks software was used. From this analysis, the curves that describe the movement of the fetus at three different points were obtained. Additionally, we could found the deformation of the uterus and the ligaments that support it, showing the characteristics that these tissues can have in the face of the support of the fetus. These data can be used for the construction of artifacts that help the normal development of premature infants.

Keywords: simulation, biomimic, uterine model, fetal movement study

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2844 Suggestion for Malware Detection Agent Considering Network Environment

Authors: Ji-Hoon Hong, Dong-Hee Kim, Nam-Uk Kim, Tai-Myoung Chung


Smartphone users are increasing rapidly. Accordingly, many companies are running BYOD (Bring Your Own Device: Policies to bring private-smartphones to the company) policy to increase work efficiency. However, smartphones are always under the threat of malware, thus the company network that is connected smartphone is exposed to serious risks. Most smartphone malware detection techniques are to perform an independent detection (perform the detection of a single target application). In this paper, we analyzed a variety of intrusion detection techniques. Based on the results of analysis propose an agent using the network IDS.

Keywords: android malware detection, software-defined network, interaction environment, android malware detection, software-defined network, interaction environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 362